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Detecting Media Bias: Article on Ukraine
Ukraine is compared to Poland and portrayed as a failure. This is both economically and politically. The wealth of Poland is claimed to the thrice the one of Ukraine(Hakim, 2014). the poor performance of Ukraine economically is attributed by the author to be the failure to fully adopt capitalism. Other factors that may play a part in this are not considered. The failure of the system in Ukraine is claimed to be caused by the greed and corruption of the leaders and yet there is no evidence presented to prove that. The author is probably not a resident of Ukraine and the contributions used are from persons that seem to be against the government of Ukraine.
The customs police are accused of harassing businessmen, a claim that emanates from the victims themselves. There is no chance given to the authorities to explain this treatment of the entrepreneurs by custom authorities. There is contradiction in the sentiment that the production of steel by Ukraine has fallen since the demise of the Soviet Union. Communism was supposed to be backwards and limiting production. Naturally, it would be expected for Ukraine’s production to improve with the elimination of communism.
Furthermore, the author claims that
Ukraine may have lagged behind economically as a result of the education system
not changing to accommodate capitalism, and this might be true. There is also
the opinion presented that after so many years of socialism, Ukrainians may
have had a difficult time adapting to the free market system. The only sensible
difference between Ukraine and Poland is in their formulation of policies
regarding trade and market, Poland may have come up with better and friendlier
policies than Ukraine leading to a better performance.
Hakim, D. (2014). Log in – the new york times. [online] Retrieved from: [Accessed: 14 Mar 2014].
Language can be compared to a living organism, which is usually born, it grows and eventually dies. It can be considered a human faculty because it co-evolves with human beings. In fact, it the human beings who give language its life and may change it as they desire or even abandon it (Li Wei, 2007, p.3). All these changes occurring in language depend on the aspect of language contact, which refers to a situation where people that speak different languages meet each other. The meeting or the interaction may be due to different reasons including political, educational, economical, religious, cultural, or any other reason that may necessitate the interaction of different people, regardless of their languages. This results in bilingualism or multilingualism.
Bilingualism does not refer to a phenomenon of a language; rather, it refers to the features of its use (Mackey, 1962). It refers to a specific language behavior. Bilinguals are not different from the monolinguals. In fact, it is only possible to differentiate them by observing the way they use languages.
Bilingualism can be viewed from a societal viewpoint. For example, one may seek to find out why different languages have different status. It can also be viewed from an individual viewpoint. Here, one may seek to understand how bilingualism may influence the mental growth and intellectual development of individuals. Similarly, there are different approaches to bilingualism. These include linguistics, psychology, sociology, and neurology perspectives. Despite the manner in which we view or approach it, bilingualism is of great importance to us. In fact, bilingualism is becoming the norm in today’s world.
A bilingual can be defined in various ways. Despite the definition used, a bilingual must demonstrate the ability to use at least more than one language to communicate. It may be at the family level, in education institutions, in business, the person may be a translator or at work. Despite the age and other variables, researchers have defined a bilingual to be someone possessing two languages. However, it also includes those people with the ability to use more than two languages, regardless of the degree of their proficiency. According to the lecture 2 note, one in every three people in the world is able to use two or more languages in their daily activities.
Bilingualism has a relationship with biculturalism. This is brought about by the fact that language is closely attached to culture. Therefore, a bilingual person has the ability of successfully holding two or more cultural identities.
There are various points emerging from the reading. According to the reading, one is able to realize that some of the factors that are contributing to the growth of bilingualism are the heightened diversity and multiculturalism in the world. These factors have been brought about by the need for globalization. The two major areas where globalization is playing a significant role are education and business. There has been an increase in international education as well as trade. These have encouraged cultural diversity hence growth of bilingualism.
The other issue arising from the reading
is that various key variables affect bilingualism. These include age and the
manner in which one acquires the languages. Statistics have shown that children
who grow up learning or hearing two or more different languages find it easier
to use the languages compared to people who learn it at older ages. The other
factors include the proficiency level in these languages, the domains of using
the languages, and self-identification as well as attitude. These factors
define the strengths of individuals in use of bilingualism.
Mackey, W. F., 1967. Language teaching analysis, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Li, Wei. (2007). The Bilingualism Reader: London : Routledge.
Importance of Vaccination
Vaccinations save lives, reduce the worry associated with diseases, and minimize healthcare fees. Healthcare personnel risk being exposed to dreadful illnesses. It is recommended that they be vaccinated against Hepatitis B, Influenza (Flu), Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR), Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap), and Varicella (Chickenpox) (Eisenstein, 2009). Some diseases, which used to be fatal, have been wiped off and others are close to being wiped away thanks to vaccination, for example Polio. Diseases that could have been prevented using vaccinations may also take a toll on a person’s financial situation due to medical bills, lost time at work and a lifetime disability care (Eisenstein, 2009).
People are still not being vaccinated and they have cited a number of reasons one of them being that vaccinations have not caused a reduction in diseases. People have refined their sanitation and sustenance habits, which have in turn raised their natural immunity. They have also stated that a number of vaccines had been deemed unfit and therefore had to be pulled off the market, for example Lyme disease vaccine and Rotavirus vaccine. So, what happens if you had the vaccine already? A vaccine is permanent (Eisenstein, 2009).
Eisenstein (2009) states that people’s immunity declines and they are prone to a number of diseases if not vaccinated. In case of falling ill, the patient has higher chances of dying. It may also cause disability, which may need a lifetime disability care, resulting to it being expensive, and time consuming in terms of visiting the hospitals.
In the United States, many states have passed laws that it is mandatory for children to be given certain immunizations before being admitted to school (Malone & Hinman, 2014). However, this has conflicted with religious, cultural, and ethical believes of some people. To respect these believes, all the states permit vaccination exclusions for medical reasons, 48 of them permit religious exclusions; and 20 of them permit philosophical exclusions. Research studies, however, show that persons exercising religious and/or philosophical exclusions face substantial risks of developing diseases. Thus, researchers have advocated for a balance between ethics and health (Malone & Hinman, 2014).
National Childhood Vaccine Injury (NCVI) urges
parents to know the dangers and difficulties that could be associated with diseases
and vaccines. They need to know if they (parents and children) are sick before
being immunized; if they have personal or family history of bad reactions to
vaccinations (neurological disorders, severe allergies or immune system
problems); vaccinations side effects; how to identify and report a vaccination
reaction; and how to keep a written record of all vaccines taken (Malone & Hinman, 2014).
Eisenstein, M. (2009, June 20). Don’t vaccinate before you educate. Retrieved from http://www.vaccinationcouncil.org/2009/06/20/dont-vaccinate-before-you-educate/.
Malone, K. M., & Hinman, A. R. (2012). Vaccination mandates: The public health imperative and individual rights. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Civic engagement is often termed as civic participation. It refers to the individual as well as collective actions, which are directed at identifying and addressing issues that concerns the public (McIlrath 4). There are many elements of civic engagement. However, all the elements are directed towards decision-making, allocation, and governance of the resources of the community. All these action are done with an aim of improving the civic life of the community through development. In most cases, the civic engagement activities tend to address matters of environmental conservation and protection, security, unemployment, child labor, people with disabilities, among other issues, which may be of importance to the community (McIlrath 18). Even though civic engagement has been taken to be the duty of the national governments, advocacy groups, and nonprofit groups, the government has played a big role in this issue. In fact, the local governments of various cities in the world have drawn their attention towards this issue. The local governments in most cities are coming up with policies that target sensitive issues within the cities and how to address those issues (Sembawa 100). In this paper, some of the policies initiatives undertaken within the Jubal city will be discussed. It will analyze how the members of the public were involved in such major policies.
