Thesis: The BP Oil Spill and Its Effects
Offshore drilling involves a mechanical process that is employed in extracting petroleum around the seabed. Oil companies establish drilling rigs in a platform, which create holes in the seabed to extract oil. The platforms are stationed at the shore. In April 2010, an explosion occurred around the Macondo well (MC 252), a BP-owned oil well at the Gulf of Mexico, causing an oil spill in the sea. The oil spill was termed as the worst tragedy that has ever effected on environment in the US. Several investigations were carried out, and concluded that the Deepwater Horizon incident could have been avoided, since it was a series of mistakes that BP failed to put into consideration. The oil spill had an effect on wildlife and their surroundings in more than one way. The effects of explosion and oil spill that occurred at the Deepwater Horizon due to defective well plan will continue to be felt by both human beings and wildlife across America for many years to come.
Factors that led to Explosion
Transocean Ltd owned the Deepwater Horizon, situated at the Gulf Coast, near Louisiana. BP had contracted Transocean to drill oil wells, and just before the explosion, the two companies were preparing to close the wells temporarily, as they waited to engage in commercial production. Another company, Halliburton, was awarded a contract by BP to cement the casings and to work on the rig. Most of the reports that were carried out about the oil spill pointed out BP as solely responsible for the blowout, although BP blamed Transocean and Halliburton (Petroski 300). The principle factors that resulted to explosion include:
1. Faulty cement job: The blowout and oil spill which occurred at the Deepwater Horizon, situated in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, was due to lack of proper well plan, where cement was not applied at the right width to protect the casing (Aeberman). Halliburton, the company that was subcontracted to cement the casings used merely 51 barrels of cement, which was according to the plan of the well. However, this amount was not enough guarantee of a sealing of the well. According to Petroski, even without regard to who was responsible, cementing job was ineffective, and happened to be the foremost factor that led to the disaster (296).
2. Loss of hydrocarbons: A report made by BP indicated that the rig exploded due to the release of hydrocarbons into the air. Transocean crew did not notice the flooding of hydrocarbons filling the well until when the hydrocarbons had risen well in the riser. Transocean Company did not address the issue of high flow of gas in case of emergency. Instead of rerouting hydrocarbons overboard, the gas was passed onto the rig.
3. Faulty pressure test readings: The supervisors from BP and Transocean companies failed to deduce proper results concerning the pressure test inside the Macondo well. BP opted to ignore the tests that indicated unsafe pressure levels, since it was hurrying to conclude on the project. Several safety tests that pointed faults on the project were misinterpreted officials from BP Company.
4. Gas entering the riser. The gas that was coming from the reservoir could have weakened the stickiness of the cement. The internal investigation, carried out by BP, indicated that the methane gas that fleed from the well expanded rapidly, as it climbed up to the riser. The drilling supervisors had recognized the presence of gas in the drilling fluid, as a gas flare could be viewed leaving the diverter line inside the riser (Aeberman). The crew purposely immobilized all the automatic functions that could have given them an indication of the rising gas.
5. Well control response failure. The Macondo well, which was situated about a mile below the sea’s surface, could not block the leakage, thus, allowing millions of gallons of oil to spill into the sea. When the well began to leak, inappropriate immediate response decisions were made. The crew rerouted the mud flow towards the mud-gas separator, instead of directing it overboard.
6. Gas routed to a low pressure system. During the sheen test, the crew redirected the hydrocarbons flow towards a system of low pressure.
7. Fire and gas system failure. Due to rapid flow of gas through the ventilation into the engine room, a condition for explosion was created, causing the fire and gas structure to fail in preventing explosion. The low presence of hydrocarbons in the well created only a small section of the rig to be electrically classified, which could prevent sparking.
8.Faulty blowout preventer (BOP):The blowout preventer (BOP) incorporates the cutoff valves, act as the defense to prevent unintentional releases. BOPs are capable of stopping a capacious pipe with a force of about one million pounds. According to the US Congressional Investigators, the BOP had a hydraulic leak, as well as a faulty battery, thus could not stop the oil spill (Deepwater Horizon blowout preventer). The group also reported that the BOP could not operate effectively, as it had been modified.
The Effects of the Oil Spill
- Facts about the spill
BP lacked the capacity to place adequate controls to ensure that all decisions made concerning the operation were safe according to engineering viewpoint. A report from the presidential commission blamed BP, the company that owned the well, as well as Transocean and Hallliburton, the companies that dealt with sealing of the well. The commission identified the following problems:
- A flawed design, which allowed a thinner block of cement to seal the well at the bottom
- The test of the seal had recognized the problem, but poor judgment allowed the procedure to go on
- Workers did not recognize early warning signs of imminent blowout
- Defective design of the blowout preventer, which was the final line in defense.
On its part, BP claimed that the accident resulted from various causes, which included involvement of multiple companies. Transocean Ltd evaded the blame by claiming that the procedures that were carried out a day before the tragedy were under instructions of BP engineers while the federal regulators had approved the procedures.
A few days after the tragedy, BP received a supply of dispersants called Corexit, a substance that could transform oil into beads that could sink to the bottom of the sea. Critics fouled BP, claiming that mixture of oil and Corexit is even more toxic to marine life than oil or Corexit itself (Corexit, Oil Dispersant Used by BP). Many scientists believe that the mixture of dispersants with oil can create a greater harm than oil alone.
Oil spills created negative impacts along the coastlines, on the surface of the sea, at the bottom of the sea and the surrounding environments. Due to a fragile ecosystem that is found at the Gulf Coast, different types of animals and plants became vulnerable to the oil spill in their natural habitats (Dragovic). Delayed and prolonged reaction to a disaster of such magnitude contributed to rapid spread of toxic substances, thus, interfering with wildlife and grasses. Consequently, many marine animals lost their lives due to exposure to toxics.
- Effects of oil on beaches, marine life, and birds
The long-term effects of oil may not be known, but the breaking of food chain is a tragedy to marine life. Oil is usually lighter than water; hence, it floats and spread over the water surface. Floating oil contaminates living organisms, such as algae and larvae of numerous invertebrates, which are the food for fish (Effects of Oil on Wildlife). When fish feed on these organisms, they ingest toxic substances from oil. Human beings and other large animals also become infected with toxic substances when they eat fish. Birds may lose the capability to fly, or dive for food if they feed over oily waters. Birds can also die if they inhale oil while their eggs are damaged when oiled birds step on them.
Oil can stay in the environment for many years after spilling. According to the US Fish and Wildlife Service agency, when oil is spilled on the sandy each, it can sink into the sediments and create a long-term impact on fish and other wildlife species (Effects of Oil on Wildlife). Sea turtles and shellfish could be affected by oil spills, as they depend on sea shores for nesting and survival. The short-term effects of spill included the reduction of fish in the water and loss of grass along the nearby wetlands.
- Effects on costal residents
Oil spills has affected businesses and the overall economy of people living in Southern Alabama. Tourism and food industries along the coastline have severely been affected by the disaster. Dead dolphins have been swept to the beaches along the Gulf Coast, as scientists endeavor to investigate the cause of the death (Mancuso and Fox 3). Lack of breeding grounds for fish and other marine animals will have long-term impacts on the lives of people around the coastal regions. Fishing activities around the Gulf Coast have reduced due to interference of the food web, which consequently led to low fish production. The oil that reached the coastline restricted tourists from visiting the shores. Some oil went as far as the Louisiana marshlands, killing the marsh grass.
Poor decisions made by BP and Transocean companies concerning the oil-rig safety test caused an explosion that resulted in oil spill at the Gulf Coast. The long-term effects spilling 200 million gallons of oil in the Gulf of Mexico, in addition to 1.4 million gallons of dispersant, is fairly hard to imagine (Mancuso and Fox 2). The oil spill at the Deepwater Horizon was escapable, were it not for the numerous mistakes made by the companies that undertook the operation to establish the rig. Flawed decisions led to a compromise of people’s safety, as well as environmental vulnerability. All blames were pointed to BP, as well as the federal government, for failing to check on safety regulations. The Deepwater Horizon incident offers an effective example of how humans’ behavior can result in disastrous effects on people’s lives, as well as other living organisms.
“Corexit, Oil Dispersant Used By BP, Is Destroying Gulf Marine Life, Scientists Say,” Huffingtonpost, April 25, 2013. Web. 8 Apr. 2014 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/25/corexit-bp-oil-dispersant_n_3157080.html
“Deepwater Horizon blowout preventer ‘faulty’ – Congress.” BBC News, May 13, 2010.Web. 8 Apr. 2014 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8679090.stm
“Effects of Oil on Wildlife and Habitat.” U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 2010. Web. 8 April 2014 http://www.fws.gov/home/dhoilspill/pdfs/dhjicfwsoilimpactswildlifefactsheet.pdf
Aeberman. “What caused the Deepwater Horizon disaster?” The Oil Drum, May 21, 2010. Web. 8 April 2014 http://www.theoildrum.com/node/6493
Biello, David. “How Did the BP Oil Spill Affect Gulf Coast Wildlife? [Slide Show]” Scientific American, April 20, 2011. Web. 8 April 2014 http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-did-bp-oil-spill-affect-gulf-of-mexico-wildlife-and-ecosystems/
Dragovic, Deja. “Environmental Impact on the BP Oil Spill.” Livinggreen Magazine, March 19, 2013 http://livinggreenmag.com/2013/03/19/energy-ecology/environmental-impact-of-the-bp-oil-spill/
Mancuso, Louis C., and Marjorie Anne Fox. “BP Oil Spill Drains Alabama Economy – Again.”Franklin Business & Law Journal 2012.2 (2012): 1-20. Business Source Complete. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
Petroski, Henry. To Forgive Design: Understanding Failure. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2012. Internet resource.
