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Employers’ Perceptions of the Employability Skills of New Graduates
What could be the main gaps that the university can overtake and prepare to reduce for the fresh graduate students to be ready asset to enter confidently the corporate environment?
- Definition of a University
- Types of Universities
- Subjects Offered in a University
- Reasons for Attending University
- Types of Employers
- Issues Affecting Employability Rates among Fresh Graduates
- Definition of a University (Kevin, Stuart, Dely & Jon, 2011).
- A university is an educational institution.
- It is tasked with providing a wide range of programs, courses, and activities.
- It provides higher education through extensive graduate and professional programs, disciplines, courses, studies, and researches.
- It accumulates resources to facilitate delivery of high quality education, knowledge, and skills.
- It also creates, develops, and promotes additional skills and values among students.
- Types of Universities (Kevin, Stuart, Dely & Jon, 2011).
- There two types of universities:
- Public universities.
- Private universities.
- They both comprise boards tasked with attending to social, educational, and institutional needs and wants.
- They ensure university’s interests, mission, and obligations are fulfilled effectively and efficiently.
- Subjects Offered in a University (Kevin, Stuart, Dely & Jon, 2011).
- University committee boards are tasked with identification, selection, and promotion processes of creating university programs and courses.
- The programs and courses address subjects such as:
- Reasons for attending University (Cranmer, 2006).
- For love of the subjects taught at the particular university course.
- In order to gain experience and witness different and diverse ways of life and achieve exposure.
- To gain higher education thus increase and expand individual chances and opportunities to gain a Job vacancy in the corporate environment.
- To gain knowledge and skills facilitating establishment of newly innovated business ideas.
- Types of Employers (Yorke & Knight, 2006).
- Small voluntary agencies
- Medium sized organizations
- Large multinational firms
- Issues affecting Employability Rates among Fresh Graduates (Cranmer, 2006).
- Employers rely on employees with higher education, talent, proficiency, credentials, and experience.
- They also utilize formal and informal methods to assess employability skills and qualifications among fresh graduates during the recruiting process.
- They list various key qualities, characteristics, qualifications, skills, knowledge, and talents valuable among employable fresh graduates. These competencies are divided into two:
- Technical competencies
- Discipline competencies.
- These competencies demonstrate broad range of attributes. They include:
- Capabilities to teamwork
- Skills to communicate clearly
- Leadership qualities
- Ability to think critically
- Skills and abilities to solve problems
- Human resource management.
- Lack of internships and work placements has denied fresh graduates to develop and demonstrate their employability skills in the corporate world
- More so, very few universities emphasize on internships and work placements.
- Recommendations (Yorke & Knight, 2006).
- Universities should establish and implement graduate employability university programs.
- Staffs at the university ought to ensure the graduate employability programs are career based.
- Academic and non-academic staff working at the universities should be supportive towards the idea of graduate employability programs.
- Universities should design programs and courses based on the needs, qualifications, and requirements within the corporate environment.
- Universities and employers should hold discussions to reduce and eliminate negative attitudes affecting freshly released university graduates in the corporate environment.
- Universities are not playing their roles effectively and efficiently.
- They are releasing fresh graduates to a corporate environment flooded with other unemployed university graduates.
- Fresh graduates’ numbers are overwhelming to available job opportunities in the corporate environment.
- Although employers regard fresh university graduates as persons with knowledge and skills, they also believe they lack corporate environment experience.
- Thus, universities should invest in establishing and implementing employability programs to advance students’ credentials and experience.
- Consequently, fresh graduates will possess skills, knowledge, and experiences required by employers in the corporate environment.
Cranmer, S. (2006). Enhancing Graduate Employability: Best Intentions and Mixed Outcomes. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 169–184.
Kevin, L., Stuart, H., Dely, E., & Jon, L. (2011). Employers’ Perceptions of the Employability Skills of New Graduates, University of Glasgow SCRE Centre and Edge Foundation.
Yorke, M., & Knight, P. (2006). Embedding Employability into the Curriculum: Learning and Employability Series One. New York: Higher Education Academy
There are numerous types of computer connections that are applied for different purposes. Local area network is a form of networking that is commonly used to connect computers within a small area. This is mostly used to connect computers in schools, offices, and hospitals. TCP/IP is the applied method of communicating between computers that are connected to this network. Local area networks are usually small which makes it possible to have only one administrator. These networks are possible to change using a bus network topology which allows access to the network (Crow, et al., 1997). This is why these networks are very common due to the ease of setting them up and management.