Jubail city is among the most industrialized cities in the world. One of the issues associated with industries is environmental pollution, which results in global warming. Therefore, the city is one of the target points of the world as far as environmental conservation is concerned. As such, the local government of the Jubail city, under the Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu (RCJY), has been on the front run in ensuring that environmental protection and conservation is among the first priorities of all the industries within the area (15 Years of Accomplishments 88). In addition, the commission has ensured that all the residents of the Jubail city are involved the environment protection activities. The global trends in the environmental awareness have forced the concerned parties of the Jubail city to come up with measures that aim to protect the citizens residing in this city from dangers of the environment, especially the pollution effects. However, all these are done with an aim of increasing the productivity of the industries within the Jubail city.
The city has an environmental policy that is responsible for the protection of its environment as well as the health of the residents (15 Years of Accomplishments 102). Most of these policies are formulated with the Royal commission for Jubail and Yanbu. The mandate of this commission is implementing the physical as well as the social infrastructure, which is required in all aspects of developing the Jubail city. In this context, the mission of this commission is maintaining some balance between the industrial development in the region and environmental safety, which is compatible with sustainable developments. This commission has been entrusted with the full responsibility of developing the infrastructure, managing, and operating the residential, commercial as well as the industrial base in Jubail industrial city. It came up with the policy that tends to encourage other private investments, both local and foreign, in participating in these activities. In fact, this policy has been successful in many ways, something that has led to the commission earning many international awards in environmental conservation and protection.
The environmental conservation policy is meant to direct companies in order to ensure that they do not create undue risks on the environment. The policy ensures that industrial operations are carried out with much concern on the protection of the air, land, and water. Under this policy, for example, the commission developed a range of engineering standards, operational requirements, as well as the performance guidelines for the implementation of the policy (Sembawa 65). The policy was mainly targeted at regulating the commercial activities in the city. The aim was ensuring safety, health, as well as good the public welfare. In addition, the policy set the regulations, specifications, and guidelines that must be followed within the industries, including the worker.
Several stakeholders influenced the Jubail city environmental policy. One of the major stakeholders that were included was the Royal Commission Environmental Emergency Response Team (RCEERT). This team was the representative of the RCJY. This team is responsible for surveying around the Jubail city, including the residential areas and beaches in order to identify any abnormal situations. It is mainly composed of environmental engineers and specialists. The other stakeholders that were involved in the policy were the representatives from the various companies and industries in the region. The companies that played a major part in this environmental protection policy were the Saudi Aramco and the Dow chemical Company. We also had the representatives from the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment, which is responsible for overseeing the overall environmental matters within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. There were also representative from the various world environmental organizations as and local non-governmental organizations.
The environmental policy had an influence on the community. Therefore, it was necessary to include the participation of these members in the program. There were a few members of the public in the implementation team. However, the remaining community members were also involved in the implementation of the policy indirectly. There are environmental awareness programs, which are periodically organized by the Royal Commission. This awareness is done through meetings, exhibitions, seminars, lectures, workshops, among other methods. The awareness programs target the public at large. In addition, these awareness programs are meant to target the industrial workers and the people that work in commercial facilities. The Jubail city is very committed in the success of the environmental protection policy. In fact, it established a permanent Environmental Exhibition Hall, which is used during most of the environmental awareness programs (15 Years of Accomplishments 82). The schools and the students have not been left behind in this policy. There are environmental laboratories in the city, where the students are encouraged to visit and learn more about the importance of environmental protection. In fact, students as well as the public visit these laboratories on regular basis.
In my view, the management of the Jubail city has given the public a good role in the implementation of the environmental policy. Through the awareness campaigns, the public are always given a chance to present their views concerning the issue. They are in a better position because most of the time they are the ones on the receiving end. By incorporating some of the views in its decision-making, the Royal commission has achieved much success as far as the protection and conservation of the environment is concerned. This is evident in the environment conservation awards that the commission has been receiving (Sembawa 203).
The other challenge facing the Jubail city is the housing problem. This has also resulted from the high level of industrialization, which requires labor. Therefore, there has been immigration of people in the city causing house shortage. To address this problem, the Royal Commission has come up with a housing policy. Under this program, the commission came up with a housing scheme in the city for the Royal commission employees as well as the industrial firms. This is expected to reduce the congestion in the city and help in lowering the house prices in the Jubail city. The projected is expected to build approximately 14 thousand housing units by 2016, with a plan of increasing them to 16 thousand one year later.
The project was implemented after seeking the views of several stakeholders that were affected with this program. Some of the major stakeholders include the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), the Saudi International Petrochemical Company (SIPCHEM), and the National Industrialization Company (TASNEE). These parties have been involved in the construction of various housing units within the Jubail city (15 Years of Accomplishments 204). In addition, there were also other stakeholders in the program including the private industries, the environmental conservation team, and the public, among other parties.
Even though this move will boost the economic development of the Jubail city comprehensively, it is my feeling that the most affected party in this program was not involved. There was minimum public participation in the project concerning the location, size, and nature of the houses. Despite the fact that they are in need of accommodation, they were also to be included in the decision making process.
In order to solve the housing problem in the Jubail city, the Royal Commission should pass and enforce laws that will require companies, especially those that are privately owned, to take part in city development projects. This would include providing houses for its employees.
15 Years of Accomplishments: Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu. Riyadh: The Commission, 1991. Print.
McIlrath, Lorraine. Higher education and civic engagement international perspectives. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2007. Print.
Sembawa, Essam A. Community Satisfaction and Mobility Decisions: A Case Study in Jubail Industrial City, Saudi Arabia, 2010. Internet resource.
Coursework Assignment Paper on Disrupted Routines: Effects of Team Learning on New Technology Adaptation
- Can emotional intelligence be learned?
Emotional Intelligence helps establish and develop stronger relationships among people to achieve personal and career goals. Emotional Intelligence is an ability to identify, understand, apply and manage emotions positively based on brain activities, strengths and weaknesses. Relieving stress, effective communication skills, overcoming challenges and solving conflicts require Emotional Intelligence. Learning, acquiring knowledge and raising awareness boosts brain activities. Thus, Emotional Intelligence can be taught and learnt (Jennifer 1).
- What are the aspects of leadership and motivation which differentiate Mountain and Chelsea hospital?
Amy Edmondson asserted leadership prompts persons in management to undertake important and vital management roles. Leadership refers to roles and responsibilities in identifying the most visible and viable organizational persons. They are appointed to control, manage and to guide a firm achieve goals and objectives effectively and efficiently. Through leadership, persons employed in the organization are motivated to achieve the set-out goals and objectives. Their requests are met effectively and efficiently to ensure they have the necessary resources (Amy 35).
At Chelsea Hospital, leadership skills were applied to revitalize the cardiac surgery department. Leadership skills were applied to motivate an experienced surgeon to work in the hospital. Managers and the medical team at the Chelsea hospital responded to the surgeon’s requests to ensure the department commenced operations. They also played a leadership role in growing and developing the department (Amy, Richard and Gary 16).
