Research Proposal Essay on Establishing a Primary Healthcare Facility and Wellness Programs at Workplaces
Establishing a Primary Healthcare Facility and Wellness Programs at Workplaces
A daunting challenge in the success of firms against their main objective of maximization on production that result to higher profitability in many occasion has been link to employees health status. Many firms have been greatly affected, ranging from closure to disruption of supply chains resulting from loss of lives of their valuable and highly dependable expertise. Rampant cases of employees’ absenteeism have also become a normal routine, which has led to interruptions of the processes for those firms that employ specialization and division of labor in their production levels. Several increased cost have accompanied these firms as they have to undertake new staffing and subsequently orientate new worker. This comes with many extra costs attached. Another costs associated with ill-health of employees is where such sick employees continue to remain on payroll but cannot render their services for the benefits of such firms.
Investing in health has become very difficult on an individual basis and subsequently affected the several economies as more funds are diverted into curative purposes. The resulting situation has been a stagnant economic growth and developments as the firms productivities are impaired by the higher frequencies of death as well as absenteeism of the workforce. Teamwork on the hand has greatly faced a bigger challenge due to continuous exit and entry of new staffs and therefore, lack of good rapport and mutual understanding among the workers. There is, therefore, an urgent need for firms to collectively appreciate the need to protect their employees from frequent ill-health by installation of primary care services at the workplaces. This being a proactive strategy, will help eliminate the cases of ill health as preventive has more pros than curative. This paper is thus erected on the premise that firms need to start primary care services at workplace, which will help reduce cases of diseases, which will help deal with such disorders if any, at earlier stages, which reduces cost of curative in terms of time, cost as well as Medicare cost.
Statement of the Problem
Despite the current efforts and policies that have been put in place by the government to improve the health status of many employees, very little positive impact has been felt as there are still frequent cases of absenteeism at workplace which has greatly interrupted the supply chain. These policies have not been seen to directly link to the workplaces and employees still find it very hard moving up to hospitals to seek for curative drugs at higher cost which could be prevented by taking proactive preventive measures. The lack of wellness programs within the firm has made many employees to suffer without receiving the necessary counselling services and they thus remain conservative with such challenges which is shared at these facilities would help such employees solve such challenges and would remain active to perform their duties without persistent cases of stress.
- What are the causes of rampant disruptions in the supply chain at the workplaces?
- What are the advantages of carrying out preventive care as opposed to curative care on employees?
- What is the relationship between the employees’ productivity and their health status?
- What are the causes of difference in the rate of performance of firms in same industries?
The aim of this project is to enhance wellness programs of the firms as well as enabling the physicians to create awareness on strategies to prevent the rising cases of diseases among the workforce. The project aims at receiving the following benefits;
- Increased physical activities of the employees leading to increased productivity
- Reduction on the cases of drug and substances abuse among the employees include smoking cessation that leads to heath stock deterioration lowering a worker’s productivity
- Initial identification of diabetes among the workforce and its immediate management
- Reducing cases of risks associated with the cardiovascular disorders
- Improvement of the health outcomes for workers and the minimization of treatment costs
Increasing firm’s productivity by transforming employee’s health is a strategic plan initiated through establishing healthcare and wellness programs as well as providing primary preventive healthcare services at the workplace.
- To establish the linkage between the firms productivity and the health status of its employees
- To determine the causes of interruption in the of the supply chain of many firms.
- To determine the benefits of investment in the primary healthcare at the workplaces
- To determine the cons associated with the seeking for curative medical services as opposed to preventive care services.
The Theoretical Position
Quad-Med: transforming employees’ health through Wellness Programs
This is a study that was conducted based on the available data and independent reported data that were collected from the case study institution. This study was sponsored by the Commonwealth Fund with an objective of finding out the institutions that have established some actions that have enabled them to highly perform in some specific fields of concern by employing innovations designed in a manner to attain higher performance, and to also adopt attributes which foster meaningful performance. An initially Wisconsin specialized in printing firm known as Quad/Graphics changed to an investor in the production of an employee health and productivity from an earlier mode of being a buyer of insurance policy covers in health sector. This was done by establishment of health clinics at the workplaces with a primary objective of offering wellness and a compressive care for the employees. The management of the clinics was attached to subsidiary QuadMed was seen to be very effective as they were clients friendly as the primary priority was focused on the patients.
Quad-Med was operated on the basis of prevention of possible ill-health and was also seen to be centered on outcome and not production oriented. The ample time given to the physicians to examine their client played a major role as the physician could take up to 30 minutes talking to their patients. The result of this was felt positively as was reflected in the enhanced company wellness programs as well as enabling physician to create awareness on ways to prevent the cases of diseases from arising. The benefits received as a result increased physical activities of the employees, smoking cessation initial identification and management of diabetes, reduced cases of risks associated with cardiovascular disorders. This has enabled the improvement in health outcomes for employees and has minimized the cost as diseases have been prevented by the Company’s health model.
The productivity of the company is thus increased and ensures constant supply of outputs in to the market leading to economic growth. Employees’ levels of productivity is in essence directly linked to their health status. As brought in the theoretical position, it is quite evident that opening the primary healthcare has made several benefits to employees themselves as well as the firm. To the firm we realize that productivity increased due to minimal cases of ill-health and even the cessation of smoking which would then see each worker remaining present and upright for rational decision making which work to the benefit of the firm. To the employee’s earlier realization of diseases enabled them control such disorders as well as reduce the cost for their treatment. They also benefit from good health, which made them work and earned their income on a constant basis.
The purpose of the project is to establish a primary healthcare facility as a well as wellness initiatives at workplace. This will be located within each and every firm and will receive the employees of a particular firm. The services to be rendered will include frequent diagnosis of the employees for possible realization of any disorder, consultative services, counseling and guidance, treatment of diseases, offering preventive care among the employees as well as creation of awareness among the employees on the need to remain healthy by investing in health. There would be several physicians attached to these facilities, which means there would be more time of about 50 minutes to talk to the employees in consultation rooms, as would help prevent any diseases that might still be in the earlier stages and possible preventive measure and curative measure would be issued to such employees.
On a wider perspective, a bigger percentage of correlation exists between the employees productivity in the health status. A daunting challenge has persistently faced many firms creating a major barrier on the firm’s ability to meet its goal arising from fluctuations of production levels resulting from the poor health status of the workforce. There is a direct linkage between the ability of the worker to constantly present herself to the workplace and the health status of such individual. Cases of ill health have in most cases derailed the economic growth in many states as a result of rampant absenteeism at the workplace and associated risks arising from the abuse of drugs by the employees, which has led to higher risk attached to the cardiovascular disorders. There is associated reduction in physical activities of employees who have people with health stock as employees engage in activities such as smoking and with little actions to reciprocate by investing in health.
The previous research conducted in the field of health has not been implemented. There is an urgent need to view healthcare as an economic good, which is scarce and hence massive investment in healthcare is required. Proactive strategies to eliminate the rampant frequencies of ill-health should thus be developed accompanied by strict implementation. The health sectors stakeholders should be more transparent in terms of the management of funds that are allocated in the health ministries to eliminate the rampancy of corruption and misappropriation of such funds. Many professional employees have lost their lives due to filthy actions taken at the bedside in hospitals. This paper is the initial stage of our research development. Conducting the actual research and coming up with proper findings will help reduce cases of job absenteeism alongside creating basis for general industrial improvement.
Health status of the employees has greater impact on the ability of any firm to achieve its profitability objective. This study is in a direct linkage to unearthing best policies that when implemented would see the employees’ health status is not compromise and will remain active at all time and make rational decision that will be of greater interest to the firm. Improved health stock of employees through the preventive primary care will reduce cases of absenteeism, reduced cost that would be spent in treatment as well as the time cost for seeking medication. This study is thus relevant as it will ensure continuous supply change which will ensure elimination of equilibrium disturbance and thus supply will meet the effective demand and hence profitability at firm level as well as increased GDP.