Wireless local area network connects computers without using of cables. Therefore, these networks rely on radio and infrared signals to send and receive signals from different devices connected in the network. This implies that devices that are connected to the network have a mobility and are not forced to remain in one location. However, the network has a limited location which implies that the connection is only available within the network range. These networks work in accordance to IEEE 802.11 standards (Crow, et al., 1997). The most common application of wireless connections is through Wi-Fi internet connections which connect computers and mobile devices within a certain radius.
Wide area networks cover a wide area and is used to connect server machines across continents. This allows different servers located in different countries to communicate sending and receiving information updates. In addition, these networks are made up of many network connections which result to one huge network comprising of thousands of connections. These networks rely on optic fibers as their connection medium. This cable transmits data at a high speed which makes it possible to send and receive information across connections within a very short time (Thom, 1996). The internet is one example of wide area network and covers the entire globe. It’s a clear depiction of the effectiveness of this network connection because people are able to send and receive information instantly.
System area networks are networks that are designed to provide high internet speed. They offer this service to a number of computers that are connected to it. Their most common application is in server purposes which makes it possible for other computers to connect to the server and communicate fast(Thom, 1996). However, connection to a system that is on the system area network is based on permission granted after the status of the computer on the system is reviewed by the network administrator.
Storage area networks are mainly used as information databases. They are commonly applied by websites which require users to access information that is stored there easily and fast. This is because these networks are designed to store information and allow easy retrieval of stored data. This is a basic requirement for any website because users want to access stored information very fast (Crow, et al., 1997). They are common in websites where downloading services are offered. They can store huge data and it can easily be retrieved during downloads.
Campus area networks are a connection of many local area networks and are used in university campuses and offices. They allow users to access information stored in each local area network servers from any computer. This includes computers connected to other local area networks that are under the campus area network. Campus area networks make it possible to access and download information stored in any of the computers connected to the local area networks under the campus network(Thom, 1996).
Crow, B. P., Widjaja, I., Kim, J. G., & Sakai, P. T. (1997). IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 35(9), 116-126.
Thom, G. A. (1996). H. 323: the multimedia communications standard for local area networks. Communications Magazine, IEEE, 34(12), 52-56.
Mobile computing is the ability to move around with any computing device without any constraints on its location data center or desktop. Mobile computing involves mobile computer which refers to all computing devices that can be easily moved from one place to another. Recently, different types of mobile computing tools available have quickly increased; whereby computers are everywhere in the world. This has made it easy to access digital information anytime and from any place due to the computers used which are lightweight and most of them are pen-based instead of keyboard-based. The business of mobile computing is indeed beginning to make the demand for content of mobile internet very important. Mobile computers are categorized into several categories depending on the year of development. Initially, most of the mobile computers were laptops or generally moveable versions of desktop personal computers. Laptops are based on the similar hardware type and able to run the same program applications. Nowadays, lighter and very thin laptops are emerging thereby making their portability easier.
A Netbook is another mobile computer category which is smaller than a laptop, but capable of executing same software as the laptops or desktop PCS. The development of mobile computing has led to the emergence of tablet computers that are similar to notebook or laptop, but are lighter, have no keyboard and are operated through a touch screen. An example of a tablet computer is an Apple iPad. More decreased in size mobile computer categories such as smart phones are emerging that have internet connectivity. These developments make mobile computing effective in our daily activities by facilitating portability, social interactivity, connectivity and individuality (Realado 45).
