Healthcare: Cultural Competence
quality and patient-centered care determines how healthcare is delivered and
received by patients. The two aspects also directly influence how healthcare
professionals, systems, and disparities comply and increase disparities to
improve care quality and patient satisfaction. Cultural competency, therefore, improves
qualities of healthcare services. Consequently, patient satisfaction is
enhanced as healthcare providers deliver culturally competent care. Moreover,
job satisfaction among healthcare professionals increases. Ultimately,
healthcare facilities attain high staff retention rates. Cultural competent
models of health care, therefore, should be identified to deliver quality,
patient-centered, safe, timely, and equitable care effectively and efficiently.
The research, therefore, will discuss how cultural diversity and competence
influence delivery of healthcare.
Healthcare: Cultural Competence
Culture refers learned patterns of behavior. It can also refer to a range of beliefs and behavior that people or communities pass down to successive generations. Thus, culture encompasses the values, rules, norms, and beliefs institutions share to construct effective and efficient physical worlds. Conversely, competence refers to behaviors reflecting appropriate application of attitude, skills, knowledge, and experience. Healthcare providers ought to be learned, skilled, and experienced to deliver quality and safe care. As a result, they should also learn to attain cultural competence by engaging in assistive, facilitative, and supportive cultural beliefs, responsibilities, norms, and values ensuring patients receive safe and quality care (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Thus, healthcare providers should demonstrate the right skills, attitude, and behavior enabling them to work, associate, and help people from diverse backgrounds. For example, care providers should integrate cultural competence and skills required in the delivery of quality care. For instance, they should have a better understanding of their patients, take into account any cultural differences and preferences, and apply the necessary skills to deliver safe and efficient healthcare services.
According to Lehman, Fenza and Hollinger-Smith (2012), there are five constructs of cultural competence. The first construct refers to cultural awareness or self-reflections, which enables an individual to identify and understand personal biases. The second construct is known as cultural knowledge. It refers to the process of obtaining information in reference to diverse cultures before an individual can identify the culture they understand and can relate to without conflicts or stereotypes. The third construct refers to cultural skills, which is the process of assessing cultural data of people from different backgrounds. For example, nurses should assess patients’ cultural data to identify measures that they should either embrace or avoid as they help an individual recover and attain quality health.
Cultural encounters refer to personal experiences with people from diverse backgrounds. Thus, healthcare providers should rely on cultural encounters to avoid cultural conflicts as they strive to deliver safe, timely, and quality care to patients from diverse backgrounds. The final construct refers to cultural desire. The process encourages people to attain the will and desire to be culturally competent (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Cultural competence in reference to healthcare, therefore, involves processes providers especially doctors and nurses ought to strive to work within cultural contexts of each patient continuously and consistently.
The Importance of Culturally Competent Healthcare Providers
The United States government has been seeking to develop a culturally competent community of healthcare providers to reduce health disparities. The expanding and growing elderly population across the United States are identified as people representing a cultural entity with diverse ethnic, religious, socioeconomic, racial values and norms. The government has also noted that the population will increase by 2050 with the largest growth rate being observed among American Indians, African Americans, and Asian Pacific Islanders. The United States Census Bureau conducted a research in 2006 revealing that the nation’s population mainly comprises of people aged above sixty-five years. Thus, the aged are likely to represent at least 39% of the nation’s population by 2050 having grown from 19%. Healthcare settings require sensitivity, competent behaviors, and awareness as concepts of health, ailments, pain, suffering, and delivery of care bear varying meanings to people from diverse backgrounds (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Healthcare providers, therefore, should gain knowledge on cultural customs. Consequently, they can provide better care. Moreover, staffs, residents, and families can help the patients to recover while avoiding cultural misunderstandings.
Culturally competent healthcare providers can enhance health outcomes and the wellbeing of patients. For example, they can improve and increase healthcare-seeking behaviors by successfully educating patients to embrace appropriate testing and screening. Also, cultural competence can ensure that healthcare providers record fewer diagnostic errors (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). For example, the providers can identify measures to implement ensuring patients do not experience drug complications. The providers can also rely on cultural competence to offer patients great and expanded choices seeking to identify and access high quality clinicians. Thus, cultural competency influences healthcare outcomes directly.