This paper will examine the available evidence critically and will move a notch higher to reveal the current situational policies that are put in place to help increase the employees’ health. The paper will analyze the evidence and report to the policy maker in the health sector and in conjunction with firms the finding. This paper will critically try to be all inclusive to clearly at a glance reveal the vivid picture on the reasons as to why the study is of a greater importance to the firms and the state at large. Precaution is to be taken to ensure that every stone is turned and this is aimed at finding a permanent solution to this challenge.
The paper will appreciate the previous work done by other authors through conducting the literature review through which help us develop on the areas that have no fully been touched. The paper aims at amicably ensuring that once the employees are employed they are ready to perform their objectives without the unnecessary interruption arising from the cases of ill-health. The paper will finally presents a con concrete evidenced based policy document pegged on the good practice which will ensure that there is a continuous existence of the employees in the firm with reduced cases of ill-health which will minimize cases of absenteeism as well of loss of lives of very valuable expertise in an organization which hurts the economy as well as the firm’s ability to meet its objective.
The paper will involve collection of both primary and secondary data sources. The primary data collection methods as well as the secondary data collection methods will be applied. Primary data will be aided by the methods such as Questionnaires, Oral Interviews as well as Observation Methods. The secondary data record will be obtained from the already passed records both in the firm as well as the hospital on the number of employees have been admitted in the last five months. This will also be found on the employee’s record books indicating the cases of ill-health related absenteeism cases. Random sampling will be used to identify 100 employees who will be interviewed to aid the research finding. These workers will be subjected to indecent questioning either orally or issuance of the questionnaires. A further 10 departmental managers each from the firm and the healthcare sector will be issued with questionnaires and their responses taken for analysis.
Precaution will be taken to ensure that the responses from each interviewee or the respondents remains confidential and not be shared which might stigmatize the respondent. This will help the respondent have confidence in freely talking about their health status as well as the challenges faced due to lack of a primary healthcare facilities at the workplaces. Associated risks during the conducting of interviews such as language barriers as well as other respondents failing to give true accounts of their impediments will be considered during the conducting of the interviews by ensuring good rapport is built between the researcher and his respondents. Risk such as fear of the unknown place will also be taken into consideration by a researcher carrying out the reconnaissance that will help the researcher is fully familiarized with the targeted population as well as the area under study. This will help the researcher meet his objective of collecting the necessary data that is required to draw a rational policy which reflects the real state of affairs.
The data collection will be conducted in three phases but within a time frame of 9 days for the three phases. The initial stage of the study will be centered on the healthcare sector. In this phase data will be collected in regard to the number of the known primary healthcare facilities that are operational at the workplaces. This phase will also help the researches collect the data on the possible diseases and disorders that have been reported to be associated with the conditions at the workplaces. In this phase, 10 respondents from different healthcare units not at workplaces will be interviewed with an aim of unearthing the frequencies of employees visiting such services and the cost associated with such long distance travel and the duration a sick employee will take to be attended to before resuming to his work.
This phase will specifically take a time span of three days. The next phase of the data collection will be focus on the available operational healthcare facilities at the workplace. Only one of the identified workplace healthcare facilities will be marked for interview. Here the main aim will be to conduct the interview involving 40 employees to assist compare the benefit of such facilities against the workplaces that do not have the facilities. Several questions including the rate of absenteeism, cases of ill-health, costs of such services and the general conditions of the employees will be questioned. To the firm management 5 departmental managers will be interviewed to tell about the cost of production and the productivity in regard to the adoption of such primary healthcare facility. This phase will have 2 day attached to it to collect the necessary data.
The final phase will be accorded 4 days of the data collection and will involve a representation of the workplaces without the primary healthcare facilities. Here 50 employees will be subjected to interviews. The same questions asked at the workplace with the facility will still be relevant and will thus be asked. Additional questions such as the difficulties faced as a result of lack of the facility within the premise will be asked. This will help in drawing the comparison against the pros of a firm with such facilities. After the conclusion of data collection, there will be data compilation. The compilation of the data will take three days. This will involve putting together all the data that has been collected from the field in readiness for the analysis and report compilation. This will involve censoring data and then completing the questionnaires as per the requirement of the proposed policy. In so doing the researcher will be able to have his data ready for the final research paper.
The collection of data will be followed by the subsequent analysis of the data. This will reveal the need to establish these facilities at workplaces. This will ensure that the frequent cases of diseases affecting the company workers will be eliminate via the preventive measures. The employee’s productivity will thus rise as a healthier work is able to put more effort and dedicate much of his time in his work. This will translates to increased firm output at a least cost resulting to achievement of the firm’s profitability objective. At the national level, this will have a multiplier effect on income earned resulting into increased GDP. This increased income will thus be used by the government to develop its sectorial services through the production of the public goods which then comes back to the populace to benefit. At the firm level, this has enabled the improvement in health outcomes for employees and has minimized the cost as diseases have been prevented by the Company’s health model. This has made it easier for the continuous supply of the firms’ product into the market hence ensuring stable equilibrium, this works to the benefit of the consumers as prices remain stable and hence they are able to maximize their utility thorough the choice of bundles which satisfy the needs with the initial budget line as consumers are seen to be utility maximizers and would prefer more to less
Comparison between New York and Paris Cities
I spent the better part of my childhood in New York City and I understand the architectural design, culture, and the people living in New York. I have had the privilege to travel to various destinations across the world with my family but one iconic city really caught my attention. Paris is the French capital, rich in culture. Although at a glance a visitor from New York City may spot similarities in the two different cities in terms of advanced infrastructure and development, the cities are quite distinct in several ways.
The first day I got to Paris was a working day but unlike New York where people seem to have mastered the art of speed walking, people seemed more relaxed. In New York City, people seem to rush to work and have no rest day in particular which is quite contrary to Paris city where a greater percentage works during working hours only. Generally, New York City is a more busy and speed city with no particular work or non-work time. For instance, the twenty four hour subway operation that is ever busy all throughout is something that sets it apart from Paris where schedules are strictly followed.
The two cities have distinct culture and view on wealth creation. One thing I came to learn about Paris is that wealthy people are kind of secret unlike in New York City where people show off by some kind of lifestyle. For instance, in New York City, an individual usually strive to be identified with some kind of class in the society by driving Porsche cars living in the high end estates. This in turn results to the go getter culture most New Yorkers have compared to their counterparts living in Paris. Food culture also sets the two cities apart. For instance, in New York, coffee is served in a big tumbler unlike Paris where coffee is served in small cups. Moreover, people living in New York seem to have adopted the fast food culture more than the Parisians. In New York, you will spot most people with paper coffee and food wraps in the streets unlike in Paris where most people choose to sit somewhere in a restaurant and eat while chatting with friends or reading newspapers.
Although the two cities are distinct in several ways, there exist a few similarities between the two. One major similarity is that both the cities have excellent infrastructure and advanced technology. Both the cities’ streets are well designed with recreation parks at strategic places within the cities. The cities plan and lighting also seem to be similar to each other. In addition, both the cities have iconic landmarks that are unique to the countries’ history and culture. The weather in New York is relatively the same as in Paris city and adjusting may not be a problem when one moves from New York to Paris or vice versa.
In conclusion, the two cities are all amazing with their diverse culture, architectural design, and the resident’s attitudes. Work culture, lifestyle, food culture all set the two iconic cities apart. However, it terms of technological advancement and infrastructure, the two cities seem to be at the same level. Both the cities have their own advantages and disadvantages based on the few similarities and complicated differences discussed.