The Idea of Global Culture Americanization is unfounded
In We Are All Americans, Verdu writes that civilization has simply been more about Americanization. He argues that the American model of life is reflected in community life, art, money or sex in virtually all parts of the world. For example, the US has ensured that democracy is practiced everywhere. Global phenomena, such as transparency, ecology, hard-line feminism, acceptance of multiculturalism, military gaysm, nontraditional partnerships, and marriage began in the US before spreading elsewhere. The world is systematically adopting the American way of life since they admire America’s social freedom and material abundance. France has been adopting start-ups characteristic of Silicon Valley, Bangkok boasts a yen for the American babies while many countries have been embracing the American-style wage structure and stock options. In The Noble Feat of Nike, Norberg looks at how Nike, as a global brand, has transformed the lives of many people in the developing world, particularly Vietnam. For instance, it guarantees regular wages, free medical services, training, and education. Such companies are liked in these countries since they offer comparatively better wages when compared to other institutions. Norberg argues that the US multinational companies have taken new machinery, new management skills, and better technology to developing countries, thereby increasing productivity. Furthermore, any American MNC pays about eight times the average income. As such, they are playing a crucial role in enhancing the economies of these countries. One author who disputes the idea of global Americanization is Andrew Lam. In his article, All Things Asian Are Becoming Us, he argues that, in fact, the US is being invaded with the Asian culture and it appears that the Americans are systematically embracing it. For instance, movies from Japan, South Korea, and China have become so popular that famous producers, such as Quentin Tarantino are making kung fu movies in Asian languages. The Americans have also embraced the Asian phenomena, such as acupuncture, incense, ginseng, beef noodle soup, and Confucian dramas. Currently, the Americans are in love with sushi. Buddhism, widely associated with India, is now an important religion in the country, with Los Angeles hosting more than 300 Buddhist temples. For this paper, I argue that, even though the American culture remains influential across many cultures, globalization is a process that brings together different cultures each having considerable influence on the others. In particular, I have the position that in as much as the American culture has re-shaped the cultures in many countries, the traditions from these countries have also had considerable influences on the US. Therefore, the idea that the world is becoming Americanized is unfounded.
The notion of Americanization is unfounded
Tu Weiming, a scholar based at Harvard, once remarked that this is the “era where various traditions exist side by side for the first time for the picking” (Lam 39). From this statement, there emerges an understanding that globalization is quickly becoming de-centered and any part of the world can influence the other (Giddens 20). Globalization is the strengthening of global social relations that connect distant regions and it is illustrated by the manner in which local activities are shaped by events that take place miles way (Guillen 250). Therefore, chances are quite low that the other national cultures will be consumed by the American culture. As such, the notion that “the American way has become the global paradigm, and the world follows its example, follows its orders and those of its representatives at the International Monetary Fund or the World Bank” is unfounded. While the United States is exporting some aspects of its culture to the rest of the world, it is also accepting cultures from other nations. At present, the US has the largest community of immigrants in the world. The Africans, Asians, and Europeans are coming to the US each year, bringing with them their cultures. These persons do not simply abandon their traditions. Instead, they combine elements of their cultures with the American way of life. What results is a cosmopolitan society that practices a hybridized lifestyle.
The perspective that globalization is Americanization is quite inaccurate. Associating globalization with Americanization is like viewing the world from a defunct perspective. Many scholars simply examine how the “United States influences the world. What many tend to overlook, in the age of porous borders, is how much the world has changed the United States” (Lam 37). Globalization has simply brought together different cultures each influencing the other in some way. Accordingly, the cultures from such countries as China, Japan, Vietnam, and South Koreas are increasingly being adopted in the United States, with the Americans being attracted to the movies or literary books from these nations. For instance, “Sales of Japanese comic books, DVDs and videocassettes reached $500 million in the United States last year” (Lam 37).
In essence, while the American culture remains influential in several parts of the globe, the US is also being influenced largely by foreign cultures. “Evidence of the Easternization of America is piling up” (Lam 37). Many aspects of culture traditionally belonging to China, Japan or South Korea, such as Kung Fu, Confucian dram, acupuncture, or ginseng have now become part of the American culture. There are also numerous examples illustrating how the Americans have adopted technologies from these nations. This is evidenced in the embracing of the Japanese animation technology, with numerous anime shows featuring on the cable channels. The Japanese movie, Spirited Away, alsooutperformed Disney movies to receive the Oscar awards in 2003.
It could occur to many people that globalization is synonymous to Americanization due to a number of reasons. For instance, it has played an essential role in changing the political ideals of many nations. “Thanks to the example of the United States, a large part of the world takes democracy as a natural value. Almost no nation for many years now has dared to declare itself anything except a democracy (Verdu 24). In the past, the US has promoted democratic elections in countries, such as Japan and South Korea, thereby ensuring stability (Fackler para. 2). Even though some people may argue that this shows that other “American social and political ideas are also taking hold,” this does not imply the world is Americanizing.
The American culture largely remains influential on the other cultures across the globe. The culture has had a considerable contribution to the politics, economic development, and the civil rights movements in the Asian nations, such as Japan, South Korea or Vietnam. However, the cultures form these countries have also remained influential on the American culture. The net effect is a hybrid culture that draws from both the cultures. In other words, these nations have not been Americanized per se.
Fackler, Martin. “U.S. Emerges as Central Stage in Asian Rivalry.” The New York Times, 22 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 March 2014
Giddens, Anthony. Runaway World. London: Profile, 2011. Print.
Guillen, Mauro F. “Is Globalization Civilizing, Destructive Or Feeble? A Critique of Five Key Debates in the Social Science Literature.” Annual Review of Sociology 27 (2001): 235-60.
Lam, Andrew. “All things Asian are becoming US.” SF Gate, 19 Dec. 2004. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
Norberg, Johan. “The Noble Feat of Nike”. Yale Global Online. 13 Jun. 2003. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
Verdu, Vicente. “We are all Americans.” World Press Review. 27 Apr. 2002. Web. 8 Apr. 2014.
DISPENSING CONDOMS TO HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
According to a recent article “Making the Case”, the Santa Barbara school district board has been considering distributing free condoms to high school students. The implementation of this program means that condoms will be distributed non-discriminatorily to any students who need them. Perhaps the board could also provide secure havens where students will be conducting sexual experiments. According to the article, availing free condoms to students will have a long-term impact of preventing increasing levels of unwanted pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. The turning point of this decision is that no plans of parental consent or prior sexual counseling have been put in place. Some people undeniably support the board’s program by arguing that the decision will help combat the pandemic of STDs and the rising levels of teenage pregnancies. However, the decision of distributing condoms to the teenagers will be an act of taking away powers inherent in parents of taking care of their children. In particular, providing condoms to high school students will only worsen the situation rather than taming it “…it is essentially promoting a behavior that it should be helping to reduce” (p 281).
It has been universally agreed that high school students are active in sexual encounters and in any case, the prevalence of STDs and teenage pregnancies is increasing. This has been reckoned in a report by the Guttmacher Institute where about 60 percent of teenagers in their senior year in high school have already had sex (p 281). On real terms, the use of condoms reduces the spread of STDs and prevalence of unwanted pregnancies. Then, one wonders whether it is the responsibility of the board to distribute condoms to these students. Providing condoms for supposedly safe sex would be tantamount to giving students the go ahead to indulge in the activity at will. It is also true that many students of high school age smoke marijuana and drink alcohol. Equally, the school board should provide pure grade marijuana and school-based clubs so that students do not rot in facilities provided outside. Therefore, providing condoms will be admitting to the students’ wayward behavior and only directing them to do it in a more responsible manner “we know you are going to have sex, we accept the behavior, and we want to help you be responsible about it” (p 281). However, according to this article, the correct message for a teenager would be to abstain.
Students as young as in lower high school level have been exposed to literature on research findings on teenage sex issues. Among them is that by the time students reach their higher levels in high school, more than 50 percent of them tend to have engaged in sex. Recommendations that accompany these findings propose particular programs that would reduce the rate of sexual encounters among teenagers. In addition, the current generation curriculum contains classes on the dangers of teenage sex. It has therefore come into limelight that the board’s proposition is in conflict with what students are being taught in class. To avoid issues of STDS and pregnancies as voiced by the board, students are taught to practice abstinence. To this effect, the board is sending mixed message to the students by encouraging them to say yes to sex so long as they use condoms. In addition, distributing condoms to schools will be accepting the fact that the extent of the behavior cannot be reversed. However, the school board should be inclined to the positive side of less sexual activities rather than more. The author of this article argues that, “by dispensing condoms to students, however, they slant the change in the direction of more sexual activity rather than less” (p 281).
The school board is on the right path in trying to implement some of the strategies that can be used to prevent the prevalence of STDs and unwanted pregnancies. In particular, the use of condoms reduces the most common negative consequences associated with sexual activities by 60 percent. However, by providing condoms, the board will not be sure of reducing the prevalence of the phenomena. In this, there are factors that drive teenagers into giving in to sexual activities. For instance, teenage girls are normally under pressure not to undermine their boyfriends by declining to have sex “…279 teenage girls they interviewed, many said they’d given in to unwanted sex…” (p 281). According to the author, rather helpful programs would be organizing for separate counseling classes for both boys and girls where boys are advised not to force girls into having premature sexual activities. On the other hand, girls would be taught on methods of avoiding the boys’ sexual approaches (p 281).
According to a report by the Gallup Group, for many years ago, a big percentage of the American population smoked cigarettes. However, a recent research conducted by this group found out that this trend has declined tremendously. According to this article, the reason behind people quitting cigarette smoking has been the widespread national campaigns with the message of the dangers of smoking. When large numbers of men and women used to smoke recklessly, the government of the United States did not admit that the behavior was irreversible. In actual sense, the health ministry did not recommend low-nicotine cigarettes. In this case, providing condoms to high school students is like an act of prescribing low-nicotine cigarettes to smokers. Instead, stop-teenage-sex campaigns would be the most appropriate strategy in curbing the spread of STDs and unwanted pregnancies. According to this article, the government and the health ministry “…strongly advised smokers to stop” (p 282). Therefore, considering the role of the board in shaping the behavior of high school students, it should never be inclined to support any of their wayward behaviors, be it sex, alcoholism, or drug use. Generally, teenage sex is morally unacceptable and thus it should not be propped by providing condoms.