As a result, healthcare providers should demonstrate that they have a great understanding on how cultural competency impacts accessibility and delivery of quality, safe, timely, and equitable healthcare services. Cultural competency can also assist staff, residents, and patients to recognize common barriers to cultural understanding (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Consequently, they can identify characteristics enhancing healthcare settings while interpreting and responding to diverse and effective measures of delivering quality care. Lastly, cultural competence can demonstrate commitment to appropriate services requiring healthcare staff to apply effective cultural and linguistic skills in leading and mentoring other providers and professionals.
The National Center for Cultural Competence defines values facilitating delivery of quality healthcare. Thus, NCCC states that healthcare providers including nurses ought to define a set of values and principles demonstrating positive and acceptable attitudes in delivery of safe and quality care. Healthcare providers should also demonstrate that their behaviors, structures, and policies enable them to work effectively across diverse cultures. It also states that healthcare providers ought to have the capacity to value and appreciate diversity. Besides, they should conduct self-assessments and reflections while managing the dynamics of cultural diversity to acquire and institutionalize cultural knowledge (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Consequently, they can embrace diverse cultural contexts among the communities they serve and strive to deliver quality care safely and timely. Lastly, healthcare facilities should formulate policies systematically improving administration practices and service delivery to fulfill needs among the patients, stakeholders, and communities.
In 2010, the State of Queensland published five cross-cultural capabilities clinical staff ought to attain namely, self-reflection, cultural understanding, context, communication, and collaboration. Based on the five capabilities, healthcare providers ought to rely on the following regulations to deliver quality care. Foremost, the providers should consider their individual cultures and understand how they feel when associating with people from diverse cultural backgrounds (QH, 2010). For example, they should gain a better understanding of existing cultural differences by considering social factors affecting patients’ behaviors. Consequently, they can sensitively respond to the patients’ needs while applying varying cultural norms to gain trust, build relationships, communicate effectively, and deliver quality care.
Cultural self-assessments should also be undertaken to identify personal position on cultural beliefs against that of healthcare system. The self-assessments can assist staffs and patients to recognize power relations produced in the healthcare system. The power differentials on cultural diversity can also be applied to consider interplay of factors such as age, gender, religion, and socioeconomics on how they affect delivery of quality care (QH, 2010). Thus, the self-reflections can ensure healthcare providers are sensitive to cross-cultural values and able to involve cultural and linguistic diversities in delivering quality care.
Personal and organizational biases should also be identified to determine and accommodate staffs and patients diverse needs (QH, 2010). For example, a nurse ought to understand that a patient can fail to identify with his or her own culture. The nurse, however, should appreciate that the patient may have more than one identity. Consequently, he/she can avoid cultural determinism and identify with the patients’ needs. The process, however, requires the nurse understanding different consumer behaviors influenced by cultural norms to deliver culturally appropriate and quality care. Subsequently, providers can avoid making assumptions and judgments about healthcare staff, residents, and patients as they work across disciplines required in delivery of quality care. For example, nurses ought to have the skills to facilitate development of referral pathways. In addition, they should be skilled at establishing collaborative networks to facilitate exchange of information across healthcare disciplinary boundaries. Consequently, patients’ needs can be addressed effectively and efficiently.
According to Lehman, Fenza, and Hollinger-Smith (2012), cultural awareness decreases ethnocentrism. People aware of diverse cultural values, biases, myths, and stereotypes relate well with their counterparts from different social, cultural, economic, and religious backgrounds. For example, nurses should acknowledge that ageism affects patients and the society. As a result, they should understand the need to have a positive attitude, apply the appropriate behavior, and have the belief that aged patients and their families also desire receiving quality, timely, and safe care. Subsequently, they can learn how to communicate with aged patients without being rude, prejudiced, or discriminative.
