Why Marijuana should not be Legalized
Marijuana is a psychoactive drug obtained from the cannabis plant and intended to be used as medicine. When taken, it induces physiological and psychoactive effects that manifest in the form of heightened mood, increased appetite, and relaxation (Haney, 2009). The current use of the drug is for recreational purposes, but this has been done mainly in secret with resultant negative consequences. Focus has been on the effects of Marijuana and on whether to legalize it or not. In states, such as Arizona and California, Marijuana has been legalized for medicinal purposes. A number of debates are ongoing with an aim of finding the rationale behind legalizing the use of marijuana. Policy makers are after tangible reasons why marijuana should not be legalized or why it should be legalized, and such tangible reasons will enable them make informed decisions. This paper proposes that marijuana should not be legalized.
This study will explore in detail why marijuana should not be made legal. The study will adopt a qualitative approach to unearth evidences to back its position. In this case, a number of secondary studies will be explored. The exploration will base its rationale on the negative effects of marijuana on health, public safety, cost, economic development, the conducts of the youth, environment, and social interactions. In addition, the study will explore the position of scientific studies regarding marijuana, and discuss its findings with a view of recommending that it be illegalized. Thereafter, the paper will make its conclusion.
The Importance of this Study
The federal law prohibits marijuana in the US. However, a number of states, such as Arizona and California have legalized its use in a number of medical cases. The legalization has opened ways for the abuse of marijuana, and thus there is a need for such states to review these laws. In addition, a number of states, such as Iowa are contemplating on legalizing marijuana, and this calls for a serious review on the dangers of such states legalizing the drug. In addition, about 3.6 million people smoke marijuana in the US on a daily basis and the rate is increasing because of some position being taken by some states to legalize the drug (Ostergard, 2010).
A study by Whitten (2014) indicates that about 46% of the Americans are in support of legalizing marijuana, and this is mainly because they are limited studies to point out the dangers of legalizing the drug. Although they point out to the fact that marijuana has a number of medicinal value when the public is allowed to smoke it freely, they forget that such medicinal value can be countered using other drugs with little side effects. This means this study is important as it will clarify all these issues and enable policy makers to make an informed judgment.
Marijuana has been in use for a long time, but its use has heightened since the late 1990s when focus shifted to its use in medicinal cases (Hayaki, Hagerty, Herman, de Dios, Anderson, & Stein, 2010). However, a number of cases have increased tremendously owing to the increased use of marijuana, and this is enough to indicate that the drug should not be legalized. If legalized, a number of side effects will manifest in a number of ways as discussed in this section.
If marijuana were to be legalized, the youth would fall prey to its overuse because it will be freely available and this will result in a number of negative effects. Effects, such as school dropouts, reduced IQ, and increased antisocial behaviors are likely to increase (Ostergard, 2010).
Although Caulkins and Bond (2012) state that legalizing marijuana will create revenue through tax, the social costs will be far too much than the revenue. Such costs, according to Whitten (2014), will be in the form of heightened school dropout rates, crimes, emergency room visits, and drug treatment among others.
The work ethics is likely to decrease as a result of tiredness, absenteeism, and lack of teamwork among workers using marijuana, and this will reduce the rate of economic growth (Whitten, 2014).
Cultivation of the cannabis plant will increase in various areas, including flower gardens if the drug is made legal and this is likely to affect the environment negatively.
According to the study by Cerdá, Wall, Keyes, Galea, and Hasin (2012), marijuana has a number of negative health effects, including effects on memory, respiratory system, IQ, and coordination among others. Such problems will increase if the drug is made legal.
Scientific studies agree that the drug should not be used for medicinal purpose because there are a number of drugs with minimal side effects that can be used in its place (Phelan, 2010).
Marijuana affects the mood, sense of judgment, and IQ, and thus it can lead to traffic crashes, family neglect, and workplace injuries among others (Phelan, 2010).
Based on the rationale in the study findings, marijuana has negative effects on health, public safety, cost, economic development, conducts of the youth, social interactions, and environment. As a result, the drug should not be legalized.
Marijuana is a psychoactive drug obtained from the cannabis plant and intended to be used as medicine. Focus has been on legalizing its use because of its medicinal value. However, this study recommends that the drug should not be legalized. This is because there is no scientific agreement on its effectiveness. Moreover, the drug has negative effects on health, public safety, cost, economic development, conducts of the youth, environment, and social interactions.
Caulkins, J. P., & Bond, B. M. (2012). Marijuana Price Gradients: Implications for Exports and Export-Generated Tax Revenue for California After Legalization. Journal of Drug Issues, 42(1), 28-45. doi:10.1177/0022042612436650
Cerdá, M., Wall, M., Keyes, K. M., Galea, S., & Hasin, D. (2012). Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: Investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 120(1-3), 22-27. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.06.011
Haney, M. (2009). Self-administration of cocaine, cannabis and heroin in the human laboratory: benefits and pitfalls. Addiction Biology, 14(1), 9-21.
Hayaki, J., Hagerty, C. E., Herman, D. S., de Dios, M. A., Anderson, B. J., & Stein, M. D. (2010). Expectancies and marijuana use frequency and severity among young females. Addictive Behaviors, 35(11), 995-1000.
Ostergard, M. (2010). Should Marijuana Be Legalized? Can Renewable Energy Replace Fossil Fuels? School Library Journal, 56(11), 135.
Phelan, C. (2010). Should Marijuana Be Legalized? Booklist, 107(4), 46.
Whitten, T. E. (2014). Under the Guise of Reform: How Marijuana Possession Is Exposing the Flaws in the Criminal Justice System’s Guarantee of a Right to the Jury Trial. Iowa Law Review, 99(1), 919-955.
Children Living in Poverty, Health and Education Hardships
Individual children and the wider society face devastating consequences of poverty considering the prevailing economic conditions that they live in. These encompass economic loss resulting from low productivity, low educational levels which in turn result in low educational achievement among children living in poverty. In addition, such children are also in danger of suffering from poor health which is attributable to the fact that they do not feed on balanced diets and in some instances such children do not receive sufficient protection from environmental hazards (Arrighi & Maume, 2007). The effects of material poverty on children are real considering the implications that the said poverty levels have on their mental and educational health.
Children Living in Poverty, Health and Education Hardships
- Background information
Statistics indicate that children living in the United States are at a higher risk of facing both health and economic hardships. The high prevalence of poverty in areas where there is rampant unemployment or where only one parent works have high probabilities of suffering the devastating effects of poverty. Low remuneration that such parents receive does not provide sufficient resources to ensure that the economic social and health needs of a child are satisfied. Such problems arise from the fact that children living in low income families are often stressed when they feel that their parents are hassled with matters related to their health and economic well being (Arrighi & Maume, 2007).
A report by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) indicates that millions of children in urban and rural areas around the world are experiencing extreme poverty levels. The report recommended that there was need for children to be given opportunities that will enable them have easy access to basic necessities such as food, health services and education (Vespa, 2013). The State of the World’s Children 2012 indicate that despite the development that numerous countries, especially the US and other developed countries, have witnessed in the past few years, many children in urban centres are at a high risk of contracting diseases as a result of the environment which they live in (Vespa, 2013). Low levels of education deprive children of knowledge that is considered essential in understanding the operations of different sectors of their economies as well as provide the necessary skills that are essential in understanding their environment.
When children are denied access to health and education facilities there are high chances that they will face numerous challenges which may become impediments to their overall development. High poverty levels can be said to be the main cause of overcrowding in cities and the eventual development of low life areas of residence. Diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhoea are frequent in such due to the existence of unhygienic conditions. The two diseases are known killer infections among children in many developed and developing countries. Despite the presence of an overwhelming presence of research on vaccines, informal settlements and societies where there is a large population, children are increasingly vulnerable to infections and this increases the likelihood of high child mortality rates (Vespa, 2013).
- Purpose of study
This paper aims at providing an in-depth study of the economic and health challenges that children living in poverty areas experience in the United States. This will include an understanding of different reports from different bodies on the relationship between poverty, education levels and health. In addition, the impact of poverty on the health and economic well being of children will also form the subject of this paper.
- Problem statement
The definition of poverty varies across different sectors of the society. However it is agreeable that whenever children and their families are said to be experiencing high poverty levels, they are said to be unable to achieve a minimum decent living standard that can allow them to be full participants in the mainstream activities of the society.
- Supporting idea 1
Stakeholders need to ask themselves questions about the trends in poverty in America? The main causes of poverty in America? What are the economic hardships that poor children encounter? What are the health related hardships that children living in poverty experience? These questions form an integral part in understanding poverty situation not only in the United States but also on the global platform. Furthermore, these questions also provide prompts solution to these hardships.
According to the 2012 report by the National Centre for Children in Poverty (NCCP), about 20% of children in the United States live in families whose income fall below that of the Federal poverty level, which stands at $23, 550 every year for a family of four. This report further indicated that families require about double the income level set by the federal government as a way of ensuring that all basic expenses are covered. If the need for double income is to be considered as the standard of poverty measure then about 44% of children would be living in low income families (Vespa, 2013).
- Supporting Idea 1
Most of the children that live in relatively poor families have parents who work in low wage employments, such parents also experience situations of unstable employments and this subjects their families to in challenging situations that make them struggle to make ends meet. Such poverty levels can impede children’s ability to learn hence contribution to the social, emotional and behavioural problems that such children face. Adverse poverty levels in America can also be said to the main reason for an increase in health risks and subsequent mental health problems (Vespa, 2013).