The Mountain Medical Hospital consists of a team of medical experts serving to meet medical needs in the city and rural areas. However, a new junior surgeon with different and diverse leadership roles developed dissatisfactions among the senior cardiac surgeons. They perceived his leadership skills as dictatorial. However, when the new surgeon sought to explain his leadership skills to the medical team at the hospital, they were empowered and motivated to offer support and assistance. Thus, leadership skills aimed at empowering, motivating and steering a team of experts to achieve organizational goals and objectives are vital (Amy, Richard and Gary 19).
- What blocks creativity or creative thinking?
Creative thinking is vital to achieve and maintain success. Creativity refers to developing newly innovated procedures to achieve and sustain success. Creative thinking refers to persons have a will and desire to explore new possibilities and opportunities beyond their limitations. Creative thinking therefore enriches brain activities, lives and commercial ventures. Various factors can block creative thinking such as fear of failure, a constant need to be right and lack of confidence and self-esteem. They are major obstacles among persons who regard failure as a negative experience and a sign of neither self-confidence nor self-esteem. People ought to perceive these blocks as positive experiences to grow and develop a better understanding of diverse situations. They also encourage and support people to formulate and implement new and improved measures and approaches to achieve success. Thus, these factors block the brain from identifying and exploring new, advanced and improved opportunities to achieve success (James 1).
- How do you persuade people in your country?
a person to join a new country at the United Arab Emirates requires applying
knowledgeable details, facts and statements through effective communication
skills (Michael 7). Firstly, I should persuade and explain to the people why
joining United Arab Emirates will be a wonderful experience. Secondly, I should
identify various wonderful environmental, social, political and legal aspects
in the country including historical tourism sites. More so, explaining and
convincing them that their cultural heritages are also acceptable can ease
their movement United Arab Emirates.
Amy, Edmondson, Richard Bohmer, and Gary Pisano. Disrupted Routines: Effects of Team Learning on New Technology Adaptation, Harvard Business School, 2000. Print.
Amy, Edmondson. Framing for Learning: Lessons in Successful Technology Implementation, California Management Review, 45(2): 34-54, 2003. Print.
James, Noble. 5 Big Blocks to Creativity and How to Overcome Them, DailyTekk Newspaper Article, 2012. Print.
Jennifer, Kahn. Can Emotional Intelligence be Taught? The New York Times Magazine, 2013. Print.
Michael, Lee. 21 Powerful Ways to Persuade People To Do What You Want, Connectors and Site-Builders Report, 2011. Print.
Applications of Knowledge Management Systems in Project and Portfolio Management
Globalization has transformed the world into a large pool of data which if analyzed and processed effectively result into precious information and knowledge. If such knowledge is effectively managed, it can give organizations precious competitive advantage as well as the numerous operational and financial gains. The knowledge can drive the organization and help it meet one of the most important objectives why businesses are formed: profit maximization. This paper analyzed the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a market. It analyzed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and the various threats that exist in the UAE market. That is, it highlighted the pros and cons of operating in the UAE as a market. This is done while drawing comparisons with the international market with regards to trends and perspectives in business operation. This was done with the aim of making recommendations on the suitability of the United Arab Emirates as market destination where knowledge management can be applied.
Introduction and history
Knowledge management system in project and portfolio management are concepts that are currently used by the cooperate world in championing development. Knowledge management stipulates for key development in different sectors of the economy, and this concept is largely attributed to the success of such institutions. Therefore, economic powers and freedom underlies in the concept of knowledge management through project and portfolio development. This concept leads to the direct empirical evidence between knowledge management and project and portfolio development undertaken within the structure of UAE (Behdja, & Naceur, 2008). The success of UAE is significantly influenced by the concept of knowledge management that the cooperation undergoes. Various developmental frameworks are inscribed under this term, and generally include, economic, infrastructural development, physical development, ICT, among other platforms. All these aspects come as a response to knowledge development that a given organization undertakes. The emergence of information age during the 20th century ushered in anew era in all aspect of human life. It heralded a move towards to a truly globalized society where the world has become one global village where interconnectivity and interdependence are keys to success in all spheres of life. As the world moved towards globalization, data and metadata not only became an invaluable necessity but they also kept on piling. This is because data acquisition, processing and analysis are imperative when it comes to understanding and managing these relationships and interdependencies. That is, if they are to be productive and effective. The data and metadata range from culture to religious practices and political ideologies and they are as varied as the thousands groups and societies that make up the world. These data not only help in creating understanding but also ensures that the mostly special and distinct needs of each society and group are met. This is part of knowledge management; a concept that is widely alluded by cooperate institutions in supplementing their prospective project and Portfolio development. In this regard, UEA relies in these data in making its objectives achievable. On the other hand, International standard of trade requires that cooperate institutions to comply with full provision of data in order to manifest a unified front in trade all over the world. This is an ideal mandate that UAE strives to achieve, even as it makes its services global. Global networking of trade is a fundamental aspect of Knowledge management that UAE has lately identified, and implementing within its operational framework.
Ideally, globalization endeavors to promote a culture of mutualism that was mostly confined to the microcosm of our small societies and groups. As late as the 19th century, such mutualism at a global level was considered to be only possible in the academic books; it was a theory whose time was considered not yet come. However, the time for this idea, which was once considered lofty and far fetched a few decades ago, has come despite it being in its infancy stage today. Despite being a relatively new idea, the world and especially the corporate world has embraced globalization with tremendous optimism and vigor. In addition, they have embraced its benefits and weaknesses.
However, unprocessed raw data is of little importance not only to the society but also specifically to the corporate sector. The data must be processed to generate information, which in turn processed to knowledge. Knowledge implicitly and explicitly empowers; it is both literally and symbolically the magic wand that drives today’s corporate sector. Everything given a knowledge touch rarely fails. This is the corporate sector has become a very dynamic and flexible entity that changes with changing times. It has transformed itself from the conventional and traditional entity where formality and hierarchy took center sage and business entities had very imposing, almost, intimidating presence. The business organization was the center of operations in the corporate sector while their primary focus was their physical assets. However, such a stance would have gone against the grain in a 21st century where informality and individual rights are held dear not only by the employees but also by the customers, shareholders and the general public. Knowledge has therefore become an invaluable asset for companies. Therefore, it must not only be created; it must be shared all across the management levels and with all the stakeholders including customers, investors, government and the general public (Mason & Pauleen, 2003).
It is therefore imperative that organizations manage their information. It is a best practice that increases efficiency, creates cohesion and improves on service delivery and quality of goods. It enables the organizations to meet the ever changing and complex demands of their customers sustainably. Moreover, most importantly, it is an important tool for gaining the much needed competitive advantage in a corporate sector where competition is becoming stiffer with each passing day and the operation pressures continue to exert themselves on the organizations. However, knowledge management requires tremendous resources and technical knowhow that may not be as widespread in the business environment as required to effectively move towards such a new approach to business management. Knowledge management is essentially what Marquardt (2011) termed as organizational learning. That is, using information communication technology and human intelligence to create, share and disseminate information across all levels of management position and authority not withstanding. However, knowledge management faces great challenges especially in conservative societies such as the United Arab Emirates, which is the focus of this paper and where business management culture is rather traditional, as well as the society. Moreover, it requires significant amount of physical resources and technical knowhow. Technical skills require time to acquire and develop. It requires good foundation in information technology; a foundation that is not well rooted in the country. Conformity to the international market standards in information management has been a chief agenda of UAE, and it tasks itself with this objective with the view of remaining viable in the market. However, it is worth noting that information system is part of knowledge management, which is incidentally an element of knowledge management. Therefore, UAE’s project and portfolio development is to design viable communication systems that serves its clients globally and conforms to the international standards of system development. In addition, this cooperation fosters every framework with the view of establishing stronger strands of knowledge management. Knowledge management overlaps into many sectors, and the UEA is charged with the task of ensuring absolute conformity with such demands.