Cultural competency encourages healthcare providers to identify help-seeking behavioral patterns. Health education and communication, therefore, relies on cultural competence for staffs and patients to work together in addressing an ailment by applying acceptable attitudes, behaviors, and practices in delivery of care. Thus, healthcare providers should ensure residents and patients understand their views towards medical treatment practices. They should also encourage other providers or professionals and family members to participate in delivery of quality care through collaborative efforts (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). For example, nurses should allow family members and patients’ social networks to assist in ensuring an individual attain health. Community-based key informants with knowledge on cultural diversity and competency are also ideal in delivery of quality long-term care. They are often familiar with operating and regulatory environments defining long-term care. Thus, they should be allowed to design and facilitate culturally appropriate programs, practices, and services guarantying that patients will receive quality and safe care effectively and efficiently.
Cultural competence also ensures healthcare organizations employ bilingual staffs. Staffs using culturally-specific phrases and patterns of expression to gain resident compliance are often aware of cultural variants (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). For example, they can express psychological distress without insulting the patient. Thus, cultural competence can ensure healthcare staffs, board members, and volunteers to assess a patient and deliver quality care while applying clear communication skills and appropriate cultural perceptions.
Healthcare workplaces rely on practices showing compassion. Patients and their families often face difficulties associated with ailments. As a result, cultural competence in the workplace can ensure staffs and patients social and religious beliefs are respected accordingly. Besides, healthcare facilities should attain cultural competency to avoid installing symbols and adornments that can be culturally offensive. Hospitals often admit patients from a cultural background prohibiting them from eating certain meal choices (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Attaining cultural competency, therefore, can ensure such healthcare facilities cater for the patients’ needs appropriately to avoid offending their cultural customs. As a result, healthcare organizations should offer cultural sensitivity training to staffs and residents. The training programs ought to address cultural issues associated with family support. For example, the programs should address issues relating to language and literacy of cultural issues. Consequently, healthcare staffs can understand how to respect patients’ cultural traditions, values, and principles. The training can also encourage healthcare providers to be open-minded and exhibit cultural competence by learning phrases or languages from diverse ethnic communities.
The most effective resources and people supporting community outreach programs promoting healthcare are often culturally competent. The groups are mainly government, church, and neighborhood-based striving to enhance accessibility and delivery of quality care. They also anticipate partnerships from national and international programs striving to attain a similar goal. In addition, they rely on support from community members to provide relevant healthcare services to the people in need (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). As a result, they ought to engage cultural trainers and spiritual leaders with a cultural background of the communities they visit. This demonstrates respect and desire to deliver quality care to people in need without causing culture-based conflicts. For example, a community outreach program should seek information from cultural associations in a particular community to serve diverse ethnic groups with various healthcare needs. Consequently, they can encourage the members of the community to visit healthcare facilities to seek for medical assistance, as they will demonstrate that healthcare providers are friendly and approachable people with skills to deliver safe, timely, and equitable care.
Principles of cultural competency integrate appropriate linguistic services. They should be applied to improve delivery of safe and quality care provided to the public. Providing healthcare accreditation and related services involves supportive performance (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Healthcare organizations, therefore, should review policies, principles, and practices applied in delivery of care. For example, policies should be reviewed to ensure healthcare services are delivered appropriately culturally and linguistically. Consequently, standards, practices, and principles that are competent can be used to make culturally acceptable healthcare services accessible.
Delivery of quality, safe, timely, and equitable healthcare
services involves working with people from diverse cultures. Thus, cultural
capability is vital. It should be practiced across diverse social, religious,
and economic backgrounds. As a result, healthcare providers should embrace
self-awareness to identify their strengths and weaknesses. For example, they
should gain insight into diverse cultural backgrounds to understand their
ethnic and spiritual heritages. Consequently, they can determine the
appropriate attitude as they impacts patients’ health conditions. Also, the
providers can avoid making culture-based assumptions about a patient by
acknowledging that their personal cultural beliefs, norms, and principles
should allow them to make necessary adjustments to deliver quality care. Cultural
competency, therefore, encourages healthcare providers to work competently and
sensitively with staffs, residents, and patients from diverse backgrounds. They
are able to understand their reactions and expectations, judge the extent
personal biases can influence relationships with colleagues and patients, and identify
appropriate, simple, and competent ways of delivering quality care.
Lehman, D., Fenza, P., & Hollinger-Smith, L. (2012). Diversity and Cultural Competency in Health Care Settings. Mather LifeWays Orange Paper on Aging.
Queensland Health (QH). (2010). Five Cross Cultural Capabilities for Clinical Staff. Division of the Chief Health Officer, Queensland Health.
