In Depth Leisure Analysis: Biking
Charles K. Brightbill in his book, The Challenge of Leisure, defines leisure as a block of spare, free or unoccupied time for resting. Cycling is an activity where one rides a special type of bicycle around boulder-strewn paths, over rocky tracks and in the plains. It is mostly done as a group activity. People go out to look for activities that can help them pass time or those they enjoy. Rarely do you find someone getting involved in a past time activity to generate income. The purpose of this paper is to give an in depth analysis of bike riding as a leisure activity. The paper will look at the description, personal analysis, and conceptual analysis of the activity.
In cycling, there are a variety of experiences ranging from excitement, harmony, peace, and hardship. The idea of going around boulders and plains to see panorama is very exciting. Since such places are always lonely, a person gets a peace of mind and freedom from the city life and many other things. Cycling can also be tiresome since it is an intense physical activity. Those participating in cycling should have the physical strength and without major physical disability, especially on the lower limbs.
Cycling requires one to have a special bicycle made of aluminium for lightness and strength, protective helmet, straps for the knee and elbow joints, gloves, some bottled water, and maybe snacks. Cycling is not as expensive as other leisure activities and one enjoys it to the maximum. The most recent biking event I participated in was during the last spring and it was one of the best since I started participating in it as a leisure time activity because I could handle most of the challenges. On that day, my friends and I cycled for over three hours and we covered a distance of about thirteen miles. The scenario on the plains was satisfying and could give one the will to go further and further.
Different people go for varied leisure activities because of the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards they get. Personally, cycling is more rewarding and satisfying compared to other leisure activities because it is cheap and need only a special type of a bicycle, which can be used for several years. Secondly, cycling enables one to get an exercise of varying intensity depending on one’s ability. Thirdly, the leisure sport can be used as an income generating activity, and it enables one to have a nice view of nature as one wind along the nature trails.
Leisure time activities do provide intrinsic rewards. However, many people do not notice it. First, the activity causes bonding and team spirit as well as breaks the ice since during such activities; people get to know each other better. Those cycling do it away from the crowded city life and in turn understand and appreciate nature. This is where they get liberation and feel the freedom from all activities and people. Lastly, the quiet and vast environment helps one to meditate and develop a spiritual feeling.
Observing the coming of spring is always joyous for me since I started cycling. That is the time I prepare everything and try to convince my friends that biking on the plains is a worthwhile undertaking. As the days draw closer, my excitement increases significantly. Making the first steps with my race bike out of the garage put a wide smile on my face. The plane is not far from where I stay and starting to tackle the rocky hills little by little heading towards the plains puts some doubts in my head as to whether I am going to make it up to the farthest end. The mere imagination of the cool breeze one feels and the vast landscape one sees is enough to make me continue with the journey forward.
What can be a challenge is the morning after the journey. The muscle cramps make me to curse the idea of going to the plains. What is interesting is the feeling is somewhat fun since all the friends will narrate their experience once you meet again. I cannot say that I am a professional biker but since it was my third time to participate, I do not see it very challenging. As long as I remain physically fit, then it will remain my past time activity even if I do it fortnightly or once in a month.
Since biking involves appreciating nature, there is not much to be changed. Perhaps, what can be done is to modify the bicycles to be more efficient and much easier to ride. Creating stopovers where people can refresh themselves is also a welcome idea since sometimes the weather gets extremely hot. With such changes, biking will remain to be my past time activity for so many years.
Today, people see leisure as a past time activity for the rich and the working class. They think that in order to have leisure, one must part with so much money. Leisure is an activity, which is not only used to pass time but also to enable one to reenergize and refresh. During leisure, the human person leaves out all or most of the stress and produces hormones that make one to feel new and revitalized in terms of thinking and doing other day-to-day activities.
Indeed the experience that was there during cycling borrows a lot from the content that is discussed in the classroom. According to module 9 by Khol leisure has several advantages towards ones health. During biking, several aspects of my health and wellness improved. To start with, I was able to gain physical and social wellness due to interaction with friends who were cycling with me. Then there were intellectual, emotional and spiritual gains since staying on the planes enables us to come up with creativity during challenges. The emotional and spiritual parts were almost together since one was able to appreciate Gods creation and bond with it.
The leisure activity I was involved in had several course concepts. The concept of leisure and health was very outstanding. This was followed by the concept of leisure and work. It is worth noting that people who get involved in leisure activities perform well at work.
The current trends in leisure activities do not involve an open space and they get expensive such that the ordinary man cannot enjoy them. Most of the leisure activities of today, apart from tourism (khol, LM 7), do not leave room for spiritual development and do not have the intrinsic rewards. Therefore, leisure activities are very healthy in human life, and all people should create time for them.
Creative expression and play
Directions: Be sure to make an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format.
Your response should be four (4) pages in length; refer to the “Assignment Format” page for specific format requirements. Art-based centers are inviting, self-contained spaces where children engage in creative activities and are appropriate for every child.
Each requires a clear purpose, a range of materials and activities, and a means of assessment or evaluation. While centers must take into account individual needs, interests, and levels of learning, there are unique considerations for children of different ages. As an early childhood teacher, put on your centers-based thinking cap to complete the following parts of this assignment. You will want to refer back to Lesson 7 for support and guidance.
Part 1: Summarize how arts-based centers nurture children’s creative expression.
Part 2: Discuss how teachers must adapt arts-based centers for different age levels from toddlers to fourth graders.
Part 3: Discuss techniques teachers can use to manage a center-based environment in the creative classroom.
Kids getting older Young
Kids getting older Young
According to studies conducted in the recent years, it is reported that kids are growing faster than ever before. Marketers agree that kids between the ages of three to five years old today behave like children aged eight and nine in the past decades. They are highly aware of brand influences and knowledge compared to the kids of their age in the past years. In this time and age, kids are more exposed to sexual activities, violence, drugs and technology. As a result of all these, kids are introduced to brands that are advertised through these means, at very tender ages. Children who are exposed to programming and televisions are more aware of the brands as a result of the commercials that are broadcast in different slots of the shows.
To some extent, it can be said that managers are to blame for kids getting older young, especially those from well accomplished companies. These big organizations tend to broadcast their adverts on strategic places that are easily accessible to teenagers like vending machines, and schools. Children are then forced to accept that in order to fit and look beautiful, they have to use the products that are being advertised. However, it can also be lack of responsibility on the part of kids that lead them towards acting older. Most of the programs that are aired on TV and online are mainly targeted at adults, but kids watch them too. As a result of this, children are exposed to things that are not appropriate for their ages.
