Single Strand Binding Protein
Single strand binding protein refers to a means by which the cells prevent opened DNA from re-establishing pre-opening of the double helix conformation at replication fork during the process of DNA replication. In simple terms, single strand binding protein binds to the single-stranded regions of the DNA preventing them from annealing prematurely in order to protect single-stranded DNA from nucleases digestion while removing the secondary structure from DNA allowing for effective functioning of the other enzymes on it.
Production of single stranded DNA occurs during every aspect of metabolism of DNA. This refers to recombination, replication and repair. It also helps in stabilizing the single-stranded DNA. This is because this protein binds to different proteins while modulating function of the involved proteins in different process.
Single strand binding protein has been seen in both organisms and viruses from the bacteria to the humans. The
only living organisms that do not have the single strand binding protein are the Thermoproteales. This is a group of the extremophile archaea. In these organisms, single strand binding protein is replaced by ThermoDBP which is also a protein.
Although many viral and phage SSBs function lime eukaryotes and monomers, the encode heterotrimetic RPA. This is a replication protein A and it is characterized by the SSB and it is also found in bacterial E. coli. Bacterial E. coli is like most SSBs that exist as tetramers. In its active form, E. coli SSS comprises of the four 19kDa subunits that are identical.
Single strand binding protein for DNA to a tetramer may occur in various modes in which SSB occupies different bases numbers of DNA on the basis of various factors such as salt concentration. For instance, there is the (SSB) 65 binding mode where about 65 nucleotides of the DNA are wrapped around SSB tetramer and they contact all the four subunits.
It is favored where there are high concentrations of salt in Vitro. Where there are low salt concentrations, (SSB) 35 binding mode there are approximately 35 nucleotides binding to two SSB subunits. More work is needed to elucidate functions of different binding modes of vivo.
When DNA is converted from the double-stranded form to the single-stranded form, it is said to be denatured. Single strand binding protein prevents renaturing of the denatured DNA strands. This happens either between DNA strands being replicated or in the individual strand being replicated. In the individual strand the concern is with lagging strand.
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Retinol Binding Protein
Retinol binding protein or simply RBP refers to a proteins’ family that has different functions. These proteins act as the carrier proteins whose role is to bind retinal. Assessment of the retinal binding protein is usually used in determining the mass of visceral protein in nutritional studies that are related to health matters.
Retinoic acid and retinol play significant roles in gene expression modulation and the overall embryo development. However, excess or deficit of retinoic acid or retinol can cause developmental malformations or early mortality of an embryo. Regulation of the metabolism and transport of retinol that is necessary for the successful pregnancy is usually accomplished through retinol binding protein.
Retinol binding protein has been identified in the embryo, extra embryonic tissue of bovine, uterus, porcine and ovine. This is a clear indication of the crucial role that is played by proper exposure of retinol to embryo as well as successful transportation during maternal-fetal interface. However, additional research needs to be done to determine exact effects of the poor expression of retinol binding protein on pregnancy as well as the threshold levels of the said expression.
Retinol binding protein is mostly synthesized in the liver. However, there are indications that this protein can be synthesized in peritubular, sertoli cells of testis, epithelium of the retinal pigment, and kidneys before it is circulated to the rest of the body via the blood stream. Retinol binding protein is not found alone in blood. However, it is filtrated easily due to its small weight molecules.
Retinol is also a fast-soluble vitamin that plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal development and growth, reproduction, immunity and vision among other crucial physiological processes. Retinal can be supplied to the body through diet and nutrition. RBP7, RBP5, RBP2 and RBP1 are cellular. RBP is linked interstitially while RBP4 occurs in the blood plasma. Although each of these retinol binding proteins differ slightly they are all alike sufficiently such that it is possible to study all of them by simply focusing on one. Many studies focus on RBP4 due to the fact that it is the most studied and extensively understood.
Despite being identified in placental tissues of bovine and ovine which suggests the high involvement of RBP in the retinal metabolism and transport during pregnancy, exact timing of the expression has not been identified yet. This implies that further studies on retinol binding protein need to be done.