Political realities at Magnolia Hills Hospital
Organizational politics concerns the pursuit of agendas based on individuals’ choices as well as their interests in organizations, sometimes without concerns about the impact; such pursuit has as the main objective the aim to accomplish individual and organizational objectives. Politics, consequently, plays an important role in any organization (Cropanzano & Kacmar, 2005). Depending on the choices that individuals make in an organization’s operations – choices that concern some interests in the respective organizations – goals will either be achieved or neglected. One of the major roles of politics in any organization is to build some influence on the workers. The influence could be either positive, thus making it easier to achieve goals, or negative, which makes the organization to lag behind in achieving its goals. Managers, as well as employees, have their political power, and could easily influence one another while at work (Amatayakul, 2013). However, because of the span of control in an organization, it is difficult for employees to induce their political power in influencing managers, but it is very easy for managers to use their political power to influence the employees.
In the case of Magnolia Hills Hospital, the negative impact of political power is reflected. The process of implementing the EHR system fails because of the influence of the political power of the management team. The fact that there is too much resistance from the physicians to use it shows its ineffectiveness. It is expected that a system that would bring some positive change as well as improvements would be highly appreciated by the employees. The system fails because it is always down for 4-5 hours a day. It implies that when it fails, physicians have to do things manually, which is somewhat tedious. It is not plausible and logical to have the struggles, yet there is an EHR system in the organization. The system also produces low quality prints. “When the HIM department printed out the reports to satisfy release of information requests, what they received was more like screen prints than forms.” Dr. Anderson, who was the brain of the system, is not a qualified IT professional to come up with such a system. Simply because the building bears his name, he picks up some cronies, who help him implement the system without involving the rest of the members of the institution.
Despite this, he informs the IT staff only; it shows that the rest of the stakeholders are perceived to be invaluable in the implementation process, which greatly contributes to their resistance to the implemented system. The training session also contributes to the failure of the system. The three weeks’ training session is not enough to teach the physicians to use it. It thus leads not only to resistance of the physicians in using the system, but also to high employee turnover, including the hospital administrator’s departure. To support the EHR initiative from the start, it would have been appropriate for the administration to seek help from qualified IT professionals in the IT department to come up with and implement the system, instead of allowing Anderson and his cronies to do the work. Informing the rest of the stakeholders in the organization would have supported the initiative, as it would have given the management team the thought of the stakeholders concerning the system. The IT department cannot continue leading teams using the mode reflected in Magnolia Hills Hospital because they do not handle their responsibility fully. They should have taken it as their work to implement the initiative and take the necessary steps to question the management team for allowing Anderson to implement the system.
Amatayakul, Margret K. (2013). Electronic Health Records: A Practical Guide for Professionals and Organizations. Fifth Edition. American Health Information Management Association: Chicago.
Cropanzano, R., & Kacmar, K. M. (2005). Politics, justice, and support in work organizations. Westport, Conn: Quorum.
Assignment 2 (need in text citations and references)
Choose two issues or challenges that the leaders of today’s health care organizations face. Select from among the following topics:
- Staff Shortage (Physicians, Nurses, Allied Health Providers, Ancillary Services)
- Reorganization in Response to Merger or Consolidation of Services
- Layoffs as a Result of Declining Revenues
- Influx of Registry, Part-Time, and Temporary Contract Staff
- Poor Performance Outcomes Leading to a Reduction in Medicare Reimbursement Dollars
- Poor Job Satisfaction Rates Resulting in Turnover
You are the manager of an ancillary service department at a large, 500+ bed hospital. Develop a proposal in 1000 words that is directed toward your staff, in which you address the following:
- Inform the staff of the two issues (from the topics provided) your organization is facing.
- Describe the impact of these issues on your department.
- Describe how improved communication, collaboration, and teamwork can improve conditions in your department.
- Identify at least two examples from the required or recommended readings of techniques found to foster inclusion and improve communication and collaboration.
- A minimum of three academic references from credible sources are required for this assignment.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
Assignment 3 (need in text citations and references)
Attend a committee meeting in your health care organization. If you are not currently employed in a health care setting, you may elect to attend a committee meeting at another company, a community center, a local school, local chamber of commerce or other professional organization.