Strengths and Opportunities in UAE Market
United Arabs Emirates (UAE) is one of the liberalized economies not only in Asia but also around the world. The leadership of the country has actively developed and implemented economic policies aimed at making the country a truly globalized economy. This is one of the reasons why most of the world’s largest multinationals are either operating or angling for an opportunity to operate in the country. UAE’s first strength attributes to the magnificent infrastructures to favorable and relatively non-protectionist economic policies, UAE has most, if not all, what it takes to become one of the world’s leading business destinations. The pinnacles of the UAE’s economy, which also embody globalization in its truest sense, are Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Abu Dhabi, UAE’s capital and the largest city in the country, and Dubai have some of the most magnificent and breathtaking skyscrapers. These infrastructural developments constitute as the greatest achievement that UAE relies upon it future development. Having ample physical development, firm financial base, and stable leadership; UEA is ultimately operating at its strongest economic and political points. They have some of the best road and railway networks in the world. The country’s gross domestic product (GDP) is ranked seventh in the world by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) while Dubai is an international business gateway for Asia and beyond. However, its suitability as a market extends beyond roads and buildings.
The second strength in UAE is attributed to its most liberalized countries economic policies, ever witnessed in the continent. Its economic policies are aimed at promoting trade at both local and international levels while multinational corporations prefer the country for its globalized economic policies. This is one of the reasons why the country has numerous commercial relations with countries in various continents from Africa to the Americas, Asia and Europe. Businesses operating in globalized economies must gather as much raw data as necessary. However, without trade ties and globalization, data from various economies and geographical regions where these businesses have interests, collecting such data is virtually impossible. Therefore, knowledge management is the country by the businesses operating in the country is facilitated by these commercial ties, which enable the organizations to harvest data from as many different backgrounds as the ties allow. However, commercial ties can only be effective and useful if the country has diplomatic ties with other nations. The liberalized environment in the United Arab Emirates has enabled to have very strong diplomatic with numerous countries from India to the United States, Pakistan and other Asian countries and African countries. UAE is an important member of the Arab League. It is also a member of the United Nations.
The country has also implemented information communication infrastructures, which is imperative when it comes to knowledge management. This can enable businesses to not only collect data but also process it. This is especially important when it comes to real time data collection, processing, presentation and dissemination within and without the organization. Real time data collection, processing and presentation is very important in today’s corporate world; it helps in decision making, prediction of future trends on real time basis and adjusting organization’s policies. To process data into information and knowledge and then disseminate it, computer intelligence alone is not sufficient. The accuracy and speed of the computers must combine with the intelligence of humans. UAE has moved into the Information Age with relative success with information communication technology being an important course at various levels of education. This provides companies with a large pool from which to draw talents they need to apply knowledge management strategies.
Threats and Weaknesses in the UAE Market
However, the organization still faces certain operational intrigues associated with knowledge management. This form of management requires firm structures of project and portfolio; an element that is lacking within UAE due to its incomprehensive communication system. Non-deal knowledge system is generated through admonishing of poor culture, which fails to correspond to the international standards of production and marketing. To fully implement a knowledge management system, it is imperative that the organization adopts the right culture; a culture that promotes information creation and sharing. Despite the liberal culture in the corporate and political spheres of the country, the general society in the UAE is mostly conservative. Therefore, belief in the traditional approach to business management is rife. Hierarchy at the workplace is highly revered. Such traditions make it difficult to effectively create and share information across all management levels. A traditional approach to business management is based on formal structures of management while organizational learning requires an informal structure. Such conservatism may eventually lead to rebellion at the workplace when attempts to implement knowledge management strategies are made.
Poor use of ICT is yet another weakness that UAE faces. The use of ICT, especially in the public sector has been hampered by this conservatism. To effectively function in a globalized economy, the interdependencies in the economy must be effectively managed. The interdependency between the private and public sectors is one of the most important ones in the corporate world. However, for the relationship to be effective there is need for technological parity. This goes a long way in ensuring effective data mining and information sharing even in real time. The international market has adopted technology in both the public and private sectors with relative success. Cases of conservatism and therefore rebellion are relatively low. One of the greatest challenges facing the UAE’s economy is getting the right skills especially in the private sector. Most people, especially the young, prefer the public sector while a significant number of the youths do not prefer employment. The government pays monthly stipends to the youths. This relatively poor working culture has impeded the government’s efforts to develop a large talent pool. This has led to the growing population of non-Emiratis in the country (CIA, n.dp.). The international market is relatively different; it has a huge pool of highly motivated and skill manpower who can hungry for employment. This makes the international market a suitable platform for implementing a knowledge management approach. It not only has the structures; it also has the personnel.
Trends of Knowledge Management System in UAE versus International Level
The concept of KMS is widely eluded by many organizational, and so is UAE, which strives to make its operational level viable. The need to go global and have wider market perspective prompts UAE into a new system where it digitizes its operations from local perspectives and strives into new compliance with the internationally set standards. This aspect requires a formidable framework of Knowledge Management System by the cooperation. For instance, UAE has devolved its operations to many regions of the word, which is an improvement to its initial plans of concentrating its services within the Asian Sub- continent. The progressive improvement in services through wider geographical scope of operation is a common trend that UAE has lately adopted within its framework. This function is made possible through knowledge-based ICT system that helps in the synchronization of the cooperation’s systems to the entire world. This remains a key goal and of UAE, whose products are felt by many regions of the world. Therefore, knowledge Management system has generated a trend where UAE engages in massive expansion to other continents in which its products are not yet felt. By 2020, UAE intends to command the world market, just like it does to its regional economy. In yet another perspective, UAE undertakes massive globalization agenda by instigating a culture of entrepreneurship from different world regions. This trend is aimed at taming unforeseen resistance, and to create a global image to the company. At the international level, measures such as globalization are achieved through enhanced service delivery and trade. International level recommends that KMS must be capable of transforming the world into an economic and information hub, where everyone has a chance to view the progress of trade as conducted by various companies. This remains a key manifesto that UAE aspires to attain in future. Therefore, the descriptions above give the current trends undergoing in UAE, and how it strives to comply with the internationally set standards.
To effectively implement a knowledge management system, there is need to have both the physical infrastructure and the right personnel. The business environment must be conducive to enable organizations to harvest and process data and then disseminate it throughout the organization. The United Arab Emirates has the information communication technology infrastructures. It also has the much-needed diplomatic and commercial connections, which provide them with a rich pool business and other related data to be harvested and processed for dissemination. However, the country lacks adequate labor force to fully implement such a system. I therefore recommend that programs aimed at encouraging the population as the youths to take up employment opportunities especially in the private sector. The private sector should also be made as attractive as possible in order to retain and attract the young talents who are more likely to seek public offices. This will enable organizations operate out of the country to tap into the rich local talent for the implementation of the system. Tapping into the local talent will go a long way in increasing the chances of success as they are better acquainted with the local market. I also recommend for the liberation of the corporate sector in the country; from a conservative traditional one to a more informal and modern one. This will go a long way in modernizing the corporate sector by allowing for unrestricted empowerment of the employees through information creation and sharing across all levels of management.