- Supporting Idea 1
There is however increased risks for children who experience persistency in poverty levels since they lack motivational factors that can inspire them, out of their conditions. For such children there exists a high possibility that they will not improve their low living standards. Poverty is therefore a single greatest threat to the welfare of any child. This is attributable to poor work policies that are instituted by the state governments. More exploitative and less motivating laws by these governments can be said to be hindrances to the opportunities available for better wages in employment opportunities. This also involves opportunities for job creation (Vespa, 2013).
- Economic hardships of children living in poverty
A report by the Education Department in the University of California found the existence of a strong relationship between poverty and low performance in education. The report accentuates that children from low income families are more likely to experience challenges in their academic life compared to those from high income families. In terms of special education, the report observed that children from relatively wealthy families often access high quality schools. Academic difficulties arise from numerous environmental factors that are a characteristic of the conditions that improvised children face (Thompson, 2013). Poverty stricken families often struggle with drug and alcohol problems.
- Supporting Idea 1
When parents’ suffer from such problems they are less likely to be involved in their children’s education and this can cause academic complications. The stress of poverty can also obstruct a child’s ability to learn. This is especially so when children attend to school activities in hunger or when suffering from nutritional deficits (Thompson, 2013).
- Example 1
According to the Journal of Special Education, children from racial minorities, who form a large part of those living in poverty, are most likely to be placed in special education programs since they tend to have learning disabilities and developmental delays. This is due to poor nutritional care, poor environmental condition which exposes them to dangerous chemicals that hamper learning and results in the development of learning disabilities.
- Example 2
Special programs are supposed to improve a child’s ability to grasp academic concepts. However, poor areas have low quality schools whose programs tend to be insufficient and sometimes non-existent. Limited access to proper education aggravates poverty conditions increasing the possibility of education disability (Thompson, 2013).
- Health hardships of children living in poverty
According to a health report by UNICEF, poor nutrition contributes to about 25% of deaths, internationally, of children under the age of 5. Furthermore, those who are relatively well fed to ensure that their bodies have sufficient energy for all their daily activities have a high possibility of suffering the risk of hidden hunger resulting from micronutrient undernourishment. This report makes poverty a major risk factor in the overall health of child (Vespa, 2013).
- Supporting Idea 1
Environmental injustice is characterized by a growing affinity of the poverty stricken members of the society to be more exposed to environmental risks. This is associated to the fact that children living in poverty are more likely to live in poor housing facilities and more risky environment. Such an environment is likely to be dominated by polluting industries and other unhealthy activities such as dumpsites that congregate poor areas. Children living in such conditions are more likely to suffer from respiratory challenges among other health problems (Thompson, 2013).
- Supporting Ideas 2
Poverty areas are more likely to be related associated with harmful lifestyles and behaviour. These include drug and substance abuse. Poverty makes it difficult for such societies to obtain necessary treatment due to limited resources and remoteness from the urban and developed areas. Poverty can therefore be said to be representing complex and interconnected risks that affect not only the life of the community but also that of the children in such environments (Vespa, 2013).
- Restatement of the thesis
When children live in families that are unable to attain a minimum standard of living, then such children can be said to be living in poverty. Poverty is a contributing factor both education and health hardships that children face. The prevalence of these hardships are heavily reliant on among other things the economic status of parents. Most poor families are characterized by instances of drug and substance abuse.
- Outlook for the future
When parents suffer from such addictions there are less involved in a child’s education and as a result such a child may experience academic challenges. Most poverty stricken families live in environments that are relatively unhealthy for human life. The prevailing conditions in such surroundings make children more susceptible to health problems which hinder the overall growth and development stages of such children.
Arrighi, B. A., & Maume, D. J. (2007). Child poverty in America today. Westport, Conn:
Thompson, V, (2013). Relationship between Poverty and Special Education
Placement.i Global Post.
Vespa, J. (2013). America’s Families and Living arrangements: 2012- Census. United States
repercussions of human driven climate change and its complicated link to our worldwide
humanity’s present and future energy demands are possibly the ultimate
challenge in the world. Today, hydrogen is widely considered as one significant
element of a prospective energy resolution for the twenty-first century
(Hayhurst, 2003). It is capable of helping
in matters of environmental releases, feasibility and energy security. Hydrogen
has the possibility of providing energy in transportation, disseminated heat
and power production and energy storage structures with minimal or no effect on
the local and global environment. Nevertheless, any change from carbon-based
fuels like the fossil fuels energy system to a hydrogen-centered economy comprises
noteworthy scientific, technical and socio-economic barriers. This paper aims
to discuss the causes and effects of hydrogen power on political and economic
grounds, which is the basis of the rising global interest in hydrogen power.
Additionally, it scrutinizes some of the crucial issues regarding the future
development of hydrogen as an energy route.
Political Causes and Effects of Hydrogen Power
The chances that hydrogen may replace petroleum will have several impacts on the international setup. States that resort to hydrogen as a forthcoming fuel capable of substituting petroleum will definitely end their reliance on oil reserves. Presently, this has turned out to be a major political concern as the United Kingdom and the United States are both engaged in major military and political matters with countries that keep large oil reserves. Through resorting to hydrogen as a substitute for petroleum, several of these concerns could be faced and resolved through a civil approach (Derwent, 2006).
The price of oil reliance has never seemed any clear according to what had been basically been an environmental issue for a long time has suddenly turned out to be a deadly serious intentional issue. Oil is a tolerance that people can no longer meet the expense of, not just due to it will come to an end or turn the world into a steam bath. The reason for these determinations is because it relentlessly leads to global war. What the world needs is a big as Apollo-scale determination to unravel the power of hydrogen, a virtually limitless source of energy. The technological development is at a tipping point as terrorism offer as political earnestness, most customers are prepared for a substitute (Hayhurst, 2003).
According to Winter (2006), the US government policy regulates the policies and acts that offer insight into the governing principles of the Department of Energy Hydrogen program. Thee energy independence and security act of 2007 includes provisions to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security, increase production of clean renewable fuels, protect consumers, increase product, building, and vehicle efficiency, promote research on and deploy greenhouse gas capture and storage options, and improve the energy performance of the federal government.
In case hydrogen is to be considered as the new petroleum substitute the biggest social impediment that must be defeated is the opposition to revolution. Society in general is not too keen on change unless there is a very good cause, especially when current technology does the job and availability is not an issue at present. In contrast, oil reserves are bound to be depleted in the nigh future and when this time reaches, every civilization is certain of checking out for an alternative to provision of the energy required. This required energy is the exact ones that petroleum and other oil products could be capable of producing (Winter, 2006).
Internationally, the governments of various nations have shown support to the hydrogen power program with economic aims. Several nations regard hydrogen to be a vital tool to handle enduring energy security, ecological and economic apprehensions. Nonetheless, to realize this hydrogen future, international associations in all expanses of hydrogen energy growth, from study to technology authentication to enactment, are necessary. The cases of ongoing efforts signify the present-day global obligation to hydrogen as a latent long-term answer to the world’s energy demands.
Throughout the first oil disaster in the 1970s, the International Energy Agency was instituted as a diplomatic body dedicated to securing energy source, economic development and environmental sustainability via the enabling of collaborative determinations. For over and above twenty years, the International Energy Agency has reinforced collaborative research undertakings centered on the progress of advanced energy technologies. To accelerate implementation of these research activities, several International Energy Agency Implementing Agreements have concentrated on pioneering hydrogen research and growth in all sectors of the economy. The Implementing Agreements aim at seven expanses counting technology, energy security, the environment, economics, the market, deployment and outreach. In November 2003, energy ministers from sixteen countries signifying eighty five percent of the world gross domestic product (GDP) combined to produce the International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy. This partnership program is an important global determination to maximize cooperative partnerships amongst nations and to encourage haring of empirical and research outcomes (Winter, 2006).
Large-scale modifications to the energy government in the past have instigated step-modifications in the development of Western civilization. The changeover from horses and water wheels to coal was the motivating drive behind the industrial revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The expansion of the petroleum industry in the 20th century has shaped modern life as we know it, with its large commercial enterprises, highly federal economic set-up and densely populated town regions. The connecting of coal, oil and natural gas has assisted in great economic development and empowered those in the industrialized world to appreciate an unparalleled level of comfort. Nevertheless, the doles of fossil fuel use have come at a cost. There exist energy security risks for countries like the United Kingdom and the United States which are turning out to be increasingly dependent on the import of fossil fuels from diplomatically unstable areas. The by-products from the burning of fossil fuels results to air pollution that affect the well-being of human beings and other wildlife (Newell, 2008).
The United States Supreme Court cases regarding nuclear power and connected subsidiary matters shows a clear development in the roots for judicial judgment making over time. In the beginning, the Court depended profoundly on federal preemptive action to apply Congress’s determination in the promotion of nuclear power. However, it deferred to security and environmental choices by the Atomic Energy Commission and its controlling descendant, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. On the other hand, as the arrangement of the Court improved and the concerns included greater setbacks to federal preventive measures, the Court has accountable in favor of nation’s rights in zones not openly associated with health and safety concerns regarding radioactivity. To validate these conclusions, the Justices appealed that they did not unfavorably affect Congress’s determination to support nuclear energy.