Mobile computing is spreading faster in business world as compared to any other technology in history. It has facilitated location flexibility by enabling users to work from anywhere, so long as there is an established internet connection. In this case, a user is capable of working without having to be in a fixed position. Besides, their mobility facilitates them to carry out several tasks while they still perform other stated jobs. This technology also saves a lot of time in companies whereby the time wasted or spent by travelling from different places or offices has reduced. People are able to access important products or information over a secured channel. As a result, it has improved telecommunication in various companies and business people. This also reduces unnecessary expenses which may be incurred. The nature of productivity has been enhanced in business by the fact that people are able to work efficiently and effectively from whichever place they see suitable and comfortable. On the other hand, business people are able to easily research about a certain product without having to go to the field to look for facts. Likewise, they are able to feed information regarding their products from wherever they are without having unnecessary trips to and from the field to the working place. Again through mobile computing business activities are now readily available through protected connections. In relation to security, enough measures have been enacted to ensure authorization and authentication of the user that access those services. Some business activities can be carried out over secure links as well as information sharing among business partners. Voice and video conferencing has also reduced the lengthy travelling because seminars, meetings and as well as important services can be conducted through voice and video conferencing thereby cutting down travelling expenditure and time.
Cloud computing is a form of computing, which depends on sharing computing resources instead of having personal devices or local servers to handle the applications. This is a form of internet based computing whereby various services, applications and storage are brought to computers and devices of an organization through the internet. The cloud computing is aimed at applying traditional high performance computing and supercomputer power that is used by research and military facilities to carry out millions of computations at a given time in consumer oriented applications like financial portfolios, in delivering personalized information to power immersive computer games or provide the data storage. To make this possible, cloud computing employs networks of large servers’ group usually low cost consumer personal computer technology with dedicated connections to disperse data processing tasks across them. Such shared information technology infrastructure includes large system pools that are joined together. Virtualization techniques are normally used to boost the strength of cloud computing. With this technology, there is a great significant workload change. The local computers do not need any more to do every job when it comes to executing programs. However, the computer networks that make up the cloud computing handle them instead. Besides, the user’s demand for software and hardware decreases. The user’s computer only requires to have ability to run the interface software of the cloud computing of which is simple just like a Web browser, and the rest of the work is taken care of by the cloud’s network (Gruma & Knorr 23).
Cloud computing has already begun to gain great demand in corporate data midpoints as it facilitates the data midpoint to act as the internet by the process of allowing computing resources to be accessed as well as shared as virtual sources in a scalable and secure manner. For a medium and small size business, the significance of cloud computing is presently driving adoption. Normally, in the some businesses, there is a lack of financial resources and time to acquire, set up and maintain infrastructure such as software, storage and server. With this technology, businesses are able to access the above resources and shrink or expand services because the business requires change. Again, from a business point of view, the way companies operate differentiating processes of business and their Quality of Service is a key to the business operating success. Recognizing the process of business and standard product operations will boost the focus of inventive market growth as well as service cost optimization activities that are made possible business types in relation to cloud computing chances. On the other hand, with cloud computing the existing challenges faced by a customer may be proactively solved for every other customer belonging to cloud service by use of shared platform. In this case, amortization of challenges is only an example of how cloud solutions can accomplish more favourable quality of service levels. Hence, value may be influenced by repaying financial economies of scale all over the collective membership capability of a service environment made by the cloud (Griffith 32).
Google is among the known search engine portal that has extended its branches in the cloud computing market. This company showcases its services of cloud computing as Google Apps and Google docs Engine. Therefore, it has been known for its vibrant services such as Google translator, Google scholar, books, calendar and many others. Google application engine service caters the users’ requirements in cloud computing.
Open Source Software
Open source software is a program in which its source code set free to everyone for enhancement or modification if need arises. Source code refers to the portion of a computer program that most users do not ever see and the one that programmers use to modify how software operates. In this case, programmers get access to the source code of particular software when the need for modification arise and add features or fix parts that do not always work properly. Therefore, the authors of open source software to make their source code available to other people who would wish to view, copy, alter, share or learn from it. However, because such computer programs do with proprietary software, clients must adhere to the terms and conditions of their licenses whenever they use open source software even though their legal terms differ considerably from those of proprietary license. Licenses for open source software to promote sharing and collaboration because they let other people to make adjustments to the source code, then integrate the modified code into their personal projects. Other licenses for this software ensure that anybody who changes and then distribute the program to others should also share that software’s source code with no charge of license cost for it. This means that computer programmers are able to access, view as well as make changes to open source software every time they like so long as they allow others to do the same as they share their task. Actually, they could be infringing the terms and conditions of any licenses for open source code if they fail to do this (Cloudtweaks 22).