Companies like Goodwin Design Group, are committed to the production of products that are suitable for both kids and their families. The company engages in user-centric and co-creation design since its inception. It is able to achieve this by involving kids and their families in the process of improving products that they need and also manufacturing.
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Clements, Rhonda L, and Leah Fiorentino. The Child’s Right to Play: A Global Approach. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2004. Print.
The Invasion of Canada in 1775
The invasion of Canada in 1775 saw the newly created Continental Army of the United States launch their first military action in the American Revolutionary War. It also marked the first major defeat of the Americans in the Revolutionary War. The invasion led by Colonel Benedict Arnold and General Richard Montgomery, was staged in the city of Quebec with the aim of protecting Canadians from British rule. Americans also hoped to persuade Canadians to join their campaign in revolting against England.
Events leading to the Invasion of Canada in 1775
After the forces led by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen captured Fort Ticonderoga in the spring of 1775, Americans got wind that a British Army was being created in Canada under the command of Sir Guy Carleton. Owing to the American resistance of British rule, they thought that by invading Canada, a rebellion would be triggered. Through the invasions, they hoped British plans for war with rebellious colonies would be disrupted.
With the approval of the Congress, George Washington authorized the attack on Canada in 1775 under General Philip Schuyler. The offensive was to be led by Richard Montgomery, advancing with troops from Ticonderoga.
How the 1775 American Invasion of Canada Occurred
Also known as the Battle of Quebec or Canadian Campaign, the invasion of Canada in 1775 started late August when Gen. Schuyler led American troops up Lake Champlain and captured St. Johns. However, the battle impacted ill health on the General, forcing him to wait for Montgomery’s forces before making further advancement.
Montgomery and Arnold finally met and joined their troops in early December 1775, outside Quebec City demanding the city to surrender. However, their demands were rejected by the then governor of the province of Quebec, General Guy Carleton.
With the looming expiry of the enlistment of American troops, they continued the march towards Quebec under snowfall cover in the wee hours of December 31. As the troops approached and surrounded the city, the British were ready and fire erupted between the two forces.
Montgomery was unable to make it through the first assault, and after several unfruitful attempts to penetrate through the British defenses, his troops were turned back.
At the time of Montgomery’s defeat, Arnold and his men were also taking heavy fire on the northern wall, forcing them to retreat. Apart from losing several troops, Arnold also got wounded on the leg. His role was taken up by Patriot Daniel Morgan who continued the assault but got held back at the second wall in wait for reinforcement. As Arnold’s men arrived, the British had reorganized and the Patriots were forced to discontinue the invasion.
Arnold and his men had to stay fortified outside the city amidst raging cold and lack of supplies. Thanks to their counterparts, reinforcements arrived in spring but there were no further orders to proceed with the invasion.
Instead, the American troops moved back to Montreal to team up with other forces, from where they all marched to Crown Point for safety. During this time, British forces and Carleton were still in pursuit. However, they later decided to return to Montreal after failing to capture the Americans who survived the battle.
Results and Significance of the Invasion of Canada in 1775
The greatest impact of the invasion of Canada in 1775 was on the Americans, considering their defeat. Of the about 1,200 American soldiers who took part in the war, more than 400 were taken into captivity, suffered wounds or died. Apart from losing a number of men, American troops also lost one of their Generals, Montgomery. Colonel Arnold left the battle filed with a broken leg while Morgan was captured.
Casualties on the side of the British were low
Canadians did not stage an uprising against the British as expected by the Americans. Canada remained as a British colony.
Americans had not planned well for the invasion of Quebec and this was clearly shown in their defeat. Besides, they had not properly analyzed the information about anti-British sentiments in Canada.
However, the actions of Arnold and his men while retreating to Montreal on Lake Champlain bore great impact by holding back the British Army from staging a counter-attack until 1777.
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Battle of Bunker Hill
The battle of Bunker Hill occurred on June 17, 1775, after the American Revolutionary War. Thousands of American militia besieged Boston and the British were trying their best to control the city and its valuable sea ports. They also aimed at taking over the harbor in Boston, to keep it open to bring in their troops and supplies. Therefore, the British focused on two hills, the Breeds and the Bunker in order to achieve a tactical advantage. The American militia got the news and went ahead to defend the hills.
Location of Battle of the Bunker Hill
The British wanted to bombard the Americans from a distance and they thought of taking over two hills, the Bunker Hill and the Breed hill. Therefore, the battle took place on the Breeds hill, Charlestown, Massachusetts. The battle was followed by the battle of Chelsea Creek and an engagement during the 11 month of Siege of Boston in April 19, 1775 to March 17, 177. It ended with British victory.
An overview of the battle of Bunker Hill
The battle of Bunker Hill was one of the most significant battles of the American War of Independence. This followed the first Revolutionary War at the Battle of Lexington and The Battle of Concord, the militia which took over Boston. The Americans received intelligence reports that the British under General Thomas Gage were planning to control the hills, Dorchester Heights area and Charlestown to maintain Boston harbor and acted immediately.
With more than 1000 men, the colonial militia under the leadership of William Prescott constructed ramparts and fortifications on top of the Hills and Charlestown peninsula area. The British men of war opened fire and Colonel William Prescott walked over the ramparts while his men continued to dig.
General Thomas Gage sent three thousand men to attack the Americans across Charles River. They attacked and the first two assaults were repelled by the militia. More than 1000men were injured and killed. More British soldiers were sent to Boston and by the third assault, the militia had to retreat back to Cambridge due to lack of ammunition and powder.
Leaders during the war
The British army was led by General William Howe
The Americans were led by Colonel William Prescott
Major John Pitcairn was also one of the front leaders for the British army. He was in command of the troops that started the war or fight at Lexington and started the Revolutionary War.; Israel Putnam was the General in charge for the Americans. Leading the patriot was also Dr. Joseph Warren. He played an active role in the battle but died while fighting.
Results of the Battle of Bunker Hill war
Even though the British won during the war and took over the hill, they paid heavily. Many soldiers and officers lost their lives. The Americans on the other hand were filled with a lot of courage knowing that they could stand up to their enemies, the British in a fight. Many colonists also joined the army and the revolution grew in strength.