Child abuse is the action of imposing or permitting infliction of bodily, fleshly or emotive maltreatment or harm upon a child. A parent, close relative, family colleague, or other grown-up may enact childhood manipulation. “Abusive practices may become possible when an adult misuses the authority, trust, as well as vulnerability that describes child/adult interactions” (Gianna 3). In a significant number of circumstances, the abusing adults may be so devoted in attaining their personal desires, or simply responding to emotional situations, that they do not recognize their deed as causing pain, mistreatment as well as distress. Just as parents frequently do not realize that their action is abusive, large sections of adult society have difficulties recognizing that child abuse is real and it does exist. “Adult fighters of child abuse may be uninformed that they were abused during babyhood, and if they are alert, these individuals may choose to disregard it and proceed on with their lives “(Finkelman 120). This is because child abuse is merely not a topic one carelessly deliberates with kinfolk and associates.
In case a child is abused emotionally or gets a minimal amount of physical abuse, the abuse itself can be difficult to detect and is rarely reported, nevertheless, no matter how much abuse a child receives, there are always consequences. In most cases, children cultivate a diversity of surviving strategies to handle abusive conditions (Gianna 5). Unfortunately, these coping mechanisms may not continue to be effective as the person matures. Therefore, the story regarding Baby Storm is based on child abuse because it leads to emotional abuse of the child throughout his life. From the article, despite the fact that “child development experts highly praised the family`s efforts to bring up their child free of the constraints of gender stereotypes, they say the parents have embarked on a psychological experiment that could be possibly devastating.” Accordingly, this is a child abuse issue because “having a sense of self and personal identity is a critical part of normal healthy development.” Therefore, by hiding the identity of a child from the day he or she is born inhibits the child’s social growth and sets the child up for bullying, scapegoating, as well as sidelining.
It is noted that a significant number of parents are always eager to learn the sex of their child. Statistics show that 66 percent of eighteen to thirty four year olds declared that they would rather know the sex of the child before it is born (Linsey and Susan 6). “Every person has sexual identity.” The duty to have manly and womanly characters more balanced and more flexible and not disapproving is overwhelming in a perfect society. Conversely, people take self-importance in their gender distinctiveness. Therefore, from these views, it is clear that the decision that was taken by these parents of not revealing their child’s identity to the society or taking the child as a gender-neutral was a terrible idea that could result in the child being emotionally abused as he grows up. From studies, child growth professionals have incorporated a more flexible view of sexual grouping ever since the sexual revolt. For instance, it is declared that the categories of boys were that they were independent, non-sympathetic, strong, as well as virtuous at warfare, whereas girls were skilled to be sympathetic and compassionate as well as more cultivating. However, that is not the case in the present days as women have developed into being more viable, violent, and self-determining, while men are permitted to cry.
Studies affirm that gender nonconformity is a sensitive issue, and parents who rejoice in their children can be arbitrated severely. Such issues are the cause of child abuse, although parents may not recognize that they are harming or causing trouble for their children, gender identity issues are the main cause of child abuse in various societies. For instance, a six-year-old son, Jazz, whose identity was not revealed after his birth ended up experiencing issues concerning his gender. A case in point is that, for the past three years, the boy has resorted to selecting his attires from the girls` unit of the stockpile. Another example is demonstrated by an ad established by J.Crew, which showed a boy`s toenails with pink painting. This was alleged that the parent of that child was abusing him behind the concealment of substantial transgendered identity legislation (Linsey and Susan 11). Using a child for experimenting gender identity leads them to experience emotional disturbance when they mature because they end up being rejected and bullied by friends either at school or during any other social gathering. Therefore, it is dynamic that parents use their influence to bring up their children in the correct manner and to revere their privileges as human creatures. It is through such practices that the issue of gender fluidity can be eradicated in the society. Additionally, action should be taken to deal with parents who are abusing their children`s rights in the name of giving them a gender identity that is not theirs. Child abuse exists and the earlier people realize that the better because many people ignore it and do not report such incidents when discovered.
On the contrary, child
abuse does not only occur because of gender identity issues, there are other
factors that lead to child abuse in the society. For instance, denying the
child a right to education by putting them through hard labor at a younger age.
Furthermore, children may be abused sexually either by relative or strangers.
Therefore, in case a child abuse issue is recognized, it is important that its
causes be identified before serious actions are taken.
Gianna E. Israel. Childhood and Gender Identity Development Repressive Abuse. Boston, CA: Polare, 2013.
Finkelman, Byrgen. Child Abuse: Short- and long-term effects. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis, 2005.
Linsey, Davis and Susan D. James. Canadian Mother Raising ‘Genderless’ Baby, Storm, Defends Her Family’s Decision. New York, NY: ABC Press, 2011.
Communication Skills at the Workplace
Communication skills are significant in all systems of an organization. The effective flow of information, ideas, and views from managers to employees affects the overall production. Employees’ satisfaction and loyalty depend on the effectiveness of information flow in the workplace. Although some employees are motivated through financial incentives, their performance may be affected adversely by failure in communication systems. In essence, good communication skills help to evade psychological stress, collision of duties, employee absenteeism, and frustration (Dixon and Martin 65). This research paper, therefore, seeks to highlight the importance of communication skills at the workplace. To achieve this, two different interviews are conducted involving two working professionals in UK, the first interview with the Managing Director for African Potash Company and the other with a senior accountant in Active Energy Group Ltd Company in UK.
The main source of data used in this research paper was structured interview, the aim being to gather views and opinions from a managing director, concerning the significance of both writing and speaking skills at workplace. Remarkably, the relationship between production levels and employee satisfaction were major issues.
The results from the two interviews conducted to a managing director and an accountant revealed several issues concerning communication skills in the workplace. According to the responses of both interviewees, good listening skills improve employee performance and reduce frustrations. The manager stated that the level of employee performance improves with better listening and speaking skills. The opinions from the accountant show that an organization cannot maximize output unless credible information flows from the managers to the employees. According to the consent of the accountant, employee selection and training are basics for nurturing good speaking skills, such as eloquence. The accountant stated that the employees should be selected on the basis of merit and skills without any corruption. The managing director disagreed that speaking skills could be associated with poor management styles. He suggested that every stakeholder in any organization was responsible for improving one’s communication skills. According to the accountant, not all the workers in any given workplace can understand each other unless they improve their writing and speaking skills, “employees’ relationship at workplace depends on how they communicate through speaking skills,” he added.
Listening, writing, and speaking skills are essential to both the managers and employees at workplace. Different users of information in organizations prefer accurate, conscience, and clear written works, for instance, accountants rely on accurate quantifiable data to prepare proper financial statements and show the liquidity of the organization (Life Care Inc 34). Similarly, a good writing skill helps the organization to have a true picture of assets, liabilities, shareholders claims, and retained earnings. On the other hand, the efficiency of management is affected significantly by speaking skills. The employees may fail to understand the information from their superiors in case the latter have neither self-confidence nor command. It is therefore necessary for managers to portray courage, self-interest, and audibility when communicating. In addition, prior preparation on what to speak is important. Many of public speeches during Annual General Meetings require close mastery of knowledge regarding the subject matter (Sobel 34). The major challenge facing effective communication today is the failure to plan and practice. This is because some managers and employees do not create ample time to improve personal speaking skills. This is facilitated by tight schedules at both work and family responsibilities.
Moreover, speaking skills are closely associated with maximization of time in workplace. It has been a common practice for people with poor speaking skills to waste more time when speaking than expected. The use of difficult and ambiguous words and phrases in communication leads to misunderstanding. As a result, employees may get confused and reduce their performance. On the other hand, proper listening skills improve employees’ level of concentration. This may call for employee patience during speeches from managers. Remarkably, employees cannot have peace of mind unless they get the right information from the top management. The level of inter-departmental synergy depends on how effective the colleagues communicate. Good speaking skills improve interpersonal relationships at the departmental levels. On a different note, communication skills at workplace affect the image of the organization in the society. The public needs to understand the relationship between the employees and the managers (Integrate Ireland Language and Training 34). Similarly, customers will only buy products after they are convinced to buy through aggressive advertisements
In conclusion, communication skills are fundamental aspects at workplace. Managers should be able to convey information in the right manner and at the right time. Employees should be good listeners. It is only reliable information that will improve employee motivation, reduce stress, collision, and increase the overall performance. An organization cannot achieve efficiency in either management or production unless its’ managers and employees improve their communication skills.
Dixon, Tara, and Martin O’hara. Communication Skills. N.p., 2011. Web. <http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415537902/data/learning/11_Communication%20Skills.pdf>.
Integrate Ireland Language & Training. The Productive Skills: Speaking and Writing. Ballsbridge, Ireland: Integrate Ireland Language & Training, 2004. Web. <http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/Curriculum/inclusion/Productive_skills.pdf>.
Life Care Inc. Communication Skills for Healthy Relationships. Life Care Inc., 2011. Web. <http://www.wfm.noaa.gov/workplace/EffectivePresentation_Handout_1.pdf>.
Sobel, Nora. Intercultural Skills Program: Communication Skills for Canadian Workplace. Red River College of Applied Arts, Science, and Technology, 2012. Web. <http://www.rrc.ca/files/file/diversity/CommunicationSkills.pdf>.
A list of the interview questions
- Does speaking skills affect the relationship between you and your employees?
- What are the possible causes of poor communication skills in your company?
- Is there any relationship between employees’ communication skills and the general productivity in your company? If yes, explain.