The Samnite Wars refer to the three major armed conflicts between the Samnites or the Samnium tribes and the Romans. These wars were fought from 343 to 290 BC. The Roman Republic was fighting to take Italy’s control. These wars involved almost all Italy states and in the end, the Roman Republic dominated over the Samnites. Samnites controlled the Apennines towards the Latium’s southeast and they were among the earliest formidable rivals of Rome. Regardless of the many setbacks encountered, each of these wars ended in terms that increased the power of Rome and Rome took control of the entire central Italy by the time the third Samnite War ended.
Cause of the Samnite Wars
Rome survived Celtic Gauls’ invasion at the beginning of the 4th century BC. Therefore, it aimed at expanding its middle party further this century. Rome re-conquered Etruscan and Latin towns that were left during the occupation of Gallic and while absorbing others, its position was reconsolidated as a dominant force in Central Italy and Latium. Having a secured home turf, the Romans ventured southwards to Campania.
By this time, Samnites had already moved to Campania where there were fertile lands from their initial place in south central Apennines. Samnites were controlling Cumae and Capua towns in Southern Rome. They were also swaying to the east. In order to protect the flanks and still retake Etruria and Latium, Rome entered a joint alliance with Samnites in a wise move in 354 BC. This led to an inevitable conflict with the Samnium over the dominance of Campania. Eventually, this turned into several wars that lasted from 343 to 290 BC.
Events of the wars and how they were ended
- First Samnite war
The first Samnite war was fought between 343 and 338 B.C and it entailed a brief conflict after the Campania plain dwellers requested assistance of the Rome in fending off attacks by highland neighbors. This war ended with a revolt of the Latin allies of Rome and it was resolved with a Battle of Vesuvis. Campania and the Capua chief city became a protectorate of the Roman republic.
- Second Samnite War
This was the longest of the three wars and it was fiercely fought between 326 and 304 B.C. It lasted for more than 20 years during which the Roman army was captured by the Samnites for some years in what was called the Caudine Forks defile. Rather than killing the army, the Samnits released them so that Rome could give them favorable terms. The Romans were infuriated and humiliated and they resorted to hostilities that lasted for 5 years. The war continued, alternating between the samnite victories like the Lautulae victory and the Roman victories like the Ciuna victory. This was an attrition war though most suffering was felt by the Samnites. On failing to relieve the Bovianum siege, they sought peace.
- Third Samnite war
The peace that ended the second samnite war lasted for a few years. As of 298, the Samnite had formed an alliance with the Gauls and Etruscans in the Northern Italy in order to defeat the Romans. The fighting started disastrously because the Roman army routed at the Camerinum battle. Shortly, Rome established four legions in order to meet Samnites and their allies, the Gallic, in the colossal Sentinum battle. This ended in a decisive Roman victory with the Samnite side suffering heavy losses. Although this time the Samnite did not seek peace, they could make a feeble resistance. During the last battle of Apalonia, the camp of the Samnite was looted, their warriors killed and city taken. Finally, the persistent foes of Rome accepted peace when it was offered to them bringing the wars to an end. The third war was fought between 298 and 290 B.C.
Effects of the Samnite wars
Although the actual number of the casualties of these wars is not known, the wars were significant because they helped in the establishment of Rome as the Italy’s supreme power.
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After the conclusion of Samnite War , Pyrrhic war began when all of central Italy was put under Roman control. Roman territories were brought closer to Magna Graecia cities in Northern Italy, bringing about conflicting interests and subsequent fights.
An overview of Pyrrhic War
The pyrrhic war began shortly after the end of Samite wars with the Lucians and Brattain’s fighting in the early 3rd century BC. The continued attacks on Greek colonies did not deter them from appealing to Roman regional power for assistance. At that moment, the City of Magna Graecia, Tarentum was the most powerful.
The city of Magna Graecia and Tarentum signed a treaty with Rome clearly stating that it would not send any of her troops into the Gulf of Taranto. This situation led conflicts between Rome and Tarentum because the former started interfering with the affairs of Greek colonies in Southern Italy.
Soon, other states in Magna Graecia including Croton, Locris and Rhegum asked for Rome’s support in their struggles with their neighbors. Rome sent a troop to garrison town of Thurri in 282 BC since it had been attacked by Lucania. Tarentum saw this as a hostile act and responded by sinking the fleet and expelling roman troops from Thurii.
The city and states of Magna Graecia had sought help from mercenary kings during their struggles but now, Tarentum sought assistance from King Pyrrhus of Epirus, on the Greek Peninsula across the Adriatic Sea from southern Italy. Pyrrhus landed in Italy with 25, 000 men and twenty war elephants in 280 BC. His first move against the Romans took place at Heraclea, small coastal town.
Pyrrhic War first and second engagement
The first engagement of the war took place at Heraclea, a small coastal town. The romans had 50,000 thousand troops who drove to the Lucanian territory to prevent them from aligning with Pyrrhus. Romans technically lost at the battle at the small coastal town, Heraclea and Pyrrhus lost a large number of troops. The pattern became quite common during the fight between Pyrrhus and Romans. Despite winning main engagements, Pyrrhus could no longer keep up with the war without support.
After marching to northern parts of Latium, Pyrrhus was not happy with the domination of Romans. He hoped that many cities would join his cause. He misjudged the situation because Roman military alliances were more stable. Roman rule was evident as many states enjoyed roman protection. Leaders of the states also enjoyed their positions under the leadership of the romans. However, only a few Lucanians and Samnite’s sided with Pyrrhus.
This led to the second engagement took place at the battle of Ausculum. It took two days with massive fights between ancient armies. The Romans were led by Publious Dentius Mus and used the terrain of the area to their advantage thus, reducing the effect of the elephants and Epirote Calvary. The first day was a virtual draw and the second day of the fight was a stalemate. At the end of the battle, more than 6000 Romans and 3, 5OO Epirotes died. Pyrrhus was left in the command of the field. It was the results of this fight that was considered the Pyrrhic victory.
Pyrrhus upon receiving the congratulatory message said ‘’ that one other such victory, would utterly undo him’’. He acknowledged the costly victories and thought of signing peace treaties to Rome with no success and he remained in Italy. Appius Claudius who built the Appian Way refused the negotiations calling for the freedom of Tarentum and her allies.
Pyrrhus went to Sicily in 278 BC, aided the Greek city against Carthage and became quite victorious. Rome formed alliances with Carthage against Pyrrhus and later on, Rome’s interest became conflicts. Pyrrhus in 275 BC went back to Italy, faced the romans in Southern Italy, town of Malventum and was defeated. With the victory of him, Pyrrhus left Italy for good and went to Green mainland.
Results of the war
Pyrrhus lost in the war, more than a third of his army died in the fight and there was little to show for his efforts. Two years later, he died in a street battle in Argos.
Tarentum which was the third significant Greek city in the state of Italy finally accepted to sign an alliance with Rome in 272 BC. Rome became the mistress of the entire southern and central Italy.
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SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc.
SWOT analysis of GAP is an effective method that the company applies in determining its ability to survive in the market, while also growing revenue base. GAP Inc. is a leading world-wide retailer that deals in clothing, accessories and personal care products for the whole family. It operates six globally recognized brands including, Old Navy, Banana Republic, Gap, Intermix, Athleta and Piperlime. GAP has several more than 3,200 stores across the world and also operates an e-commerce website from where customers can get products information and do their shopping.
What is SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc?
A SWOT analysis of GAP Inc. basically explores the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the clothing giant, with regards to the global market which targets. By determining the company’s strengths and opportunities, the management will be able to come up with measures on where emphasis is required for continued success.
The weaknesses and threats of a business are indicators of failure and by knowing them, the company can easily make decisions and plans for eliminating mistakes and avoiding losses in the future. The following is a comprehensive SWOT analysis of GAP Inc.