The American Revolutionary war which included the battle of Bunker Hill became strong as it was a culmination of the American Revolution. Many American colonists rejected the legitimacy of the British to govern the 13 colonies without representation. The other interesting facts about the war is that
- The Americans were low in ammunition and couldn’t fire until they could see the whites with their eyes
- Troops from America worked tirelessly especially at night to build up their defense. They build a redoubt which was nearly six feet high
- General William Howe from Britain was really astonished at the American defense and said ‘’The rebels have done more work in one night than my entire army and what it would have done in one month.’’
- The British also suffered the most with many casualties in a single fight during the American Revolutionary War.
- Inexperienced forces also build up their confidence and in their ability to fight the British in the war and more specifically, in the first war of the American War of Independence. This was the significance of the Battle of the Bunker Hill.
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SWOT Analysis of Costco
SWOT analysis of Costco is among the best methods used by the company in evaluating itself and making decisions for sustainability in the market. Costco Wholesale is considered one of the largest retailers in the world today. Based in Seattle, Washington, Costco operates membership warehouses in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Spain and Australia. Besides, it also has several subsidiaries in Korea and Taiwan.
What is SWOT Analysis of Costco?
SWOT analysis of Costco refers to the evaluation of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the company. Considering the majority of players and shifting trends in the retail warehousing industry, it is always advisable that a company conducts a SWOT analysis in order to determine areas of weakness that require fixing and potentialities that should be fully exploited.
By conducting a SWOT analysis, Costco Wholesale will be able to know how to package itself for continuous growth and development in the market. Below is a comprehensive SWOT analysis of Costco.
These are the outstanding features of Costco that makes it unique and different from other retailers in the sector. One of the strengths of Costco is its pricing authority. The company mainly focusses on offering its customers quality products at the most competitive prices. The fact that it does not emphasize on maximizing profits in the short term gives many customers the confidence of always obtaining high quality products.
Brand loyalty is another strength of the company, which it has been able to attain through its constant pursuit of high quality and great value. This has enabled it to attract customer loyalty too.
Costco often records high sales volumes, which contributes to increased revenues. As a result of this, the company is able to make high revenues even if its prices are than other retailers.
Although Costco is a renowned profitable retailer, it still suffers certain defects that if not solved on time, might negatively impact operations. One of them is the company’s business model which allows only the members of the club to use the warehouses. As much as this may encourage customers to buy at the company’s stores, it also limits the number since non-club members might not feel welcome.
Another weakness of Costco is that the stores do not offer a wide variety of goods and services like other retailers. This tends to send away many customers who will opt to shop from stores where they can easily find all the products they need at once.
One of the opportunities that Costco can exploit is the increasing number of younger customers. The recent months have seen the company’s management take measures aimed at attracting young customers, a move that can significantly help in driving long-term sales to the company.
The going numbers of people using e-commerce is yet another opportunity that Costco should look into tapping. Intensive online marketing could also be a great way of venturing into new markets and attracting more customers.
Costco has plans to continue growing its reach on the international map. There several foreign markets with better prospects like China, France among others.
The warehouse services industry is one which is quite competitive, considering the high number of players involved offering similar process, quality and selection. In the domestic market, Costco is facing stiff competition from companies like BJ’s Wholesale Club, Sam’s Club among others. Internationally, there are several other competitors like internet retailers and even others that do not require membership.
The intensive marketing by other retailers dealing in similar products as Costco is yet another threat that the company needs to challenge in order to avoid being edged out.
Conclusion on SWOT Analysis of Costco
Costco Wholesale is a business with high viability, the reason it has continued to expand even poor economic times. Its competitive prices is a key strength that has kept the business afloat for long. The above SWOT analysis of Costco also reveals that the company has several opportunities it can exploit in order to tame the threats in the market. Through the firm’s website, intensive internet marketing and network of suppliers, it can effectively reach out to a wider customer base and scare away competitors.
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Company Profile: SWOT analysis of Best Buy
Best Buy is an American with its stocks trading on the New York Stock Exchange. It specializes in consumer electronics, accounting for about 20% of America’s domestic market in technology-based products. Best Buy has 24 stores across the United States. Besides its presence in America, it also operates in the United Kingdom, Mexico and Turkey. By the year 2010, Best Buy and its subsidiaries had more than 1,050 stores in local markets. Today, Best Buy is position 45, according to Fortune’s top 1000 companies. What are the factors that keep Best Buy outshining its competitors in the market? What are its weaknesses and opportunities? Read this SWOT analysis of Best Buy to find out more.
Strengths: SWOT analysis of Best Buy
Best Buy enjoys dominating the market in retailing electronic products in America. For example, it is the leading retailer of electronic goods in the USA, accounting for about 20% of the market. As a result, the company has a unique market position, which favors its business operations, making it position 45 on global ranking.
Another reason why Best Buy excels is its enhanced presence across the United States, with outlets all over. With its strong network, Best Buy is able to maintain its economies of scale and strengthen its brand image. This network allows the company to reach more customers and penetrate the market effectively.
Best Buy has good practices in terms of growth, profitability and community involvement. This gives it a higher customer satisfaction index as compared to other players in the industry.
SWOT analysis of Best Buy further shows that it manages several stores in America, as a joint venture with various warehouses. This relationship helps consumer to buy and use its products with a lot of ease.
Weaknesses of Best Buy
Besides dominating the market in retailing electronic products and making good profits over the years, Best Buy has a range of weaknesses. Its main weakness is over dependence on a few suppliers. By the end of 2007, Best Buy maintained only 25 suppliers, who accounted for the company’s 60% of purchases.
Additionally, Best Buy does not maintain strong ties its suppliers. It does not favor long-term contracts. This approach exposes the Best Buy to risks of shortages especially in the event one of the suppliers turns its back on them.
Another weakness is the endless lawsuits against its operations. In one of the suits, Best Buy was accused of charging higher prices more than what is advertised. In 2000, Best Buy was also charged for concealing warrantees of products with the aim of selling their labeled merchandise. Lastly, its overdependence on the US domestic market could affect sales with low economic growth.
Opportunities: SWOT Analysis of Best Buy
From this SWOT Analysis of Best Buy, it is clear that the company has a bright future with a range of opportunities to expand and diversify its operations. First, Best Buy can make major acquisitions. From its recent acquisitions, the company was able to increase its customer base and strengthen brand image in the market. Such will allow Best Buy to enter new market and develop new products under the same brand name and increase sales.
Secondly, Best Buy plans to expand its business in other countries. By expanding its operations geographically, this will guarantee the company more opportunities and a higher market share.