In conclusion, United Arab Emirates is one of the world’s most preferred business gateways. It has some of the best infrastructures in the world for business transport and office set up. The economic policies are very globalized and liberalized making it suitable for both multinationals and local companies. The government has cordial relationships with numerous countries, which offer a large market pool. The government has also put in place important ICT infrastructure, which can facilitate information creation and sharing within and without an organization. However, organizations face a great challenge in recruiting the local talents who are well conversant with the country’s market system. This is because most of them prefer to work in the public sector while some of them prefer the government’s monthly stipends. The corporate sector is also relatively conservative. This makes it difficult to implement a knowledge management system, which requires an informal organizational culture. These are challenges that are uncommon in the international markets. They have a large pool of talent and are much liberalized. However, these are challenges that can be overcome with a change of attitude amongst the Emiratis and training.
Mason D & Pauleen D.J. (2003). “Perceptions of knowledge management: A qualitative analysis.” Journal of Knowledge Management 7(4), 38–48.
Marquardt, M. J. (2011). Building the learning organization: Achieving strategic advantage through a commitment to learning (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
CIA. (n.dp.). “The World Factbook: United Arab Emirate.” Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ae.html
Behdja B, & Naceur J.(2008). Knowledge management and performance
In UAE business organizations: A research analysis. Operational Research Ltd.
Institution or Organization Name,
Subject: Proposal for Enhancing the Quality of Open Online Courses
This is a report that addresses the issue of the quality of today’s open online courses at Smoke River Valley, North Carolina. It was assigned in accordance with the college curricular that seeks to enhance research skills for the students. This research report would be titled ‘Enhancing the Quality of Open Online Courses’. It will address the ability for open online courses to provide the necessary skills and supervision to these online students and ensure that the quality of the education offered by the college is not undermined. The proposal will base its findings on research statistics, publications, journal articles, and other pertinent resources. These resources will act as references for supporting the solutions provided for enhancing the quality of open online courses. They will give examples and statistics on strategies that have been used and their subsequent positive and negative effects, as well as providing the problems associated with open online courses.
The second report would examine the role of the media in influencing peer-to-peer relations and social welfare of the students. It would be titled ‘influence of the media on student lifestyles’. The research would focus on investigating the diverse types of media such as television, internet, and print media, and how student lifestyles are determined by the content aired or portrayed in these media. It utilizes the use of survey and interview as the primary research methodology, and the use of other peer reviewed articles as the secondary research methodology.
Therefore, the write up of this project proposal is linked to enhancing a balance between addressing the pertinent community problems and the quality of report writing as enshrined in the school curricular.
Feminism refers to political, cultural, and economic movements that aim to correct biases that lead to subordination of women as well as silencing their voices (Cott, 2007). This includes philosophies and theories that contain lists of virtues that are in the social structure of the society to give some power to women. Fighting for their interests and rights is in tandem with the lives of the developers of such philosophies. This issue is one of the components of the gender disparity issue that permeates in the current society (Cott, 2006). Women have always been considered inferior to men and given specific roles and duties to play while the men are given all the power, including the power to control women’s lives. This calls for women to rise and fight for their rights and they need not keep silent any more to avoid suppression by the society (Rose, 2003).
Cott defines feminism as the belief of the importance of gender equality in the
society and disregarding the idea of gender hierarchy (Cott, 2004). She
describes feminism as the sphere that separates sources of power for men and
women though the sphere already allocates sources of power for women as home chores
and children-rearing prisms. Feminism not only calls for suffrage of women but
also reorders the society to give equal opportunities to men and women in
occupations and roles (Hannam, 2007). During the 19th century, she
records that the many movements and campaigns that were done to fight for the
rights of women bore good results. This led to the acknowledgement of women’s
sexuality and they attracted many reforms during the period (Tandon, 2008).
These campaigns are still working to date and they equip women with knowledge
and urge them not to keep silent in the areas they feel suppressed.
Cott, N. F. (2004). Root of bitterness: Documents of the social history of American women. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Cott, N. F. (2006). The grounding of modern feminism. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Cott, N. F. (2007). The bonds of womanhood: “woman’s sphere” in New England, 1780-1835. New Haven: Yale University Press
Fisanick, C. (2008). Feminism. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Hannam, J. (2007). Feminism. Harlow: Pearson Longman.
Hollows, J. (2000). Feminism, femininity, and popular culture. Manchester, U.K: Manchester University Press.
MacKinnon, C. A. (2007). Feminism unmodified: Discourses on life and law. Cambridge (Mass.) [etc.: Harvard University Press.
Rose, G. (2003). Feminism and geography: The limits of geographical knowledge. Minneapolis (Minn.: University of Minnesota Press.
Roth, B. (2003). Separate roads to feminism: Black, Chicana and white feminist movements in America’s second wave. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tandon, N. (2008). Feminism: A paradigm shift. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors.
Neurologic Complications of Anesthesia
Neurologic complications of anesthesia are not common, but when they occur, they are very serious and severe to patients. Major complications that result from anesthesia are intracranial high blood pressure that is intraoperative, cognitive disfunctioning and delayed response to arousing conditions (Cousins, Michael & Phillip 123). This mostly happens to patients suffering from brain masses. Evaluation by neurologists is done to patients that have postoperative signs and symptoms. This helps to distinguish between symptoms and signs that result from an anesthetic drug and those that are not caused by the drug. Cases of neurologic complications are so severe that neurologists advocate for consultations in postsurgical settings to give advice to patients who may be victims of this severe monster once they undergo their surgeries. This is what happens within the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) organization (Baehring, Joachim and J M. 245). Therefore, this research focuses on this body to understand the issues of neurologic complications of anesthesia.
Statement of the Problem
Practitioners of both regional anesthesia and pain medicine do not have enough relevant information required to curb the severe complications associated with the disease (Wen, Patrick , David and Eudocia 342). Though not common in the society, it does not give way for medical dealers and physicians to ignore the issue. Instead, they would be concerned to know more about the issue so that in the near future, there will be no chances of it being a disaster to people. This is because, when it does not affect many people, it becomes easier to identify the similarity of the symptoms and signs. Many cases of such complications in many people will pose challenges in aligning what all of them will be undergoing.
Purpose of the Study
This study helps in providing the practitioners with accurate and enough information concerning etiology, different ways of diagnosing the disease, ways to prevent it as well as how to treat complications associated with neurologic Anesthesia. This will equip them with knowledge that will help in coming up with better ways of dealing with the disease.
Significance of the Study
The study will benefit the patients who suffer from these complications. They will be properly attended to with the better ways that medical dealers and neurologists will come up with using the information provided. The governments in certain countries where such cases arise will also benefit. They will save revenue that is spent in finding solutions to the complications. Among the solutions they go for, is to buy expensive medical scanners and x-ray machines they think would help in curbing such cases. In most cases, these machines do not help because they are not the right ones to diagnose the disease. With the accurate information, they will be able to purchase the right tools and machines for the work.
The research questions of this study will be:
- What reliable and consistent data reveals the severity of the disease?
- Are there any unrelated factors to Anesthesia that cause these complications?
- What is the diagnosis and treatment of the complications?