With the six brands that it operates globally, GAP has been able to attain a strong product portfolio and brand recognition. Coupled with its wide range of products that target the whole family, GAP Inc. enjoys global customer recognition and loyalty.
Its’ presence over a wider geographical area is also another strength that has made several people across the globe to identify with the company’s products.
Because of the global reach of GAP Inc. the business is able to record a high inventory turnover ratio. In fact, this is one of the main reasons the company commands a strong financial position in the market.
GAP Inc’s dedicated section for baby products is also another feature that has kept the business afloat since such products are always in demand even when the market is not doing well.
Despite the global customer base that GAP Inc. has, the company heavily relies on vendors from outside to sell its products. This is an area of weakness since such vendors are susceptible to various kinds of mistakes that may hinder the successful operations of the company.
The high competition in the apparel and accessories industry is also another point of weakness since it implies many customers are learning of new brands that could shift their buying trends. Besides, it also limits the market share of the company.
GAP has not fully focused onto penetrating the emerging economy markets and this has limited its ability for expansion and revenue growth.
One of the opportunities that GAP Inc. can exploit is the emerging markets in Asia and Europe. These markets present an ideal platform for expansion and profitability.
The growing use of technology in business is also another opportunity. Through effective online campaigns and shopping, the company can easily attract new customers for its products and brands across the globe.
Considering the good performance of GAP Inc. in operating six major brands is proof that it can still form franchise units and joint ventures with other companies in the industry for greater development.
The readily available market for kids’ apparel and products is also another opportunity that the company can fully explore for maximum profits.
The clothing and accessories market is experiencing a very stiff completion between various brands, offering more fashionable products at better prices than GAP Inc.
The rapid change in fashion trends is also another threat that the company has to plan on how to handle.
Counterfeits is yet another issue that is threatening the existence and success of businesses today.
Another threat is the increased production and operational costs, which could water down profits.
Conclusion on SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc.
According to this SWOT analysis of GAP Inc., the company is strong enough to withstand market forces considering its wide selection of products and brand portfolio, which have ensured global recognition, loyalty and financial power. However, it still needs to focus on international expansion into the emerging economies and intensifying its online presence. Besides, GAP Inc. also needs to consider the shifting fashion trends in order to meet customer needs.
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When, How and Where to Find a Sample of a Good Critique
Critique writing can sometimes be demanding and tedious. Unlike other general academic essays, your critique should be a detailed analysis of an author’s work, explaining why and how you reached a particular conclusion. To achieve this, you must convince your audience that you did your assignment and understand the text in all aspects. This task therefore poses a challenge to many students, who do not understand the basics of writing a standard critique. How do you overcome this? You must have in mind a place where to find a sample of a good critique whenever need arises. Today, the turning to the web is always the first thing to click whenever an assignment comes knocking.
While the internet offers a wide range of homework solutions, it also has far-reaching challenges. This manual covers the following areas:
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Things to remember when looking for where to find a sample of a good critique
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Finding a good sample Critique for your assignment
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Ideas to help you choose where to find a sample of a good critique
If you are working on your critique assignment, then you need a reliable writing partner to help you develop a goo paper that will appease your professor and guarantee you a good grade. However, here are the challenges you are likely to face as you look for a good sample essay from the web. These bottlenecks should give you more wisdom to help you choose where to find a sample of a good critique.
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Do you want to look at some of sample critiques? The following examples will help you make up your mind on where to find a sample of a good critique. Here we go…
Example #2: Good Sample Critiques
Tips on where to find a sample of a good critique
One reason why you will not like writing critiques is that they are demanding. To come up with a convincing critique, it takes time, research, commitment and hard work. For this reason, you must find a source of encouragement to help you complete your assignment without sleepless nights. Who then can help you complete your critique?
In this section, you will discover ways of completing your assignments by making use of the people around you.
Who can help you get a good critique sample?
Your professor – Your lecturer understands the assignment at hand. Do not be afraid to approach him or her and ask for further direction on the task. Go ahead and ask if there are archival, sample critiques to assist you develop an excellent paper.
Your classmates – Do no ignore your classmates and friends when handling written assignments. Engage in group discussions to understand the title better. Such discussions are important during brainstorming, as you will more insights and angles on the subject matter. Remember that a friend could be having a better understanding of the assignment.
Visit the library – Probably as your figure out where to find a sample of a good critique, the library should come first in your mind. Visit your college library and ask the librarian to help you locate some of the critiques available. This can be a good starting point that will cost you nothing.
Go to the net – Make a date with Google and search for sample critiques. The internet will give you numerous options. However, as you make use of the internet, remember the risks we discussed in the above section. Surf the net to gain general knowledge on the topic.
Online tricks that work:
- Avoid Wikipedia – Do not cite Wikipedia as an online source. This open source is unreliable since anyone can publish information on the site.
- Avoid dotcom domain – Websites with .com domain are highly commercial and less authentic.
- Consider .net and .org websites – These are mainly non-profit making organizations with reliable research information.
- Choose government and university sites – Government sites like .gov are more reliable. Top universities also have effective and trusted websites to help students complete their academic assignments.
Here are some top libraries to consider as you look for where to find a sample of a good critique.
Example #3: Top Libraries
- Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Canada
- New York Public Library, New York
- Seattle Central Library, Seattle, WA
- The Morgan Library & Museum, NY, USA
With this guide, you can now maneuver and find excellent critiques and other academic papers for your written assignments. Let us know how it goes. Good luck.
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PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
The Home Depot is an American private listed company. It is one of the leading retailers in the United States, specializing in a wide range of products and services. The Home Depot’s main segments are home improvement products and construction equipment. Its product line are building materials and guarding equipment coupled with related products and services. The chain has more than 2,000 stores operating in the US and in other parts of the world. The firma embraces a range of practices to adjust to emerging market trends and cutthroat competition in the industry. This PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot shows how political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors affect the operations of the company and its future.
Politics in PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
For The Home Depot to experience business growth and maintain good relationships with the political class, the firm takes part in a range of activities and initiatives. This safeguards its interests and those of its customers. This is necessary because the decisions by the local, federal or state governments can have far-reaching effects on the profitability of the company.
The Home Depot complies with government regulations and makes political contributions and interactions. In addition, the company allows its employees to participate in politics as long as they do not use it resources to pursue their ambitions. Through the Home Depot Political Action Committee, PAC, the firm offers financial support to politicians who back the retailer and its business line.
Economic environment at the Home Depot
PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot affirms that the company thrives because of a stable economic environment. With the US economy showing signs of stability, the company remains optimistic to scale profitable heights in future. The fate of the Home Depot therefore depends on economic conditions in the United States.
Importantly, many Americans today have limited purchasing power because of economic down town. Potential customers therefore prioritize other products, which are more essential than Home Depot’s collection. This is causing the market to shrink and cause harm to its business associates too.
Social factors in PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
Besides making profits and improving its annual revenues, the company also believes in improving the welfare of the communities within its neighborhood. For example, it runs societal programs to promote education, healthy work practices and assurance of job opportunities to people.
PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot further illustrates how the firm values CSR. Through its Home Depot foundation, the chain has invested huge amounts of its resources in improving the living standards of people by delivering affordable options to a better life. It also works towards having a safe and healthy working environment.
In alleviating the lives of communities within its reach, The Home Depot focuses on four different areas, including building and maintaining playgrounds for children, safeguarding community-gathering venues, constructing affordable transitional housing and emergency preparedness.
How Technology is changing The Home Depot Business
The Home Depot is on the forefront in keeping pace with emerging technological trends in the market. This is because of the enormous role of information technology in driving any business. In recent years, the company has invested in state of the art systems and equipment to facilitate its staff and enhance smooth business operations. This is expected to augment customer satisfaction.
The Hope Depot has acquired electronic devices at a cost of $60 million to counter competition from key players in the market like Lowe, which has used wireless technology in its stores since 1995.