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CREB Binding Protein
CREB binding protein is also called CREBBP or simply CBP. It is a protein that is encoded by CREBBP gene in humans. CREB binding protein performs its roles through the activation of transcription. In this process, CREB domains manage the interaction with the transcription factors.
These are the interaction of nuclear receptor and (RID) domain, domain (KIX) interaction with MYB, and CREB interaction with nuclear receptor, regions TAZ2/CH3 of the histidine/cysteine interaction with MYB and domain (IBiD) that binds interferon response.
CREB protein domains TAZ1, KIX and TAZ2 bind to the sequence that spans both the transactivation domains 9aaTADs of the transcription factor p53. Genes are expressed ubiquitously and they are involved in transcriptional co-activation of various transcription factors. At first, they are isolated as the nuclear protein used in binding to the CAMP-response of element-binding protein (CREB).
The isolation plats a crucial role in the development of the embryo, control of growth as well as homeostasis through coupling of the remodeling of the chromatin to the recognition of transcription factor. The protein that this gene encodes has an intrinsic activity of histone acetyltransferase. It is also acts as the scaffold that stabilizes interactions of additional protein with transcription complex.
The protein acetylates non-histone proteins and histone proteins. It shares the high-sequence similarity regions with the protein EP300 in the bromodomain, histone acetyltransferase domain and regions that are rich in acysteine-histidine.
Studies reveal that CREB binding protein and p300 play an active role in hundreds of various transcription factors. There is a latest model that suggests that binding of the co-activators to the activation domains of transcription factor positions the histone acetyltransferases close to specific nucleosomes that are in the target of regions that promote gene. Interactions with the components of the machinery of general transcription such as the TFIIB, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II have been suggested to have a role in the function of CREB binding protein function.
Simultaneous interaction of different transcription factors with the CBP/p300 is also suggested to have a contribution in transcription synergy. Conversely, CBP/p300 binding competition has been said to mediate some instances of transcriptional repression that is signal induced.
Although an overview of cellular growth of CBP/p300 and differentiation has been published, there are several questions regarding the role of CREB binding protein in transcriptional regulation that are still not answered. For instance, there is no strong evidence to indicate that CBP as well as p300 have different functions and that they are regulated by phosphorylation.
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Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Childhood disintegrative disorder refers to a condition where a child develops normally during the age of 3 or 4 and then they lose language, social, motor as well as other skills that have already been learned over the first months. Childhood disintegrative disorder is also called the Heller’s syndrome or disintegrative psychosis. The cause of this disorder has not yet been found.
Childhood disintegrative disorder has several similarities with autism. In some cases it is considered as a low-functioning form of autism. It was described originally by an Austrian educator called Theodor Heller in 1908. Earlier, Autism had been described by Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner. Previously, Heller had described the syndrome with the term dementia infantilis.
Some researchers consider childhood disintegrative disorder as a part of autism. However, this disorder differs from autism because people with childhood disintegrative disorder depict serious regression after some months of normal development. The loss of the learnt skills is also more dramatic than that of people suffering from autism. Additionally, childhood disintegrative disorder tends to develop at a later stage than it happens with autism.
Despite the fact that the cause of this disorder remains unknown, there are studies that link childhood disintegrative disorder to the nervous system and the brain. This is because children who suffer from this disorder lose communication skills, nonverbal behaviors and other skills that were learnt earlier. All these are related to the nervous system and the brain.
Among the symptoms of childhood disintegrative disorder include lack or delay in spoken language, impairment of nonverbal behaviors, inability to maintain or start conversations, failure to play, loss of bladder and bowel control, loss of social and motor skills, loss of communication and language skills and problems or difficulties in forming relationships with family members and other children.
Once detected to suffer from this disorder, the child is examined by a health provider to determine whether they are suffering from it. Proper examination is very important because the disorder can be confused with others such as pervasive developmental disorder or childhood schizophrenia. The most significant symptom of childhood disintegrative disorder is loss of the developmental milestones. Diagnose is generally made when the child loses functions in about two developmental areas.
Childhood disintegrative disorder is treated just like autistic disorder or autism. This is because these disorders are the same. Steroid medication is an experimental treatment that helps in slowing the rate at which the condition progresses.