Threats of Best Buy Inc
The first threat is cutthroat competition from three main players, Amazon, Apple and Wal-Mart. The competition is stiff as the leading giants increase inventory of products related to electronics. In addition, these retailers offer installation services and focus on increasing their market penetration. With increasing competition, this many exert pressure on the company’s margins and harm its operating results.
Another threat is the increase in prices of rental equipment in America. If this trend escalates, it may increase Best Buy’s operating cost, which is likely to affect its profitability. The company also faces a risk of low sales because of low desire for Americans to make purchases. This SWOT analysis of Best Buy has explained the business environment, which favors and threatens the company’s optimal operations.
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SWOT Analysis of Toys “R” Us
A SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us can be used to curve a clear, sustainable niche in the target market of this company. SWOT analysis can be defined as a useful technique that enables managers and policymakers to understand the strengths as well as weaknesses of an organization while identifying the available opportunities and threats that the organization is facing. Toys “R” Us can perform a SWOT analysis and use it to uncover opportunities that this organization is capable of exploiting. Additionally, this analysis can be used to identify and understand the weaknesses that the organization is facing as well as in managing and eliminating threats that may otherwise catch it unawares.
A clear SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us
Toys “R” Us is a retail company that was founded in 1957 by Charles Lazarus in Rockville, Maryland, U.S. Currently, this firm is headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey. It has different outlets in Canada, Finland, Africa, Europe, Asia and Oceana.
Its SWOT analysis is as follows:
- Toys “R” Us offers a wide array of baby amusement items and toys.
- Its chain comprises of 840 stores in the U.S only, with operations in 34 countries and 716 stores.
- The franchises chain and licenses of this company have also made it very popular.
- It is the second-largest retailer in the United States.
- Its toys brand is popular globally.
- It has a properly developed e-commerce website that facilitates online purchases by customers. It has numerous e-commerce sites including eToys.com and babyuniverse.com that are not only well managed but also attractive.
- It has created jobs for 70,000 people across the world.
- Toys “R” Us lacks a competitive advantage because it is a sole source brand. Its only competitor is Wal-Mart which is offering attractive offers.
- It does not offer unique toys because you can find similar items in better packages with different brands.
- Its sales are season-dependents because the range of the products that it offers is not attractive during other seasons apart from Christmas. This is why its sales keep declining despite being the sole global toy chain store and having a strong brand.
- After Express locations gave this company positive response, it decided to open more with about 600 stores.
- The company has been able to excel after forming an alliance with Amazon, its competitor. This alliance encouraged the buying power of the company but it came with physical stacking risk.
- Through charitable giving, the company can enhance its popularity through several side by side campaigns.
- The company’s revenue can be enhanced by diversifying locations if introduced in countries like India and China which are the emerging economies.
- Affiliated chains like Kids “R” Us, Bike “R” Us, Scoops “R” Us and KB Toys are also presenting opportunities to the emerging markets and this company too.
- Strong competition particularly from Wal-Mart and other retailers.
- Low cost toys such as those from Chinese manufacturers are a threat to the manufacturers who spend on high costs’ raw materials.
- Many brands to choose from mean that the company must offer attractive packages to customers.
- By closing chains suddenly including its 87 stores, the firm indicated that the label was unreliable because it fired several employees.
- The company’s payment disputes over the last two years gave the brand a negative image because the media highlighted it.
What makes SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us important
Toys “R” Us can use a SWOT analysis in two ways. The management can use it as an icebreaker that helps the management to start the process of formulating strategies or as a strategy tool. Using this analysis, the management of Toys “R” Us company can understand the competitors of this company better and gain vital insights that will enable them to formulate strategies that will enhance its competitiveness.
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When, How and Where to Find a Sample of a Good Critique
Critique writing can sometimes be demanding and tedious. Unlike other general academic essays, your critique should be a detailed analysis of an author’s work, explaining why and how you reached a particular conclusion. To achieve this, you must convince your audience that you did your assignment and understand the text in all aspects. This task therefore poses a challenge to many students, who do not understand the basics of writing a standard critique. How do you overcome this? You must have in mind a place where to find a sample of a good critique whenever need arises. Today, the turning to the web is always the first thing to click whenever an assignment comes knocking.
While the internet offers a wide range of homework solutions, it also has far-reaching challenges. This manual covers the following areas:
- Finding a good critique
- Sources of good critiques
- Recommended critiques for you
Read on and discover new ways of finding quality sample papers to enhance your writing and boost your grades.
Things to remember when looking for where to find a sample of a good critique
As the world enjoys the fruits of the information age, students are not left behind in appreciating how the internet has transformed their academic life. Today, it is possible to order for a readymade essay and get professional services in less than 24 hours, courtesy of the internet.
With the internet, no assignment is too hard, because besides offering research services, the web allows you to link with writing specialists worldwide within a click of the mouse. This is the beauty of being in college in the 21st century. You do not have to miss your holiday or because of a research paper.
However, to get the best from the internet and score high in your exams without any hustle, here are general instructions that will help you discover where to find a sample of a good critique. Enjoy reading…
Finding a good sample Critique for your assignment
Know what you want – The best way of engaging the web is to be sure with what you are looking for. First, read and reread your assignment instructions to ensure that you understand what your professor wants from you.
Go for genuine writers – Since the internet is flooded with essay writers, it is important to find a formula of telling reliable from con service providers. Try these approaches when vetting online essay writers:
- Choose writers with good history and reputation by looking at their reviews.
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Have enough time – The best way of finding a good critique online is to avoid rushing. Always place your order when you have enough time to allow writers do through work. In addition, most writers will charge you high rates when your order is urgent.
Give clear instructions to the writer – As you think of where to find a sample of a good critique, remember that what you get depends on the instructions you give to the writer. Always specify the following:
- The deadline of your paper
- The size of your paper, including page numbers and word count
- The number of references
- Referencing style
- The title of your paper, course and year of study
- Mode of payment
By giving these details, the writer will be sure of what you want and deliver a befitting paper. Never assume anything. Below are recommended online essay providers with excellent sample critiques that can be of good help. Check them out and see what you have been missing.
Example #1: Websites with Good Critiques
Ideas to help you choose where to find a sample of a good critique
If you are working on your critique assignment, then you need a reliable writing partner to help you develop a goo paper that will appease your professor and guarantee you a good grade. However, here are the challenges you are likely to face as you look for a good sample essay from the web. These bottlenecks should give you more wisdom to help you choose where to find a sample of a good critique.