- Open source software has added control over that type of software. Users are able to examine and make changes in the code to ensure it is doing what they want.
- Users who are not programmers benefit from these types of software because they can use them for any purpose they like.
- The software helps those interested turn to be better programmers because they are able to learn how to create better computer programs by reading the source code written by others.
- It is possible for people to share their task with others and invite critiques and comments.
- Open source software is considered to be more secure as well as stable as compared to proprietary software because anybody can view and make changes in the program, omissions or errors can be spotted and corrected which the initial program’s authors could have missed.
- Some of the software is not simple to use like Linux, which cannot be studied in a day.
- One needs to train or hire trained people to make things simpler and this account for additional costs.
- These applications are normally limited incompatibility with the existing computer programs.
Google is an example of a company that use modified Linux software in many of its servers.
Student attributes are; student’s name, student number, address, phone, birth date, sex, class
Course attributes are; course name, course number, semester hours, level, department
Attributes for the instructor are; instructor number, instructor name, department, subject, address, sex (Jones 13).
Physical Data Model (PDM)
Creating PDM in Access database
- Start the Microsoft Access program
- Under New in the right hand window, click on “Blank database” and save your database under a new name. After doing so, the main Access window appears as shown below
- To start creating tables, click on “Create” tab then click “Tables” button on the toolbar for a new table to appear. Then click on “View” button, in the drop down list click “Design View” option. After clicking you will be prompted to enter the name of the table. Enter the table name and click ok to save.
- A blank table creation window appears whereby you enter the Field name, data type as well as description. Each table carried attributes for every entity as shown below
- The next step is to designate the primary key in the table. This is done by selecting the field by clicking somewhere in its row and clicking on the “Primary key” button on the tool bar at the top of the Main Access window. For Student, the primary key is StntNo.
- Once you are done entering all of the fields for the Student table and setting the primary key, save the table by clicking on the disk button on the toolbar, or “Office button” then click “Save” option. If you attempt to close your table without saving it you will get a prompt to save the table. Also, some of the activities performed in the next step require that the table be saved.
- Repeat step four for the other entities which looks as below
- From the main “Database” window, click the “Design” tab select “Relationships” In the tool bar and then click “Add” button on the small window that appears so as to add all the three tables.
- To establish a relationship between related tables (i.e., tables that have a common field between them), click and drag the primary key field (for example, StntNo in Student table) to the corresponding foreign key in the related table (IntrcNo in the instructor table).
Cloudtweaks. Advantages and disadvantages of open source software. 2012. Web. 22 February, 2014.
Griffith Eric. What is cloud computing? 2013. Web. 22 February, 2014.
Gruma Galen & Knorr Eric. What cloud computing really means. 2013. Web. 22 February, 2014.
Jones Bryan. The importance of business understanding in requirements structuring. 2014. Web. 22 February, 2014.
Realado Antonio. Mobile computing is just getting started. 2013. Web. 22 February, 2014.
The Many Aspects of Mobile Business Computing
The mobile computing world is characterized by constant migration for survival. The term mobility is a symbol of desire of moving towards resources or the movement from scarcity. Mobile computing is a platform for creating and managing information free from temporal as well as spatial constraints. The freedom from the constraints gives the user accessibility to process the desired information from different points. The user or the mobile device does not have any impact on information management capabilities of mobile platform. Mobile computing discipline originates from personal communications, which refers to a great variety of the wireless services over small terminal for instance cell phones. Mobile computing is more about physical as well as logical computing businesses that transfer system data from a specific point to another.
In mobile computing small and portable devices are used across wireless networks that are connected to a common server. The devices range from laptops, notebooks computers, tablets, PDAs, and palmtops among other mobile devices (Christophe et al. 120). The phones have a device that receives radio signals installed for the transmission of electronic data. The device also gives mobility to users by creating access and processing of information without worrying of a single or common location. This makes transmission of data and other important electronic information faster and easy hence, users can move from one area to another withoutbeing disconnected as long as they are within the network. With mobile computing, you can receive mails, share files and access the internet regardless of your location.