Observe the interactions between committee members and the process used by the committee to arrive at decisions.
In 750 words, describe the function of the committee and the roles of those in attendance. Describe your observations of the interactions between members of the committee and determine whether the process used to arrive at decisions is a form of shared governance.
A minimum of three academic references from credible sources are required for this assignment.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
Single Strand Binding Protein
Single strand binding protein refers to a means by which the cells prevent opened DNA from re-establishing pre-opening of the double helix conformation at replication fork during the process of DNA replication. In simple terms, single strand binding protein binds to the single-stranded regions of the DNA preventing them from annealing prematurely in order to protect single-stranded DNA from nucleases digestion while removing the secondary structure from DNA allowing for effective functioning of the other enzymes on it.
Production of single stranded DNA occurs during every aspect of metabolism of DNA. This refers to recombination, replication and repair. It also helps in stabilizing the single-stranded DNA. This is because this protein binds to different proteins while modulating function of the involved proteins in different process.
Single strand binding protein has been seen in both organisms and viruses from the bacteria to the humans. The
only living organisms that do not have the single strand binding protein are the Thermoproteales. This is a group of the extremophile archaea. In these organisms, single strand binding protein is replaced by ThermoDBP which is also a protein.
Although many viral and phage SSBs function lime eukaryotes and monomers, the encode heterotrimetic RPA. This is a replication protein A and it is characterized by the SSB and it is also found in bacterial E. coli. Bacterial E. coli is like most SSBs that exist as tetramers. In its active form, E. coli SSS comprises of the four 19kDa subunits that are identical.
Single strand binding protein for DNA to a tetramer may occur in various modes in which SSB occupies different bases numbers of DNA on the basis of various factors such as salt concentration. For instance, there is the (SSB) 65 binding mode where about 65 nucleotides of the DNA are wrapped around SSB tetramer and they contact all the four subunits.
It is favored where there are high concentrations of salt in Vitro. Where there are low salt concentrations, (SSB) 35 binding mode there are approximately 35 nucleotides binding to two SSB subunits. More work is needed to elucidate functions of different binding modes of vivo.
When DNA is converted from the double-stranded form to the single-stranded form, it is said to be denatured. Single strand binding protein prevents renaturing of the denatured DNA strands. This happens either between DNA strands being replicated or in the individual strand being replicated. In the individual strand the concern is with lagging strand.
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Retinol Binding Protein
Retinol binding protein or simply RBP refers to a proteins’ family that has different functions. These proteins act as the carrier proteins whose role is to bind retinal. Assessment of the retinal binding protein is usually used in determining the mass of visceral protein in nutritional studies that are related to health matters.
Retinoic acid and retinol play significant roles in gene expression modulation and the overall embryo development. However, excess or deficit of retinoic acid or retinol can cause developmental malformations or early mortality of an embryo. Regulation of the metabolism and transport of retinol that is necessary for the successful pregnancy is usually accomplished through retinol binding protein.
Retinol binding protein has been identified in the embryo, extra embryonic tissue of bovine, uterus, porcine and ovine. This is a clear indication of the crucial role that is played by proper exposure of retinol to embryo as well as successful transportation during maternal-fetal interface. However, additional research needs to be done to determine exact effects of the poor expression of retinol binding protein on pregnancy as well as the threshold levels of the said expression.
Retinol binding protein is mostly synthesized in the liver. However, there are indications that this protein can be synthesized in peritubular, sertoli cells of testis, epithelium of the retinal pigment, and kidneys before it is circulated to the rest of the body via the blood stream. Retinol binding protein is not found alone in blood. However, it is filtrated easily due to its small weight molecules.
Retinol is also a fast-soluble vitamin that plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal development and growth, reproduction, immunity and vision among other crucial physiological processes. Retinal can be supplied to the body through diet and nutrition. RBP7, RBP5, RBP2 and RBP1 are cellular. RBP is linked interstitially while RBP4 occurs in the blood plasma. Although each of these retinol binding proteins differ slightly they are all alike sufficiently such that it is possible to study all of them by simply focusing on one. Many studies focus on RBP4 due to the fact that it is the most studied and extensively understood.