- Poor communication skills lead to employee frustration and psychological stress
(Explain your answer)
Jian is a double bladed Chinese sword, which is also known as Tai Chi. The forging of the Jian began from iron during the rule of the Han Dynasty. During the rule of the Three Kingdoms, the forging of the sword was from steel. This sword was part of every soldier’s battle armour until the rule of the Jin Dynasty, Dao, another type of sword became popular. The Dao came about because the Jian was difficult to handle, as it was a double bladed sword, this was compared to a single bladed sword. Jian was labelled as the “gentleman’s weapon” since it had an ability of uplifting the eminence of its possessor It involved a complex study that one required in order to learn how to handle and use the weapon properly. In addition, its refinement and sophistications were also contributing factors to its value in the Chinese society. The Jian was usually owned by the class of the learned in the society who had a great interest in swordsmanship as their way of looking for the inner combatant and acquiring a connection with the studies and lessons of the sword.
Throughout the existence of the Jian, it is known to have been seen in different duplications and styles for more than two thousand years in China. These numerous versions of the swords varied in lengths of about 17 to 31 inches. The weights of these swords also varied between 1to 2 pounds. In addition, there were other two versions of the sword that were larger than the average size of the Jian. These large versions were used in a variety of Chinese martial arts.
The sword has a solid appearance. The sword’s hand guard is made of efficiently finished wood, which is enfolded with black chord that equals its handle. The sword’s mouth is designed such that it perfectly fits in the V shaped hand guard. The middle wrap displays brass, at the bottom is a scabbard, which has an attractive chape. When fitted into the scabbard, the sword is very attractive and appears to have a sleek look.
The sword’s hilt has a small hand guard that adorns the scabbard with the same traditionally themed look and it keeps the chape and the sword in a nice and tight position to ensure that no wobbles, jangles or looseness of the sword. The sword’s handle, which is made of wood, is wound using a black cord that is wrapped from its guard. The black cord runs down the sword and it doubles back on itself. The cord looks like a criss-cross decoration on the upper part of its hilt. Another outstanding feature of this sword’s hilt is a bamboo peg that is driven into the hilt to ensure efficient structural strength to the sword.
The sword has a pommel that looks like other brass fittings. The pommel performs the function of providing the necessary equalizer to the blade. The pommel has a flattened surface, which permits a second hand to stab the target individual during a confrontation in the thrust.
The blade has three sections characterized by their differences in length. These differences arise from their offensive and protective purposes. The tip of this sword, Jianfeng, which comprises the first four inches of the cutting edge, serves the purpose of stabbing or in making quick cuts. This section is often curved. The blade also has a middle section, zhongren, which serves a multiplicity of distasteful and protective roles. The last part of the sharp edge is Jiangen, which serves the defensive purpose due to its closeness to the guard. Typically, the sword’s blade has a characteristic of a refined tapering of its viscosity and width. This is because the base of the blade is twice the width of the cutting edge at the tip. The blade from the base to the tip grows progressively thinner and is always sharper at the tip compared to other parts of its blade.
Jian and the Chinese Culture
For the Chinese a swords, especially the Jian, was not only meant as a weapon in times of war, it was also embedded with numerous cultural connotations. The Jian had two primary and other numerous secondary purposes. Jian served as a tool for calisthenics. This was an attribute found in those who engaged in martial arts. In China, martial arts were essential for both the health and strength for its participants. Through thorough practices on how best to handle the Jian, participants became familiar with the sword. In addition, these participants were also able to build sufficient energy within their bodies to develop the necessary power in times of battle. Constant practice with the Jian also cured some diseases.
Martial arts in China did not only engage participants in the aspect of efficiency in handling Jian, they also developed the belief that it was necessary to be in harmony with nature. This meant that there was always some form of relationship between the activities of man and those of animals. Numerous techniques applied in Chinese martial arts are a product of imitations from animal fight and hunting activities. The relationship between the use of Jian and the shared association between human and animal activities was based on the fact that the practice of swordplay, as witnessed in other Chinese sporting activities, was a way of gaining the necessary harmony with nature hence the acquisition of better heath and more energy within the body.
The practice of Jian for fighting purpose had its basis on body training and the building of fighting skills. While practicing skills one had to repeat one or numerous fighting techniques to ensure that he attains the required level of speed, accuracy and strength. A Jian fighter was expected to build a strong body through regular exercises. The Chinese believed that a body had to be strong both from within and outside. For one to qualify as a Jian fighter he also had to develop and master different ways of handling the weapon hence the need for a strong body.
Grandfather’s Jian has a rich cultural origin that displays desirable techniques. In an attempt to bring out the value that the sword represents, my grandfather always engages in numerous practices to ensure that he practises on Tai Chi among other Chinese fighting skills. Constant practices with his Jian provide exercises that keep my grandfather healthy due to their physicality. This sword not only act as a way of appreciating a cultural artefact that is great importance to Chinese culture, my grandfather also earns respect from members of the society for the preservation of one of the greatest weapons in Chinese history.
Lack of Media Censorship
Censorship in media refers to the prevention of certain information from reaching the public via the various media channels. In most cases, media censorship involves certain ethics which the media have to adhere to during presentation of news and other items to ensure that cultures, norms and values of the society are upheld. However, in the present day, media censorship has taken different forms which include certain governments and authority bodies laying down laws regarding the extent to which the media is allowed to air their items. Some see this as one way of ensuring that the media does not go overboard, while others see it as a form of oppression of the people by disallowing the media to tell the truth. This paper discusses the pros and cons that come with lack of censorship of the media.
Lack of censorship means that media practitioners are allowed the freedom to bring to the viewers whatever they deem necessary. This is mostly practiced in countries that are independent and whose government does not try to control all aspects of the country. Lack of censorship is important because it allows the media freedom of non partial and independent reporting (Heins & Cho, pg 30). This means that the truth is not hidden to the public. The public is given all the information that is available and they are allowed to make judgments for themselves depending on what they will have received.
Lack of media censorship gives the general public a chance to air out their views without fear of being victimized for their varied opinions. In countries where the media is regulated or censored, certain topics are very sensitive thus the people fear giving their opinions about them. This leads to lack of healthy discussions regarding topic which would have otherwise been improved through such interactions. When the media is not censored, the people are free to air their various views especially those regarding their governing bodies. This therefore ensures that such bodies like the government are put in check thus avoiding exploitation of the masses. This therefore means that there will be more transparency between the people and the government. The leaders begin to be more accountable in all their activities when they know that all their movements are being monitored and that these activities have a direct effect on their popularity among the masses (Shirky pg 10).
When the media is not censored, the public is given a chance to be more aware of the things that happen around them. This is important because it assists in educating the masses about certain issues that affect them directly. For instance, if the exposure of sexual content was to be banned from the media, it would become more difficult to educate the younger generation on sex or drugs and the effects that they have on their lives. This is because they would likely not even understand the things that they are being warned about and thus would not be able to stay away from them when they become exposed(Dick & Zingales, pg 6).
Censorship also leads to lack of creativity among the people. When there is a regulation regarding the things that people read, hear or watch, they is very little likelihood that people will continue to come up with new ideas, because they are constantly faced with the probability that their ideas will be rejected because they don’t match the criteria that is allowed in the media.
This is however, not to say that media censorship only has negative effects to it. There are some positive benefits that can be reaped from media censorship. For instance, it helps in curbing immorality. The media today is marred by all types of immoral behaviors that were otherwise not accepted in the culture of the past. Children are exposed to sexual immorality and drug abuse at very tender ages. This is the main reason why there is high prevalence of drug abuse and contacting of sexually transmitted diseases in people of ages that should not even know about the existence of such things. It may therefore be necessary to sensor the media in such situations.
Media censorship is also important in some case where it is the only option for maintaining sanity in the country. For instance, when violence breaks out in one part of the country, when the media begin to air in detail the things that are taking place, those who may have not joined in the violence may become agitated to also take up their tools. This means that the media will have failed in its duty by actually being the one that helps to add fuel to the fire.
Media censorship is also necessary for upholding the moral fiber of the society. This is because in the present day, the media has become too explicit in the name of freedom of speech that nobody cares anymore about the moral decadence that comes with it. Music these days is full f sexual content or glorifying other behaviors that are unacceptable. Media censorship would also ensure that material that finds its way to the public does not violate the values that certain people hold dear such as culture or religion. It would ensure that mutual respect between various groups is upheld.
Heins, Marjorie, and Christina Cho. Media literacy: An alternative to censorship. Marjorie Heins, 2003.
Dyck, Alexander, and Luigi Zingales. The corporate governance role of the media. No. w9309. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002.
Shirky, Clay. “Political Power of Social Media-Technology, the Public Sphere Sphere, and Political Change, The.” Foreign Aff. 90 (2011): 28.
Should Money be spent on Space Exploration?
Space exploration is the investigation of physical conditions within the stars, moons and the planets, galaxies, comets and any other thing outside the space through the use of artificial satellites and space probes (Klerkx 2). Technology requires substantial amount of money for several reasons. Despite using a lot of money in exploring space, there has been a little achievement, except for a bit of advanced technological knowhow that would probably have come by other means; hence the huge debate on whether or not to spend money in exploration. Various individuals argue that sending funds into the space is a misuse of resources. On the other hand, another group considers discovery of the solar system as a splendid recreation activity of man.
Exploration of the space has the potential of discovery of the yet undiscovered facts about it (Klerkx 6). It has high potential to resolve mysteries surrounding the outer space. This may bring dramatic change to individuals’ lives. In addition, exploring space brings together several smart people from different fields of sciences across the world and put them to work on very difficult problems. This leads to fantastic science discovery and useful inventions.
Moreover, exploration of space gives an appetitive for human adventure. In the modern society, humans visit and settle in every part of the world. Their instinct to explore is still active but there are limited outlets. Space remains the final frontier and calls for exploration by everyone. Several brave persons in life like to take risks (Klerkx 8). Exploring the space helps in discovery of new minerals and other precious materials. The modern world rapidly runs out of resources, and exploring the space may serve as a future investment. There might be new human-like species that exist in the outer space. The creatures might be better developed and evolved than ordinary human on earth. Space exploration may serve as a breakthrough to a new world. It might take individuals by surprise to get astounding growth and development of the living creatures is the outside space.