Among the different computing aspects are mobile communication, hardware and software. In mobile communication translation of data from single fixed points to portable networks occurs. For instance, there is conversion of LAN to Wireless communication. The mobile hardware refers to the different portable equipment that is easy to carry around for instance PDAs, phones as well as laptops (Friedman et al. 167). Under mobile software, there is integration of application software, which can easily work in those mobile platforms and devices. The three aspects are encompassed in mobile computing. With the coming of mobile computing, users have been able to use their devices as they move. This mobility has given many people the flexibility of moving from one point to another without being disconnected from the main server.
Furthermore, high-end users can be connected regardless of their location in the world with the use of satellite- based technology. On the other side, the network is not easily affordable and it may take more time before it is fully embraced. Mobile computing has many advantages compared to other systems. In the first place, it is mobile and it can help users when they are on the move. This mobility ensures that, it is easy to use such connections without having to think much about connections as connection works from a common server. Additionally, the networks are easy to set up, as they do not need any physical infrastructure for connection. Wires are not useful for connecting as you just need wireless connection that does jot rely on the use of cables. Mobile computing also offers the capability of easily moving from one mobile device to another network with ease (Regalado & Antonio 70). This is simply because it does not need any specific or fixed connection. Mobile network cannot be affected by any disaster and is always stable than any other network during such times as it can remain alive and working through out without any problems of data and information transmission.
Permanent networks cannot offer such advantage, as they are fixed and not easily portable. They can be interfered with during times of disasters making communication hard during such instances. Ad-hoc networks can easily be created during disaster management or even military operations without setting up mobile infrastructure, as it does not rely on any support. Mobile computing has also eased the means of communication and sharing of information between mobile users as it gives every user a chance to communicate on the move. This way, people are able to save a significant amount of time working as they can communicate even when travelling. The fixed mobile network cannot provide this advantage, as there is need for infrastructural support and without it, communication will always be impaired (Ularuet al 46). Mobile co putting is also effective in terms of costs as there is no money need to do installation unlike networks that need wires to function. This has increased effectiveness and efficiency of data transfer and communication.
However, mobile computing has some few challenges and users must beware of them when they are using the products. The first limitation is in terms of bandwidth, which is a major challenge to its users. Since the number of mobile devices is increasing everyday and the bandwidth is no changing, there is crowding in the mobile network and in turn, the network becomes slower than other wired transmissions (Vizard &Michael 10). Moreover, transmission can be interfered with because of factors like fog, dust, buildings and other barriers, which can reduce the signals. This can make communication difficult and give users a hard time. Another challenge is the size of mobile devices, which makes its hard to improve their performance while obeying their size limitations as they have to portable (Christophe et al 117). While doing mobile computing, there are different constraints that users face including technical problems. In some instances like using mobile phone dependent on the public network, leaks may result posing security issues therefore proper use of VPNs is crucial. Moreover, power is consumed in the process because the grid cannot be used and the only reliable source is battery power. The batteries may be very expensive costing the users a lot of money. It is due to this reason that battery power should be carefully used to ensure that the technology could be utilized better. Weather, terrain issues, and distance of limited connection are other challenges that are associated with the technologies. Another shortfall of the technology is that, reception of network in tunnels or buildings can be very poor. There is no potential health effect linked to the cellular emissions.
Health problems can result from electromagnetic interferences although the problems are yet to be proven. Well, the first step to cure should be precaution when handling such technology. Training can help in the case of handling the computing devices to minimize the problems. The devices rely on batteries to keep them alive. Therefore, powerful batteries are required to keep are needed for a longer service. Manufacturing heavy batteries that can keep charge for a long time is not easy because portability of the devices does not allow that. Mobile devices are also easy to hack and very strong security standards must be maintained to keep the devices secure across the line of data transmission. The small sizes if the devise and the limited number of keys gives the users many difficulties making life usage hard (Yoo & Youngjin 222).
The strength in the signal of the network keeps on changing constantly and this leads to breakdowns in connections. The varying signal strength slows mobile connection and this posses some difficulties to the users. The mobile devices require systems to be put in place so that they can connect to other mobile devices in the same network. There is also a bad effect on the heath of humans because of the dangerous signals emitted by the devices. The scraps of the devices and the used batteries can pollute the environment when they are dumped as waste. This is a challenge to environmentalsustainabilityinitiatives.