Private nuclear power has remained a contentious issue from its inauguration in the year 1954, when Congress passed the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (Newell, 2008). This enactment was aimed at removing the Atomic Energy Commission’s federal cartel on the possession, proprietorship, and usage of particular radioactive resources. From that time, the Supreme Court has offered certiorari on numerous matters concerning nuclear power and related accomplishments. Nuclear actions have frequently been reinforced by the Court for three whys and wherefores namely its interpretation of Congress’s pro‑nuclear power decree as articulated in the original Atomic Energy Act. It is also as a result of its having an extremely respectful attitude towards the persistent mysteriousness of technical know-how born of A‑bomb confidentiality. Nonetheless, exclusions were made to the initial dependence on federal preemptive actions as the Court’s conformation changed and nation’s rights turned out to be more influential in the majority’s opinions.
The Supreme Court’s cases concerning nuclear power evidently show how the Justices understand the law to promote their insights of society’s objectives. Initially, the Court depended on a sweeping view of federal preemption to further what it saw as Congress’s intent to promote nuclear power. Later, as the composition of the Court changed, growing concerns about states’ rights caused the Court to limit federal preemption to matters of health and safety related to radiation. Other commonly additional issues were realized to be inside the purview of the states. Resolutions allowing the states to practice their power were warranted as not tampering with Congress’s aims.
In case hydrogen turns out to be a global fuel able to substitute for petroleum, at least in the car industry, numerous major repercussions might occur which will have radical effects of the current global economic meltdown. Oil companies most definitely will not profit from this revolution as they depend on cars using on petroleum as that is their energy source which they vend. In the event that no need for petroleum arises, several companies will most certainly cease to operate and this will most certainly have some implications on the economy. Despite the fact that alternative fuels are being experimented and verified, the conservative usage of petrol is still far from defunct. The business of oil is still a flourishing multi-billion dollar trade which is not set to give way to substitute energy sources.
In a nutshell, sustainable development in the
car manufacturing sector has had major improvements and advances in recent
years. For example, BMW car company has joined the other car corporations in advancing
their progresses in ecologically friendly cars by presenting the first full
size superfluity sedan with a hydrogen ICE past the prototype stages (Holland,
and Provenzano, 2007). However, this was
not as successful as initially anticipated, mainly due to the fact that after
the hydrogen tank runs out after 100 miles, the engine switches back to petrol
and the emissions rise once again.
A mainstream of the other car companies have no less than one model which they have verified new alternative types of fuels and some have released these hybrid models into public use. These models are far more ecologically friendly compared to their antecedents with low carbon releases. The use of low release substitute fuels is a massive progression to a workable future. Hydrogen has big capability as an ecologically clean energy fuel and as a means of minimizing dependence on imported energy power. Just before the use of hydrogen in playing a bigger energy responsibility and turning out to be a widely used substitute to gasoline, several new facilities and systems must be established. People will want facilities to manufacture hydrogen, keep it, and transport it and this will need cost-effective fuel cells. In addition, most consumers will necessitate the technology and the teaching to securely use it.
Hydrogen can be generated from different domestic feedstock by use of a variety of process expertise. Hydrogen-containing mixtures like fossil fuels, biomass or even water can be a source of hydrogen. Thermochemical systems can be employed in the large scale production of hydrogen from biomass and from petroleum products like coal, natural gas and petrol. Power produced from sunlight, wind and nuclear sources can be used to produce hydrogen through the process of electrolysis. Solar energy alone can also enhance photolytic manufacture of hydrogen from water, by the use of advanced photo-electrochemical and photo-biological system process.
The United States presently uses nearly ten million tons of hydrogen every year for industrial uses, like the manufacture of fertilizer and decontaminating petroleum. In case hydrogen-powered automobiles are to develop into the norm, people will need at least ten times more. This will result to the production in an effectual and ecologically friendly manner.
Fig 1: Hydrogen Production by Alkaline Electrolysis (Lipman, 2011).
While allowing for the production measures, the price of electricity needed for the electrolysis process forms one of the impediments to ecological energy necessitated. Currently, Hydrogen Energy Center is investigating on alternative sources of power like wind, sunlight, tidal and hydro as renewable sources of energy that can be sought for. Wind producers have been considerably enhanced in past few years and can generate electricity for 0.4 US dollars per kWh which is economical with conservative means of producing electricity. In case the site has sufficient wind then there is considerable prospective for a hydrogen generation facility.
On the other hand, small scale hydrogen production holds assurance for sites where indigenous generation and use are influential factors. In addition, tidal power gathers impetus and protest march projects have been fruitful. In that regard, Hydrogen Energy Center is functioning hand in hand with inventors to initiate plans for a long term tidal electrical production showcase project in New England. Developments with solar systems of photovoltaic cells endure the least cost of generating electricity. Provided the reliable climate and a cluster of situations solar is a viable solution, it will become a success.
Fig 2: Estimated Hydrogen Production Costs (Source: EIA, 2008)
Above and beyond electrolysis, the generation of
hydrogen has been realized through a catalytic reaction of unused aluminum. The
final products are given include hydrogen, and alumina which can be recycled to
manufacture aluminum. Additionally, Hydrogen Energy Center is in a discourse
with the Canadian firm that embraces the obvious. Notwithstanding the generation
of hydrogen, the daily usage and approval of hydrogen ought to be carefully implemented.
Hydrogen currently is used to drive commercial buses both by interior
combustion engines burning a mixture of hydrogen and other sources of fuels merely
by hydrogen contained in fuel cells. Hydrogen is implemented in numerous
commercial uses from welding metal to dying cloths to manufacture of
electronics, plastics and agricultural fertilizers. In case a renewable economically
feasible production practice of hydrogen can be attained, the benefits will be extensive
to several firms. As a result, a number of the demonstrating grounds for particular
production approaches can be developed locally to yield hydrogen for these firms
(Holland, and Provenzano, 2007).
Fig 2: Estimated US Hydrogen Potential From Renewable Sources (Lipman, 2011).
Renewable sources of energy are habitually limited for marketable use owing to their intermittent obtainability. Occasionally, the wind fails to blow or the sun fails to shine, so hydrogen can be the serious link employed as a storage medium to source power throughout these times. According to Holland, and Provenzano (2007), hydrogen can be used as a portable source of power for conveyance by being crushed and kept in small reservoirs for applications resembling gasoline or propane. Considering the increasing usage of hydrogen and technical developments, the liabilities of production, dissemination and product manufacturing will become increasing inexpensive. Progressive partnerships programs between business, state, universities and non-business organizations will be the basis to a supportable energy economy.
In investigating the possible role of hydrogen in the energy in the economy of the future times, a hopeful view should be considered. All the technology required for implementation is feasible but a great deal of development and refinement is necessary. A negative method would apparently dismay further insights concerning an important and maybe the most rational alternative for the yet to come ages. A limited number of alternative energy systems involving hydrogen have been deliberated and have proved that hydrogen would become a viable supplementary source of energy obtained from nuclear power. Moreover, hydrogen could be obtained from coal the approaching future. Technological developments could regard hydrogen as an energy supply in an economic realism (Winsche, Hoffman, and Salzano, 1973).
The overall cost of energy to a house provided with hydrogen fuel relies on the proportion of the necessities for direct fuel usage to the necessities for electrical usage. A better direct employment of hydrogen as a power minus conversion to electricity minimizes the total cost of energy provided to the domestic because of the greater expenditure of electrical broadcast and distribution. Therefore, hydrogen fuel is especially nice-looking for usage in domestic housing uses where the majority of the energy needed is for thermal power. Even though a considerable amount of study is required before any hydrogen energy distribution system can be realized, the essential advances are within the ability of present-day technological development and the system could be rendered gorgeous economically (Winsche, Hoffman, and Salzano, 1973).
In conclusion, this is a subject that requires more
detailed study. Nearly all security aspects of hydrogen consumption will have
to be inspected, specifically the problems of security in the domestic usage
and the long distance transportation of hydrogen using conduits at very high
pressures. In that regard, it becomes important to note that the various energy
scheduling agencies ought to outline the manner of applying hydrogen energy distribution
systems in the energy sector of the world’s economy. The preliminary change to
hydrogen energy obtained from obtainable fossil fuels like coal ought to be reflected
together with the long variety assessment of all the hydrogen sourced from
nuclear energy. Consequently, it is necessary that the examination and
technological possibility of a hydrogen energy production be implemented in the
present-day. It is of crucial significance to the world economy to develop some
all-purpose fuels that can be generated from an assortment of domestic energy supplies
and minimizes our reliance on imported oil.
Derwent, R. et al. (2006). Global environmental impacts of the hydrogen economy”, Int. J. Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Application, 1, 57-67.
Hayhurst, C. (2003). Hydrogen power of the future: new ways of turning fuel cells into energy. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
Holland, G. B., & Provenzano, J. J. (2007). The hydrogen age: empowering a clean energy future. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith.
Lipman, T. (2011, May 5). An Overview of Hydrogen Production and Storage Systems with Renewable Hydrogen Case Studies. Retrieved from www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_heydorn.pdf
Newell, P. (2008). The Political Economy of Global Environmental Governance. Review of International Studies, 34, 507-529.
Winter, C. J., 2006. Energy policy is technology politics – the hydrogen energy case: with an eye particularly on safety comparison of hydrogen energy to current fuels. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy., 31, 1623-1631.
Winsche, W. E., Hoffman, K. C., & Salzano, F. J. (1973). Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation’s Energy Economy. Science, 180, 1325-1332.
People live different types of live in different parts of the world. The differences in life occur based on conceptual frameworks such as lifestyles, social class, work or division of labour, gender, and ethno methodology. Such concrete methods of life usually lead to people living a different kind of life in many parts of the world. A closer look into such organizations also marks the distinction between men and women. Thus, it clearly shows the everyday life lived by men and women based on work (labour), class, gender and occupation. This article is a discussion of everyday life between men and women. It focuses on how they conduct their daily lives.