The greatest argument against space exploration is based on the amount of money spent in the research (Broniatowski & Weigel 149). The amount of money spent in exploring space can be used to eradicate poverty in the developing and the underdeveloped nations. World anger spends more than $30 billion in a year (Broniatowski & Weigel 150). For instance, if the average amount of money ever used by NASA of $780 billion was used in the fight against the world hunger, nobody in the entire world would be hungry for 26 years. Therefore, the amount of money spend in exploring the space can be used effectively rather than exploring unknown places that lack capacity for human life.
Crawford (4) points out that there are many problems such as depletion of rain forests and pollution of oceans and seas in the earth, and they get worse day after the other. If climatologists can spend this money, it can have a lasting benefit for the humanity. Additionally, the mission to the space poses a great risk to the astronauts traveling to the space (Crawford 6). Individuals who move to the space face harsh conditions and challenges themselves to adapt to unfriendly surrounding. Unmanned operations and use of android systems like robots in exploration of the space serve as a remedy to the life’s risk. However, using robots means introduction of another new technology, thereby increasing costs (Crawford 7).
As individuals aim at gaining surprise, they may also face greater troubles. Something lethal to the life on Earth may be found in the Space. This might extremely harm the living creatures on earth. Space exploration may lead to discovery of dangerous microorganisms existing in space, which are dangerous to the human life.
Broniatowski, David A., and Annalisa L. Weigel. “The Political Sustainability of Space Exploration.” Space Policy 24.3 (2008): 148-157.
Crawford, Ian A. “Dispelling the myth of robotic efficiency: why human space exploration will tell us more about the Solar System than will robotic exploration alone.” arXiv preprint arXiv: 1203.6250 (2012).
Klerkx, Greg. Lost in space: The fall of NASA and the dream of a new space age. Random House LLC, 2005.
My Discourse Community
My understanding of a discourse community from my English class is that it is a group that shares common goals, that have a way of communicating regularly, and has established some way of determining who can participate in its activities, and provides information to members on what is to be done and when it is to be done. This can be a religious group, a football club, a student’s organization, being a member of an institution, or other community organizations. From my understanding, I have identified several groups to which I can say they are my discourse community. These are my football club, my church youth group, and my boxing club. For this paper, I will talk about my church youth group as I feel it has many activities and functions that other groups can learn from.
For my church youth group, the main requirement to be a member is being a member of the church and being over the age of 15 years. One must also have passed through all the rituals and ceremonies performed to every member of the church before the age of 15. These include things like baptism, confirmation to become communicant, one has to be a good and responsible member of the society, which means one is not associated with such behaviors as drugs abuse, being members of street gangs. Generally, just being a good Christian and adhering to the doctrines of the church.
The purpose of the church youth is generally to serve the church in things like ushering during church programs, ensuring the church is tidied up and well arranged for the next church session, and other such like activities. The other purpose is to be good ambassadors of Christ in the society by undertaking such activities as helping the poor like visiting children’s home or the elderly, organizing seminars, workshops, and retreats mostly for youths. We also help with youth problems such as drug abuse and addictions and we have a programme that takes care of youths who are dealing with major life challenges where we council and offer guidance to them.
Meetings are held every Saturday in the afternoon and sometimes on Sunday afternoons. The object of the meetings is to discuss the various issues touching on the group as a whole within the church and some of the activities that should be carried out in that line. In addition, we discuss any projects that are currently going on, as we assess how they are progressing and what should be done, and generally share ideas on life, general life as well as Christian life, any challenges members are facing, etc. If anyone is having issues, everyone shares an idea of how they can overcome that problem and how the person should go about his/her problem. This is actually one of the main reasons why I am a member of the community; it helps one to deal with problems, and show that one does not have to be alone in a struggle. It also makes one feel that he/she belongs somewhere in this big world, that one is an important member of society and that there are people who are concerned with your well-being.
Other communities can learn from this community by adopting the same activities we do and helping the poor, the orphans, the elderly, the physically challenged, the disturbed youths, and so on, and make their members feel that the community can help in solving their problems.
NSA data collection agency
NSA or the National Security Agency refers to the United States agency of intelligence that is responsible for producing and managing intelligence signals as well as information assurance on behalf of the government. The NSA has a responsibility of observing, collecting, translating, deciphering as well as analyzing data and information as part of deriving foreign intelligence. The NSA data collection agency now has the full knowledge and authority over the Internet, which to some extent compromises the privacy on the Internet.
NSA data collection agency now has full knowledge and authority over the internet. This means that there is no more privacy on the Internet. Since the information that has been sourced from the Internet is at the government’s disposal, the privacy of this information is compromised as it is reviewed and analyzed. In addition, the warrantless searches that the NSA will be performing on the emails and internet calls of the Americans interfere with their private lives. This means that they have no freedom of making calls at any time they want because the agency is on the lookout. Although the surveillance is a brilliant move of enhancing security in the United States, it deprives its citizens of the much needed freedom of privacy.
The NSA data collection agency will now be using the back door in terms of searching the communications that the Americans will be carrying out on the Internet. This is equivalent to curtailing the freedom of expression that Americans have enjoyed for a long time. It is not only unethical, but also immoral to compromise the privacy of the communications of Americans. Although the surveillance has been meant to target foreigners, Americans will no longer enjoy the freedom to communicate over the Internet as they have always done. Email is a popular mode of internet communication, which will be highly compromised by the new move. This form of surveillance is completely unacceptable and raises some serious constitutional questions. Additionally, it also poses a significant threat to the rights of privacy of most Americans who have been law-abiding citizens.
However, not all is lost concerning privacy on the Internet. First, the agency will only be collecting data on an annual basis. This means that data collection will not be a day-to-day affair. This limits compromising the privacy of data because it will not be exposed to the agency on a daily basis. Although the analysts of the agency have the freedom of combing the data, safeguards of privacy that are sufficient have been put in place in order to ensure the privacy of information is not compromised. When the data is collected and queried, enough safeguards of data privacy are put in place. The National Security Agency has no permission of searching the data of Americans from various communications that have been taken directly from the Internet.
The new NSA data collection agency has the full knowledge and authority over the Internet. This means that there is no more privacy on the Internet. This is highly unconstitutional because it compromises the rights of privacy of most Americans who are law-abiding citizens. People will no longer trust the Internet as a secure mode of communication because its privacy will be highly compromised. However, safeguards of data privacy that are sufficient have been put in place in order to make sure that the information is not compromised.
The United States and other developed countries have in
the recent years shifted their focus to technological innovations that involve
the use of drones to survey and curb security threats across the world. Drones
are only effective in striking roles and when working against objectives with
no air defense abilities. Compared with a martial artist jets, the drone
providers cannot identify risks to the protection of their airplane.
Surface-to-air missiles, therefore, cause a much higher risk to drones than to
other types of army aircraft. Such concerns mean that drones have a market part
in modern military functions. They are by no means a major technological
innovation that has the prospective to make operated journey outdated. This
paper seeks to discuss what drones are and the process of their domestication.
It will also highlight the arguments that have been put forth both in support
and against the use of drones.
Domestic Drones should be accessible to the public and sold in public markets
What are Drones? The usage of unmanned drones by the US has attracted the intervention of President Obama to comment and confirm the presence of unmanned drones in Pakistan. The US as a country relies on drones for the sake of external intervention and maximization of security surveillance within its borders. The case of the drone attack in Pakistan is not the only isolated incidence, but there are several other episodes. This leads to the question concerning the real identity of drones and how their operations foster security situation in the US. This is the beginning of the essay, where it seeks to clarify the true meaning of drones and how they operate within the American Borders.
Drones are commonly referred to as UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) or RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aerial Systems) by the US military. Drones are aircrafts that operate in risky areas where military intervention is considered impossible. Principally, this special unit of US military is charged with the responsibility of providing troops within a 24-hour “eye in the sky”, seven days a week. Therefore, Drones undertake air surveillance, and have the capability of standing for 17 hours at any given time, while taking a complete surveillance of the area, and sending real-time imagery on the ground. The US is the mastermind behind an effective drones operation and conjoins the Air Force and the Royal Air Force for duties like surveillance, intelligence, and reconnaissance craft. However, these drones vary is sizes where some are light enough to be launched by hand, while others are medium-sized armed drones, and finally the large spy planes.
Drones are charged with the maintenance of security from an aerial view. Therefore, their operations are highly synchronized with the ground levels, and maintain communication with the ground communication military satiations, just to ensure that security alerts are sufficiently made. The first responsibility attached to these drones includes provision of Intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance to the country. USA has always achieved this mandate by deploying adequate number of drones in manning its air as well as grounds levels. This is one means that the US military system enhances its security and ensures that swift actions are taken in case of a security emergency. In addition, surveillance of into the air supplements the operations of well-positioned radar systems. Therefore, drones are special security alert and response system that keeps watch of the entire country, while in the air. This is the fundamental duty that drones have into the US security system; an act that has culminated any potential security hazard into the US borders.
Other than aerial uses are surveillance, drones are served with other numerous mandates. These mandates range from checking for roadside bombs or devices on landing areas. This purpose is enhanced due to the articulate capability of drones to view every object from air and ground. There are two types of drones, and this classification is enabled thorough their respective modes of operations. The first category is controlled from the air, while the other is controlled from the ground. The later specializes in the duty of detonating bombs and other explosive devices on the ground. Due to a network of connectivity, drones are served with a special task of listening to mobile phone conversations. There are many radio calls and satellite communication devices that enhance coordination with the ground and air surveillance drones. In this process, the security situation in the country is enhanced. Drones equally help in tracking mobile phone conversations, hence helping to understand the daily routines of locals to see what are normal behaviors, offer close air support, and attack suspected insurgents.
