I am an African-American, and all through my life, I have worn my natural hair with no need to make use of any form of chemical treatment. From an early age, I could do cornrows or braid for easier management due to tangling, sweat and dust, and due to the fact that my hair is one thick mass, it was no easy job trying to detangle it. Despite that, my mane has always been beautiful black and shiny; the major reason behind avoiding chemical treatment which could lead to its damage. I also avoided heat treatments and could only shampoo and oil it, after which it would be braided back to its usual style.
By age 20, I could no longer braid and do cornrows because I felt I had surpassed that period of life, though I still desired to keep it natural. And that was when I saw it. A hair salon in Philadelphia was advertising its services, which were exclusively related to handling of African-American natural hair. The advertisement appeared on the local daily and carried clear photographs of women whose hair had been made at the salon. It showed a number of hairstyles from ponytail to haircuts among others, giving explicit details of how the hair looked before and after the procedure. I felt that this is what I needed, called the salon and after an assurance that I would receive value for my money, booked an appointment for the following day.
The process took nearly two hours and involved shampooing, moisturizing, drying and styling. For starters, the image I saw staring at me in the mirror did not reflect half of what I expected depending on the assurances I had received before undertaking their services. My hair looked like one big chunk of sisal fiber or steel wire falling from one side of the head; it was greasy and very stiff to the touch. I complained about this and luckily, the proprietor was on duty that day and he handled the situation. I asked for them to undo the styling and let my hair fall down but was advised that doing so could damage my hair due to the fact that the product used had to stay in the hair for at least three days before it could be rinsed off.
After three agonizing days of horrible hair, I went back to get the products washed off my and for it to look at it did earlier but I was in for a more traumatizing experience. At the wash area, 50 percent of my hair fell off and my scalp was covered in rashes and sores. All along I had felt itchy but assumed it to be from the heat caused by the held up hair which I was not accustomed to. Apparently, due to shortage of staff, I had been assigned to an intern who had used a product meant for chemically treated hair on my hair. The product should not be left on natural hair for more than half an hour but it was on my head for almost 72 hours.
This was negligence on their part and they did not measure up their services with the advertised services and this cost me my hair, which has since then been trimmed to nearly quarter of an inch. I spoke to the proprietor who accepted liability and refunded the initial amount paid for the service. It was a great disappointment for me and I sought compensation for negligence and damages suffered in the hands of the hairdresser. After much consultation, we agreed on an out-of-court settlement though I have since shied away from hair salons. I went back to my earlier ways of making my hair from home.
An ethical issue relates to morals that determine whether an individual is conducting herself in a right or wrong manner. The major ethical issue in this case is irresponsibility, which is exhibited by Fantasia Goodwin who proceeds with athletics in her pregnant condition. Based on this article, the decision maker is supposed to handle the issue of irresponsibility exhibited by this pregnant athlete. There are four key ethics that apply in sports namely responsibility, fairness, respect and integrity. Other ethical problems in relation to this context are unfairness during sports. This is evident when women athletes are denied a chance to participate in sports when they are pregnant.
Based on this case, the writer suggests that when a female athlete is pregnant, she should be terminated immediately from exercising for her safety and that of the child. This is an ethical issue because it affects only female athletes and not men. For instance, this could mean immediate suspension of the athlete against her will (Barbara 72). Conversely, another issue noted from the case is that pregnant women need to be conscious of their situation because this contributes to responsibility of their actions. According to medical experts, this tends to affect pregnant women involved in athletics by exposing them to dangerous threats such as miscarriages.
Discrimination against female athletes is another challenge experienced in sports. The article exhibits how the public discriminates against pregnant women by assuming that they cannot participate in athletics. As a result, this affects the female participants who are pregnant when it terminates their scholarship in athletics. Another issue in the case is whether pregnant women are selfish; this is evident when Goodwin ignored her responsibility as a mother by exposing her baby at risk. In this case, there is also a challenge when sports officials fail to adhere to NCAA rules. For instance, it becomes an issue when sports officials do not exhibit integrity by denying pregnant women athletes the red t-shirt option that could permit them to participate in the 6th year to prove their eligibility in athletics. On the contrary, the medical red t-shirts are issued at discretion to be used at a 17 school athletics program (Wyne 165).