The paper first looks at the scenario in which a mother expects her three grown children to be at her home for the weekly family dinner. She states that the work is usually too much as it involves lots of other chores such as cleaning and washing dishes among others. The children also notice that their father will never help their mother in doing some if not all the house chores. Therefore, they offer to host the family dinner at their own homes in turn so that their mother may get to relax. To their surprise, their mother affirmatively states that she is very capable of cooking for her family. Mostly this article analyses the scenario from conceptual framework of labour. Thus how labour is divided among partners and the rationales governing such frame works.
The scenario depicts a family routine, the type that is most common in western cultures. The practice is one in which all family members gather for dinner. As usual the mother of the children, who also is the wife is trusted or rather trusts herself with the job of preparing the required meals all by herself. When the meeting is over, the mother continues to the laborious process of cleaning plus doing all the dishes (NY Magazine 35). As usual, the father will not be involved in doing the labour in the house. Looking at the scenario from the conceptual framework of labour, the scenario depicts a difference in the division of labour. The difference or indifference of the division of labour in heterosexual families is a doing of the past but is still stack with human beings of the current generation.
Lupton (173) states in her finding that most household chores are gender based. For example, the preparation of food in Australia and other western countries is still seen as a woman’s duty. Thus, the scenario described above tends to disprove the common thought that people posses about division of labour in many western households. Currently most people believe that there if a 50/ 50 method of sharing house hold duty in the western world. While in real sense, some chores are stuck with women as they were many centuries ago. Some faculties of the home still belong to women in the same way they did before civilization or before the Beijing gender equality campaign (Lupton 173).
Research by Lupton (174) reveals that some department of the home such as the kitchen is still a woman’s special place. Contrary the common opinion, it is quite clear that most women prefer being in the kitchen as compared to their male counterparts. In fact, women see it as their sole duty to prepare meals for their family and carry out other chores such as cleaning and washing dishes. On the other hand, most men find such avenues a no go zone since they do not possess the expertise needed in such areas. This is an indication that civilization experienced from the 1980 up to date has not done much to change the way men and women vie division of labour.
It is also clear that the type of work done by either the man or the women in the house has nothing to do with the level of education, employment status, amount of income or age of the partners. For example, a survey carried out by the Australian Bureau of Statics in 1992 indicated that some educated/ non educated, employed/ unemployed and young and old men, though a smaller percentage equally took part in cooking and other chores around the house (Friberg 160). However, the majority of the work done by these men came as a result of being asked to do so by their female partners. Only a small number of men preferred doing the chores without being asked and they did not feel bad about it.
The scenario brought about numerous social processes and other social factors that were found many years ago and are still valued to date. For example, just like in the 1980s backwards, the modern family still value family reunions. They view this as an only way of staying together, especially in cases where all children are grown up and moved out of the house (Lupton 95). The normal life back then revolved around the family and they were expected to be as close as possible. The same occurrences still exist in modern families as they struggle to maintain unity. The scenario as well illustrate that like the old days, mothers still take pride in cooking and serving their families while expecting the husband to be the main provider. The man still holds the mantra of being the head of the family and should not be subjected to feminine duties.
There is an indication of a social belief that children will always be children, whether they have grown up or not. Many unemployed women around the world just like the mother in the case scenario hold the belief that their working husbands should not carry out household chores such as cooking, cleaning and others since they work hard at their jobs. They also provide for the family in every dimension, as such the wives feel that it is only fair, for them to exempt their hardworking men from household duties (NY Magazine 34). Children on the other hand should help in finishing some household duties. The scenario portrays them as being ready to host the entire family for the weekly dinner without demanding extra help from any of them.
This is an indication of responsibility that is long gone in the western world. Without much ado, many will realize that currently children prefer eating out than cooking at home. This is in order to avoid household chores, which they otherwise find tiring. Most grown and young children will easily do with a house help who does all the cleaning, cooking and washing for them (Gong 83). On a smaller percentage of grown working children will perform household chores. In this scenario, it is noted that the farther does not appear anywhere to make decision and contributions into the preparation of the family dinner. This is a show that most men considers food preparation a woman’s affair.
The situation portrays the existence of ability to exercise power and authority in people’s perceived line of duty. For example, the mother vehemently rejects the suggestion made by one of her children that they should host the family in turns. She strongly states that she is very much capable of cooking for her family thank you (Working Mother 60). This is a clear indication that she is not ready to relinquish her powers around the kitchen to anybody, not even to her own children. This setting also paints a picture of the lack of trust that the mother has towards her children hosting dinner. She probably does not have faith in their children’s cooking abilities. She believes that no one can cook better than she can. She still holds the power of organization and management of the family gathering affairs, and will not pass on the button that easily. There too exercise the authority of being the head of the house and thus will not be involved in cooking and other kitchen affairs (Lupton 177).
Thus, there is an apparent exercise of inequality in this situation. The first form of inequality becomes known when the mother denies her children the opportunity to organize family dinner. She believes that no one can rival her cooking. Therefore, according to her, every other person’s cooking ability is way below hers. There is also in equality in the division of labour. This most probably is brought about by the mother’s attitude. This is evident again when she refuses to let her children be the hosts for the ceremony (Lupton, 665). The children try to erase in equality in the amount of work done by their mother but she is adamant to let them take control of the occasion.
Despite the fact that most women around the world have fought for equality in many areas, equality in sharing house chores remains an unbalanced affair. Research by Gong (84) indicates that duties within the house are still considered the job category of the female folks. This is irrespective of whether the woman in working or not. In fact, an area such as parenting is one that most women contend with on their own. Very few men take part in raising the children and most often opt not to take maternity leaves as observed by Gong. However, it is not in order to lay the blame solely on men. This is because; some women do not believe that men can do most of these jobs. Therefore, they opt to have their male partners stay at work instead of having them doing nothing around the house (Gong 84). Some men also believe that they are not good at performing such errands and would rather be out looking for finances to support their families.
In this case is a conviction of lack of division of labour. For instance, the father does not help with household chores as well as the preparation of the dinner. The mother feels she is the boss in that sector and does not seem to believe that anybody can do it better. She believes that she can shoulder the duties single handedly (NY Magazine 35). Clearly, the children also just go to enjoy the dinner and leave. No one bothers to stay behind and help his or her mother with all the cleaning involved. Most women around the world hold a traditional belief that they are the ones who can cook better. They assume the duty of motherhood to heart. They would rather struggle than have their loved ones do the hard labour around the house.
The daily lives lived by both men and women in their homes and at work exhibit different meanings and assumption. Even today and in the case presented in the scenario, men do not want to be involved in cooking, cleaning and washing dishes. A good number of people who make up the world population have the assumptions that just like the old days, men and women should have distinct duties in the family. Massey (38) shows that people believe that men should provide for their families, they should be the head of the house and should assume total power and authority as well as being the top decision makers. On the other hand, people are for the opinion that cooking, laundry, dishes and caring for the baby should be the mother’s sole job (Working Mother 64).
This has been depicted in the scenario and has been evident in many other cases around the world. Human beings have not realized the much desired achievement of gender equality and equality in the division of labour within the family. However, it is not possible to point out whether this is due to the actions of men and women, since both of the genders practice resistance of some sort (Massey, 35).
Friberg, T. (1993). Everyday life: Women’s adaptive strategies in time and space, issue 55. Stockholm, Sweden: Lund University Press
Gong, M. (2007). Status relations and marriage in the United States and in a cross-national context. New York, NY: ProQuest
Lupton, D. (2000). The heart of the meal: food preferences and habits among rural Australian couples. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Pauline/Downloads/21220863_LUPTON_-_THE_HEART_OF_THE_MEAL_3.pdf
Lupton, D. (2000). Food memory and meaning: the symbolic and social nature of food events. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Pauline/Downloads/21220863_LUPTON_-_FOOD_MEMORY_AND_MEANING_4.pdf
Lupton, D. (2000). Where’s me dinner: food preparation arrangement in rural Australian families. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Pauline/Downloads/21220863_LUPTON_-_WHERES_ME_DINNER_2.pdf
Massey, D. (1995). Spatial divisions of labor: Social structures and the geography of production. London: Psychology Press
New York Magazine (1985). Marriage in the 80s retrieved from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=I-UCAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA30&dq=Understanding+Everyday+Life+of+food+preparation+and+division+of+labour+between+male+and+female+partners&hl=en&sa=X&ei=C0dBU8nuHcmI7AbF_IDICg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
Working Mother (2000). Friends of the family. Retrieved from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=vQc11pd_aFoC&pg=PA60&dq=Understanding+Everyday+Life+of+food+preparation+and+division+of+labour+between+male+and+female+partners+in+australia&hl=en&sa=X&ei=oIhBU9qwF8rC7Abeq4CADQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
Response to Race and Crime the Color of Punishment by David Cole
The reason why this assignment is important is to understand the disparity that exists in the justice system in treatment of black and white offenders. There is a great difference that cannot be ignored between black and white people that are arrested and prosecuted for drug related crimes.
From the class reading, knowledge and information on discrimination that occurs in the society was gained. Sociology is fundamental in understanding the welfare of human beings and contributing positively to solutions for problems faced in communities.