Disadvantages of finding sample critiques online
The risk of plagiarism – In case you are sourcing your critique online, beware of writers who deliver plagiarized papers to students. DO not submit such papers to your tutor for grading because you will score very low grades and face disciplinary action.
To avoid getting plagiarized papers, use anti-plagiarism scanners to detect any traces before accepting online essays and before handing your completed papers to the lecturer.
Online essays are expensive – If you are looking for good essays online, you must be ready to part with good cash. However, some service providers take advantage of the desperate situation of students to exploit them.
Be wary of scammers – Not all online essay writers. Some are out to con unsuspecting students and ruin their academic dreams. Do not fall a victim to scammers. Do background check to ensure that you are dealing with genuine companies with the needs of students at heart.
Unqualified writers – While a few online essay providers like Essay Experts invest in qualified and highly skilled professionals with Masters and PhD, most companies do not care about having experienced writers. You do not want an amateur to handle your paper, which could determine your future.
Do you want to look at some of sample critiques? The following examples will help you make up your mind on where to find a sample of a good critique. Here we go…
Example #2: Good Sample Critiques
Tips on where to find a sample of a good critique
One reason why you will not like writing critiques is that they are demanding. To come up with a convincing critique, it takes time, research, commitment and hard work. For this reason, you must find a source of encouragement to help you complete your assignment without sleepless nights. Who then can help you complete your critique?
In this section, you will discover ways of completing your assignments by making use of the people around you.
Who can help you get a good critique sample?
Your professor – Your lecturer understands the assignment at hand. Do not be afraid to approach him or her and ask for further direction on the task. Go ahead and ask if there are archival, sample critiques to assist you develop an excellent paper.
Your classmates – Do no ignore your classmates and friends when handling written assignments. Engage in group discussions to understand the title better. Such discussions are important during brainstorming, as you will more insights and angles on the subject matter. Remember that a friend could be having a better understanding of the assignment.
Visit the library – Probably as your figure out where to find a sample of a good critique, the library should come first in your mind. Visit your college library and ask the librarian to help you locate some of the critiques available. This can be a good starting point that will cost you nothing.
Go to the net – Make a date with Google and search for sample critiques. The internet will give you numerous options. However, as you make use of the internet, remember the risks we discussed in the above section. Surf the net to gain general knowledge on the topic.
Online tricks that work:
- Avoid Wikipedia – Do not cite Wikipedia as an online source. This open source is unreliable since anyone can publish information on the site.
- Avoid dotcom domain – Websites with .com domain are highly commercial and less authentic.
- Consider .net and .org websites – These are mainly non-profit making organizations with reliable research information.
- Choose government and university sites – Government sites like .gov are more reliable. Top universities also have effective and trusted websites to help students complete their academic assignments.
Here are some top libraries to consider as you look for where to find a sample of a good critique.
Example #3: Top Libraries
- Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Canada
- New York Public Library, New York
- Seattle Central Library, Seattle, WA
- The Morgan Library & Museum, NY, USA
With this guide, you can now maneuver and find excellent critiques and other academic papers for your written assignments. Let us know how it goes. Good luck.
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PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
The Home Depot is an American private listed company. It is one of the leading retailers in the United States, specializing in a wide range of products and services. The Home Depot’s main segments are home improvement products and construction equipment. Its product line are building materials and guarding equipment coupled with related products and services. The chain has more than 2,000 stores operating in the US and in other parts of the world. The firma embraces a range of practices to adjust to emerging market trends and cutthroat competition in the industry. This PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot shows how political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors affect the operations of the company and its future.
Politics in PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
For The Home Depot to experience business growth and maintain good relationships with the political class, the firm takes part in a range of activities and initiatives. This safeguards its interests and those of its customers. This is necessary because the decisions by the local, federal or state governments can have far-reaching effects on the profitability of the company.
The Home Depot complies with government regulations and makes political contributions and interactions. In addition, the company allows its employees to participate in politics as long as they do not use it resources to pursue their ambitions. Through the Home Depot Political Action Committee, PAC, the firm offers financial support to politicians who back the retailer and its business line.
Economic environment at the Home Depot
PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot affirms that the company thrives because of a stable economic environment. With the US economy showing signs of stability, the company remains optimistic to scale profitable heights in future. The fate of the Home Depot therefore depends on economic conditions in the United States.
Importantly, many Americans today have limited purchasing power because of economic down town. Potential customers therefore prioritize other products, which are more essential than Home Depot’s collection. This is causing the market to shrink and cause harm to its business associates too.
Social factors in PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
Besides making profits and improving its annual revenues, the company also believes in improving the welfare of the communities within its neighborhood. For example, it runs societal programs to promote education, healthy work practices and assurance of job opportunities to people.
PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot further illustrates how the firm values CSR. Through its Home Depot foundation, the chain has invested huge amounts of its resources in improving the living standards of people by delivering affordable options to a better life. It also works towards having a safe and healthy working environment.
In alleviating the lives of communities within its reach, The Home Depot focuses on four different areas, including building and maintaining playgrounds for children, safeguarding community-gathering venues, constructing affordable transitional housing and emergency preparedness.
How Technology is changing The Home Depot Business
The Home Depot is on the forefront in keeping pace with emerging technological trends in the market. This is because of the enormous role of information technology in driving any business. In recent years, the company has invested in state of the art systems and equipment to facilitate its staff and enhance smooth business operations. This is expected to augment customer satisfaction.
The Hope Depot has acquired electronic devices at a cost of $60 million to counter competition from key players in the market like Lowe, which has used wireless technology in its stores since 1995.
Environmental Factors – From this PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot, the company is committed to having a safe environment by cutting down on carbon emissions into the atmosphere. To achieve this, the organization offer conservation minded and products that are environmentally friendly to its customers. In the end, the company seeks to offer green products to all its customers.
Legal Factors – The company complies with a range of rules imposed by local and international governments, governing food production, manufacturing, safety and packaging among others. The firm also observes laws that govern disposal of waste to the environment in order to mitigate environmental pollution. Lastly, it works towards addressing health and safety of its staff.
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How to Write an Expository Essay
As a student, you should know how to write an expository essay because teachers and professors ask students to write expository essays for different courses in college. Among the courses that involve expository essay writing include English, social sciences and history. An expository essay is an essay that explains a given concept, investigates a specific idea or presents evidence for a specific opinion.
Most exams and in-class assignments entail the use of the format of expository essays. This is because this essay uses a style that does not entail deep research. While developing an expository essay, you can use different patterns to organize it depending on the writing prompt, topic or assignment. Example of an expository essay is an essay in which the prompt requires the student to study and analyze a given work, expose or explain a topic or describe a given process.