Many researchers have employed their interest in the field of medicine, specifically on the issue of Anesthetic neurologic complications. However, they always face a common challenge they are not able to solve in the process of their studies and researches. The infrequent cases of Anesthetic complications make them take long to administer their procedures in researching of the complications (Schiff et al. 137). This makes them gather little information they take long to sum up because they have to wait for such cases to emerge in any part of the world always. The other challenge that researchers face in their studies is that injuries bias data that is based on insurance as well as Medico legality. Underreporting on the other hand, biases data that is obtained from clinics where Anesthetic neurologic complications may occur (Simon et al. 50). American Society Anesthesiologists (ASA) conducted a similar research on this issue and released some data.
However, the data suffered from overestimation from the injuries that occurred while the clinical studies that were made, underestimated the truth of the incidence. From the studies that ASA conducted, it was revealed that patients are subjected to the risk of permanent injuries within a range of 42% to 77%, when they narrowly escape death from the severe complications. During the past years, serious case of neurologic injuries that ASA observed were said to take place in 2.4 in every 10000 nerve blocks (Valchanov et al. 234). Symptoms and signs of these complications in the body emerge within few days, to a few weeks after their development in patients. The longest time that symptoms and signs of Anesthetic neurologic complications can show is one year, according to ASA. The organization stated that the more the patients take long to be on medication for the complications, the more severe the matter becomes with time (Goldman, Stewart & Christopher 287).
Closed Claims Projects conducted studies in Sweden in clinics to gather some information on this issue too. From the data they obtained, they suggested that the rate at which Hematoma, another complication that is an outcome of the complications, ranges from 1.3% to 2.7% in every 100000 patients. This is a confidence Interval of 95% (White and Deborah 99). Hematoma and other complications that are infectious and result from Anesthesia are the common compared with the Syndrome of anterior spinal artery (ASA). For instance, in over 70000 neural anesthetics conducted in France, no single case was reported about injuries of the spinal cord (Chestnut 342).
Several keywords used in the study are nerve injury, which is the damage caused to the nerve tissue that sends signals to the brain. Spinal and epidural anesthesia are drugs that are used to numb the body to avoid the patient from feeling any pain. Peripheral nerve blocks are techniques that involve blocking certain nerves to prevent certain infections and complications to certain body parts (Finucane 172). Regional anesthesia is anesthesia that attacks a large part of the body, such as completely the lower part. The technique applied involves subjecting that specific affected part to surgical stimuli (Chelly 198). Pain medicine is the ways that physicians and other medical dealers apply their medical knowledge to manage pain in the bodies of patient who suffer from different diseases.
The ASRA is an organization that aims at conducting studies on neurologic injuries to provide information that is relevant to neurologists to handle complications associated with neurologic complications properly (Neal, Joseph & James 254). ASRA chooses an attorney and a panel that has expertise in issues on Anesthesia and invites them to make their contributions. The panel is later sent to conduct studies it compares with the studies they conduct. The interests observed from the two sides are later published as advice to all stakeholders of this issue. The literature obtained is summarized and presented during conferences that the organization holds to deliver the message on this monster. The summary is also produced in manuscripts regarding the scholarly works of the panel (Wiley 367). Though the cases are infrequent, the panel made great attempts to provide relevant information that helps the neurologists’ body to handle the matter of neurologic complications.
Data that was collected in clinics and hospitals indicate that cases of such complications are very rare but when they occur, they land heavily on patients, causing severe results to their health and lives as well. The many patients that have die of worries from this issue. It ranges from 42% to 77% of all severe deaths that are recorded in the world (Usubiaga 412). For the few that miss death, they are left permanently damaged and paralyzed in their beds. The study reveals that only patient-risk factors lead to these complications. Some may be related to the disease and others may not. These complications mostly affect patients that have been diagnosed with brain masses. However, they also result due to other factors such advanced age and male gender as part of social life of individual may lead to these complications.
Other health factors such as past diagnoses with neurologic disorders, diabetes mellitus could extend their effects to the patient by such complications. Surgical risk factors that may cause these complications are wrong patient positioning, dressings that are compressive to the patient, trauma or stretching after a surgery to the patient and perioperative inflammation (DeAngelis, Lisa & Jerome 177). Diagnosis of the complications should be done immediately symptoms and signs of Anesthesia are detected. This will first involve subjection of the symptoms to close examination and tests. An excellent prognosis is obtained when symptoms start to resolve. If symptoms do not resolve /improve, some consultation to a neurologist is advocated for within the next two or three weeks. Once a person is diagnosed with the complications, neurophysiologic testing is done to help in determining the amount of damage that has been caused to the nerves, or any other body part. In the following three to five months, the patient undergoes unresolved lesions. If no improvement is noted, the body part or nerve is subjected to further surgical exploration for further analyses.
Data analysis and Results
From the statistical data that has been previously stated, the severity of complications of anesthesia is seen. It is evident that though such cases are rare, they cause the highest percentage of severe deaths (Atlee 164). This calls for more examination of the complications to avoid these deaths.
Discussion about the Results
These findings support the existing theories and beliefs about complications of anesthesia. This is because the panel as well as ASA conducted researches and studies in different parts of the world where the cases were recorded. The commonness in all the cases recorded maps the truth, clarity and accuracy of the findings on what has been initially observed by past researchers. The study is also valid because its getting concentrated in clinics and hospitals, which are the core settings of the profession of health care. Recommendations go to the panel and the attorney that helped to understand neurologic complications better (Suresh, Maya, Sol and Gershon 57). However, they cannot give an assurance that there will be no adverse outcomes of such complications. The recommendations are that the panel provided information that limiting, diagnosing and treating neurologic complications will be made possible and easy.
List of Appendices
Past information on complications of anesthesia………,,,,……………… pg 3,4
Diagnosis and treatment of the complications……………,,,,,,…………… pg 5
Causes of Complications of
anesthesia………………………,,,,,,………… pg 6
Atlee, John L. Complications in Anesthesia. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders, 2007. Print.
Baehring, Joachim M, and J M. Piepmeier. Brain Tumors: Practical Guide to Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: Informa Healthcare, 2007. Print.
Chelly, Jacques E. Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Color Atlas. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009. Print
Chestnut, David H. Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice. St. Louis: Mosby, 2004. Print.
Cousins, Michael J, and Phillip O. Bridenbaugh. Cousins and Bridenbaugh’s Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009. Print.
DeAngelis, Lisa M and Jerome B. Posner. Neurologic Complications of Cancer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Internet resource.
DeAngelis, Lisa M, Jerome B. Posner, and Jerome B. Posner. Neurologic Complications of Cancer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Internet resource.
Drevelegas, Antonios. Imaging of Brain Tumors with Histological Correlations. Berlin: Springer, 2011. Internet resource.
Finucane, Brendan T. Complications of Regional Anesthesia. New York, N.Y: Springer, 2007. Internet resource.
Goldman, Stewart, and Christopher D. Turner. Late Effects of Treatment for Brain Tumors. New York: Springer, 2009. Print.
Neal, Joseph M, and James P. Rathmell. Complications in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013. Print.
Schiff, David, Santosh Kesari, and Patrick Y. Wen. Cancer Neurology in Clinical Practice: Neurologic Complications of Cancer and Its Treatment. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2008. Print.
Simon, Robert R, and Barry E. Brenner. Emergency Procedures and Techniques. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001. Print.