Environmental Factors – From this PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot, the company is committed to having a safe environment by cutting down on carbon emissions into the atmosphere. To achieve this, the organization offer conservation minded and products that are environmentally friendly to its customers. In the end, the company seeks to offer green products to all its customers.
Legal Factors – The company complies with a range of rules imposed by local and international governments, governing food production, manufacturing, safety and packaging among others. The firm also observes laws that govern disposal of waste to the environment in order to mitigate environmental pollution. Lastly, it works towards addressing health and safety of its staff.
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How to Write an Expository Essay
As a student, you should know how to write an expository essay because teachers and professors ask students to write expository essays for different courses in college. Among the courses that involve expository essay writing include English, social sciences and history. An expository essay is an essay that explains a given concept, investigates a specific idea or presents evidence for a specific opinion.
Most exams and in-class assignments entail the use of the format of expository essays. This is because this essay uses a style that does not entail deep research. While developing an expository essay, you can use different patterns to organize it depending on the writing prompt, topic or assignment. Example of an expository essay is an essay in which the prompt requires the student to study and analyze a given work, expose or explain a topic or describe a given process.
What you should know even before knowing how to write an expository essay
An expository essay has certain characteristics that distinguish it from other essays.
- An expository essay is written to describe, inform or explain
- The writer of an expository essay acts like a teacher
- This essay presents information on the chosen topic exhaustively
- It is written in third person
A guide on how to write an expository essay in six steps
Step One: Organize your thoughts
Once the instructor, teacher or professor has given you the expository essay writing prompt or assignment, the first thing that you should do is to read it carefully and organize your thoughts. You will most probably have something to say about any topic that the instructor assigns you. Even if you do not know much about the assigned subject matter, you will realize that there is something you have read, heard or experienced about it. It is important that you brainstorm or consider what you already know about the topic. This will enable you to sort out your mind before you start writing.
To organize your thoughts, you can do one of the following:
- Free write: This entails writing what comes from your mind quickly without editing, stopping or self-correcting.
- List clustering: This entails allowing ideas to flow freely on the topic. The main topic is at the center of a circle with its associations linked to it.
- Subject tree: This involves a tree form in which the related ideas are connected to the main topic.
- Outlining: This entails the use of an essay framework in which the main points are included and sub-points’ breakdown.
While organizing thoughts, do not evaluate your ideas but outpour ideas on what you already know about the topic. With ideas on a paper, organize them into groups of ideas then identify the most important areas.
Step Two: Research the topic
At this step, you can conduct online research or visit a library. Conduct a research of current events but be careful to adhere to the time frames set by your instructor. Use acceptable sources such as books, scholarly articles and reference works. If you use a web site as a source, evaluate it first for reputability and timeliness. It is also important that you consider the purpose of a website, reliability of the sponsors and author’s credibility.
Step Three: Develop a thesis statement
To be effective, your thesis statement should express the major focus of your expository essay while stating an arguable claim. A thesis statement acts like a bridge of your essay. This is because it has a claim and its supporting details. Being able to develop a tentative thesis is an important step of a guide on how to write an expository essay. Therefore, come up with a claim or sentence that takes a stance on the given topic, debatable, and based on generalization. Ensure that your thesis statement tells readers the point that you will be making in the essay. Also include supporting details to reinforce your claim.
Claim: Depression as a condition is complex.
Supporting details: It can be caused by different factors including environmental, genetic and biological factors.
Thesis statement: Depression as a condition is complex because it can be caused by environmental, genetic and biological factors combined.
Step Four: Write the introduction
The introduction of your expository essay should reveal or introduce your topic while establishing a context for your essay to the readers. It is important that you consider your audience while writing the introduction. Make them excited or curious to read your essay. Give readers background information about your topic to enable them to understand the key point in your essay. Use the introduction to establish a roadmap for the analysis or discussion of the essay.
Step Five: Write the body
The body of an expository essay is a detailed part in which you present or address your supporting details in fully-developed, separate paragraphs. It is important that you include relevant information or evidence as gathered from research. Introduce the supporting details of your essay using a topic sentence to open each paragraph.
Generally, the body of an expository essay should have the following:
- A topic sentence
- Specific details and their explanation
- An example such as a quotation
- A transition paragraph that links one paragraph to the next
A good expository essay should have at least two body paragraphs with each having a minimum of 100 words.
Example of a topic sentence:
There are several factors which cause depression.
Step Six: Write the conclusion
The conclusion should bring your expository essay to a close. Though a conclusion ought to be like an introduction, it should be worded differently. Using the conclusion, you should summarize and reiterate your main points.
A good conclusion should have the following:
- Relevance: It should repeat the topic’s importance.
- Review: It should reiterate the main points of the essay.
- Summary: It should summarize the conclusions made in the essay.
Relevance: Thousands of women, children and men are affected by depression each year and majority of them do not get help.
Review: The focus of this essay was on causes, symptoms and the available depression treatments.
Summary: There are many devastating consequences of depression apart from its effects on the sufferers and those living with them. Through education however, people affected by this painful condition can be reached.
The conclusion should be like an introduction but it should restate the stated thesis statement using different words. Note that no new information should be included in the conclusion. Leave readers with a feeling that your expository essay has come to an end logically by wrapping up the main thoughts while reviewing the main points.
Five bonus tips on how to write an expository essay
- Structure your expository essay properly
Regardless of the pattern that you choose for organizing your expository essay, include an introduction that has a defined, clear thesis statement at the end. Have body paragraphs that cover your main points. Have a clear topic sentence for each body paragraph. Additionally, make sure that the information that you include in the body paragraphs is factual, statistical, anecdotal or logical. Finally, end your expository essay with a conclusion that reflects your thesis statement and main points of your body paragraphs. To know how to structure an expository essay, use an expository essay sample. Click here for an example of an expository essay.
- Write about something good
When allowed the freedom to choose the topic of your expository essay, choose something good. For instance, if you are required to write about a short story, read and understand before you start writing your expository essay. While reading, ask yourself questions that will enable you to understand the story better. For instance, what you would do if you were a character in the story? Do you like or hate the characters and why? Such questions will enable you to synthesize the story before you start writing.
- Make your essay informative
Remember that expository is the same as informative. Therefore, an important tip on how to write an expository essay is to flood readers with ideas or knowledge. However, make sure that they are relevant. Visit the library, read magazine and conduct online research to get detailed information. Be prudent and sensible while conducting research and reference your sources accordingly.
- Ensure that your brain is a roaring and seething idea-generator
Combine different techniques to generate ideas for your expository essay. Use graphical presentation and clustering to generate ideas. Ask meticulous questions and be self-inquisitive throughout the process of writing an essay.
- Revise your essay
Once you have written your essay, revise it and rewrite where necessary to ensure coherent flow of ideas and paragraphs. Make sure that each paragraph is developed properly with ideas flowing logically. Make sure that the main thesis statement is supported by the paragraphs of the body directly. The conclusion should match the essay.
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PESTEL Analysis of Sears Canada
A PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada indicates the numerous external factors that affect the operations of this company. These factors constitute the external environment within which this company operates. PESTEL analysis can be defined as a marketing principles’ concept that companies use in tracking the environment within which they operate. PESTEL analysis is very important when it comes to planning the launch of a new service, product or project.
Sears Canada is a retailer with headquarters in Toronto, Ontario. This company, established in 1952, offers consumers in Canada a wide range of shopping options with specialty and department stores. The operations of this company are in all territories and provinces in Canada with 167 networked corporate stores, 197 Hometown stores, 85 Sears Travel offices, 38 Home-improvement showrooms and a countrywide home maintenance, installation and repair network.