Despite being identified in placental tissues of bovine and ovine which suggests the high involvement of RBP in the retinal metabolism and transport during pregnancy, exact timing of the expression has not been identified yet. This implies that further studies on retinol binding protein need to be done.
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CREB Binding Protein
CREB binding protein is also called CREBBP or simply CBP. It is a protein that is encoded by CREBBP gene in humans. CREB binding protein performs its roles through the activation of transcription. In this process, CREB domains manage the interaction with the transcription factors.
These are the interaction of nuclear receptor and (RID) domain, domain (KIX) interaction with MYB, and CREB interaction with nuclear receptor, regions TAZ2/CH3 of the histidine/cysteine interaction with MYB and domain (IBiD) that binds interferon response.
CREB protein domains TAZ1, KIX and TAZ2 bind to the sequence that spans both the transactivation domains 9aaTADs of the transcription factor p53. Genes are expressed ubiquitously and they are involved in transcriptional co-activation of various transcription factors. At first, they are isolated as the nuclear protein used in binding to the CAMP-response of element-binding protein (CREB).
The isolation plats a crucial role in the development of the embryo, control of growth as well as homeostasis through coupling of the remodeling of the chromatin to the recognition of transcription factor. The protein that this gene encodes has an intrinsic activity of histone acetyltransferase. It is also acts as the scaffold that stabilizes interactions of additional protein with transcription complex.
The protein acetylates non-histone proteins and histone proteins. It shares the high-sequence similarity regions with the protein EP300 in the bromodomain, histone acetyltransferase domain and regions that are rich in acysteine-histidine.
Studies reveal that CREB binding protein and p300 play an active role in hundreds of various transcription factors. There is a latest model that suggests that binding of the co-activators to the activation domains of transcription factor positions the histone acetyltransferases close to specific nucleosomes that are in the target of regions that promote gene. Interactions with the components of the machinery of general transcription such as the TFIIB, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II have been suggested to have a role in the function of CREB binding protein function.
Simultaneous interaction of different transcription factors with the CBP/p300 is also suggested to have a contribution in transcription synergy. Conversely, CBP/p300 binding competition has been said to mediate some instances of transcriptional repression that is signal induced.
Although an overview of cellular growth of CBP/p300 and differentiation has been published, there are several questions regarding the role of CREB binding protein in transcriptional regulation that are still not answered. For instance, there is no strong evidence to indicate that CBP as well as p300 have different functions and that they are regulated by phosphorylation.
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Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Childhood disintegrative disorder refers to a condition where a child develops normally during the age of 3 or 4 and then they lose language, social, motor as well as other skills that have already been learned over the first months. Childhood disintegrative disorder is also called the Heller’s syndrome or disintegrative psychosis. The cause of this disorder has not yet been found.
Childhood disintegrative disorder has several similarities with autism. In some cases it is considered as a low-functioning form of autism. It was described originally by an Austrian educator called Theodor Heller in 1908. Earlier, Autism had been described by Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner. Previously, Heller had described the syndrome with the term dementia infantilis.
Some researchers consider childhood disintegrative disorder as a part of autism. However, this disorder differs from autism because people with childhood disintegrative disorder depict serious regression after some months of normal development. The loss of the learnt skills is also more dramatic than that of people suffering from autism. Additionally, childhood disintegrative disorder tends to develop at a later stage than it happens with autism.
Despite the fact that the cause of this disorder remains unknown, there are studies that link childhood disintegrative disorder to the nervous system and the brain. This is because children who suffer from this disorder lose communication skills, nonverbal behaviors and other skills that were learnt earlier. All these are related to the nervous system and the brain.
Among the symptoms of childhood disintegrative disorder include lack or delay in spoken language, impairment of nonverbal behaviors, inability to maintain or start conversations, failure to play, loss of bladder and bowel control, loss of social and motor skills, loss of communication and language skills and problems or difficulties in forming relationships with family members and other children.
Once detected to suffer from this disorder, the child is examined by a health provider to determine whether they are suffering from it. Proper examination is very important because the disorder can be confused with others such as pervasive developmental disorder or childhood schizophrenia. The most significant symptom of childhood disintegrative disorder is loss of the developmental milestones. Diagnose is generally made when the child loses functions in about two developmental areas.