The world of mobile computers is tremendously spreading compared to the other consumer technologies. In the USA for instance, smartphones have created another label that consumers and researchers are referring to as the “late majority” and close to half of the approximated mobile phone-users have the technology (Friedman et al. 179). The mobile voice communication has been extensively established across the globe and the number of subscribers is increasing day by day over the various cellular networks in the past few decades. Mobile computing is advantageous since it easy to send as well as receive data on the networks. The technology has evolved rapidly allowing users to exchange data even in remote areas or in fixed locations. This characteristic has given many people in business a chance to communicate as they are on the move. The current cellularnetwork architecture has gone through a number of changes before attaining stability. In the first place, telephony set off after the cellular technology was introduced which, led to the effectiveutilization of frequencies making connections wide and fit for many users. Although analogue technology was widely used in the 1980’s, the digital age replaced it in the 1990’s with the coming of the GSM technology, which became a widely acceptable system across the world (Regalado 68).
The cellular network is made up of mobile users that are interlinked and connected to a common fixed point and allows access to network. This technology is incorporated in a different transceivers referred to as Base Station whereby every BS should be ;located in a strategic position to cover a certain area thus the name cellular communication. The MSC or the mobile switching center consists of a number of cells assembled together and it corresponds to a BSs communication through the MSC. MSC is responsible for routing as well as switching from originator-designator. It performs the management of the MSC by routing, setting up, and terminating calls. The frequencies that make up the MSC are different and they vary from one cellular network to another (Ularuet al 46). Each of the cells has some channels that are linked to it which are assigned to different subscribers.
Data communication refers to the exchange of data over network communication. Data encompasses different applications that include transfer of files, facsimile, mail, and internet access over the WWW (ben). This kind of communication has been realizedusingdifferent networks like PSTN, ISD and ATM modes. Such networks are either digital or analogue and theyuse either circuit or packet switching. Circuit refers to a switching where data uses a prescribed route from one user to another. If such links are busy, there is no proper transfer of information and messages, whichresults to failure or delays in transmission. In packet switching, there is a better use of the current network through splitting of messages into packets (Yoo & Youngjin 213). Different packets contain information of the sender or receiver.
The invention of mobility in data communication needed a shift from the PSDN to networks that are compatible with mobile phones. One of the commonly used is the virtual circuit system. This means that packets can be channeled through a common and it needs use of muchequipment.The mobility that was implemented across data communication has had a very great influence in communication over voice communication. The mobiletechnology givesusers a chance to move from one point to another without having to remain in static point.
The current mobile communications is greatly dominated by the CDPD technology ad other alternative technologies such as Wireless, Radio and cellular. This technology has more advantages compared to the others. Its principle is found in its usage of free time within voice signals. Another advantage of the system is that the idle time is not chargeable and cost of transmittingis low compared to other networks. It can be a very useful network for business individuals today.
The system makes connection easy for both fixed and mobile device users as it uses a fixed link across the network. Conversely, fixed users have a common link attached to the CDPD and it is easy to connect to existing networks through the network (Yoo & Youngjin 227). Service coverage remains a crucial aspect in the provision of efficient wiring solutions to mobile users with this method to achieve the objective. Data packets in this instance are put voice frequencies at the idle time on the signals in the hierarchical network. The CDPD hierarchy consists of different levels. The first part is the Mobile user interface. This is a system that is used for transmitting data as well as voice signals connected to the RF modem, which can either forward or reverse channels through the MSK modulation. In the hierarchy is also the mobile data base point or the MDBS. Each cell in the reception area has MDBS used in detecting idle time across the voice channels to relay data from mobile units to mobile data intermediate system.
In detecting idle time, a scanning receiver is used to detect voice traffic by taking measurement of signal length on a certain frequency and then it detects idle channel. Relaying data packets across the network creates RF links between end users and the units. The two channels are significant in realizing a bidirectional communication. One of the channels works in the forward way and the other unit work in the reverse direction and the units on the reverse link cannot network with each other. The Digital Sense Access is important when accessing reverse channels. The protocol gives way to collision of two packets of data along a certain channel that can be easily detected on the mobile unit to relay transmissions. The speed of MDBS makes the CDPD invisible to the cellular network and makes sure that there is no interference on the transmission on the voice channels. Mobile data intermediate system forms a group of MDBS that are under the control of different cells across the network reception area within the higher level of the hierarchy.