Analyzing the case study, the central ethical issue is different from other problems identified. The central issue is that Goodwin despite her pregnant condition acts irresponsible and continues participating in athletics without caring about the risks of miscarriage. This problem is serious contrasted to others such as discrimination because the athlete mother puts the life of her baby in danger. However, discrimination is minor issue as it convinces female athletes who are pregnant to rest and join the sports when they are fit physically. For instance, medical practitioners respond to the issue of female athletes being responsible for their actions by advising them to take a rest during pregnancy.
This is significant because it prevents harm that could affect the mother and the baby especially when the activity becomes vigorous. An example that relates to other challenges concerns Title IX of the Civil Rights, which is against public discrimination that faces women who are pregnant. In relation to this act, it is not an issue for pregnant women to proceed with sports activity when they are still interested. Analyzing this concept of pregnant women participating in athletes, it is vital to enable them to exercise and keep fit. However, at some point, this exhibits irresponsibility because women fail to care about the danger they expose to the baby (Morgan 121).
The central ethical issue in this article is irresponsibility in athletics especially in this case that women are involved. In any sports activity, responsibility is a virtue because it allows couches and players to watch their performance, actions and welfare of their condition in field. This implies that if a player feels unwell it is her responsibility to report the matter to the athletic department to be permitted to rest. In this case, this applies to pregnant athletic women, it is vital for them to take a break when in such condition to avoid miscarriages, and abortions. Responsibility is an ethic in sports that requires players to adhere to rules and regulations that applies to athletics. For instance, if the rules of the game do not permit pregnant women to proceed with athletics, they should take this as a responsibility for their own safety and welfare.
The Central Ethical Issue (Irresponsibility)
Irresponsibility as the key ethical issue tends to create negative effects on behaviors of players. It leads to wrong decision making when they opt to proceed with the game even in their pregnant situation. The reason is because they perceive athletics as a way of maintaining fitness by exercising even when they are pregnant. Furthermore, this enables them to remain competitive but is a bad decision that exposes the woman and fetus to danger. The solution that could assist in reducing irresponsibility among pregnant women is to stop participating in athletics. For instance, a woman might assume that she is fit but she has a hypertension problem that could cause termination of the pregnancy. In such a case, this can be avoided when a pregnant woman takes responsibility of her condition to rest for safety of the baby. In addition, problems evident among irresponsible pregnant women who proceed with athletics are oxygen deficit, hyperthermia and sports injuries.
Hyperthermia is a condition that affects a fetus in pregnant women who make a wrong decision of proceeding with sports. They face this situation during a high intensity exercise, which makes them experience an extreme body temperature that also affects the fetus. The more they take part in exercises, they more their body temperature increases. As a result, heat from the mother is passed to the baby causing birth defects (Wyne 190). In regard to the central issue that is irresponsibility among pregnant women, it is vital for them to focus and be careful during their first trimester pregnancy. The reason is because the fetus is susceptible to the mother’s pregnancy and finds it difficult to regulate its body temperature. The solution to this issue is that women who are pregnant need to be cautious when taking their exercises during athletics by checking time and hot conditions.
If pregnant women are irresponsible of their condition, it could lead to sports injuries. This implies that a direct impact caused by athletics damages the fetus or the mother’s womb. Due to this potential risk, it is up to the mother to take responsibility of her condition by terminating athletics. The consequences of athletics could cause trauma to the fetus and the only sure solution is for the woman to make a good decision by taking a break until when she delivers the baby. Irresponsibility among pregnant women could also lead to oxygen deficit. This is stimulated by factors such as intensity of the practice, duration and type that could affect the heart rate of the developing baby. In some circumstances, if a pregnant athlete attends practice on a regular basis, it enables the fetus to get used to stress of the exercise and subjects it to a better condition. This could be a similar situation to that of Fantasia Goodwin because she managed to deliver her baby safely despite the continuous exercises during her pregnancy. On the contrary, for unfit women, high intensity practices could affect their fetus because it decreases flow of blood to the uterus leading to serious oxygen shortage.