Comprehensive PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada
The political expenditure policy of this company allows it to engage in the process of political campaigns in electing candidates for political parties that the company believes they support the entire retail industry as well as believe in a system of free enterprise. Using corporate funds, the company contributes for the candidates at state level and in the political actions of committees at state retail association level. Such political activities have an impact on the operations of the company.
Since the global economic crisis of 2008, the economy of Canada has been experiencing recession. The consumers’ purchasing power, unemployment rate and outstanding credit quality has been affected by this economic downturn. As such, consumers are more careful when spending and this has led to unsatisfactory performance of Sears Canada and a decrease in its revenue to $4300.7 million in 2012 from $4613.9 million recorded in 2011.
Due to the economic crisis and its impact on the Canadian economy, Canadians have become more averse to risk especially as it is seen from their attitudes towards environmental and financial concerns. Canadians are also concerned about living cost and assets’ safety. These social factors affect the operations and performance of Sears Canada.
The internet is one of the major technological factors that affect the performance of Sears Canada. Online shopping is gaining increasing popularity among countries all over the world. Retailers are working very hard on online stores in order to give shoppers the best online shopping experiences. However, online spending in Canada has not reached optimum levels. This means that online market in Canada has a potential that Sears can exploit.
Canadians are concerned about environmental issues like environmental degradation and climate change. Although these factors are faced by people across the world, Sears Canada needs to know these factors because they influence the consumption habits of Canadians. Canadians look for environmental friendly and ethically sourced products. Sears Canada must be aware of this while marketing its products to Canadians.
There is a comprehensive legal system in Canada which includes a Competition Act, Canadian Tax Law and Labor Law. These government regulations and documents protect employers and workers’ rights while facilitating efficiency in business operations within Canada. Although to abide by this system a business must incur costs, Sears Canada must follow them in order to avoid confrontations with Canadian legal authorities which can damage its reputation and ruin its operations.
Why PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada is important
A PESTEL analysis of this company gives the management a bird’s eye view or insights into the entire environment within which this company operates from different angles. It is important for the management to consider these external environment factors in order to plan properly or to implement certain ideas. After conducting a PESTEL analysis, Sears Canada can come up with a more comprehensive or detailed SWOT analysis version.
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2008 Financial Crisis
The 2008 financial crisis is considered by many economists across the globe as the worst recession after the Great Depression of 1929-1930. It was a serious economic state despite efforts by the Treasury department and the Federal Reserve to prevent it and the US banking system from collapsing.
Due to the crisis, housing prices fell by 31.8percent more than that of the Great Depression. Two years after the 2008 financial crisis, the recession ended but the rate of unemployment was still high. Many people had given up looking for jobs and they were no longer counted amongst the jobless. The number was alarming.
What caused the 2008 financial crisis?
According to economists and researchers, signs of a financial crisis were evident from mid-2007. The first cause was linked to a fall in housing prices in 2006. Many realtors by 2006 were however relieved because, they thought housing prices and housing market would normally resume or rise to a sustainable level.
The realtors however failed to realize that many homeowners had a questionable credit rating. Many homeowners had loans for more than 100 percent of their home’s value. A large number of financial institutions and mortgage lenders had also resold mortgages in packages. This was part of mortgage backed securities.
Initially, Federal Reserve always thought a subprime crisis would affect other sectors but would always be isolated to housing market. However, financial institutions across different parts of the globe and hedge funds owned most homes in form of mutual funds, pension funds and corporate assets.
It is also good to note that original mortgages had been resold in pieces and the remaining actual derivatives were impossible to price. The value of the mortgages plummeted and investors across the globe started to panic.
Many pension funds institutions bought risky assets thinking that they would be protected from downsides risks. As a matter of fact, many owned insurance in the form of credit default swaps but it could not help to prevent the 2008 financial crisis.
After a short span of time, financial institutions began to panic. They realized that they were the only ones to absorb losses as a result of poor credit by many homeowners. No one wanted to be caught up in the crisis. Banks started to exercise caution and avoided lending money to each other. They tried to avoid situations where they could get stuck with worthless mortgages as their collateral. Inter-banking costs or interbank borrowing costs rose in the end aggregating the situation.
What was the cost of the 2008 financial crisis?
The Treasury department spent up to $150 billion to subsidize the economy and to finally take up Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Federal Reserve on the other hand had to use $85 billion and eventually $150 billon to bail out the AIG. Federal Reserve had to pump liquidity into the banking but it was not enough.
In March 2008, many investors went for Beas Stearns because it was rumored to have the worthless assets. Bear later approached Morgan Chase to bail it out from the situation. In September 19, 2008, the crisis led to run on Ultra Safe Money Market Funds. Within a short span of time, businesses moved to safer Treasury bonds.
Safer Treasury bonds sustained many businesses. Later on, $350 was used to buy automotive company stocks because the prices were depressed. By 2010, banks had picked up and paid back $194 billion.
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Where to Find a Reflection Paper Example
When asked to write a reflection paper for the first time, the first question that you might ask is most likely about where to find a reflection paper example. A reflection paper can be defined as a paper that gives you a chance to illustrate your comprehension of a given material and its effects on your ideas as well as possible future practice. While writing a reflection paper, you are allowed an opportunity to reinforce what you have learned through lecturers, personal experience and coursework. A reflection paper may focus on your personal experiences and feelings. However, it requires you to use concrete examples and multiple sources. Reflection papers are invaluable to students who engage in capstones or experiential classes which include internships because they enable them to synthesize theoretical knowledge via applied experience.
Importance of knowing where to find a reflection paper example
If you do not have a clue about how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper example will give you vital ideas on where to start the process of writing this paper. Even when you have ideas on how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper sample will give you fresh ideas. This makes approaching your reflection paper writing assignment easier. Generally, there are two major reasons why you need a sample reflection paper.
- To fine-tune ideas
While writing a reflection paper, you do not want to confine your writing to only what you know. A good reflection paper sample will enable you to fine-tune your current ideas so that you can present them in the most appropriate way and even get hints on new ways of presenting your ideas.
- Know how to format your reflection paper
Your instructor will give you different instructions on how to write your reflection paper. However, the instructor might or might not specify the style to adapt in your paper. The instructor can ask you to write the paper in APA, MLA, Harvard or Chicago style. A good sample written in a specified style will give you vital ideas on how to format your reflection paper.
When you know where you can find a good reflection paper sample, you do not have to worry or panic when asked to write this paper because you can always reach for a sample to act as your writing guide any time. You can also read the sample in advance especially if you are certain that your instructor will ask you to write one at some point.
Why use a reflection paper example?
Although writing a reflection paper may sound easy, it is not. While writing a reflection paper, you should stop, think and reflect about yourself. This paper gives you an opportunity to collect your thoughts before you write them and view things in an entirely new perspective. What you include in a reflection paper should come from your thoughts. The final reflection paper that you present should be based on your feelings and thoughts whose basis is your past life experiences, desires and beliefs.
When you know where to find a reflection paper example, you can reach for it while writing your paper for hints on the ideas, thoughts and information to include in your paper. Reading a good sample of a reflection paper will also enable you to generate ideas and organize them properly in your paper to ensure proper presentation. This is very important because the ability to write a good reflection paper depends on your ability to express your ideas, thoughts, experiences and desires in a way that opens your mind to an entirely new level.
Tips on where to find a reflection paper example
A good reflection paper sample should be based on the reflection of a particular event, a place or a person that has impacted on the life of the writer profoundly. Writing a reflection paper is more of writing a typical story and it usually leads to the establishment of important creative writing skills. However, when asked to write this paper for the first time you will find yourself struggling because you will not know which elements to put where. In that case, you should turn to the right places to look for a reflection paper example.