The tasks described above give the operational scope and definition of drones. Therefore, drones are contingent of military aircraft comprising of a multiagency group that enhances surveillance of both air and the ground. This leads to the validity of drones in the US. President Obama has regularly issued statements regarding the surprising attacks conducted by drones in Pakistan and other rebel countries. It is confirmed that the US drones attack rebel insurgents have increased during the reign of president Obama, than during the tenure of President Bush.
How do Drones become domestic?
Usage of drones in domestic affairs is an increasing phenomenon in the USA. This aspect has become a common practice due to the legal instigations encouraging the use of domestic drones. Therefore, drones became domestic amidst law enforcement that emphasizes the use of domestic drones in the surveillance of the country. This step towards promoting domestic drones is seen as a means of enhancing security surveillance to the country. This implies that both the private and public agencies will take part in the surveillance of the entire country, thereby promoting peace and security. In addition, friendly legislation is amended in favor of domestic drones due to the importance of involving public participation in the security sector. Government alone cannot manage the full security expectation of the county but must be supplemented by private sectors.
However, legislation that allows the use of domestic drones must always be made strict with the view of containing any adversity to this move. In view of this, the congress instigated an initial process that was viewed as the mastermind behind making drones appear domestic. The USA congress has ordered the Federal Aviation Administration to transform airspace rules and makes it much easier for the police nationwide to adopt the usage of domestic drones. This is a landmark achievement to the creation of domestic drones. However, the use of domestic drones must consider the following safeguard measures:
The first regulatory measure following the use of domestic drones involves the usage limits. In this regards, drones are supposed to be deployed by law enforcement, and only with a warrant, or in cases of emergency, or when there are substantial grounds to believe that drones will collect evidence regarding a specific data regarding the criminal act. In the second incidence, domestic drones are used alongside data retention limits. In this regard, image captured by domestic drones must be retained only if is a satisfactory suspicion that they contain evidence or hold some relevance to an ongoing trial or investigation. The third condition requires domestic drones to be used subject to policy instigations. Usage policy remains a key restraint in using domestic drones, and this issue must be decided by the public’s representatives, and not police departments. In addition, these policies must be clear and presented through written or open to public (Etzioni). The third condition stipulates that usage of domestic drones must be accompanied by abuse prevention and accountability. This aspect requires open audits, and adequate oversight in order to prevent any possible misuse to domestic drones. Finally, domestic drones must not be equipped by either legal or non-legal weapons, as this contravenes rights of establishing such drones. These few frameworks lead to the creation of domestic drones.
Using Drones in real estate
The possibilities of drone use in household monitoring functions have engendered significant discussion in America, especially in regards to the various governmental camps. Those against the use of the drone monitoring have reported that the use of the unmanned airplane on United States ground intrudes upon essential comfort passions and the ability to easily affiliate with others. Some are specifically concerned about the chance of turning army technological innovation to survey people in America (Hazelton). Supporters have reacted by focusing on their potential benefits, which may include defending public safety, patrolling our country’s boundaries, and analyzing and implementing ecological and criminal law offenses. The stress between security and comfort passions is not new but has been increased by the blast of monitoring technological innovation in recent years. Cops who were once directed to nude eye findings may soon have, or in some cases already possess, the ability to see through surfaces or track your motions from the sky.
Using Drones in the military
Drones have believed a significant aspect in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency, and are projected to be of increasing significance later on army functions. Their low cost makes the disposable and perfect for extremely risky or politically delicate projects (Murray). However, technical restrictions as well as likely developments in competitive technological innovation, especially air defense techniques shall circumscribe the army aspect of drones. Although a vital part of upcoming combat, they are unlikely to completely substitute operated airplane and will instead, complement them. Although the U.S. army and intellect areas had been advertising drone growth since the beginning sixties, it was the Israeli Air Power in 4 decades ago, that led the way in drone technology and produce.
The 1991 Gulf War saw drones generating more intellect than could be served upon. Although the number of the unmanned airplane implemented in-theatre was small, they still recognized more objectives than the whole resources of the US 7th Corps could hit. Eight years later, drones performed an even more essential aspect in Kosovo, traveling low to recognize objectives, which could then be assaulted by operated airplane working above 15,000 ft (Murray). Through this department of projects, aircraft pilots remained outside the variety of most surface-to-air missiles while drones, being quickly replaceable, experienced the chance of opponent flame. Drones started to believe a striking aspect, being fixed with laser device designators to “paint” prospective objectives, which could then be destroyed by operated airplane. This innovation persuaded further analysis into the chance of suitable light and portable missiles onto drones. US commanders who spearheaded the effort desired to make a system wherein time lag between location and removal of a focus on was minimized (Bary).
Their initiatives, which predated the 9/11 strikes, got a remarkable increase from the “War on Terror”. In Nov 2002, an Al Qaeda enemy in Yemen was murdered by a drone-launched rocket – the first of many such strikes. With the release of strike drones into counterinsurgency functions in Irak and Afghanistan, time between recognition and devastation of aggressive causes reduced to just five moments. However, after the Nearby Gulf War in 1991, the U.S. intellect equipment and the U.S. Air Power became the significant motorists in drone growth and growth. In the beginning 90’s, as an aspect of a categorized weapons venture, the U.S. Air Power and the CIA underwrote and advised the growth and production of what became the Predator UAV, the first war-fighting drones that were originally implemented in ISR projects during the Balkan conflicts in 1995. The 1995 implementation of the disarmed Predator A by the CIA and Air Power stimulated new interest within the U.S. army and intellect apparatus, resulting in at least $600 thousand in new R&D acquiring for drones with Common Atomics. According to a U.S. Air Power analysis, “The CIA’s UAV system that persisted in the beginning Nineties and that still prevails these days provided Predator and GA-ASI an important chance that set the base for Predator’s achievements.
The army guidelines consist of a lot of “no strike” objectives such as diplomatic workplaces, medical features, jails, educational institutions, and components whose devastation will outcome in uncontainable ecological loss. They also consist of a variety of other components, which are usually limited from being focused, such as farming features, water and power resources, leisurely buildings, leisurely areas, dining places, and suppliers. These guidelines also protect a variety of prospective dual-use targets.
Debate on the use of Drones
The drone discussion carries on hot and heavy. Crucial issues range from the values of focusing on choices and issues about unintended accidents and anti-Americanism to issues of lawful and bureaucratic management. These are pushing questions; the U. S. States’ use of drones as a tool of war is increasing, and other nations are interested in obtaining them. Like piloted equipped airplane, equipped drones offer details as well as strike potential. They can achieve a variety of military results, as other air systems (Sterio). They can destroy, turn off, assistance competitors on the ground, eliminate, john, restrict, reject access, notice, and track. Like airplane pilots offering close air assistance, shooting missiles, or dropping tanks, drone providers are required to regard the rules of war, stunning depending on clear details, such as evaluation of potential human costs.
Drones offer several advantages over operated equipped flight tickets and sea-based releases. They are stated to do less security harm than either missiles or operated antenna bombing; they can float expense for relatively long time to collect details for a strike (up to 14 hours); they can strike quickly, and the rocket can be redirected from its unique focus on in a deliberate skip. They are also less expensive than operated systems. Compared with other distribution systems, however, they require a permissive atmosphere, which is likely to restrict their application in some cinemas. Moreover, although the Chief professional had specific Afghanistan and its airspace as a fight area, the United States has used drones in other areas around the globe, such as Yemen, where al-Qaeda causes have been focused and murdered.
In fact, the U.S. strategy for the use of drones is that members of al-Qaeda causes may be focused anywhere in the world: that the battleground follows those individuals who have been specific as opponents due to their association with al-Qaeda. While many in the worldwide group have belittled the United States’ extensive regional use of drones against al-Qaeda causes, authorities in the Shrub Management have protected the drone system as reliable and contouring to worldwide law (Thompson). President Obama has proceeded with this strategy and has extended the use of drones in the war on terror. Moreover, high-level authorities in the Obama Management have provided specific lawful explanations for the validity of the United States drone system. Drones, like other air and sea systems, are a form of power projection. They give the United States the ability to install ideal attacks without actually placing US employees straight in harm’s way, potentially evoking household resistance. They also allow the United States to avoid placing its causes in a foreign area, possibly eliciting a nationalistic reaction.
When President Obama came into office, he promised to end the ‘war on terror’ and to recover regard for the concept of law to the United States’ counterterrorism guidelines. The primary size of United States counterterrorism plan have hardly modified between the two companies, though there has been a move in overall tone and focus. While President Bush devoted himself to protect ‘civilization’ against the chance of terrorism, Obama has fought his war on terror in the dangerous areas, using drone attacks, special functions and innovative monitoring to battle an intense secret war against Al-Qaeda and other Islamist systems.
The Obama strategy, which focuses on
relatively few ground operations and prevents nation-building tasks, has been
described by associates of his management as efficient, and even fairly
necessary, given the state of the US economic system and the war-weariness of
the United States citizens. The use of drones is very impressive in eliminating
enemy agents in areas that cannot be reached without causing private accidents
to innocent citizens. There are more reasons to why people should favor the
drone strikes than reject or oppose them. Justifications for the potency of
drones can be divided into four individual claims: (1) that drones are
efficient at eliminating terrorists with little private casualties; (2) that
drones have been effective at eliminating so-called ‘high value targets’
(HVTs); (3) that the use of drones places such stress on enemy companies that
it degrades their business potential and capability to strike; and (4) that a
cost–benefit research of their use comparative to other options—such as the
implementation of ground troops—provides a powerful discussion in their favor.