The solution to this issue is for pregnant athletes to be conscious and pay attention to movement of the fetus (Wyne 134). This is because developing babies in the womb stop moving when they lack sufficient supply of oxygen. In addition, responsible pregnant women who participate in athletics must drink plenty of water to keep them safe. The relevance to this information in relation to irresponsibility among pregnant women is that it enables them to make a wise decision. For instance, the significance of a pregnant woman being responsible is that she takes caution to avoid miscarriages and abortions that could happen during athletics. These details create awareness to pregnant women to check with medical practitioners if they are unfit or fit to go for exercises in their condition.
There are various options or solutions that are relevant to the key ethical issue that is irresponsibility among pregnant athletes. The first option is for pregnant women to be responsible and make sensible decisions that can assist to keep the life of the mother and that of a baby safe. In this regard, a pregnant woman can decide to stay out of athletics for some time when she is in her pregnant situation and return after delivery. The second option is for a pregnant athlete to go for a medical check up to get assurance whether she is fit to exercise in that condition. This is beneficial because it assists a female pregnant athlete to know whether she has complications such as high blood pressure that could affect the fetus during athletics. Contrasting the two solutions, the best option for a pregnant woman is to take a break from athletics and return after delivery to enhance safety (Zedd 149)
Based on an inductive moral reasoning, there are ethical implications that these potential solutions may have on stakeholders. For instance, for medical practitioners that are part of the athletics group, this may force them to be concerned and carry out follow-ups on pregnant women who participate in sports. This can be accomplished through checkups to ensure that they are fit to proceed with athletics in their pregnant conditions. In relation to the deductive moral reasoning, ethical implications that potential options have stakeholders affect the organization that is responsible in issuing scholarships. A good example is when an athlete woman is pregnant, she cannot access scholarship because the firm responsible for awarding them terminates her opportunity with thoughts that she cannot compete again in athletics. As a result, this affects stakeholders who offer scholarships and tend to seek for another alternative other than awarding the pregnant women.
Consequential theory could be of help to find a resolution of irresponsibility among pregnant athletes, which is a central ethical issue. In relation to consequential theory, Act suits this case because it reveals that anything a person does at a given time, her overall best consequences are determined by moral and right actions. In regard to irresponsibility, this implies that when a pregnant athlete makes a wise decision by taking responsibility of her actions, this determines her best course of action. For instance, in this case, it is morally right for women in such a condition to take a leave from athletics and return later after delivering for safety purposes.
The second theory to apply is non-consequential theory concerning natural laws. According to this law, moral standards that govern behaviors of human beings depend on nature of human beings and the universe (Zedd 156). Based on its central principles, this theory is morally right because it reveals how character of human beings depends on their behaviors. For instance, if a pregnant athlete decides to proceed with sports, it is morally acceptable because she is fulfilling her standards by maintaining fitness that is natural in human beings. These central principles of the theories applied assists in resolving the key issue that is irresponsibility among pregnant athletes. For instance, Act is a theory that would assist women to opt for safety measures by taking a break from athletics to keep the baby safe. Natural law is a theory that incorporates central principles and guides such women to do what they think is right in relation to their nature. For instance, this allows women to exercise in a careful manner to maintain fitness during pregnancy.
The wisest and most ethical option is for pregnant women to be responsible for decisions that could lead them to actions that are morally right. Based on research, if pregnant athletes take a break from sports, this could be a relief to stakeholders because they will be sure that they are not exposing baby and mother to risks. Applying the ethical theories and laws, the morally right resolution to central key problem is for pregnant athletes to take responsibility of their actions. This implies that staying away from athletics for some time will assist to keep both of them safe. This is the best solution because it is less dangerous when the pregnant athlete avoid vigorous activities. In addition, the mother will be safe from potential harm caused by athletics that could lead to fetal overheating. It is also the best solution for a pregnant woman to stop participating in athletics to avoid losing the baby through miscarriage.