- Ask your teacher or professor to give you a reflection paper sample
If you do not know how to approach a reflection paper writing assignment or where to get a sample of a reflection paper, it is a good idea to ask your teacher or professor to give you a sample. You can visit the professor or teacher after the class or when you are sure that he/she is in the office to find out whether they can give you a reflection paper sample that you can review before you start writing your paper. There is a high chance that your teacher or professor has reflection paper samples written by former students. Once the professor or teacher gives you a sample, study it carefully to get insights on what the professor or teacher expects you to include in the paper. Pay close attention to the comments that the professor or teacher has included in the reflection paper sample.
- Ask a friend to give you a sample
You most probably know a friend whose papers are always excellent. You can seek assistance from such a friend. You might as well know a friend who is no longer at school but they scored high grades in academic papers. Ask them because they might have a sample that they keep at home. Such a friend can even tutor you on how to write a reflection paper as they give you the sample.
- Buy a reflection paper example online
There are companies that offer academic writing services online. If you are wondering about where to find a reflection paper example because your friends, teachers or professors do not have one, enlist the services of such companies. A reflection paper sample from a professional writing company is one of the best sample papers to use because it is written and edited by professionals. Therefore, order a reflection paper sample in advance so that you can use it as a guide for writing your reflection paper.
- Check the websites of professional writing companies
Several professional writing companies have websites where they post free academic paper samples. You can visit the blogs of such companies to find out whether they have a free sample reflection paper that you can use as your guide. You can find such a reflection paper example here.
- Check the websites of different colleges and universities
Some colleges and universities have websites where they post the best papers and essays written by their students. These are aimed at serving as samples to guide students when writing papers and essays in different disciplines. Visit the website of your college or university to find out if there is a reflection paper that you can use as your writing sample. If you cannot find a sample at the website of your college or university, check the websites of other learning institutions. Such a sample reflection paper can be found here.
How to use a reflection paper example
Now that you know where to find a reflection paper sample, it is important that you know how to use a sample reflection paper. Remember that you should use a reflection paper example just as the name suggests; as an example. You should not plagiarize the sample paper or part of it because that amounts to a serious offence for which you can be punished. As such, make sure that you only review the reflection paper example to get ideas for writing and formatting your paper then keep it away before you start writing your reflection paper. If you use ideas from the sample paper, make sure that your reflection paper has citations and footnotes that are properly referenced at the end of the paper.
It is also important that you use credible sources while writing your reflection paper. There are many books, academic journals and online sources where you can get information to guide you in writing your reflection paper. Make sure that you use and reference credible sources only. For your reflective paper to be credible, it should indicate that you consulted different sources including the internet, magazines and encyclopedias among others. After writing your paper, edit it properly, review the reflection paper sample and then reread your reflection paper to determine whether you have written it as the sample that you were using.
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You should use a unique reflection paper example from a credible source to come up with a great reflection paper. If you are having difficulties in identifying a place where to find a reflection paper example, get in touch with us right away. You can also visit our website’s home page for additional information about our academic writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to write a reflection paper as well as sample papers on our blog.
Hardy–Weinberg Principle or the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium model or law states that the allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of any other evolutionary factors. These influences or impacts include mutation, mate choice, selection, genetic drift, meiotic drive and gene flow. The Hardy–Weinberg equation is a unique mathematical calculation that can be used to evaluate the genetic variation of a population at the equilibrium.
In 1908, G. H. Hardy, an English mathematician and Wilhelm Weinberg, a German physician independently described a basic principle effective in population genetics widely known as the Hardy-Weinberg principle. The principle is crucial concept in population genetics and it helps predict how gene frequencies will inherited from one generation to another within a given set of assumptions.
The Hardy–Weinberg principle is clear in the sense that, it clarifies that a large randomly breeding population allele frequencies will remain the same from generation to generation considering that there is no gene migration, mutation or genetic drift influences. This principle is imperative because it gives biologist a standard from which to measure changes in allele frequency in a population.
In order to make any helpful assumptions on the Hardy–Weinberg principle, it is wise to reorganize that it is a neutral equilibrium meaning that a population disturbed from its Hardy–Weinberg genotype frequencies will have to reach equilibrium after a single generation of random mating; however, it will be a new equilibrium if allele frequencies are altered. This characteristic helps distinguish a neutral equilibrium from a stable equilibrium in which a disrupted system returns to the same equilibrium state. There are certain occurrences when the Hardy–Weinberg principle or law fails to apply. This effect can be attributed to a number of factors and they include;
- Mutation- Here, the frequency of the gene B and its allele b will not remain in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium if the rate if mutation of B -> b changes.
- Gene flow- Many species are made up of local populations whose members breed within the group. Each of these local populations can develop a gene pool unique from that of the other local population. On the other hand, some members of one of the population may breed with occasional immigrants from adjacent population of the same species. This leads to a new flow of genes frequencies in the populations.
- Genetic drift- Interbreeding is usually limited to the members of the residents. If the population is small, Hardy–Weinberg principle may be disturbed. This may eliminate certain number of the populace. Then frequency of an allele may begin to drift towards higher or lower values. Genetic drift will lead to evolutionary change, but it is not adaptive.
- Other issues that will make the Hardy–Weinberg law fail are nonrandom mating and natural selection.
The above-mentioned factors affect changes in allele frequencies and when subjected to more forces, the population of choice will disrupt the Hardy–Weinberg assumptions and evolution will take place. The Hardy–Weinberg principle thus constitutes a null model for the field of population genetics and it is helpful to the study of evolution.
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Tumor Suppressor Gene
Tumor suppressor gene is also called antioncogene. It refers to a gene that offers protection to a cell from a single step on cancer’s path. If tumor suppressor gene mutates casing a reduction or loss in its role or function, this can cause the cell to progress into cancer. Usually, this occurs in combination with various genetic changes.
Losing these genes can even be important that oncogene or proto-oncogene activation for formation of different types of cancer cells in humans. Tumor suppressor genes may be grouped in different categories including gatekeeper genes, landscaper genes and caretaker genes. This classification changes as the fields of learning such as genetics, epigenetic, molecular biology and medicine advances.
Compared to oncogenes, the tumor suppressor gene generally follow two-hit hypothesis. This means that the alleles coding for particular protein has to be affected prior the manifestation of an effect. This is due to the fact that if one allele of the gene sustains some damage, the second allele will still produce correct protein. Thus, alleles that suppress mutant tumor are recessive while alleles for mutant oncogene are dominant.
A.G Knudson proposed the two-hit hypothesis for the first time for retinoblastoma cases. Knudson observed the age of the onset of the retinoblastoma and this was followed by the second order kinetics. This implied that it was important to have two genetic events that were independent.
Knudson recognized that two hit hypothesis was consistent with the recessive mutation that involved single gene. However, it required biallelic mutation. In contrast, oncogene mutations generally involve single allele since they are considered as gain-of-function mutations.
When it comes to two-hit rule, tumor suppressor gene has exceptions such as specific mutations in p53 gene product. The p53 mutations are capable of functioning as dominant negative. This implies that mutated p53 protein is capable of preventing function of a normal protein from un-mutated allele. Other tumor suppressors that are considered as exceptions to two hit rule include those exhibiting haploinsufficiency such as NF in neurofibroma and PTCH in the medulloblastoma.
More precisely, tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that either have repressive or dampening effect on regulation of cell cycle or even they promote apoptosis in some cases or they can do both. Functions of the proteins of tumor suppressor genes are usually classified into various categories. These include genes repression, coupling, and initiating apoptosis when damage is irreparable, cell adhesion which prevents dispersing of tumor cells, and DNA repair.
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Inbreeding refers to the process of producing offspring by mating or breeding organisms or individuals that are related closely genetically. The opposite of inbreeding is out-crossing which is breeding or mating individuals or organisms that are not related. Analogically, the term inbreeding is used in reproduction in human although it commonly refers to genetic disorders as well as other consequences that arise from constanguinity and incestuous sexual relationships.