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How to Write a Reflection Paper on a Book
Knowing how to write a reflection paper on a book is very important because your teacher or professor might ask you to write one as part of your coursework. A reflection paper refers to an essay that is two or three pages long and it allows you to share thoughts on your experience after reading a book or watching a movie and applying what you have learned from the experience to your education and life- follow this link for more information.
A reflection paper on a book is mostly academic in nature but it is less formal. It should be based on your experience and it allows you to react to personal feeling after reading a book. While writing a reflection paper on a book, you are expected to provide personal feelings and support them with examples while citing the knowledge of an expert if possible.
Why you should know how to write a reflection paper on a book
Writing reflection papers on books is important because it enables students to evaluate their experiences after reading books. When you know how to write a reflection paper, you can easily compose one analytically when required to do so. Remember that a reflection paper is not just a summary of opinions and experiences. Writing a reflection paper entails deconstruction and analysis. Your teacher or professor wants you to not just recap the events or story line of the book but to dig deeper while discussing specific aspects. The reflections, analysis and discussion should be based on personal opinion.
Reflective writing allows you a chance to connect to and engage with a reading critically. You can opt to focus on a section or passage or respond to the major theme or premise of a book. Although a reflection paper should be subjective or personal, it should have an academic tone- follow the link here for more information.Writing a reflective paper entails maintaining an informal approach while maintaining an organized or coherent structure. To do this effectively, you need knowledge because a reflection paper on a book should be a dialogue between the reader and you regarding a particular book.
A five steps guide on how to write a reflection paper on a book
- Prepare to write the paper
The process of writing a reflection paper should start with proper preparation. If for instance the professor or teacher gave you a writing prompt, consider it thoroughly. Have the prompt in mind as you read the book that you are required to write your reflection paper on. This will enable you to come up with a reflection paper that meets all the specified requirements. After analyzing the prompt thoroughly, organize ideas to form an outline and take notes of the major points that you will cover in your paper. Arrange the points logically in the outline. This will keep you focused while writing the paper.
- Write the introduction
Although a reflection paper has a personal nature, you should not simply put your thoughts on a paper. Since it is an academic assignment, your introduction should be clear with a thesis statement. A good way of writing the introduction of a reflection paper is describing your initial expectations and attitude towards the book that you read. Let readers know what your first impression towards the book was and what your experience was after reading it.
- Include a thesis statement
Just like with most writing assignments, your reflection paper should have a central, unifying idea in the introduction. Therefore, come up with a thesis statement for your reflection paper that reflects your experience while indicating the specific knowledge that you acquired after reading the book. Your thesis statement should be the theme on which your reflection paper is based.
- Build the body
In the body, elaborate the thesis statement that you stated in the introduction. Do not express your experience in generalities in the body. Instead, demonstrate how you reached the conclusions after reading the book citing specific examples from it. For instance, you can quote excerpts from the book directly to support your observations. Such citations will enable you to illustrate the topic in a clearer manner and enable readers to see the importance of the experience as well as the knowledge that you acquired after reading the book.
- Write the conclusion
After supporting your thesis statement in the body using examples from the book that you are reflecting on, come up with a conclusion that ties the major points together. The conclusion should have a brief summary of the concluding feelings on the basis of the provided evidence and points. It should discuss the major points’ implication. Thus, after reading the conclusion of your reflection paper, readers should have a concise idea of the summary of the paper- follow the link classroom.synonym.com for more information.
Generally, when you grasp how to write a reflection paper on a book, you can easily organize your thoughts and opinions methodically in the paper. You also acquire more writing skills by practicing writing reflection papers. This way, you will eventually know how to describe your analysis, opinion and reactions after reading books.
Characteristics of a good reflection paper on a book
Regardless of the setting or purpose of a reflective paper, there are characteristics that can be used to identify it. Once you grasp these characteristics and how to ensure that your paper has them, count yourself among those who know how to write a reflection paper on a book.
They are as follows:
Your reflection paper should not be simple thoughts put down on a paper as they emerge from your head. It should not be like a personal diary. Instead, it should indicate a reflective form of writing that serves an academic purpose. It should be written with a goal which could be to accomplish something, learn, demonstrate, understand better or improve.