There are three counterarguments against the option I selected as being morally right. The first argument is that pregnant women will not be able to keep fit when they avoid exercising. The second argument is that organizations that award scholarships tend to ignore them thinking they are not capable of competing again. The third argument relates to title IX of Civil Right Acts that claims denying women chances to practice is similar to discriminating them and it prohibits such actions. To defend against these arguments, I concur with the idea of keeping fit only when the woman is in good health condition (Barbara 115). This implies that if she has hypertension issues, medical practioners will not allow her to practice. Reflecting on my thought process, I learnt that responsibility is a virtue in athletics. This applies in case study and it implies that women who are irresponsible by making bad decisions do not act in a moral way. For instance in this case, a pregnant woman takes risk of engaging in athletics without the knowledge that she could lose the baby. To improve on the problem solving process, I could incorporate more arguments and alternatives to central issue to find a relevant solution.
Barbara, Lenice. Women in sport. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 2000. Print.
Morgan, William. Ethics in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2001. Print.
Wyne, Robert. Ethics of sport and athletics: theory, issues, and application. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009. Print.
Zedd, Robert. Fair play the ethics of sport. 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2010. Print.
Quality Assessment in Health Service Organizations
When describing aspects of quality assessment in a health care system the main focus is relied on improving the service delivery and ensuring that the most appropriate interventions and technological innovations are adopted to enhance best practices in the field. In a business set-up quality assessment is done to ensure that an organization realizes maximum profits as well as increase its customer base.
Health care systems assess quality depending on the reception of health care practitioners, the patients as well as the community within which these healthcare systems operate. A business related organization on the other hand assesses quality through their customers, competitors as well as employees.
For a health system, carrying out a quality assessment exercise leads to the understanding of the measurable outcomes in health service provision, this knowledge is also important as we are able to compare the effects of the various changes in treatment through the empirical outcomes and be able to provide optimal care to patients while maximizing the use of the scarce resources available.
Unlike the business model of assessment, the health quality assessment model has four levels; macro-level, it is the responsibility of government at the national level to ensure that qualities are implemented to formulate supportive policies, regional entities such as state governments in the US need to ensure performance monitoring and help to implement national policy, health care organizations and their representatives such as hospital associations can help to measure quality at the organizational level and “micro-system” level where patient care services are provided to individual patients.
Consumers act as filters on how every organization is handling its activities when providing services and goods. They are important in providing feedback as they help organizations to make the necessary changes. In business related organizations, consumers may call, write to express dissatisfaction and in other instances asked to fill questionnaires or participate in surveys during a specified period. In health care systems, feedback is done during assessments and opinion boxes that are available.
A more unilateral method of getting feedback for health system is recommended to enhance service delivery and ensure goodwill on the side of the consumers and the medical professionals. A transparent system that monitors the incentives of the health care system in terms of quality, pricing, health care outcomes as a well as making the information readily available for the customers makes it easy to receive feedback as there is informed and easy decision making terms for the health care systems.
It is important that each organization undertakes quality assessment seriously. By doing so, an organization is able to realize the weak points and maximize of the strengths. There is no organization that performs an assessment so as to collapse or rather decrease performance therefore the general gain an organization receives by doing a quality assessment is to increase productivity and service delivery. For a health care system, an assessment helps in improving patient care as well as realizing areas that pose a danger in managing common diseases.
For business related organizations, quality assessment enables improvement and expansion of the customer base. It also enables the business to improve on service delivery as employees’ terms of service are also put into consideration. Organizations that undertake quality assessments tend to perform well as compared to their counterparts that do not.
Ethic in Advertisement
Research design refers to a detailed study plan that a person intends to follow incorporating all aspects of studying a scientific problem in more consistent and rational way. The purpose of a research design is to ensure that whatever findings we would get from the research process enable. The main purpose of research design is to ensure that the researcher finds the answers that are relevant to the research problem(David 9).David goes further to explain that research design, there is no any specific method that should be used but any method; either qualitative or quantitative can be used(David 10).
Qualitative research methods
This kind of data collection method was taking a lot of time and therefore only a small portion of the whole research was done by this method. The main methods used were; use of focus groups, through observations and interviews.
Qualitative research methods
This type of data collection method gave out results that can be easily summarized. They include interview (face-to-face, telephone interviews computer assisted) questionnaires (web-based and on paper) among others.
From the focus groups and interview, it was realized that advertisers, in their efforts to create more demand for their products and services, have in the process fail the test of ethics in advertising. In advertisement there are questions that we need to ask ourselves before carrying out any advertisement. The questions would be like; who is the target of this advertisement, which group should not be exposed to this advertisement? which kind of products, or services are advertising?, how should our content relate with the media? What are our roles, obligations and responsibilities to the society?