Suresh, Maya, Sol M. Shnider, and Gershon Levinson. Shnider and Levinson’s Anesthesia for Obstetrics. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health, 2013. Print
Usubiaga, José E. Neurological Complications Following Epidural Anesthesia. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975. Print.
Valchanov, Kamen, Stephen T. Webb, and Jane Sturgess. Anaesthetic and Perioperative Complications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print
Wen, Patrick Y, David Schiff, and Eudocia Quant. Neurologic Complications of Cancer Therapy. New York: demos Medical, 2012. Print.
White, Barbara, and Deborah Truax. The Nurse Practitioner in Long-Term Care: Guidelines for Clinical Practice. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett, 2007. Print.
Wiley, Ronald G. Neurological Complications of Cancer. New York: M. Dekker, 2005. Print.
Mixed Reactions by Christians towards Other Religions
In our present day lives, we engage in conversation with people of different cultures and religions and they have varied perception about other religions. Theology has undergone major changes to accommodate the fundamentals of all religions and to abolish biasness (Chopp and Taylor 4). However, people are practicing religious prejudice which is an attachment to their religion, and they sometime despise the other religions creating a gap between them. Therefore, some Christians have developed varied opinions about people who belong to other religions, which affects how Christians treat different people.
Christianity is a religion that affirms Jesus Christ as the son of God and they should live according to his teachings (Chopp and Taylor 52). Christianity has both similarities and differences to the non-Christian religions and it is the largest in the world. The differences create assorted opinion about others; for example, Christians believe that a person can only be connected to God through salvation which is not the case with Muslims and Hindus. In regard to this, some Christians hold the perception that people who are not saved are leading an immoral life. On the contrary, Hindus believe that Buddha appealed to his followers to pursue honesty, chastity, and community service and that guarantees them a moral and ethical life. Muslims on the other hand, believe in God just like Christians, but they differ when it comes to Jesus and Mohamed resulting to a religious prejudice.
On the other hand, Muslims believe in upholding moral behaviors among the female gender in the society. Their dress code is usually universal and it covers the larger part of the body; hence, they feel that Christians way of dressing women is unethical. Similarly, Christians have a perception that Muslim women are oppressed by the religion resulting in suffering. According to Chopp and Taylor, suffering is an oppression and dehumanization through cultural images and social beliefs (2). Therefore, some Christians will feel that Muslim women go through suffering because of autonomous religious system. Another prejudice act by the Christians is that society is organized around Christian festivals. It is universal that Sunday is a resting day because people are supposed to worship, but there are other non-Christian religions and their holidays are not honored universally. For example, Friday midday is the official praying time for Muslims, likewise Sabbaths pray on Saturday, but no employer will allow his/her employees to honor these events. In addition, Christians believe that God is a supreme being who should not be compared to any other being hence they despise Hindus for using symbols in their worship. Chopp and Taylor assert that faith is expressed by believing in one God and not many gods (50).
However, all religions share a lot of similarities in their beliefs. For instance, both Muslims and Christians believe in God as a supreme being. Additionally, all religions teach their followers to abide by ethical truths and uphold morality in the society. Due to diversity, most of the religions are combining their opinions to abolish the differences in between them. Religion prejudice has caused ugly incidents such as wars, misunderstanding and hatred among people. Chopp and Taylor state that people should focus on appreciating one another rather than concentrating on differences created by their beliefs (53). Therefore, people should observe their attitude and the way they treat others from a different religion and avoid perceiving them as enemies.
Top of Form
Chopp, R. S., & Taylor, M. L. (1994). Reconstructing Christian theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Bottom of Form
For the past three hundred years, the world has experienced a lot of change in terms of modernization. The transformation has influenced how people think, how they relate to each other and the emergence of massive innovations. The transformation has occurred in three folds which are pre-modern world, the modern world and the postmodern world. In the postmodern world, science has predominated in seeking solutions to the societal problems contrary to the pre-modern time where religion was the source of facts and solutions. Several aspects and experiences have cropped up since the inception of post modern world such as capitalism and empowering education.
Capitalism is a system that incorporates trade and means of production being controlled privately with an aim of making profits. It is a social system that is based on developing individuals and leaving the majority languishing in poverty. Traditionally, resources were shared in the community and tasks were handled collectively, but capitalism induced competition even to natural resources. Capitalism created a social divide into classes of either the poor or the rich. In the postmodern world, an individual has to develop self interests before extending to the rest of the society. On the other hand, postmodernism has ensured that education is an obligation in the society. Currently, for a person to be successful, he or she has to undergo through the education system and impart knowledge on how to handle issues. This is an inevitable fact that has to be embraced by every individual in the postmodern world era.
Although post modernization has brought new ideas in the perspective, but the ancient ideas are still referred to and modified to accommodate current situations. However, people living in the current era have switched from solidarity to a self-centered life. Therefore, the postmodern world has brought new experiences and life aspects.
Violence is the intentional use of coercion, threats, extreme force against another person which results in abuse or injuries. Violence is a common vice in the society and it is divided into various categories. Sexual violence is one of the categories that refer to any sexual deed, attempt, abusive sexual contact, verbal sexual harassment that is executed and aligned with a person’s wish. Any person can be a victim of sexual violence despite the gender, but it is much common in women than in men. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sexual violence is a severe public health that violates human rights and exerts painful experience to the victim. Sexual violence involves subduing a person to sexual act without his or her consent, it includes even married people. Sexual violence has been an issue for the longest time and it has not been addressed effectively; therefore, this paper outlines the causes and effects of sexual violence in the community.
Both religion and the society have contributed to women’s victimization in the community. This is because women have been viewed as the weaker species to men subduing them to oppression in the society. Chopp and Taylor gives an example of a girl who had dedicated her entire life to the church missions, but the church refused to ordain her because she was a female and in the Bible both Jesus and his disciples were men(25). Similarly, Muslims and Hindus expect total submission of women to men denying them a voice in the community. They are projected to observe man’s rules without questioning or seeking clarification. For these reasons, women fail to express their rights, and they cannot air out their grievances since they are considered to be inferior. Men usually take this advantage simply because the society will not listen to the issues surrounding women. WHO describes violence against women as a cycle they endure in their entire life. During their reproductive age, they experience sexual assault by non-partner; sex trafficking, sexual harassment at work place, and intimate partner violence. The society contributes to sexual violence by ensuring that women are vulnerable in the community. For instance, employers have made it a usual thing to harass women sexually in exchange of employment.
When women are giving birth, they are sometimes forced to abort or get sterilized against their wish. They are also denied sexual information and education by medical practitioners and their spouses. These are forms of sexual violence incidents that women are subjected to by the society. On the other hand, religion presses infidelity issues to women and they are accused of promiscuity. For example, when a girl gets married in a Muslim setting she is expected to be a pure virgin, but the same case does not apply to men. Men are allowed to marry more than one woman, but women are expected to retain only one husband. Chopp and Taylor assert that male dominance over female has been an issue in Christian theology which presents a societal crisis (141). However, men also fall victim to sexual violence, but it is not pronounced as compared to women assault. Sexual violence is an injustice that risks a person’s health, self esteem and respect in the society. Victims suffer both physically and psychologically. Therefore, women are at a greater risk to different forms of violence due to the society stand on the female species.