What you should know even before knowing how to write an expository essay
An expository essay has certain characteristics that distinguish it from other essays.
- An expository essay is written to describe, inform or explain
- The writer of an expository essay acts like a teacher
- This essay presents information on the chosen topic exhaustively
- It is written in third person
A guide on how to write an expository essay in six steps
Step One: Organize your thoughts
Once the instructor, teacher or professor has given you the expository essay writing prompt or assignment, the first thing that you should do is to read it carefully and organize your thoughts. You will most probably have something to say about any topic that the instructor assigns you. Even if you do not know much about the assigned subject matter, you will realize that there is something you have read, heard or experienced about it. It is important that you brainstorm or consider what you already know about the topic. This will enable you to sort out your mind before you start writing.
To organize your thoughts, you can do one of the following:
- Free write: This entails writing what comes from your mind quickly without editing, stopping or self-correcting.
- List clustering: This entails allowing ideas to flow freely on the topic. The main topic is at the center of a circle with its associations linked to it.
- Subject tree: This involves a tree form in which the related ideas are connected to the main topic.
- Outlining: This entails the use of an essay framework in which the main points are included and sub-points’ breakdown.
While organizing thoughts, do not evaluate your ideas but outpour ideas on what you already know about the topic. With ideas on a paper, organize them into groups of ideas then identify the most important areas.
Step Two: Research the topic
At this step, you can conduct online research or visit a library. Conduct a research of current events but be careful to adhere to the time frames set by your instructor. Use acceptable sources such as books, scholarly articles and reference works. If you use a web site as a source, evaluate it first for reputability and timeliness. It is also important that you consider the purpose of a website, reliability of the sponsors and author’s credibility.
Step Three: Develop a thesis statement
To be effective, your thesis statement should express the major focus of your expository essay while stating an arguable claim. A thesis statement acts like a bridge of your essay. This is because it has a claim and its supporting details. Being able to develop a tentative thesis is an important step of a guide on how to write an expository essay. Therefore, come up with a claim or sentence that takes a stance on the given topic, debatable, and based on generalization. Ensure that your thesis statement tells readers the point that you will be making in the essay. Also include supporting details to reinforce your claim.
Claim: Depression as a condition is complex.
Supporting details: It can be caused by different factors including environmental, genetic and biological factors.
Thesis statement: Depression as a condition is complex because it can be caused by environmental, genetic and biological factors combined.
Step Four: Write the introduction
The introduction of your expository essay should reveal or introduce your topic while establishing a context for your essay to the readers. It is important that you consider your audience while writing the introduction. Make them excited or curious to read your essay. Give readers background information about your topic to enable them to understand the key point in your essay. Use the introduction to establish a roadmap for the analysis or discussion of the essay.
Step Five: Write the body
The body of an expository essay is a detailed part in which you present or address your supporting details in fully-developed, separate paragraphs. It is important that you include relevant information or evidence as gathered from research. Introduce the supporting details of your essay using a topic sentence to open each paragraph.
Generally, the body of an expository essay should have the following:
- A topic sentence
- Specific details and their explanation
- An example such as a quotation
- A transition paragraph that links one paragraph to the next
A good expository essay should have at least two body paragraphs with each having a minimum of 100 words.
Example of a topic sentence:
There are several factors which cause depression.
Step Six: Write the conclusion
The conclusion should bring your expository essay to a close. Though a conclusion ought to be like an introduction, it should be worded differently. Using the conclusion, you should summarize and reiterate your main points.
A good conclusion should have the following:
- Relevance: It should repeat the topic’s importance.
- Review: It should reiterate the main points of the essay.
- Summary: It should summarize the conclusions made in the essay.
Relevance: Thousands of women, children and men are affected by depression each year and majority of them do not get help.
Review: The focus of this essay was on causes, symptoms and the available depression treatments.
Summary: There are many devastating consequences of depression apart from its effects on the sufferers and those living with them. Through education however, people affected by this painful condition can be reached.
The conclusion should be like an introduction but it should restate the stated thesis statement using different words. Note that no new information should be included in the conclusion. Leave readers with a feeling that your expository essay has come to an end logically by wrapping up the main thoughts while reviewing the main points.
Five bonus tips on how to write an expository essay
- Structure your expository essay properly
Regardless of the pattern that you choose for organizing your expository essay, include an introduction that has a defined, clear thesis statement at the end. Have body paragraphs that cover your main points. Have a clear topic sentence for each body paragraph. Additionally, make sure that the information that you include in the body paragraphs is factual, statistical, anecdotal or logical. Finally, end your expository essay with a conclusion that reflects your thesis statement and main points of your body paragraphs. To know how to structure an expository essay, use an expository essay sample. Click here for an example of an expository essay.
- Write about something good
When allowed the freedom to choose the topic of your expository essay, choose something good. For instance, if you are required to write about a short story, read and understand before you start writing your expository essay. While reading, ask yourself questions that will enable you to understand the story better. For instance, what you would do if you were a character in the story? Do you like or hate the characters and why? Such questions will enable you to synthesize the story before you start writing.
- Make your essay informative
Remember that expository is the same as informative. Therefore, an important tip on how to write an expository essay is to flood readers with ideas or knowledge. However, make sure that they are relevant. Visit the library, read magazine and conduct online research to get detailed information. Be prudent and sensible while conducting research and reference your sources accordingly.
- Ensure that your brain is a roaring and seething idea-generator
Combine different techniques to generate ideas for your expository essay. Use graphical presentation and clustering to generate ideas. Ask meticulous questions and be self-inquisitive throughout the process of writing an essay.
- Revise your essay
Once you have written your essay, revise it and rewrite where necessary to ensure coherent flow of ideas and paragraphs. Make sure that each paragraph is developed properly with ideas flowing logically. Make sure that the main thesis statement is supported by the paragraphs of the body directly. The conclusion should match the essay.
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Writing an Argumentative Essay
An argumentative essay is an essay that requires you as a writer to defend a position on the subject or topic matter based on personal experience, historical or literature examples as well as research to support your point of view. When writing an argumentative essay, you can use different arguments to prove your point.