Class concepts related to sociology
Sociological class concepts that have been illustrated in this reading include functionalist theorists related to race and society. In order for relationships between different races to function, all the races in the society should be accepted and integrated. On reading this article, I was surprised by the reluctance and blatant refusal of political and justice leaders’ to change the discriminatory laws on drug charges against black people in the community. Reading this content assisted me to appreciate this class at a higher level especially in relation to race matters. I would like to be part of the change that would increase the awareness on current high racism levels in the society.
The article talks about differences in arrests made to black and white people in the United States. The justice system in the US separates the punishment between individuals charged with possession of cocaine and crack cocaine. Crack cocaine is a form of cocaine that has sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) added to it. Crack cocaine is cheaper, and holds a high prison sentence of up to five more years in comparison to cocaine charges. Most African Americans are usually arrested and charged on possession of crack cocaine primarily because it is cheaper, while a higher number of white people are found in possession of cocaine; which is more expensive. Statistics from prisons all over the country show a very high number of African Americans sentenced to high prison sentences.
If I was teaching this class, I would also have assigned this reading. It is important for people in the world to be aware of the existence of racism even in the 21st Century. Individuals all over the world assume that the United States of America is perfect in all areas. This article by David Cole proves that the country still has a long way to go if people are charged and prosecuted differently based on their skin color.
Micro and Macro Economy
Do seasoned equity offerings (SEO) and issuer stock market operation affect micro and macro economy? Seasoned equity offerings (SEO) bear a significant task in the sector of finance irrespective of the view of a bystander. Seasoned equity offerings have been a major section of research in the region of corporate finance because of their importance as the company’s financing occurrence and fairly inconsistent stock market operation of equity issuers. Several studies record stock price increase prior to equity emergence, negative reaction from the shareholders to the public proclamation of the concern and ultimately, and certainly most outstandingly, issuers keep on underperforming their non-issuing equals for up to six years following the concern. Accordingly, SEO proclamation vividly signify an indication to investors equally to other shared occasions, but simultaneously, not every investor amend their assessments to accurate rank as issuers maintain underperformance of diverse standards. Long-established monetary theories on capital formation, like hierarchy and trade-off theory, fail to elucidate completely the empirically studied stock market operation of the issuers. The inability of the traditional theories has led to a sequence of fresh efforts to elucidate the SEO methods.
The Effects on Micro and Macro Economy
Different views have been embraced to validate the market timing assumptions in equity contribution. Research of a sample of companies in the United Kingdom encountering equity versus debt choice established that companies’ choices are heavily controlled by past securities costs and present market situations in addition to targeting control ranks. Equity concerns seldom arise when management finds is company’s equity being underrated. Furthermore, higher equity concern volumes arise during high current stock market operation and are frequently associated with augmenting economic action. Lastly, companies having towering past stock returns are liable of issuing equity and retiring debt, whereas companies having squat past stock market operation are hesitant to issue impartiality.
Investment Associated Demand for Capital
Long-established hierarchical assumption signifies that an adverse assortment problem is likely to be large when companies do not have hopeful investment chances. Moreover, charges of granting equity escalate with rising problems thus making a difference between excellent and dreadful venture projects. Usually, the undesirable selection difficulty is evident when the economy is in a downturn, and in accordance with hierarchy assumption, companies ought to consider utilizing internal capital or granting risk-free liability. Hence, the general rate of requirement for capital can be viewed as a likely determinant on the equity concern choice. The squat unfavorable choice charge periods are probable of arising when economy is thriving and companies have hopeful investment chances.
Equity share in every new concern augments in expansionary trade sequences. Additionally, when the influence of trade sequences variables is perfectly controlled, neither past supply proceeds nor interest rates is seen to be considerably associated with equity provision. In brief, the effect of trade sequence variables essentially leads to the connection involving the proven strong force of stock marketplace inconsistencies on equity provision. Moreover, with the augment of demand for capital, an increase in Initial Public Offerings (IPO) volume is probable of arising and correspondingly, companies have a tendency of going public when investor sentiment is high.
Irregularity of Information
In reaction to the tradeoff theory, asymmetrical information has a critical function in companies’ capital provision choices. Furthermore, asymmetrical information drives companies to adhere to the monetary hierarchy, in accordance to which internally made investment is at all times favored to external investment and liability favored to equity. Nevertheless, empirical proof to back the time-changing asymmetrical information charges as the enlightenment for the existence of equity sequences is rather restricted, yet a number of studies point to its course as a basic SEO causal factor. Companies might take instances of low asymmetrical information like a window of chance to offer equity. In this regard, companies describe window of opportunity to materialize where the irregularity of information is at historical low state in the entire economy. Under a circumstance like that, companies are capable of signaling their worth and objective to investors more accurately.
An example of a signal that is employed is thorough capital expenditure plan where the investors can effortlessly authenticate companies’ demand for capital and generate a difference from a condition where the major motivation to grant equity is simply opportunistic stock over-assessment. On this note, need for capital and information irregularity assumptions partially overlie and it could be impractical to fully differentiate between their consequences. Investors react in a different way to the firm attributes of equity provider in hot and cold marketplaces and affirm it as an indirect proof of information irregularity having a function in equity provision. Explicitly, investors give more consideration to inconsistencies of firm excellence and future prospects like market-to-book fraction in times of cold phases.
A more current area of concern in behavioral corporate finance tackles the effects of investor feeling in the market. Presently, investor feeling is seen to arise in the contemporary stock proceeds, and to a given extent, have analytical control in the potential aggregate stock profits. The mounting body of study seizes either unreasonable investors’ advance or illogical managers’ advance and elucidates some features of the behavioral corporate finance from these views. The development of research concerning the function of investor feeling has advanced with time. The inquiry is no longer if investor feeling is evident, but merely, the way of gauging it and to determine its effects. Studies have affirmed that over-hopefulness amid small investors signifies a great chance of participating in an equity issuance. Being aware of the general rate of investor feeling in the economy, companies can utilize variations in feeling to time the equity issuance for instances of high feeling.
Firm Issuer Qualities
A characteristic issue type company encounters less negative abnormal proceeds around the proclamation when judged against a company with characteristic debt issuer qualities when offering seasoned equity. Qualities closely associated with the increased possibility of an equity concern, or existing as an equity issue type company, are, for instance, low financial elasticity, high stock prices, and small company size just to mention a few. Equity offering companies are frequently inhibited; they employ the Altman’s Z-score to seize the impact of missing financial elasticity. It is considered that seasoned equity offerings match up with insider promotion. Findings from research are in line with market timing anchored assumptions on equity provision in accordance with which the management embraces information that investors lack. Different studies have discussed the management variables that are applicable in the tests of companies’ monetary strategy. They affirm that in an attempt to distinguish between effects of hierarchy and tradeoff theory, a specific set of management variables ought to be encompassed in the scrutiny of the monetary strategy.
Furthermore, big companies have lesser costs of debt and thus, the natural logarithm of sales ought to be encompassed as a management variable. Research affirms that profitable companies frequently have higher agency costs linked to debt, and, therefore, proceeds on possessions ought to be employed as a management variable. In addition, monetary slack, identified as cash and cash correspondents divided by overall resources, signifies lesser requirement for external financing. Companies that are endowed with research and development expenses have greater action costs of liability and ought to favor equity as compared to liability. Studies also affirm that companies with high palpability of resources, determined as property, plants, and paraphernalia divided by overall possessions, are more probable of issuing debt. Lastly, rooted in tradeoff theory of capital formation, companies that have high leverage favor offering equity; this is attributable to their high rate of marginal costs of debt.
With regard to effects of macro and micro causal factors of seasoned equity offerings (SEO) in addition to issuer stock market operation, equity concerns have been found to arise in sequences. This is because the vast majority of SEOs and IPO have a likelihood of occurring during hot periods, followed by instances of low provision volumes. There are different motives for companies to offer equity and, therefore, equity sequences exist. Collective equity share in total capital provision is a powerful analyst of future market proceeds as high equity allocation in every new issue is frequently followed by remarkably low proceeds. Likewise, hot and cold market concerns vary in quantity and issuer attributes.
Microsoft in USA
This paper exhibits a market audit and a competitive analysis that focuses on how USA markets its Microsoft products. A market audit refers to evaluation of a marketing approach in a company by incorporating its objectives, activities and the accomplished outcome.
Analyzing the innovation of Microsoft product at the US market, it incorporates various strategies that appraise its clients. The relative advantage of marketing Microsoft products in USA is that it has reduced their average prices enabling clients to benefit by accessing a wide range of products. As a result of comparative or relative advantage, it has motivated a lot of individuals to engage in this trade activity. In addition, the relative advantage of marketing Microsoft products in USA is that it pays its employees a good income especially when they program their software products. The staffs at Microsoft have excellent professional background that empowers them with skills to market their products.
In terms of compatibility, Microsoft provides self check services that enable clients to see if their products are attuned with Windows 7 or Windows RT by clicking to this icon [+]. The complexity of operating the firm’s products is evident when Microsoft innovate modern use of tools that could deliver cloud without complication. This experience unites developers and business individuals to embrace cross platform technologies that facilitate the start up speed with enterprise grade in scalability. At Microsoft, trial ability has enabled them to innovate software products that enable their clients to experiment on a limited basis. Analyzing observability at this company, all innovations at Microsoft are visible across USA. For instance, the innovation of cloud experience by Microsoft has spread across USA encouraging business individuals to venture into this new technology. In regard to preceding evaluation, the major problems that face Microsoft products during marketing occurs when it innovate products that are hard to operate. For instance, the launch of windows 8 versions is different contrasted to windows 7 in menu buttons and this makes them difficult to use. As a result, this creates resistance in that despite their product innovation, corporate customers do not rush to embrace change.