Supporters of drones have suggested that these private victim percentages,
along with the low financial cost of drones and the lack of risk to US
employees in their function, make a powerful case for drones as an efficient
and ethical tool of war.
above aspects, drones have yet to confirm themselves as better than operated
airplane, on the reasons for common requirements of efficiency. For a start,
drones are only effective in striking roles and when working against objectives
with no air defense abilities. Compared with a martial artist jet cause, drone
providers cannot identify risks to the protection of their airplane. Surface-to-air
missiles, therefore, cause a much higher risk to drones than to other types of
army aircraft. Such concerns mean that drones have a market part in modern military
functions. They are by no means a major technological innovation that has the
prospective to make operated journey outdated. Extended use of drones could
even confirm unproductive, as it would endanger to cause to mass confusion. At
present, Predator and Reaper drones in Afghanistan provide around 400 hours of video
clips everyday to US causes. The transmitting of this information to ground
remotes based in the United States takes in bulk of internet bandwidth.
Annotated Biographies of the Works Cited
Bary, T. “Drones Over the Homeland how Politics, Money and lack of Oversight have sparked Drone Proliferation and what we can do”. (2013): n.pag. <Http://www.ciponline.org/images/uploads/publications/IPR_Drones_over_Homela nd_Final.pdf>.
This new CIP Worldwide Plan Review shows how the military-industrial complicated and the appearance of the country protection equipment have put boundary drones at the leading edge of the intensifying public discussion about the appropriate part of drones domestically
Etzioni, A. “The Great Drone Debate”. (2013): n.pag. <Http://icps.gwu.edu/files/2013/03/Etzioni_DroneDebate.pdf>.
This article presents different views of the debate on drones. It shows the strong points of those who support and oppose the use of drones as weapons.
Hazelton, J. “Drones: What Are They Good For?” (2013): n.pag. Http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/parameters/Issues/WinterSprin g2013/4_Article_Hazelton.pdf.
This is an extensive look at the increasing nuisance of automatic warfare, with an extensive research of who is generating the drones, where they are being used, who “pilots” these unmanned aircraft, who are the sufferers and what are the lawful and ethical effects.
Murray, P. “National: U.S. Supports Unarmed Domestic Drones”. (2013): n.pag. <Https://www.monmouth.edu/assets/0/32212254770/32212254991/32212254992/3221 2254994/32212254995/30064771087/409aecfb-3897-4360-8a05-03838ba69e46.pdf>.
In both a stunning and an understandable design, the article looks at what activists, attorneys and researchers are doing to ground the drones, and methods to progress.
Spalding, K. “Unmanned Aircraft and Privacy Law: A Technological Leap into a Legal Gap “. Privacy & Information Security Practice Group. (2014): n.pag. <Http://www.kslaw.com/imageserver/KSPublic/library/publication/ca020414b.pdf>.
This book offers an overarching worldwide legal structure to help determine the validity of the use of any tool, as well as its legal supply. It outlines the functions of States and non-State stakeholders as well.
Sterio, M. “United States’ Use of Drones in the War on Terror: The (IL) legality of Targeted Killings under International Law, The”. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law. 45. 12. (2012): n.pag. <Http://law.case.edu/journals/JIL/Documents/45CaseWResJIntlL1&2.11.Article.Ste rio.pDF>.
This important and appropriate book addresses all aspects of worldwide weaponry law and suggests a new view on worldwide law regulating weaponry. Also included is a specific conversation about equipped drones and cyber attacks, two highly external issues in worldwide law and worldwide interaction.
Thompson, R. “Drones in Domestic Surveillance Operations: Fourth Amendment Implications and Legislative Responses “. (2013): n.pag. <Http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42701.pdf>.
This outlines the history of how drones have been used in the US for over the years, the impacts and the global opinion of other country leaders on the same.
Comparison of community college and University College
Community colleges and universities are institutions of higher learning where students of various ages and backgrounds enroll. A community college is typically a two year institution that is instituted to offer the benefits of low tuition and convenient locations for its students who in most cases reside within the community. Students who enroll in community colleges do so for various reasons, including getting the necessary credits on certain subjects that may help them meet the university entry criteria they enroll in colleges to gain skills for a given field or if they want to complete a certain specialization field faster. Once a person graduates from the high school, they can either enroll in a community college or university college. Despite this fact, the requirements of both are in some way similar but in other ways, differentiated by the experience, expectation and outcome of the graduates who join these institutions. Most of the subjects and units learnt in both institutions are similar though differentiated by details. By this I means that English language, communication, history, mathematics are some similar courses that are offered in both institution. Both institutions offer education to students and other personalities so that they can perform better in life. One of the most basic comparisons that can be attributed to the two institutions is that the community college offers two-year courses and this means that anybody enrolling in the community college may join the job market faster than a university graduate who undertakes four years to complete their education. Despite this fact, the university major is likely to stand a better chance of getting a higher pay and employment chances than a college major if they both present themselves for a job interview. These and other similarities and differences explain the relationship between a university and a community college. As an advice to my friend, I will compare the similarities and differences that exist between a community college and a university college and explain why a community college is more advantageous than a university.
A community college is a nonresidential institution, which is supported locally or regionally and offers two or three year courses after which an associate degree is awarded. In many cases, students who have not attained the university criterion scores undertake the college course after which they qualify to join university after upgrading their weak scores. A university on the other hand, offers a four year graduate course as well as other master’s and doctoral programs, which a college cannot offer. One advantage of community college in regard to admission and subject covered is that subject offered are the same thou university are much broader but not more detailed than a community college.
In terms of admission, the colleges have no strict admission rules and therefore they have open admissions to the students. This means that almost any student who has finished high school is able to access college education. University College on the other hand, offers its programs selectively only to students who have fared well in the GPAs or those who have graduated from college. The university therefore has stricter admission requirements and therefore restricts many students who would like to join the institution. It is easier therefore to enroll for a community college programs since the requirements are less.
Unless in private colleges, the tuition fees in most colleges is cheaper as compared to university colleges. There is an assumption that university education is twice as expensive as a college education and therefore anybody wishing to cut costs usually opts to enroll for college education and then transfers credits to join the university. At the same time, the faculty members mainly focus on teaching as their main responsibility and in most cases, the requirements for a college tutor or lectures is masters’ degrees though some are emerging with doctorate degrees. This is a fact should help one chose community college since, the instructors have the same qualifications the university ones
In terms of the student’s residency, many of the college students commute to the colleges daily though there are some who may opt to live within the campus on a planned housing plan. Universities, on the other hand, are instituted to cater mostly for full time residential students who live within the campus. Though in the contemporary time distance learning and other flexible part time schedules are available, majority of the regular students reside within the university. Why board when you can study at the comfort of your home?
Those students who go to the college have the maximum attainment of an associate degree that is achieved after undertaking a two years full time education in a college. Universities, on the other hand, offer a four year course after which an undergraduate is bestowed with a bachelor’s degree, which is the highest entitlement for an undergraduate. One fact remains clear that community college degree is more convenient since before a university graduate completes his/her education, the college graduate will have gained mastery of a given field in the job market.
Similarities between a community college and a university college
Though community college and university colleges are two distinct but related institutions, they have similarities that include the prerequisites for admission. For any applicant to join any of the institutions certain qualifications have to be met and these include passing the high school education or the GED, having attained certain average points and have a letter of recommendation among others. At the same time, both institutions have workforce training programs as well as continuing education programs. It should be noted that both the college and universities offer specific trainings for a given field. Continuing education helps professionals and other graduates to update their skills so that they may stay in line with the changing market demands. Finally, both college and universities have transferable credits, which help a student to transfer from a college to a university and vice versa without any problem provided the courses are the same.
Community college education is better than a university college. Colleges in most cases do absorb people with lower GPAs and therefore many people can join. At the same time, one gets experience if they want to upgrade their studies. In most cases, colleges are local based whereby the members of the community take the biggest slots in their occupancy unlike the university, which takes the national dimension in its enrollment. Those who want to gain professional education cheaply and fast may opt to take the community college course. Unlike the universities who charge almost twice the amount of tuition costs, community college tuition is affordable and targets students who commute daily to the college. They both offer continuing education as well as workforce training programs. All in all, the choice of institution that an individual would want to join depends on various factors like the amount of finance available, the high school academic performance, personal factors and the goals expected to be achieved after college. In the cotemporary competitive job market, I would advice my friend to take on a community college education since it is cheaper, more accommodative and in most cases one gets the education that a university offers though with lesser details. Therefore, though university education offers a more detailed approach to a given field, a college education may also be vital if one wants to gain expertise in a given field faster.
How to Break up With a Girlfriend/Boyfriend
- Thesis-There are steps to be taken that ensure your break up with your significant other is as smooth as possible.
Steps to be taken in the breakup process
- The first step in initiating the break up process is deciding whether it is what you really want and why you are doing it.
- The next step is to decide on an appropriate time and place where you can have the conversation.
- Having made up your mind about the time and venue, the next step is to approach him/her for the actual conversation.
- After breaking the news, you need to allow for time to move on for both parties.
How to Break up With a Girlfriend/Boyfriend
If you have ever been faced with the dilemma of having to break up with your boyfriend/girlfriend and you do not know what to say or how to say it, the good news is that you are not alone. This situation is one that most people have to encounter at some point in their lives and it is useful to know how to negotiate such a situation. You do not have to keep putting off ‘the talk’ and remaining in a relationship that you no longer want to be in. There are steps to be taken that ensure your break up with your significant other is as smooth as possible.
Steps to be taken in the breakup process
The first step in initiating the break up process is deciding whether it is what you really want and why you are doing it. You should take some time to think critically and evaluate whether you really want to go through with it. This is because most people usually make such decisions based on impulsive emotions and inevitably end up regretting afterwards. Try imagining life without them and be sure that you can handle it. The main point here is being clear about your reasons for a break up and having a clear conscience when approaching the situation.