However, good argumentative essay writing should be based on three qualities including
- Being precise in the argument and in use of terms
- Grounding in evidence you provide
- Being clear and concise in prose
Therefore, it is imperative to follow a clear outline for writing the essay and follow a step by step process to help you write a successful essay
Writing an argumentative essay outline
An argumentative essay should have a
- Body paragraphs including paragraph 1 (topic sentence, main argument of the paragraph and specific examples supporting the main or topic sentence) and paragraph two and three……
- Conclusion which is a brief summary of the thesis and muses on the implications of the thesis
The Title– offer a brief and catchy summation of the main argument. The title should tell the reader what you will argue about in the essay and it depends on your stance.
The introduction– open your essay with a hook to grab the attention of readers. You can pose a question or puzzle that you the essay will later resolve. Whatever strategy you use, keep it brief, clear and ensure it offers a solid bridge to your thesis statement.
It is imperative to avoid general statements that make unsupportable and sweeping claims in the introduction. Warm up sentences are also not necessary in the introduction because they do not contribute anything important to your argument.
You should additionally include a thesis statement in the introduction. This should be one or two sentences long presenting your main idea to target audience. Ideally, you need a brief thesis that explains to readers your main reasons behind your stance or statement. Therefore, you need to brainstorm in length before you start writing an argumentative essay.
Body– each body paragraph should begin with a topic sentence. This is because it announces the argument of the paragraph and how the paragraph will support the overall argument of the essay. The other paragraphs should go ahead to present and explain evidence supporting the topic sentence.
When writing an argumentative essay body paragraphs, avoid putting everything in one paragraph. Have each idea in a paragraph to develop one distinct idea clearly. Squeezing all ideas in one paragraph makes your essay boring to read.
The conclusion-provide a simple summary of your main idea or argument in the conclusion. Note that a good argumentative essay will always have an established core argument by the end of the essay body. Therefore, it is essential to use the conclusion to raise sum up the paper and raise ideas that flow from your argument and evidence.
You can also use the conclusion to offer lessons that people should draw from your argument in today’s age and era. You will realize interesting parallels to another time, issue or place or you will have found interesting emotional or personal reaction to the material.
It is therefore important to be thoughtful and speculative in your conclusion. Note that after presenting solid evidence supporting your claim in the body of the essay, you will have earned the right as an author to share your ideas in broad with target audience in the conclusion.
The process of writing an argumentative essay
Start by reading and identifying the big questions and issues that the assignment focuses on. Your tutor or professor might have focused on the same during your course. Therefore, take clear notes on your readings and identify relevant examples in regards to the theme and issue of the paper. With a main theme, drafting your essay becomes an easy task
Ensure that you understand the argumentative essay question and follow the outline for writing an argumentative essay
Gather solid evidence to support your argument and build your outline. Review your readings and notes to include only relevant evidence to your assignment. Create an ideal spatial environment to allow you to develop each with evidence.
Write a rough draft by starting with a short introductory paragraph, body and conclusion. Do not forget to start each paragraph with a topic sentence that conveys the main argument therein.
More advice on drafting
When writing an argumentative essay rough draft, do not aim for perfection. This is just a piece that helps you to have a clear picture of main and compelling ideas from your outline. It is also a prewriting process that tests your examples and ideas and you can always make adjustments.
If you get stuck with a rough draft, sit back and reflect on the handout of your assignment or outline. Check for relevant and irrelevant statements and delete those that do not add any value to your essay.
Quickly revisit the introduction and ensure that your thesis statement is strong enough and corresponds to what the body of the essay argues about. In many cases, arguments will evolve in the drafting process hence the need to adjust it to reflect your ideas in the main essay.
Create your title – consider titles that are interesting
Revise the rough draft and determine whether the introduction is clear and explains the main argument of the essay and answer the following questions
- Do the body paragraphs flow in a logical manner to help readers understand your overall argument?
- Do the paragraphs start with topic sentences and have enough evidence supporting the main idea?
- Are your sentences clear and grammatically correct
- Have you trimmed unnecessary statements?
- Are your quotes long and needs to be shorted?
- Have you cited your sources accurately and correctly?
Most importantly, use passionate language; provide facts, evidence and accurate statistics to support your argument. You need good and enough reasons to enhance your claim. It is also good to address the opposing side when writing an argumentative essay and refute their claims as well.
It is also good to ensure logical transitions in your statements as you support your argument. Note that an argument is always two sided and as you pick your thesis and develop your argument, the ideas should flow well. Therefore, concisely present your ideas to the reader and make a fair judgment for or against your claims.
For the conclusion, you need a very good summary. Do it with energy by wrapping up and revisiting the thesis statement.
What to avoid when writing an argumentative essay
- Choose interesting topics, stay away from irrelevant subjects and avoid writing on subjects that are not double sided
- Avoid any unattributed statements
- Avoid passive voice statements
- Use past tense when writing about past statements or events
- Avoid the use of slang and casual language in your writing
- Do not end a body paragraph with a sentence introducing the main idea of the next paragraph
- Write with a parallel structure i.e. the same word patterns especially when making a list of abstract things or things
Examples of argumentative essays
Example 1: Cigarette Smoking
Cigarette smoking and packet branding are some of the issues by a lot of controversy. Many people question moral understanding and legality of the government in regards to allowing smoking of cigarette, considering that the cigarette packets are clearly branded with indications that they can cause harm to human health. Most of the cigarette packs bear the signs; Smoking is injurious to health.’ The greatest concern is why the state has failed to ban cigarette smoking…………………………………………………………….
Read this essay here and see how the author argues his stance.
Should government invest more money in building shelter house?
Shelter is a basic need for the survival of humans and no one can contentedly live without a good house. Many of the non-governmental and state institutes go through a wide range of operations to protect their citizens from the effects of being homeless (Australia, 2012, p.93). Nonetheless lack of good housing is still a major issue for many states across the globe as well as forces itself into various social systems of the community. Essentially, there are different types of shelters and they include permanent and semi-permanent shelter………………………………………..
Go through this essay and get more ideas on how to write an argumentative essay.
Financial Education and Management Curriculum
Financial management involves the effective use of the available limited resources in different plans. Normally, this is realized through incorporation of development projects that seem viable. This management goes ahead to ensure accountability through effective management of resources that are available via regular audits and record keeping activities. Therefore, it is an important field in the entire economic sector that involves making financial decisions.
Get more ideas on how to write and organize an argumentative essay by reading this piece.
With the above information, you should be able to write a good argumentative essay. If you still experience difficulty in writing your paper, you can always contact us for professional help and essays that stand out.
2008 Financial Crisis
The 2008 financial crisis is considered by many economists across the globe as the worst recession after the Great Depression of 1929-1930. It was a serious economic state despite efforts by the Treasury department and the Federal Reserve to prevent it and the US banking system from collapsing.