Chopp, R. S., & Taylor, M. L. Reconstructing Christian theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1994. Print
Food Culture: Vietnam and Korea
Different countries, irrespective of their geographical closeness, have different food cultures they may maintain or change depending on the extent of influence by another culture. The majority of the population in these countries is young but they also have some of the world’s highest life expectancy, which explains why they are keen on the types and the safety standards of the foods they eat.
In both cultures, health consciousness is of top priority and therefore, they have balancing schedules that spare time to eat, exercise, and work in order to lead healthy lives. They may even offer to pay a higher price for a type of food they consider is of high quality. The two cultures have rice as their common food and use a diverse range of herbs, which include lemongrass, long coriander, and mint among others. They mutually use a bowl and a chopstick in eating and sounds between the bowl and the chopstick are discouraged.
The most popular foods in Vietnamese culture include the bentos, noodles, chao and street foods. The Vietnamese culture portrays various techniques that range from fried dishes, stir-fry, stew or literally dried stew, simmering, boiling with water, clear broth soups, grilled dishes, congee dishes, roasted dishes to hot pot dishes. The main Korean dishes include kimchi, doenjang, rice, and seafood, but the seafood is of the highest value in the Korean people’s cuisine and healthcare. The Kimchi is made up of spicy red chili pepper powder and garlic to add flavor.
However, one of notable difference between these cultures is that the way they handle the bowl and the chopstick. The Vietnamese prefer to hold the bowl when eating and use the chopstick more often, and it is considered impolite to place the bowl on a surface and eat using one hand. On the other hand, the Koreans prefer a spoon to a chopstick and sometimes even more strict with some types of food.
How the American culture has influenced their culture, habits, and traditions
Food is closely related to the lives people and is considered a fundamental aspect of many cultures including the American, Korean and Vietnamese cultures. The Korean and Vietnamese food is famous worldwide and has been embraced by other cultures such as the Americans. For instance, the American Vietnamese gelatin is only a little different from the traditional Vietnamese gelatin in terms of texture, but still enjoyed by magnitudes of people.
The Vietnamese food culture is characterized by freshness, colorful dishes, and the presence of herbs, vegetables, and soups / broths. The Koreans and the Vietnamese are increasingly embracing the idea of tinned food, dairy and ready to eat meat, which is an idea of the American culture. The Koreans and the Vietnamese were not fond of eating snacks but now they have embraced it due to the American culture. On the other hand, the American culture is now embracing the use of bowls, in addition to plates, as they serve food.
The American culture tends to use food to characterize political significance and ethnic identity, which has had an influence in the culture of Korea and Vietnam. The resolve to assume a vegetarian diet or consume only natural foods is today a conscious means of expressing resistance to corporate diets.
The Korean and Vietnamese foods, among other eastern foods are cherished by the American population. These foods are associated with royalty or expensive dining, whereby wealthy Americans are more likely to dine on foods that are of Asian influence.
The American culture has influenced the market segment of Korean and Vietnam in the sense that there is increased access to fast foods across streets. These kinds of foods usually have a high fat content, leading to unhealthy eating habits and the increase of health conditions like obesity and heart conditions.
Back in my freshman year, I had a bad case of breakdown in communication while carrying out a group project. The trouble with it was that it was double prolonged. There was a miscommunication between the group and the professor and a dispute among the members themselves.
The class was supposed to have group projects that were due in a month. The professor formed the groups to his own liking without giving the students a chance to form their own groups. This left some resentful. On top of that, the group leaders were appointed by him too on the premise that he was better at identifying talented individuals than the rest of us. The group leaders were supposed to choose from a list of projects the ones they would want their group to carry out. Our group leader was a narcissist. He went for the most complicated project without seeking input from the rest of the members. The project could not be accomplished in one month and this was pointed out. The group leader ignored these sentiments. The meetings were held at the convenience of the leader and there was a missing individual always in each meeting.
The group consisted of six individuals. Four of these were extraverts, including the group leader. Meetings always ended up as arguments amongst these extraverts while we remained irrelevant. Any suggestions made by us were never considered. I felt that this project was too complex to be done in a month and pointed that out to the group leader. I did so in the meetings where I got backed by the rest of the members. The leader, however, never paid attention and felt that we had more than enough time. We requested him to ask the professor for an extension, but he did not. I took the initiative and informed the professor of the need to have an extended period to complete our project. The professor asked me to follow the proper communication channels. I was supposed to communicate that to the group leader who would then get the message to the lecturer. My pleas to the tutor that I had already done that were not heeded.
After that encounter, I felt little motivation to continue contributing to the group. I became passive and just watched as the events unfolded. The extraverts dominated most of the activities of the group and had a lot of conflicts. As time passed and the deadline for project submission approached, it became apparent that the outspoken group members were not as competent as they claimed to be. The resulting weaknesses in the projects were blamed on the passive participants. The dominant extraverts branded the two of us lazy.
The period given to complete the project was over before we were done. The professor agreed to give our group an extension on condition that we would get lower grades. I learnt from this experience that it might be difficult to have effective communication between persons with conflicting personalities. I came to realize the inefficiencies caused by bureaucracy as far as communication is concerned. I also came to the conclusion that it is better to state the expectations of each and everyone in a team before embarking on any task. The personalities of the persons in our group could have become complementary if we had held a bonding session and gotten to know each other better. This is a mistake that I do not intend to make again in future.
I had initially blamed the professor for the failure of our group. I thought we would have performed better had we been allowed to form our own teams. Later on, I understood that one does not always choose who they work with. Having one’s expectations communicated before hand is the key. I believe we would have understood each other better and worked better if we had bonded before starting to work on the project.
Executive assembly relations in Canada
The executive branch is composed of Prime Minister, Ministers, Cabinet, Privy Council, Governor in Council as well as the administration. Under the broad Prime Minister’s authority, the Cabinet holds the actual executive power. Once the Prime Minister is officially elected by the Governor General, he then chooses Ministers who compose the Cabinet while the Governor General appoints them under his instructions. Ministers are normally the Member of Parliament who belongs to the party in authority (Wrong 215). On the other hand, the federal Cabinet is composed of almost thirty Ministers whereby most of them are appointed to be in charge of different departments and every one become responsible, accountable and answerable for his/her own department to the House of Commons. However, not all times every minister is given either mandate to be in charge of a department or Ministers of State, therefore those without are given authority to rule specific department sections or particular ministry that is not a fully fledged department (Baldwin 34).
The Privy Council is made up of all Minister of the Cabinet who include former Minister of the Cabinet who are usually member always together with Canada’s Chief Justice and also both the former Chief Justice and Speakers belonging to House of Commons. Besides, several other well-known citizens can be appointed to be members basically as a mark of respect. The Cabinet is normally the operating body of the Council. The Council’s Governor is fundamentally the Governor General who acts in accordance to the Cabinet’s directions. Lastly, the administration is composed of both the public servants who are in charge of differing departments, and people given responsibility of different agencies created by Parliament acts to execute, enforce as well as introduce laws. Each Minister heads one department of the federal government (Cyr 84).
Baldwin Nicholas. Executive Leadership and Legislative Assemblies. United Kingdom: Psychology Press. 2006. Print.
Cyr Hugo. Canadian Federalism and Treaty Powers: Organic Constitutionalism at Work. New York: Peter Lang. 2009. Print
Wrong George. The relations of the legislature to the executive power in Canada. JSTOR, 1 February, 2011. Web. 26 February, 2014.