A good reflection paper on a book should explore or demonstrate your personal experiences or feelings towards a book that you have read. It should demonstrate your position regarding the book.
A reflective paper on a book should not simply tell or describe a story. It should indicate a higher order or critical thinking. Readers should see that you are analyzing the book, synthesizing its content and evaluating it to determine your attitude or perception towards it. It should meet the main goal of reflective writing which is to express your thoughts and reasons for thinking about the book in a particular way-follow the link trentu.ca for more information.
A good reflection paper should meet quality standards of clarity, precision, correctness and conciseness. Therefore, revise your paper and edit it thoroughly to ensure that it meets these quality standards.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write a reflection paper on a book
- Although you are allowed to include your reactions and thoughts towards the book that you read or simply your experience, do not rely on them alone.
- Your reflection paper focuses on personal reactions, analysis and feelings towards a book than it would be the case for an analytical essay or formal research but you should ask your teacher or lecturer if you can use first person in writing the paper.
- Do more than simply summarize your reading because a reflection paper on a book is not a mere free-flow of thoughts or ideas-See more at resources.cleary.edu.
- Keep your reflective paper short by ensuring that it includes ideas that you can support with evidence from the book that you read only.
- Before revealing what you learnt from the book, ask yourself if it is necessary. This is important because of the subjective opinions and feelings that are usually expressed in reflective papers.
- Ensure that the main theme of the book that you are reflecting on comes out clearly in your paper. You can know the main theme of a book by reading the notes that you take while reading the book and in the preparation stage before you start writing the paper.
- Use sample reflection paper as a guide for writing because a good sample will enable you to know how to structure your reflection paper on a book properly. Here is a link to an example of a reflection paper on the book, African Fractals by Rogan Eglash that you can use as your practical guide for writing a reflection paper on a book; www.slideshare.net.
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Potassium in the Human Body
Importance of potassium in the human body cannot be underrated. The National Academies’ Food and Nutrition Board note that the healthy potassium intake per day is 4.7 grams. However, many people in the world today consume about 3 grams of potassium with women consuming on average below 2.5 grams per day.
Nevertheless, studies reveal that there are many benefits that can be derived from consuming the recommended amount of potassium every day. Some of the foods that are rich in potassium include citrus juices, bananas, potatoes, tomatoes, salmon, chicken, cod, most meats and lima beans.
Potassium is among the crucial electrolytes in the body. An electrolyte is a substance that helps in conducting electricity in the body. With other electrolytes in the body such as phosphorous, calcium, sodium, and chloride, potassium play a significant role in conducting electricity in the body. As such, potassium is very important because it ensures healthy functioning of all cells, organs and tissues in the body.
Potassium also helps in regulating water levels in the body and maintaining a healthy pH level in the blood. As such, because the body loses high amount of electrolytes in the sweat, it is important to obtain potassium after or during an intense activity.
Another reason why potassium is important in the body is because it helps in maintaining healthy blood pressure. For electrolytes to function properly, potassium and sodium must be balanced properly. As the body struggle to maintain a balance of potassium and sodium, it is important that you reduce sodium impact by taking more sodium.
Sodium has significant impact on blood pressure. Boosting the daily intake of potassium will help in maintaining a healthy level of blood pressure in the body. Nevertheless, you cannot depend on sodium and potassium uptake to control your blood pressure and you need other measures such as exercising regularly and controlling your diet.
Another important role played by potassium in the body is ensuring proper muscular functioning. Potassium plays a vital role in ensuring that muscles and skeletal system functions properly. For muscles to contract properly, adequate potassium intake is required on daily basis. This helps not only in proper functioning of the muscles, but also regular digestion.
In addition, potassium helps in ensuring good health of the heart. This is because normal rhythm of the heart is caused by optimal functioning of the muscles. This is apparent especially for individuals with excessively low or high levels of potassium which can lead to irregular heartbeats. Since heart arrhythmias are life-threatening, it is important that you ensure that you are taking potassium adequately on daily basis.
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