Due to the crisis, housing prices fell by 31.8percent more than that of the Great Depression. Two years after the 2008 financial crisis, the recession ended but the rate of unemployment was still high. Many people had given up looking for jobs and they were no longer counted amongst the jobless. The number was alarming.
What caused the 2008 financial crisis?
According to economists and researchers, signs of a financial crisis were evident from mid-2007. The first cause was linked to a fall in housing prices in 2006. Many realtors by 2006 were however relieved because, they thought housing prices and housing market would normally resume or rise to a sustainable level.
The realtors however failed to realize that many homeowners had a questionable credit rating. Many homeowners had loans for more than 100 percent of their home’s value. A large number of financial institutions and mortgage lenders had also resold mortgages in packages. This was part of mortgage backed securities.
Initially, Federal Reserve always thought a subprime crisis would affect other sectors but would always be isolated to housing market. However, financial institutions across different parts of the globe and hedge funds owned most homes in form of mutual funds, pension funds and corporate assets.
It is also good to note that original mortgages had been resold in pieces and the remaining actual derivatives were impossible to price. The value of the mortgages plummeted and investors across the globe started to panic.
Many pension funds institutions bought risky assets thinking that they would be protected from downsides risks. As a matter of fact, many owned insurance in the form of credit default swaps but it could not help to prevent the 2008 financial crisis.
After a short span of time, financial institutions began to panic. They realized that they were the only ones to absorb losses as a result of poor credit by many homeowners. No one wanted to be caught up in the crisis. Banks started to exercise caution and avoided lending money to each other. They tried to avoid situations where they could get stuck with worthless mortgages as their collateral. Inter-banking costs or interbank borrowing costs rose in the end aggregating the situation.
What was the cost of the 2008 financial crisis?
The Treasury department spent up to $150 billion to subsidize the economy and to finally take up Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Federal Reserve on the other hand had to use $85 billion and eventually $150 billon to bail out the AIG. Federal Reserve had to pump liquidity into the banking but it was not enough.
In March 2008, many investors went for Beas Stearns because it was rumored to have the worthless assets. Bear later approached Morgan Chase to bail it out from the situation. In September 19, 2008, the crisis led to run on Ultra Safe Money Market Funds. Within a short span of time, businesses moved to safer Treasury bonds.
Safer Treasury bonds sustained many businesses. Later on, $350 was used to buy automotive company stocks because the prices were depressed. By 2010, banks had picked up and paid back $194 billion.
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Oxidative phosphorylation refers to a metabolic pathway where cells’ mitochondria use their enzymes, structure and energy that is released by nutrients’ oxidation in reforming ATP. Oxidation phosphorylation is simplified as OXPHOS. Despite different life forms in the planet earth using different types of nutrients, ATP is the sole molecule that offers energy to the metabolism process. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in almost every aerobic organism.
As a pathway, oxidative phosphorylation is perhaps, so pervasive since it allows for a highly efficient way via which energy is released as compared to the alternative processes of fermentation such as the anaerobic glycolysis. Electrons transfer takes place during the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
Electrons transfer occurs when electrons are moved from the electron donors to the electron acceptors such as redox reactions and oxygen. Redox reactions that take place during oxidative phosphorylation release energy. This energy is used in the formation of ATP. Redox reactions in the eukaryotes are performed by several protein complexes in the intermembrane wall mitochondria of the cell. In the prokaryotes, the proteins are situated in the inter-membrane space of the cells. The linked protein sets are known as the electron transport chains. In the eukaryotes, there are five major protein complexes that are involved. On the other hand, prokaryotes have various enzymes that use different electron donors as well as acceptors.
Energy that is released when the electrons flow via this process of electron transport chain is basically used in the transport of protons across inner membrane of mitochondria in a process known as the electron transport. This process also produces potential energy in pH gradient form. It also generates electrical potential across the membrane. This creates a store for energy that is tapped by letting proteins flow back across mitochondrial membrane downing this gradient via large enzyme known as ATP synthase. This process is called chemiosmosis.
The energy is used by the enzyme in generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate in the phosphorylation reaction. Proton flow drives this reaction which in turn forces rotation forces of the part of enzyme. ATP synthase acts as the rotary mechanical motor of the process.
Despite being an important metabolism part, oxidative phosphorylation produces reactive species of oxygen including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide which then leads to the propagation of the free radicals which damage cells and facilitating diseases and senescence or aging. Many poisons and drugs that inhibit activities of the enzymes that carry out oxidative phosphorylation target them.
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Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide simply called NAD refers to a coenzyme that is found in every living cell. This compound is the dinucleotide and since it has two nucleotides that are joined via phosphate groups. One of the nucleotides has a nicotinamide and the other an adenine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually found in two forms. These are the reduced form and in the oxidized forms abbreviated as NADH and NAD respectively.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually involved in the redox reactions in metabolism. It carries electrons across different reactions. Therefore, the coenzyme is found in two different forms in the living cells. These are the oxidizing agent NAD+ which accepts electrons from the other molecules becoming reduced. The reaction forms the NADH with is then possible to reduce as the reducing agent that donates electrons.
The electron transfer reactions are the major role of the NAD. Nevertheless, NAD is also used in cellular processes with enzyme substrate being the most notable that removes or add chemical groups from the proteins in the posttranslational modifications. Due to the crucial role of the functions of NAD, the enzymes that are involved in its metabolism are the targets of drug discovery.
In living organisms, synthesis of NAD can result from the simple building blocks the de novo. This is from amino acids aspartic acid and tryptophan. In the alternative fashion, complex components of coenzymes are usually taken up from the food in form of a vitamin known as niacin.
There are similar compounds that are released by the reactions that break NAD’s structure down. The preformed components pass via salvage pathway recycling them into an active form. There is also NAD that is converted to Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, simplified as NADP. Chemistry of the coenzyme is like that of the NAD. However, its roles in the metabolism process are different.
Despite NAD+ being written with the sign of superscript plus due to its formal charge in a certain nitrogen atom, for most part at the physiological pH is a singly-charged anion. The charge is that of minus 1. On the other hand, NADH is doubly-charged anion. For Haemophilus influenza growth, NAD is considered as the V factor. Just like other dinucleotides, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has the two nucleotides that are joined by phosphate groups as their bridge. They also have ribose rings with one having adenine that is attached to first atom of carbon while the other is with the nicotinamide.
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