The next step is to decide on an appropriate time and place where you can have the conversation. It is important to break up in person and not over the phone or through messaging. The aspect of a face to face conversation is very important no matter how much you may be irritated with your boyfriend/girlfriend. It shows that you value them as a person and have the respect to face them with an issue of such magnitude. An appropriate time would be when there are no tough personal issues that your girlfriend/boyfriend is dealing with, for example, losing a job or a loved one. An ideal place on the other hand, would be where you can have privacy to talk out your issues. You should also go for a place that allows them to react to the news. For example, if they want to leave to have some alone time, they should be able to do so.
Having made up your mind about the time and venue, the next step is to approach him/her for the actual conversation. You should be very clear in letting your girlfriend/boyfriend know that you have already made up your mind about no longer being in the relationship. Be open and explain to them how hard it has been to come to that decision and the reasons that have led you to it. Make a point of explaining these reasons so as not to leave them wondering what they may have done wrong. This helps them change their behavior for the benefit of their next relationship.
After breaking the news, you need to allow for time to move on for both parties. This involves avoiding situations that may imply that there is a chance for a reunion, for example, it is not really a breakup if you keep hanging around each other. After a breakup, time apart from each other is important, as it will benefit you both.
A breakup does not need to be harder than it already is and if these guidelines are followed, both you and your former boyfriend/girlfriend will maintain mutual respect even after a breakup.
Obesity and Fast Foods
In the recent past, there have been alarming rates of non-communicable diseases. Examples of the diseases are diabetes, high blood pressure, heart attack, obesity, and many others (Edwards and Linklater 56-71). It is arguable that these diseases are on the increase because of the changing lifestyles among individuals, in terms of their feeding habits. As such, this essay focuses on the cause effect relationship, between fast foods and obesity.
According to Schlosser (16-18), obesity refers to a condition where a person is grossly overweight or fat. On the other hand, fast foods refer to readymade foods that people can easily get from the local joints.
It is arguable that the increasing rates of obesity in most developed nations result from high fast food intake (Schlosser 64-72). Fast foods cause obesity because they are rich in sugar, carbohydrates, fat, calories, and salt. As such increased ingestion of sugar and carbohydrates results to a high intake of calories, hence obesity. Similarly, increased fats and carbohydrates intake heightens energy accumulation. Therefore, high energy accumulation accompanied by lack of exercise makes a person overweight or obese.
Different arguments exist concerning obesity among individuals. For example, it is arguable that children are at a higher obesity risk than adults because they consume more fast foods than adults (Edwards and Linklater 62-71). Consequently, the high consumption of fast foods causes energy imbalance, thus obesity development over time. In addition, it is arguable that children are at a higher obesity risk because of not exercising.
For example, a US based study, established an association between obesity and consumption of fast foods. In this study, the researcher used two sets of schools, as well as, two control groups of pregnant women. The first set entailed schools situated near joints offering fast food. On the other hand, the second set included schools located far away from the fast food restaurants (Edwards and Linklater 74-82). Similarly, the first set of pregnant women comprised of those who have fast food restaurants in their neighborhoods, while the second one those without.
From this study, the researcher established that women, who had fast food restaurants in their neighborhoods, gained averagely 22.5 kilograms during pregnancy. On the other hand, women who did not have fast food restaurants in their neighborhoods gained averagely 4.8 kilograms during pregnancy. Similarly, the study revealed that students who had fast food restaurant near the school compound increased averagely 14 kilograms. However, as the distance between the fast food joints and school expanded, weight gain rates kept on reducing. For example, the schools furthest from the fast food restaurants, recorded lowest weight gains among their students (Edwards and Linklater 73-78). As such, this study revealed that the proximity to fast food restaurants correlated with obesity among individuals.
However, there have been different arguments concerning the causes of obesity, with some individuals arguing that it is a hereditary disease. Despite, these arguments, it is obvious that fast foods cause obesity because of the following facts. Fast foods cause obesity because they are rich in sugar, carbohydrates, fat, calories, and salt (Schlosser 78-86). As such increased consumption of these foods, accompanied by lack of exercise leads to excess weight gain, hence obesity.
Based on the paper, it is evident that consumption of fast foods causes obesity. In this regard, fast foods cause obesity because they are rich in sugar, carbohydrates, fat, calories, and salt. Therefore, it is advisable for parents to discourage their children from consuming fast foods. Similarly, adults should reduce the rates of consuming fast foods, in order to address this menace (Schlosser 85-99).
Edwards, Lynda and Richard Linklater. Fast Food Nation. New York: Scholastic Educational,
Schlosser, Eric. Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001.
Gender Identity and Sex Categorization
Jeffrey Eugenides and Judith Butler are two people who share the same theme of gender identity and sex categorization in their works. Middlesex, a book written by Jeffrey and Undoing Gender, a book written by Butler both display a wide discussion of gender identity and sexual categorization. Undoing Gender addresses the issue of sexuality and gender identity using scientific theory. Middlesex talks about a character Cal initially known as Calliope who lives a life in the middle of male and female gender. Cal came to the disturbing realization that she was a character in between a girl and a boy while everyone else knew her as a girl or female. This therefore presents a crisis in her personal life, which informs the title of the book, Middlesex.
Gender Identity and Sex Categorization
The book therefore presents the theme of gender identity. This is because the story continuously addresses the struggles the character undergoes to find a human identity in her Middlesex form. This means that her quest is to make people understand her as a normal person and not view her as an intersex. The declaration that Cal makes to show her coming to birth on two occasions set the theme into motion in the entire story. She narrates that her first birth was as a girl and the second birth as a teenage boy (Eugenides 3). This clearly indicates that she later lived a life pursuing a gender identity because both sexes had a share of her physical body.
Judith Butler, in a show of support for the people with the intersex condition, dwells on the topic of the subversion of gender identity by the traditional thinkers. She insists on the need to stop thinking of gender and sexuality as a two-sided concept (Butler 7). This means that the writer encourages people to think past the male-female and masculine-feminine categorization of humans. She generally attacks feminists who have used the two sided gender concept. The author argues that this has traditionalized the human view on gender, which has affected the view of the society on intersex people (Butler 3).
The authors of these books have used characterization and conflict to bring out the theme of gender identity. Butler uses conflict with other ideologies to bring out her stance on the gender identity and sexual categorization of intersex people (Butler 201). This is embodies in her support and attacks on theories and perceptions from quarters such as scientific ideologies and feminist theorists. Her queerness and argument informed by discursive thinking helps in bringing out a new perspective on the theme of gender identity (Carroll 201).
Jeffrey heavily used characterization to embody the story of intersex people. The story brings her out as a physical body perceived by the people as female. On the other hand, Cal made a discovery that her body had male characteristics as well. The condition later leads to Calliope choosing to live as a man in her later years. However, he is poised for another rebirth, which is the identity as a Middlesex (Eugenides 3). In addition, the Jeffrey has used other means such as setting and symbolism in expressing the theme. He for example metaphorically brings into comparison the difference between nature and nurture in influencing the life of the protagonist. This ideally brings into play the metaphorical differences displayed in Greek and American forms of civilization and social perceptions. The differences play a major role in this story because the protagonist ascribes to both systems in her genealogy and present life (Carroll 188).
Science and Gender Identity
The theme of gender identity in both books receives scientific attention and possible interventions as suggested by scientific research. The book, Middlesex reveals that the parents of Cal had a strong desire to have a girl child. They therefore resorted to using science to find the solution. However, this worked against them because the genes in the child were recessive to living a complete life of a female. This brings out the conflict between science and nature or culture (Eugenides 9). The story depicts science as an equal failure because the procedures did not sustain the femininity of Calliope. This is because despite having a girl in the body of Calliope, she would soon choose to live as a male and later as a Middlesex. It further reveals that science was at fault in trying to classify Cal into either of the acceptable gender.
Judith equally finds fault with the different psychoanalytic literature that address the topic of gender identity. This includes her critic of the works of people such as Joan Revierre among other renowned writers (Butler 64). She analytically goes through the discourse of gender identity and finds both history and some scientific work as repressive of the sexuality and identity of middlesex people (Butler 65).
Culture and sexual identity
According to the two literary works, it is important to note that nature and culture equally fail to offer the solution of sexual identity to the intersex people. This is because in both Greek culture and the modern American setting there is the general culture of identifying people as either male or female. Furthermore, it is rather unconventional for a man to exhibit feminine characteristic traits. Conversely, it is queer for a woman to have masculine features and behaviors. This means that the society finds it practically abnormal for femininity and maleness to pair up in a single physical body. Therefore, the intersex people continue bearing the name abnormal people in the eyes of the society (Eugenides 414).
Feminist movement offers no solution to this problem faced by the intersex people. This is because all it cares for is for the equality among the already identified and socially correct genders. This still leaves the people who would like to live on the middle ground with no way around but to conform to the norms of the society through sexual correction because no one understands them (Eugenides 431). It is important to note that sexual correction does little to help this so-called abnormal minority. This is because they subsequently undergo social and sexual suffering after the sexual corrections.
The authors, through their works therefore clearly push towards the identification of the third sex, Middlesex as normal in the society. Jeffrey, through the portrayal of the life of Cal brings out the need to end sexual correction. This is evident in Cal running away from home to escape the surgery she was to undergo in her adolescent stage (Eugenides 439). What follows is a series of events that help shape the life of Cal that drives him towards discovering his true self. In addition, author Judith Butler came up with the theory of performativity (Butler 210). This theory insists on the need to allow the intersex individual to live both lives. She argued that the individual learns their true self through the performance (Butler 210). This helps in making choices as to their identity since the decision is from within.
The theme of gender identity and sexual categorization receives much attention in both works of Butler and Jeffrey. It casts a shadow of reality that the world needs to wake up to and offer a comprehensive solution. It is unacceptable to dehumanize other people on grounds of their intersex nature.
Butler, Judith. Undoing gender. Routledge, 2004.
Carroll, Rachel. “Retrospective Sex: Rewriting Intersexuality in Jeffrey Eugenides’s Middlesex.” Journal of American Studies 44.1 (2010): 187-201.
Eugenides, Jeffrey. Middlesex. Random House LLC, 2011.