Childhood disintegrative disorder is treated just like autistic disorder or autism. This is because these disorders are the same. Steroid medication is an experimental treatment that helps in slowing the rate at which the condition progresses.
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How to Write a Reflection Paper on a Book
Knowing how to write a reflection paper on a book is very important because your teacher or professor might ask you to write one as part of your coursework. A reflection paper refers to an essay that is two or three pages long and it allows you to share thoughts on your experience after reading a book or watching a movie and applying what you have learned from the experience to your education and life- follow this link for more information.
A reflection paper on a book is mostly academic in nature but it is less formal. It should be based on your experience and it allows you to react to personal feeling after reading a book. While writing a reflection paper on a book, you are expected to provide personal feelings and support them with examples while citing the knowledge of an expert if possible.
Why you should know how to write a reflection paper on a book
Writing reflection papers on books is important because it enables students to evaluate their experiences after reading books. When you know how to write a reflection paper, you can easily compose one analytically when required to do so. Remember that a reflection paper is not just a summary of opinions and experiences. Writing a reflection paper entails deconstruction and analysis. Your teacher or professor wants you to not just recap the events or story line of the book but to dig deeper while discussing specific aspects. The reflections, analysis and discussion should be based on personal opinion.
Reflective writing allows you a chance to connect to and engage with a reading critically. You can opt to focus on a section or passage or respond to the major theme or premise of a book. Although a reflection paper should be subjective or personal, it should have an academic tone- follow the link here for more information.Writing a reflective paper entails maintaining an informal approach while maintaining an organized or coherent structure. To do this effectively, you need knowledge because a reflection paper on a book should be a dialogue between the reader and you regarding a particular book.
A five steps guide on how to write a reflection paper on a book
- Prepare to write the paper
The process of writing a reflection paper should start with proper preparation. If for instance the professor or teacher gave you a writing prompt, consider it thoroughly. Have the prompt in mind as you read the book that you are required to write your reflection paper on. This will enable you to come up with a reflection paper that meets all the specified requirements. After analyzing the prompt thoroughly, organize ideas to form an outline and take notes of the major points that you will cover in your paper. Arrange the points logically in the outline. This will keep you focused while writing the paper.
- Write the introduction
Although a reflection paper has a personal nature, you should not simply put your thoughts on a paper. Since it is an academic assignment, your introduction should be clear with a thesis statement. A good way of writing the introduction of a reflection paper is describing your initial expectations and attitude towards the book that you read. Let readers know what your first impression towards the book was and what your experience was after reading it.
- Include a thesis statement
Just like with most writing assignments, your reflection paper should have a central, unifying idea in the introduction. Therefore, come up with a thesis statement for your reflection paper that reflects your experience while indicating the specific knowledge that you acquired after reading the book. Your thesis statement should be the theme on which your reflection paper is based.
- Build the body
In the body, elaborate the thesis statement that you stated in the introduction. Do not express your experience in generalities in the body. Instead, demonstrate how you reached the conclusions after reading the book citing specific examples from it. For instance, you can quote excerpts from the book directly to support your observations. Such citations will enable you to illustrate the topic in a clearer manner and enable readers to see the importance of the experience as well as the knowledge that you acquired after reading the book.
- Write the conclusion
After supporting your thesis statement in the body using examples from the book that you are reflecting on, come up with a conclusion that ties the major points together. The conclusion should have a brief summary of the concluding feelings on the basis of the provided evidence and points. It should discuss the major points’ implication. Thus, after reading the conclusion of your reflection paper, readers should have a concise idea of the summary of the paper- follow the link classroom.synonym.com for more information.
Generally, when you grasp how to write a reflection paper on a book, you can easily organize your thoughts and opinions methodically in the paper. You also acquire more writing skills by practicing writing reflection papers. This way, you will eventually know how to describe your analysis, opinion and reactions after reading books.
Characteristics of a good reflection paper on a book
Regardless of the setting or purpose of a reflective paper, there are characteristics that can be used to identify it. Once you grasp these characteristics and how to ensure that your paper has them, count yourself among those who know how to write a reflection paper on a book.