Analyzing the market of computer software in United States, Microsoft sales it’s with aid of channel partners. This form of marketing has enabled the company to tap resellers and distributors and market their surface tablets to businesses across United States. At the market, Microsoft operates directly with its customers who are based in USA by ensuring that they acquire quality services from the company. The geographical regions that Microsoft markets their products include California, New York, Arizona and New Jersey. In these regions, the forms of communication and transport that facilitates marketing of Microsoft products are telephones and websites. In addition, the company incorporates staff vehicles that enable marketers to move from one location to the other to market Microsoft products to different regions in United States.
Analyzing the consumer purchasing habits at this firm, approximately two thirds of potential clients purchase Microsoft products in shops that they view the electronics. The patterns in using Microsoft products depend on how the clients value their applications especially in providing solutions to problems. Consumers prefer Microsoft Company because it markets products that they can easily use at home or in the office. The client’s shopping habits depend on whether they get the right product at the right price.
Analyzing the market audit at Microsoft, the firm distributes their products via retail outlets across different towns in United States. To diversify the marketing process, the firm has deployed middlemen at each retail outlet who speed up the process of selling the Microsoft products. To advertise its products, Microsoft employs use of social media to reach its target markets. For instance, after the firm innovate new software products, potential clients will be aware that they are available via digital platforms where they place orders and purchase the items. At Microsoft, they adopt sales promotions by offering discounts on their products to increase visibility of the company and attract attention of their clients via price reduction. The pricing strategy at the US Microsoft Corporation depends with a customary markup that entails 100 percent of the cost. This pricing approach enables the company to avoid operating at a loss and their types of discounts include the student discount. This is beneficial to students who purchase the Microsoft 2013 with purpose of attracting attention of other potential clients.
The competitive analysis of USA in marketing Microsoft products takes place when other competitors offer similar products and services at the market. Apple firm brings competition at the market by selling similar products but of high quality. For instance, Microsoft markets its computer products such as Dell, while Apple Corporation advances in their product innovation by introducing ultra-portable laptops such as Mac Book air. However, prices at Apple Inc are high due to their high quality products that suits high class individuals in society. The price of Mac book air laptop ranges from US$999 to US$1299 while a normal laptop at Microsoft only costs US$500. Microsoft competitor that is Apple incorporates advertising and promotion techniques through blogging and also tweet their products on social platforms. At Apple, they turn ordinary products into new ones and ignore critics to advertise effectively. The promotion strategy at Apple is that it uses young and educative staff conversant with technology to convince potential clients of changes and benefits they gain through purchasing their products.
At Apple, it estimated sales determine its size at the market that makes it one of the largest corporations when it attains a $500 billion mark. For a planning year, sales of products at Apple Company will contribute to growth in revenue by 9.2 percent. The government participates at the market through agencies and ensures that the firm adheres to regulation of United States. Through the government, Microsoft retail outlets in US access licenses at fair prices that grants them permission to market their products freely. Analyzing the market, there are opportunities and major challenges that needs attention at the marketing mix. Microsoft Company needs to identify opportunities by improving ordinary products through advancing them to meet the competitive standards at the market place. If they accomplish this strategy, they will have a chance to win over their competitors such as Apple in product sales. Conversely, at the market there exist major challenges that incorporate high competition from their competitors. To solve this issue, Microsoft needs to introduce quality products that increase their income growth to beat their opponents at the market. This is because such products attract clients who purchase them at expensive prices hence boost returns of the firm.
Under the United States Bill of Rights as well as the United Nations Human Rights promulgation, torture is a prohibited method of treating prisoners as well as war and terrorist captives. Even with such promulgations and provisions in the constitution, many reports, images and testimonials have indicated that the US government still uses torture as a way of retrieving information from such captives. Most reports have specifically indicated the unworthiness of information obtained by such inhumane methods, yet numerous other reports and testimonials attest to the continued use of torture by the US in prisons, outside the nation’s borders as well as its silence on cases that have involved the use of torture by foreign governments considered its allies.
As expected, many government officials and law enforcement agencies have denied such allegations, even the president indicating that no one in custody would be subjected to any inhuman treatment under the duress of the law. There has however not been any indication of the president’s commitment to this statement given that he has been pushing the closure of Guantanamo Bay, a prison notorious for its torture allegations and holding of suspected terrorists. Given that the president had given the promise five years and has kept on postponing it, it sends the message that torture is not only covertly sanctioned by the government, but also undertaken by the same government that seems particular on denying claims of its involvement in torture. Therefore, while the government continues to deny claims of using torture for retrieval of information, numerous reports and testimonies paint a contrary picture. Consequently, if nothing is done, and fast, torture will continue to permeate the US law enforcement and justice system both at home and abroad.
Pop culture is usually the entirety of images, perspectives, memes, ideas, attitudes, and several other phenomena within a given culture (Tisdell & Thompson, 2007). The pop culture is normally influenced by the mass media. In addition, pop culture makes different ideas permeate individual’s everyday life in different societies. The culture is also viewed as trivial in a bid to look for a consensual acceptance in a certain mainstream of the culture. Nonetheless, this paper will review a magazine article ‘Emotion Regulation in Older Age’ by James J. Gross and Heather L. Urry that portrays old age in an overly negative light. In addition, the paper will show how old age is related to the concept of ageism and how this may affect our aging processes in our culture.
Gross and Urry (2010) argued that people tend to associate old age with losses in social, physical, and cognate domains. They expound by explaining how old people feel when they wake up in the morning and find themselves unable to hear, see, or even taste things the way they used to do in their youth. Amazingly, if they look around their beds, the only available things are several medication bottles with names attached on them. When they try to reach the medicine, to examine what is inside, their joints creak with pain as excruciating pain demeans them.
When the old people lastly get to their feet, they are unsteady and weak than ever before. Interestingly, as they walk, people speak to them more loudly than ever. The old people find themselves loosing various things, which are imperative in their lives. They cannot imagine having to spend the rest of their lives in such a scenario. They feel nasty and awful. Gross & Urry (2010) also show how life is devastating for the old people due to inability to manage their daily activities because of multiple or deliberating health condition. In addition, old people get trouble while monitoring their performance as they start suffering from memory declines. In fact, for many, that is normally the onset of dementia.
The article is related to the concept of old ageist because the behavior of old people is described in a manner that is ageist. For instance, when old people forget, it is not taken as something normal. In most cases, when old people forget, they are said to be senile while when young people forget, they are described to have a faulty memory. When old people complain about an incident or life, they are termed as difficult, while a young person may appear as being only critical. An old man is said to be getting old when he or she has a problem in hearing but not having a problem with hearing. Some people hold ageism towards the old people and equate them with being unhappy, sick, dying or unfulfilled. In the job market, the old may be depicted as more expensive and rigid, and less adaptable and productive as compared to the young people.
Ageism affects our aging process in our culture because vitality, youth, and beauty are highly valued. The aging process is therefore counter to the aforementioned attributes. Good health is also an attribute anticipated by many and no one wants to age. There is also fear of dying. Everyone would want to distance him or herself from the fear of dying. Thus, everyone in the culture do everything possible to maintain his or her youth.
Tisdell, E. J., & Thompson, P. M. (2007). ‘Seeing from a different angle’: the role of pop culture in teaching for diversity and critical media literacy in adult education. International Journal of Lifelong Education. doi:10.1080/02601370701711349
Urry, H. L., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotion Regulation in Older Age. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 352-357. Retrieved from;
Invisible Cities: Despina
Despina is one of the imaginary cities described by Italo Calvino in his novel titled “Invisible Cities.” It is grouped under the category of desire. The character in the story called Polo describes the city as being accessible in two ways: by camel or by sea. The person arriving in the city riding on a camel sees the city resembling a ship from a distance and tends to think to himself of all the joys that sailing might bring him. The sailor sees the city in the horizon resembling the humps of a camel that is in motion, and cannot help but think of all the goodies that camel merchants provide, things that one has no access to in the sea. Apart from describing the desires that make persons see things in a biased way, Calvino also alludes to perception
Different persons perceive things differently depending on their backgrounds and present circumstances. Despina is just a city and Polo, the narrator, explains that both the desert traveller and the sailor do recognize that. Their circumstances cause them to think differently about how the town appears. The traveller by camel perceives the town as a ship that is about to save him from the desert that he has endured for long. The sailor on the other hand is dying to leave the ‘ocean desert’ for the city that he perceives as a camel that will lead him to an oasis of fresh water and beautiful palaces, where girls will dance for him barefooted. Each seems to admire and wish to be in the situation of the other even though both of them are not satisfied or happy about their present situation. The line of thought adopted by each of the travellers regarding the city is therefore as a result of differences in perception. The city might in real life represent the different perceptions of things that people have.
Painting, dancing, literature, fashion design, exhibitions, and music are some of the branches of arts that have undergone significant evolution following technological advancements across different nations (Dessecker 2007, p. 132). In clothing design, developing exhibitions, and creating fragrances, Issey Miyake has gained much recognition and today remains an icon within the fashion industry (McAnew 2013, p. 61). This research paper concentrates on some of the developments made by Issey Miyake in the field of fashion and design and how the fashion designer is created from the first introduction of his clothing collections (Dessecker 2007, p. 134).