The CDPD network is very reliable and some actions are required to make it work excellently. First is the user authentication, which is a procedure that scans the identity of a subscriber over the radio path in the network. User anonymity represents the identity of a user within a network. Fraud prevention is also required to protect users against impersonation and fraud. Data protection is also essential as it helps in hiding the identification key within the network for maximum data security. Mobile computing has many areas of application and it has been a prime mover of businesses in the world today (Yoo & Youngjin 213-231). Mobile computing is essential in many fields s it helps in effective use of time and resources. Proper utilization of resources ensures that there is substantial saving in transportation and other costs. The technology has been helpful in many businesses such as real estate, emergency services, in courts, in companies, stock control, and credit card verifications.
Furthermore, wireless carries are making money on a great scale. Globally, around 1000 mobile companies make more than $ 1.3 trillion revenue per year and this is multiple times the revenue of Google, Microsoft, and Apple Inc (Christophe et al 120). In the present world, viewing the lines on technology analyst’s cancel and collide is turning out to be a spectator sport with smartphones outselling personal computers and touchscreens selling more than keyboards in the industry. This is evident even on Google search where many people are using their smartphones to do searches instead of their PCs. Large mobile companies are reacting to this with very huge and bold steps.
Mobile computing world gives certain physical computer businesses, which shift locations when needed. The logical entity represents instances of running applications or even mobile agents, which are essential for automatic configuration of devices. Apparently, this makes mobile agents flexible to migrate wherever they want over the internet.
Different wideband platforms and other data systems are developed and they can accommodate internet as well as multimedia services. Such systems cannot be incorporated within this subject. Wireless channels are essential in processing information between different computing platforms. Further, the units are free from spatial constraints. This means that a user is able to move from one position to another while being connected to a server. Temporal as well as spatial flexibility is a powerfulplatform that allows users to access the data storage and processing site regardless of the location (Friedman et al. 169). Offices usually use this capability in setting their offices across different locations without having to move or create another network in those locations.
Mobile computing has evolved over a long period and it is not just quick as many people may think. The followingcan be used as a summary of the historical milestones recorded in the mobile computing systems. In 1928, the mobile radio system was invented. It was a simple system, which was first used in Detroit at a police station (Ularu et al 40-52). Furthermore, 1935 marked the invention and testing of the frequency modulation system. The mobile system also developed and in 1943, the mobile telephone service was introduced. This system was a composition of broadcast system using a power transmitter. The system was also followed by limited cellular networks which saw the implementation o the first mobile radio platform for connecting with telephone numbers from a fixed point. In the 1950’s the paging system came into use and it is during this period that Bell Labs were used to check cellular techniques. In 1970, FCC selected spectrum space, which incorporated cellular systems, and the advance mobile platform was discovered. In 1983, cellular service was introduced in Chicago.
In facilitating data management and other activities, mobile computing system laptops, cell phones are useful for personal digital assistance. In the current technological advancement only gives users with limited information processing capabilities although it is expanding to capture other mobile devices. Mobile connectivity provides a wide spectrum existing between two points in a wireless channel that can be easily used without spatial constraints (Yoo & Youngjin 213-231).
Nomadic computing can be defined as limited migrations where by migration usually occurs at a slow speed inside a building. Other forms of nomadic access can be interleaved user relocation patterns and indoor connection. For instance, it can be said that users who carry laptops that use DIAL UP broadband connections also engage in nomadic computing. If a user wants access to a specific network like internet, wireless WAN system telephone, which is a bit slower, is suitable alternative. Furthermore, high speed LANs are not readily available but only on specific web platforms.
The future of mobile computing looks bright and exceedinglyexciting with the promising technological advancement in integrated circuitry, increase in computer processing speed, and artificial intelligence (Friedman, Jon, and Daniel 159-180). With the increasing emphasis of small mobile PCs, mobile computers can practically be reduced to a small size that can be hand held. Artificial intelligence also is used as personal secretaries for receiving emails, paging, and change individuals schedule depending on the message. Mobile computing will further a great impact on the working lifestyles of many people as it is possible to work from home instead of commuting which is also beneficial to the environment because pollution will be reduced. The mobility aspects will also be applicable to people in different spheres such as interaction through mobile stations.