Many of the people interviewed thinks that some advertising are so devious and untruthful, banks on the fear of some people and even view some of them as being very insolent, as some advertisers assume they know what the consumers is thinking of and therefore go ahead to suggest what they think is right for the consumers. Respondent also believe that this issue of magic in the adverts should be dropped as most adverts are not facing the reality facts, for example, the adverts seems to say that for every trouble you have at a particular time, the advertisers have magic for it; if you are sick, they have a medicine that will cure you immediately.
Another fact that has not been taken lightly by the respondents is the rate of immorality that the advertisers seem to promote, pictures of naked people, vices like gambling have for a long time been promoted by advertisers. This practices lead to moral degradation in the society and it leaves parents with a lot of work in bringing up their children to the moral standards expected by the society.
Too much advertising also brings a lot of disorder and confusion on the consumers’ lives and so advertisers are being advised to use the promotion of their brands among others in a more reasonable manner that does not bring confusion to the potential clients,Advertsing could never make individuals buy what they don’t want(Kazmi and Satish 47).some of the respondents also stated that find it so immature for some advertisers to try and give false information about their competitors product just to beat them in the market, they say this even makes them to go for the products of the competitor leaving their advertiser with the financial loss that was initially intended for the competitor.
Most advertisers, as noted by the respondents, have failed to be straight-forward with the consumers, for example, when advertising a product, they fail to mention the side effects of those products especially for health and beauty products some even talk of imaginary long-lasting period yet when bought, they don’t last long before going bad. And consumers who found this out for themselves have never gone to buy the same products.
Business executives interviewed have also stated their views on this unethical advertisement; they said this can lead to bad business practices as most advertisement mainly focuses on the weaknesses of the other products or services of the competing business. This lead to an invisible war that can lead to one firm closing down because of the bad practices applied by other business in advertisement.
It is not easy to draw the line between ethical and unethical advertising as these keep changing with time, but advertisers should always try and ensure that they maintain ethical and moral standards in advertising. Advertisers should first of all do market research to understand their potential clients’ behaviors before doing any advertisement and should focus on the areas that will promote the general welfare of the people (Tyagi and Kumar 382). People involved in advertisement should all strive to work efficiently and gain the skills in advertisement that are in tune with the demands of time but should never forget that the main aim of advertising is to enable a business to let consumers be aware of his services or products. The advertisers should also strive to remain honest in their process of advertising (for example in cases of products with side effects); advertisement should not be misleading (Gorcum 152). They should also employ the practice of healthy completion. And lastly, the advertiser’s creativity should not blind him from the norms and traditions of a society and therefore ensure that the contents of the advertisement will uphold morality in our society
D. A. De Vaus, Research Design in Social Research. London: SAGE publishers.2005.Print
C.L. Tyagi, Arun Kumar Advertising Management. New Delhi. Atlantic publishers. 2004. Print
S H H Kazmi, Satish K Batra, Advertising and Sales Promotion 2008, New Delhi. Anurag Jain publishers.2008.Print
Van Gorcum, Ethics & Business. Ronald Jeurissen (Eds.). Netherlands: Royal Gorcum. 2007. Print
Privacy on the Web
Privacy is a situation whereby an individual can work on his or her information in seclusion and without interference in one way or the other from third party. Privacy may also insinuate anonymity especially if a person wants to access a system or website without being identified. However, data experts have revealed that in all these issues and situations, invasion of privacy is protected under privacy laws (Craig & Ludloff 32). Internet and the web host a lot of information and because of this; many information privacy issues have been raised. It has been established that the vast information present on the web warrants security requirements because unauthorized or malicious use of information is undesirable (Edney & Arbaugh 24). Privacy on the web mainly relates to data, information privacy and the relationship that exists between technology use and legal rights it appertains. Therefore, web privacy is the control that one has over his or her data and what is likely to be disclosed.