Miyake is recognized for his artistic work and the exemplary creation of a production process that highly embraces technology (McAnew 2013, p. 61). His experimental approaches to various methods of pleating in 1980s resulted in a flexible movement of wears. The technological approach Miyake gave to this was by developing garments from paper cocoon, and turning the garments into costumes with pleats (Koda, Metropolitan Museum of Art & Costume Institute 2001, p. 75). The resulting product had to undergo a series of stages. The initial stage involved cutting and sewing of the garments. The second stage involved sandwiching the garments between paper layers, the sandwiched garments were then passed in a heat press and consequently pleated (English 2011, 37). Following this innovation, majority of fashion designers tend to lubricate there production following the same approach that was used by Miyake (McAnew 2013, p. 63). The kinds of clothing that designers release today are highly fabricated and appealing to consumers. Following Miyake’s first creation of the sandwiched paper garment, designers have developed the urge to be unique and creative in their work with an aim of remaining at the helm of production by ensuring limited imitations (Wada 2002, p. 71). Significantly, fashion designers today recognizes the taste variance as the major factor affecting clothing industries thus the need to incorporate various aspects of technology in developing completely satisfying products.
Other than the clothing industry, the work of Miyake ended up with a release of a very powerful women perfume fragrance that is today receiving several imitations (Wada 2002, p. 73). The perfume that was first introduced in the markets in 2007 is today one of the most selling product in the global market. The contributions of Miyake through such an interrelated production process give priority for upcoming designers to search and develop products that will remain highly competitive (Willis 2010, p. 48).
From the first introduction of his fashion collections (Wada 2002, p. 78), the Japanese fashion designer has remained an icon and is today celebrated both locally and internationally for his immense contributions to the field of fashion and arts in general. As part of his production plan, the Japanese arts icon has elevated his work through release of variety of clothing products, fragrances, and other artistic products (Willis 2010, p. 48). The most outstanding recognition was the 2010 Japanese Order Culture Award, which Miyake won and other several awards from 2005. Today, Miyake works as a co-Director in the first ever Japan’s museum, which is also a research center.
In general, embracement of technological changes in production of clothing, exhibitions, and fragrances in one way has enabled the Japanese designer to move a step higher in his production (Wada 2002, p. 78). Miyake’s evolutionary approach in fashion industry is majorly remembered for release of quality women’s fashion (Wada 2002, p. 78), development of newly fabricated and well-designed garments, and the interjectory process that resulted in Steve Job’s turtlenecks. In his line of career, the fashion designer has worked in both the New York City and Paris as a designer as well as a researcher. All these are attributes that researchers in the fashion industry find important for investigation and incorporation (Willis 2010, p. 52).
Dessecker, B 2007, Ingo Maurer: Designing with Light /Gestalten mit Licht, München: Prestel.
English, B 2011, Japanese fashion designers: The work and influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo, Oxford: Berg.
Koda, H, Metropolitan Museum of Art, & Costume Institute (New York, N.Y.) 2001, Extreme beauty: The body transformed, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.
McAnew, C 2013, Fine art and high finance: Expert advice on the economics of ownership, Hoboken, N.J: Bloomberg Press.
Wada, Y 2002, Gendai no shiborizome =: Memory on cloth Shibori now, Tōkyō: Kōdansha Intānashonaru.
Willis, G 2010, The key issues concerning contemporary art: Philosophy, politics and popular culture in the context of contemporary cultural practice, Melbourne: Melbourne University Custom Book Centre.
The nursing profession is a subset of the general healthcare profession aimed at providing care within the ordering scope of physicians. For the past decade the profession has been in a general state of change as patient care evolves from hospitals to outpatient and primary care environments. Registered nurses (RN) are health care professional who work closely with physicians in the provision of care, education and support to patients as well as their family members (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Their job description and responsibilities are partly determined by their specific employers.
RNs are entrusted with an assortment of responsibilities in the course of their shifts, generally they care for and educate patients on their conditions and are required to establish trust and build good rapport with patients and their family members. The scope of practice for registered nurses is outlined in the Nursing Practice Act, Business and Professions Code Section 2725 (Board Of Registered Nursing, 2011). In this article, the roles and functions of registered nurses are categorized into three: Independent Functions; here nurse roles are restricted to direct and indirect care services that guarantee safety, comfort, personal sanitation and safeguarding of patients as well as undertaking disease prevention and recuperative measures. Conduction of skin tests, immunization methods and handling of blood samples is also outlined in this sect.
Depended functions involve administering of medications therapies whereas Interdependent functions are those that authorize nurses to alter treatments in case of abnormal characteristics. The code of ethics for registered nurses encompass the ethical values expected of nurses and their obligation to individuals with health care needs and those getting care (Canadian Nurses Association, 2008). The code is aimed at helping nurses in ethical practices and guiding them whenever challenges related to ethics arise in their interactions with patients, families, communities and public health systems.
For eligibility to a career in nursing, an individual is required to have attained the age of 18 years and have a high school diploma. To qualify as a registered nurse, one is required to have undergone at least one of the following educational programs; Diploma programs, Associate Degree in Nursing or a Bachelor’s of Science Degree in Nursing (Registered Nurse (RN), 2014). All these programs cover courses in physiology, anatomy, chemistry, microbiology, nutrition, psychology, liberal arts, and social and behavioral science, these programs can be obtained from any the following institutions; Alabama Southern Community College and Villanova University (Fulche).
The duration of studying these programs ranges from 2 to 4 years depending on the certificate taken and the institution offering the program. It takes one an average of 2 to 3 years to earn an Associate degree in Nursing from a Community college such as Alabama Southern Community College. A Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing from the University of Villanova takes 4 years to complete while an accredited Diploma in nursing takes 3 years and is usually offered from accredited hospitals. The cost of undertaking a nursing program takes an annual average cost of $2,272 for a community college and a total of $5,836 for a four-year program in a university (Fulche).
Before one can start practicing as a registered nurse, licensure is required. One is required to sit and pass the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Once one has passed the test, they are required to graduate from an accredited nursing school and posses clinical work exposure. Once this is achieved, they are issued with a license by the Board of Registered Nursing.
Currently the job availability for Registered nurses is low, according to the American society of nurses, over 40% of registered nurses who obtained licensure between Jan. 1 2009 to March 31, 2010 failed to get employed within 18 months of graduation (Biolchini, 2013). The growth trends of the profession are however encouraging, according data published by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment of registered nurses was projected to increase by 19% between 2012 and 2022 with those having Bachelor of Science degrees in nursing option expected to have the greatest opportunities (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014).
There are limited job advertisements for Registered nurses in publications such as the Sunday Herald, however as employment in the career is expected to grow significantly come 2022, it is expected that the number of job advertisements for registered nurses in daily publications will increase significantly. Experience is not required for employment of registered nurses since they graduate with a significant level of clinical exposure.
Their salaries and compensation vary depending on their levels of education, work experience, location and institutional affiliation. The starting salary for an average registered nurse is estimated at an average of $64,690 per year, experienced registered nurses who posses advanced educational level may earn over $80,000 per year (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). Majority of registered nurses begin their careers as staff nurses, with experience and advanced education, they get promotion to higher ranks such as vice president and chief of nursing. Increased managerial-level positions however require advanced education level such as a graduate degree in nursing or health services administration (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014).
There are a number of professional organizations both at state and national level that registered nurses can align to. The American Nurses association (ANA) is one such organization that operates at a national level. This organization is responsible for advancing and protecting the nursing profession. Students can join ANA at a cost of $10 (ANA, 2014). The National Student Nurses Association provides mentorship towards development of future professional as well as facilitation of their entry into the job market. Nursing students can join NSNA at an annual fee of $30 (NSNA, 2013). There exist several professional organizations for registered nurses at state levels, these include; North Alabama Nurse practitioner association, Alaska Nurse Practitioner Association, Iowa Association of Nurse practitioners and many more in each of the 50 states. The admission fee for student registered nurse is usually subsidized mostly it is below $10.
Several journals on registered nurses and nursing activities exist, a few example include; The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics which is available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1748-720X at an annual cost of $616 for an online or print copy and $710 for both copies. The Association of periOperative Registered Nurses journal is available online at http://www.aorn.org/ce/ at a cost of $370. Continuing education units is a necessary requirement for this profession. Competency in practice and lifelong learning are considered significant elements of the profession. Registered nurses are required to undertake 30 hours of CUE after every two years as a way of keeping their licenses active (Department of Consumer Affairs, 2013). Professional nurse organizations provide avenues such as conferences, webinars and continuing education programs to their members at discounted rates (ANA, 2014). Majority of the professional organizations provide their members with units approved by the national Credentialing Center’s Commission.
Reflection / Personal Career Plan
As an undergraduate student pursuing a course leading to a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing, I see myself fitting in the career path of a registered nurse. Having undertaken most of the required courses for a registered nurse practitioner there are only a few steps that I need to cover before I fit into the profession. As part of my career plan, I intent to through the full course of four years of university education from which I will obtain a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing. Once this is accomplished, I intent to apply and sit for the NCLEX-RN exam through which I will be eligible for licensure. Since the profession requires a significant amount of clinical exposure, I have intentions of enrolling in an accredited nursing school, from which I will gain the experience and graduate as a qualified registered nurse.
My career objective is to provide healthcare to my community members and contribute positively in the wellbeing of ill persons and their families. This I intent to achieve by becoming a qualified registered nurse. My career goal is to have positive contribution to the nursing fraternity and help in reshaping and improving the profession. This I intent to achieve by joining professional registered nurse organization and seek scholarship opportunities to further my education level. Advancing my education is a strategy towards qualification for higher managerial levels in the profession as well as becoming a significant stakeholder. With advanced managerial roles as well as critical decision making abilities in the profession, I will be in a position to transform the profession with positive ideas.