Homozygosity results from inbreeding. This can increase changes of the offspring suffering the effects of deleterious or recessive traits. Generally, this leads to decreased fitness biologically in a population. This is known as inbreeding depression and the ability of a population to reproduce and survive is greatly reduced.
Individuals that inherit the deleterious traits are called inbred. The main reason for selective out-crossing is avoidance of the deleterious recessive traits or alleles that result from inbreeding. For many years, inbreeding has been used as a technique for selective breeding. Breeders, for instance use inbreeding in livestock when they want to establish a desirable and new trait in their stock. However, they always watch for the undesirable characteristics in the offspring that can be eliminated later through culling or further breeding selectively.
Inbreeding is basically used in revealing the deleterious recessive alleles that can be eliminated via culling or assortative breeding. Inbred lines in breeding of plants are used as the hybrid lines creation stocks. This makes it possible to use heterosis effects. In plants, inbreeding occurs naturally in form of the self-pollination process.
In human beings, offspring of persons that are closely related are likely to suffer the effects of inbreeding including congenital birth defects. Chances of the disorders occurring are increased by the closeness of the relationships of biological parents. This can be attributed to the fact that pairing increases proportion of the homozygous zygotes being produced in the offspring, particularly, the deleterious recessive alleles that produce the disorders.
In populations, majority of recessive alleles are not common. It is highly unlikely for marriage partners who are unrelated to carry the alleles. Nevertheless, due to the fact that close relatives have a large portion of alleles, there is a dramatically high probability that such deleterious alleles will be inherited from common ancestor via both parents.
This is contrary to the common belief that allele frequencies are not altered by inbreeding but instead, it increases relative homozygote to the heterozygote proportion. However, its frequency decreases rapidly in an inbred population due to the increased proportion of the deleterious homozygote allele exposed to natural selection.
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When, How and Where to Get a Report Example
Report writing is a common assignment in colleges and universities. Regardless of the course you are pursuing, you need report writing skills at your fingertips. This will help you overcome last minute rush. Besides mastering the art of report writing, you should also have an idea of where to get a report example whenever you are in need. Such sources will always become handy when you are not in a position to work on your homework effectively. Do you want to know these sites, companies, and writers that guarantee you nothing but excellence? Then all you need is this handout.
As you read this guide, you will find the following:
- Recommended sites to get report examples
- Sample reports
- Warnings when sourcing reports
Spare a few minutes and go through a journey that will transform your writing experience. Are you ready? The journey begins now…
Guiding tips when finding where to get a report example
Unlike normal essays, handling a report assignment can be a daunting task. This is because of the groundwork you need to conduct and unwinding sections of most reports. However, with a good writing partner, this should not be a problem at all. This section will help you understand the meaning of as report before you consider looking at an example.
What is a report? An organized document defines and evaluates a subject or an issue. There are different types of reports, depending on the nature of your assignment. If you are looking for where to get a report example, ensure that it contains the following key elements:
Elements of a good report
Introduction – Give background information of the report, including the problem you are addressing.
Sequence of events – A good report is a record of events in a particular order. This order helps the reader to follow the ideas with a lot of ease.
Interpretation and significance – As you work on your report, tell the audience why the facts and events matter to them. Without this, there would be need of doing your report.
Evaluated results – The backbone of any report are the findings. However, bring out the meaning in the figures and statistics through explanation and deeper analysis.
Discussion – This section focuses on the impact of a given decision. Discussion gives an in-depth analysis of your findings for everyone, including non-specialists in the field to understand what you are putting across.
Conclusion – This paragraph gives the deductions of your research. After conducting your survey, collecting data and doing an analysis, give your closing remarks on the subject.
These elements form the basis of standard academic report. However, some lecturers may use different synonyms to mean the same sections. As you look for where to get a report example, go for samples that will enhance your writing skills.
Example #1: Sample Reports
Where to get a report example online
If you are working on your academic report, you might need an extra hand to help you polish your project and turn it into a superb paper. Do no break your back when you can find writing help from anywhere you are in the world.
With the massive use of the internet, you can order for academic writing services at the comfort of your study room and beat urgent deadlines without any panic. Thanks to the information age and globalization that is sweeping across the globe. Here are a few benefits of using the internet as a source of writing help:
Importance of online academic help
Saves your time – Even in the 21st century, time is still money. Everyone is looking for a way to create an extra hour or some free time. With urgent and complex assignments from your professors, free time is slowly losing meaning. You can still regain this by having reliable writers.
You get variety – The internet allows you to get writing help from writers with a range of background knowledge and experience.
Can be cheap – While many online writers charge exorbitant prices, there are service providers who mind your welfare and offer reasonable rates. If you are wondering about where to get a report example, consider the following examples:
Example #2: Sources of Report Samples
What to consider when choosing a report example
The challenge you are likely to encounter is finding reliable sample papers to help you as you work on your report. Do not be quick to buy report example from anyone. The following guidelines will help you when selecting a reliable source of writing help.
Cheap is expensive – Do not always go for cheap service providers. Consider other parameters before settling for a particular company.
Go through reviews – You do not want a writer to experiment his or her writing skills on your academic report. Choose writers who are veterans and understand what you want.
Do background check of the writing company– Read more about the service provider before you place an order. This helps you know other services and products that the company offers.
Reliability – Choose reliable writers who are accessible from anywhere in the world. This will help you monitor the progress of your assignment and recommend necessary changes whenever need arises.
Where to find report writing help for your assignment
Different reports have varying requirements. For instance, a scientific report and a business report present unique challenges. Therefore, besides thinking about where to get a report example to help you complete your homework, focus on individuals who can help you complete the task without further straining. Try the following approaches:
Consult your professors – Talk to your lecturer every time you get an assignment brief or notice. Having a chat with your professor over the report assignment will help you make any clarifications. Do not assume anything. Talk about the length of your report, the scope, and sources to use and formatting style among others.
Talk to friends – Do not undermine your classmates. Discussing your topic of research before you write your final report could help you to brainstorm your subject matter. Your friends will help you recall an idea that had escaped your mind or gain a different understanding of the issue, thus giving a unique angle.
Consult libraries – Libraries remain to be resource centers where you can replenish your knowledge on any subject. Talk to your college librarian and find out available publications on your subject.
You may as well visit a public library for further reading. The following libraries can be a good starting point for you. Take a look…
Example #3: Sources of Report Examples
- Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Canada
- New York Public Library, New York
- Seattle Central Library, Seattle, WA
- The Morgan Library & Museum, NY, USA
While some of these libraries charge membership and subscription fee, you will find them to be reliable sources where to get a report example. Do not settle for mediocrity. Remember that the assignment you are working on could be a major determinant in your career life; give your best.
Concluding remarks on where to find a report example
Have you ever wondered why your lecturers always demand written reports? Well, it is a good tool to conduct a written assignment. A report will gauge your understanding of a learned concept and ability to explain what you know.
Thus, a good report is not about the length of your text. In this section, you will discover some of the things that will make your report to stand out from a stark of assignments.
Avoid plagiarism – Plagiarism remains a punishable academic offence. As you work on your report, adhere to the standard writing rules. Avoid plagiarism by:
- Proper citation – acknowledge every source you consult in your report
- Paraphrasing- paraphrase ideas instead of quoting. Avoid very long quotes
- Digest ideas – This will help you to put the ideas in your words
Keep it simple – Do not try to impress your tutor. Use a simple language that allows to you communicate your ideas. Use short sentences and avoid unwinding explanations. Every word you use should advance the purpose of your report.
Use good grammar – A flawed report has no place in the world of academia. Do not commit inexcusable mistakes like punctuation and tense. Take time to proofread your work and eliminate all the errors.
We hope that you now have all the information to help you choose where to get a report example. Let us know how it goes.
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