New Issues or Problems
Web privacy is a murky and complicated issue that has posed several challenges to people from all walks of life. Today, most of life activities and business ventures revolve around online data access and transfer. Considering conflicting interests and misinformation associated with online data processing, many peoples have suffered in one way or the other. For instance, a 20-year-old woman was stalked through the internet and later killed in Seattle in 2013. Moreover, many businesses operating through e-commerce have often been locked in strange stalemates especially if interests are conflicting. Privacy of individual or business data over the web is important because many customers have watched their credit numbers sold or stolen for criminal gains.
Complicated privacy issues have involved criminals who steal information from different websites and use such data for personal gain. Many advertising firms that have in most cases gained from personal information have neglected or assumed complains from their esteemed customers. Data experts have confirmed that there are many people tracking individual movements online, this has brought into the mix many players due to the importance and lucrative nature of personal data (Gellman & Pam 77). Many customers do not always know what goes on over the internet and web with most advertising firms mining a lot of data which are later used for selfish gains. Workers have been reprimanded or even lost their jobs in respect to what they post or comment online. For instance, many employees have often been warned not to post information on social networks and chat-groups that may be visible to current of future bosses.
Privacy over the web has tarnished and poked holes on the morality of hacking. Originally, ethical hacking was an important aspect of organizational safety because information specialists could use to uncover or detect flaws and vulnerabilities that exist in organization’s private network. Such vulnerabilities would then be fixed to ensure continuity and improved services. This is not the case currently because surveys have established that many security researchers have been threatened with indictment for their efforts to expose vulnerabilities in internet and web infrastructure (Lee 14). Consequently, most countries across the world have outlawed hacking as they try to protect privacy of their citizens. However, information technologists believe that cyber-crime laws should take into account ethical hacking and the intention behind such ventures and not the act itself (Lee 22). This is an emerging issue and trend where people use hacking as a way of enriching themselves through stealing money and valuable data used for blackmail. It is important for companies to protect their data and encourage their technologists to effectively detect flaws and fix them appropriately to stop data theft.
Moreover, privacy on the web has raised a new problem called the creep factor. Today, threats to privacy and data theft does not emanate from criminals but from people who are willing to give up their personal data daily through social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Google. Surveys have confirmed that data people give up daily raises many public concerns on how such data is used by social networking companies (Whitman & Herbert 65). For instance, Facebook has been on the forefront in holding vast data about million users and has created the perception and expectation of fair use and protection of privacy. However, in the past few years, users have raised concerns on their privacy in respect to sharing of private data on social sites with third parties and their applications. In addition, users have complained about confusing privacy settings that effectively prevent them from protecting their own privacy over the web. Consequently, users have often complained of bugs that allow third parties to invade their privacy including the ability to post comment to any other user’s wall in Facebook. Hence, creep factor is a social problem that can demonstrate how companies use private data ethically; they must be clear on data use and invasion of privacy and prove that doing so is legal.
Improvements or Solutions to the Problems
Technology based solutions should be put in place to target individual privacy through protection of data stored in personal computers, protection of email system and hiding real identities of users using the web. It is worth pointing that once the identities of users are hidden through network infrastructure most of the people cannot be stalked. It also protects businesses conducting their transactions online from malicious activities. Moreover, a company can protect its users and data from criminals through installations of impeccable firewall which apart from preventing intrusion, manages and monitors network servers for any malicious behavior.
Regulation based solutions may also come in hand in ensuring privacy of users by guaranteeing to them data privacy. These may be in form of mandatory regulations aimed at protecting user privacy over the web. Moreover, many organizations without regulations have always recommended self-regulations which are anchored on self-discipline approach to ensuring safety of data and protection of identities online. For instance, an organization may post privacy statements on their websites to enlighten users on their privacy and how they can ensure their identities and data are safe while on the internet.
Social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter and Google have opened the avenue through which people can post and share literally everything. This has posed a serious privacy issues and as a result requires bold measures to protect users online. Significantly, such sites should ensure that they provide privacy provisions in their settings to allow users to set their privacy to the highest level and thus make it harder for attackers to access personal information. Moreover, companies owning social sites should effectively prevent third party applications and services from accessing private data that may be used by cybercriminals. It has been revealed that they can also enlighten users on online privacy to allow users to rethink their online habits regularly as they use such websites (Salomon 44).
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