Mobile computing can be termed as generic that explains the ability of people to use technology as they move unlike portable computer devices. Distributedcomputing relies on static network of wires and therefore it is more secure in comparison with the other computing mechanisms.
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Cyber Security for Medical Devices and Hospital Networks
Due to the increased use of technological devices in hospitals, there have been a lot of concerns raised regarding the security issues of the network systems. This is not only a problem to the health sector but also to the business world where people have lost crucial information to unscrupulous individuals who take advantage of unprotected networks to deprive unaware people off their privacy. This is why hospitals have to implant some of the infrastructures to cater for the security wellbeing of the patients as well as the entire hospital. The project aims at protecting hospitals networks from attacks from hackers and unauthorized persons.
From July 1 to July 15: Design and development
The projects involve a number of parties expected to make adjustments in order to promote security of the devices. Installation of software to the system that will detect the user’s personality is deemed to take a period of six days. This is because the system operation needs to be reevaluated with the installation of the new software consecutively taking place. Downloading new files and documents from emails and internet will require authorization from the program coordinator if the source is unrecognized. In order to use the devices, one will be required to sign in with authorized user name and password. Only authorized personnel will access and operate the devices. This will enhance the security as well as the instillation of responsibility upon the users.
From July 16- august 1: Goals and Objectives for Manufactioners
The installation of the firewalls in the organization that will take a period of six days will commence after the installation of new and advanced software. This wall helps to control networks traffic in the sense that it prevents unauthorized incoming networks from connecting to the institutions network. In addition, it helps detect unauthorized users and prevent them from accessing the organization’s network. This program may take approximately six days to be fully installed and work to meet the expected standards. Moreover, hospital employees need to be informed about the new structural development and measures to undertake when using the infrastructure to enhance privacy. This goes hand in hand with the installation of Mobile Technology to enhance the Voice Mail Answering and Beeper Service in Hospital Settings. It will facilitate communication between workers in the premises. This action creates efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by the stakeholders through timely consultation and feedback management.
From Aurgust1-Aurgust 15: Goals and Objectives for Health Care Facilities
Monitoring for the usage of companies data will be done through the administration of a procedural authorization setup to the hospitals network. By doing this, all the user will follow a particular path authorized by the regulator. In case of any irregularities or suspicious dealings, the system will alert the regulator/administrator who will intervene and disable the transaction. Here, hospitals are required to establish a control panel that will monitor all the activities. This process needs at least two weeks to be fully established. Constant evaluating and checking of the devices should be left to the manufacturers so that they can operate at the highest efficiency level.
Project Outcomes and Deliverables
There are numerous advantages of having a protected network; they includes the following. One is that the company will reduce the number of attacks from outside and unauthorized networks that expose confidential information to unwarranted people who misuse it for selfish interests. Another advantage is that the cost of operation is reduced by a great deal due to reduced cases of fraudulent cyber attacks.
From august 16-september1: Implementation and Evaluation
The project is deemed to cost the hospital a total of $200,000 in terms of acquiring new software and training all the employees. Employee training will commence prior to the inception of the new system so that they are familiar with the demand of the system. This is a positive move towards safety measures implementation and operation of the initiative meant to change the way business is conducted by all the stakeholders. The implementation will be in three phases.
From 1 September to 12 September: The first phase involves the replacement of old software with the new software that is more advanced and keeps on updating data from time to time. The process will take two to three week to be implemented by technicians helped by the manufacturing company.
From 13 September to 20 September: The second phase involves the inception and establishment of a control panel by the hospital management. These are computer design experts trusted to undertake protective measures as well as monitor all the activities carried out by the organization staff members. One week will be enough for these activities to be through.
From 20 September to 1 October: The third phase incorporates the process of software development to host the user identification procedures that asks for user ID, password and department or category of job group. It keeps off the intruders from accessing the system in the sense that they are unfamiliar with the working of the new system. This is the final stage in the implementation of changes thus need to be taken with a lot of care. It takes a maximum of one month to be fully functional depending on the size of the institution.