They are as follows:
Your reflection paper should not be simple thoughts put down on a paper as they emerge from your head. It should not be like a personal diary. Instead, it should indicate a reflective form of writing that serves an academic purpose. It should be written with a goal which could be to accomplish something, learn, demonstrate, understand better or improve.
A good reflection paper on a book should explore or demonstrate your personal experiences or feelings towards a book that you have read. It should demonstrate your position regarding the book.
A reflective paper on a book should not simply tell or describe a story. It should indicate a higher order or critical thinking. Readers should see that you are analyzing the book, synthesizing its content and evaluating it to determine your attitude or perception towards it. It should meet the main goal of reflective writing which is to express your thoughts and reasons for thinking about the book in a particular way-follow the link trentu.ca for more information.
A good reflection paper should meet quality standards of clarity, precision, correctness and conciseness. Therefore, revise your paper and edit it thoroughly to ensure that it meets these quality standards.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write a reflection paper on a book
- Although you are allowed to include your reactions and thoughts towards the book that you read or simply your experience, do not rely on them alone.
- Your reflection paper focuses on personal reactions, analysis and feelings towards a book than it would be the case for an analytical essay or formal research but you should ask your teacher or lecturer if you can use first person in writing the paper.
- Do more than simply summarize your reading because a reflection paper on a book is not a mere free-flow of thoughts or ideas-See more at resources.cleary.edu.
- Keep your reflective paper short by ensuring that it includes ideas that you can support with evidence from the book that you read only.
- Before revealing what you learnt from the book, ask yourself if it is necessary. This is important because of the subjective opinions and feelings that are usually expressed in reflective papers.
- Ensure that the main theme of the book that you are reflecting on comes out clearly in your paper. You can know the main theme of a book by reading the notes that you take while reading the book and in the preparation stage before you start writing the paper.
- Use sample reflection paper as a guide for writing because a good sample will enable you to know how to structure your reflection paper on a book properly. Here is a link to an example of a reflection paper on the book, African Fractals by Rogan Eglash that you can use as your practical guide for writing a reflection paper on a book; www.slideshare.net.
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Potassium in the Human Body
Importance of potassium in the human body cannot be underrated. The National Academies’ Food and Nutrition Board note that the healthy potassium intake per day is 4.7 grams. However, many people in the world today consume about 3 grams of potassium with women consuming on average below 2.5 grams per day.
Nevertheless, studies reveal that there are many benefits that can be derived from consuming the recommended amount of potassium every day. Some of the foods that are rich in potassium include citrus juices, bananas, potatoes, tomatoes, salmon, chicken, cod, most meats and lima beans.
Potassium is among the crucial electrolytes in the body. An electrolyte is a substance that helps in conducting electricity in the body. With other electrolytes in the body such as phosphorous, calcium, sodium, and chloride, potassium play a significant role in conducting electricity in the body. As such, potassium is very important because it ensures healthy functioning of all cells, organs and tissues in the body.
Potassium also helps in regulating water levels in the body and maintaining a healthy pH level in the blood. As such, because the body loses high amount of electrolytes in the sweat, it is important to obtain potassium after or during an intense activity.
Another reason why potassium is important in the body is because it helps in maintaining healthy blood pressure. For electrolytes to function properly, potassium and sodium must be balanced properly. As the body struggle to maintain a balance of potassium and sodium, it is important that you reduce sodium impact by taking more sodium.
Sodium has significant impact on blood pressure. Boosting the daily intake of potassium will help in maintaining a healthy level of blood pressure in the body. Nevertheless, you cannot depend on sodium and potassium uptake to control your blood pressure and you need other measures such as exercising regularly and controlling your diet.
Another important role played by potassium in the body is ensuring proper muscular functioning. Potassium plays a vital role in ensuring that muscles and skeletal system functions properly. For muscles to contract properly, adequate potassium intake is required on daily basis. This helps not only in proper functioning of the muscles, but also regular digestion.
In addition, potassium helps in ensuring good health of the heart. This is because normal rhythm of the heart is caused by optimal functioning of the muscles. This is apparent especially for individuals with excessively low or high levels of potassium which can lead to irregular heartbeats. Since heart arrhythmias are life-threatening, it is important that you ensure that you are taking potassium adequately on daily basis.
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