ANA. (2014). Continuing Professional Development. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from American Nurses Association (ANA): http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/CertificationandAccreditation/Continuing-Professional-Development
Biolchini, A. (2013, January 14). 43 percent of newly licensed registered nurses can’t find jobs. The Ann Arbor News .
BOARD OF REGISTERED NURSING. (2011). AN EXPLANATION OF THE SCOPE OF RN PRACTICE. Sacramento: State of California: Department of Consumer Affairs.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014, January 8). Occupational Outlook Handbook: Registered Nurses. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from United States Department of Labor: Bureau of Labor Statistics : http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/registered-nurses.htm
Canadian Nurses Association. (2008). Ethical Practise: The Code of Practice for Registered Nurses. Ottawa: Canadian Nurses Association.
Department of Consumer Affairs. (2013). Continuing Education for License Renewal. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from California Board of registered Nursing: http://www.rn.ca.gov/licensees/ce-renewal.shtml
Fulche, R. Community Colleges. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges.
NSNA. (2013). Membership. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from National Student Nurse Association (NSNA): http://www.nsna.org/default.aspx
Registered Nurse (RN). (2014, April 4). Retrieved April 5, 2014, from Explore Health Careers.org: http://explorehealthcareers.org/en/Career/21/Registered_Nurse_RN#Tab=Requirements
International Political Economy
Global financial recession comes with a wide range of consequences, which affect policy makers worldwide including scholars of international political economy due to cross-national and sequential variations in how national governments control their financial sectors, for example, state ownership of banks in OECD countries like Greece, Italy, and Portugal, as well as in developing nations. The current economic crisis in these nations is influenced by the relationship between financial regulators and the regulated firms where regulators vary across nations, as well as regulators differing in their ties to the government bureaucrats and chosen leaders. Regulators in some nations are sovereign from political interference, as well as the entities they regulate while others are vulnerable to devotee pressures.
Capital requirements, financial clarity, main company holdings, and supervision, as well as portfolio limitations, are some of the factors influencing international political economy crisis across nations in the context regulations. Diversity of national regulatory structures, cosmopolitan firms and dogmatic arbitrage are also significant factors as the system is prone to financial relapse within any respective country. IPE scholars have done few studies and the existing ones focus on the individual nations at the expense of cross-national approach. Booms and busts have been influenced by laxity in the banking system supervision than conservative banking restrictions. Countries like Canada employ principle based approach during regulation of the banking system, which is less stringent. Empirical analysis has not captured formal procedure in place for banking, as well as their application, that is, independence of the central bank was domestic in nature. In this regard, nations that grant independence to their central banks result in lower borrowing costs on international markets and this has an impact on booms and busts.
Global cooperation started when the crisis prompted greater inclusion of emerging market countries in global financial governance and it involved the G7and G20. G7 formed the consultation opportunity for macroeconomic strategy in addition to promoting attempts at monetary principles and systems in the early 90’s while G20 formed the point of international cooperation. During their 2008/2009 meeting, member states agreed to pursue regulatory and financial reforms in capital availability, liquidity management, and expansion of financial institutions as well as international cooperation on fiscal and monetary policy by agreeing to triple their allocation to the international monetary fund. The nations agreed to dismantle the rich country financial stability and develop a more profound financial stability board, which empowers them by increasing their reputation in the emerging markets globally.
Politics affected the post crisis adjustment as some nations like china were excluded from the bargaining table despite its high economy and had pushed its mandate in supplanting the dollar with another global alternative currency. Imposed quota led to appreciable changes in the International Monetary Fund behavior by preferring to cooperate with the G7 nations as opposed to the G20 nations due to post colonial ties, security, and cross border financial cooperation. Public pressure for inclusion of G7 provided the locus for further discussions for regulation and control but due to their size, diversity, and different political atmospheres, as well different standards of development makes agreements tricky. Defunct system by the earlier G20 nations has altered the distributional nature of negotiated outcomes while, politically speaking, this is perfectly acceptable in some G7 nations like U.S due to their ambivalence towards their worldwide regulatory efforts. The current crisis may be mitigated by inclusion of private arms in financial policy making in order to improve transparency and to standardize the accounting rules to back up the public sector coupled with proper self-regulation.
The Roman war history
From early days, the Romans considered war as an essential element in their lifetime. They prepared for war on a daily basis. In addition, annually traditions marked the closing and opening of the campaigning year. All Roman people were responsible for army support and, apart from the lowest and freedmen, most Roman people under the beginning and center Republic served in various decades’ strategies during their youngsters. The censors’ category of the individuals into property sessions and hundreds of years provided both governmental and military reasons. In addition, it showed the close links between military responsibilities and governmental privileges. It was not by accident that, when the individuals met to choose their primary magistrates, who instructed the military, they constructed outside the town on the University Martius, which was generally known as the field of Mars or the war god. Valour in hands won the biggest famous, and members of the top level were under heavy pressure to improve their loved one’s wonder by identifying themselves in battle. There were crowns and different army awards that any solder won, while a winning leader gained the superior respect of leading his coming back members of the military into the town in a victory.
In the starting hundreds of years, Roman combat was not remarkably effective. The capital was merely one of the areas of the simply of Latium, and her people battled their conflicts against Latina who live nearby and against the individuals of the nearby mountains. However, there started an interval of fast development, in which the Romans won a long sequence of army achievements. After sometimes, they managed all France southern of the Po. International conflicts followed, especially against Carthage and different Hellenistic leaders, and all prospective competitors were beaten. Competitors, like the Ancient historian Polybius, now identified the capital as the leader of the Mediterranean Sea globe. In many areas, they worked out only casual kingdom, but varieties of overseas areas were directly ruled, as provinces.
Technologically, they had proven themselves formidably convenient. Their weapons were enhanced, not by their own enhancements so much as by credit from competitors. The loose strategic framework of the area provided it the advantage over the phalanx. Simple generalship was not normally embraced, but when the Carthaginians created a leader of professional in Hannibal, the people of Roman gradually discovered his coordinate in Scipio Africanus. However, the most essential purpose for their achievements lay in the wide sources of human sources that they could get rid of due to the way in which they had structured their conquests in France. Many of the beaten areas were integrated into the Roman resident whole body, so that by the later third millennium about a third of the populations of France southern of the Po were citizens of Rome. Others were created companions, and were consistently called for services in Rome’s military. Consequently, the capital had the ability to field military in different cinemas at the same time in the beginning decades of the Second Punic.
At first, great outcomes in war seems to have assisted all stages of Roman community. The beginning Republic had been wracked by governmental issue, which financial discontents such as area starvation and debts, assisted to fuel. Numerous butts and the submission of seized area seem to have treated these demands and probably provided to the governmental balance of the third and beginning second millennium. However, by the second millennium, the advantages of war and kingdom reduced to be equitably diffused. The élite increased continuously better and the competitors between its associates regularly increased. While inadequate men who were fortunate enough to provide in profitable conflicts such as those in the Eastern could do well, majority of their people were not fortunate.
The wealthy were desperate to get some of their new prosperity in area, which they proved helpful with slaves, created at low costs available by war. Consequently, majority of peasant family members were uprooted. Land submission could have assisted to take care of this, but the France conquest competition intended that area was no more being seized in the peninsula. As an outcome, after the 170s the Roman government stopped to create area withdrawals. The French companions too became restive and the opposition of their requirement for the citizenship led many allied areas to develop rebel. This problem was settled by the expansion of the citizenship to the whole of France southern of the Po, but the war led on to a dangerous sequence of municipal conflicts, which essentially destabilized the nation. Civil war split out again in and went on occasionally until the ultimate success.
In the beginning and center Republic, prolonged support in Rome’s conflicts was aspect of the encounter of most people. The delayed Republic can already identify a pattern away from this. The old concept that no one could take a position for workplace unless he had provided for ten strategies was no more required by that time Cicero began his profession. Difference in war was still the most extremely valued way of famous, but oratory and jurisprudence now provided different methods by which an ambitious politician could create popularity. A little support in the Public War was all that Cicero saw of military, until, delayed in his profession and very much against his will, he was sent to regulate Cilicia and was amazed to discover himself subduing a hill group and making the right to a victory. The old perspective that Marius provided the capitals an experienced military can no more be managed. His enrolment of men without the residence certification in 107 was in all possibility a separated episode. The anger, which it turned on, creates it unlikely that his successors followed fit. The conventional techniques of the imposer, such as the residence certification, probably stopped to function in the disorderly circumstances of the 80’s.
In the delayed Republic military persisted to be brought up for the most aspect by conscription. However, the technique used now seems to have been the delivery of press-gangs to take part in areas. Overall, circumstances seem to have been no more than in the past millennium, and for the most aspect the men recruited came from the same social category, namely the non-urban inadequate. However, the new technique of enlistment may have intended that the pressure of support be less equally distributed. It will have been an issue of opportunity who drawn the hiring officer’s interest.
It was the military changes of Augustus, which lastly changed the old resident militia by an experienced long-service military. The exercise of increasing extra soldiers to battle a particular war and discharging them when the war was over was finished. By the end of Augustus’ rule, the efficient interval of support for legionaries had been set at 25 decades. In the problems, which introduced down the Republic military had come to anticipate grants of area on release. Nevertheless, this was troublesome and from13 BC Augustus changed money expenses, financed originally from his own sources but from AD 6 by new taxation. Probably Augustus forbade military to get married to during their phrase of support. Certain unique corps provided in the capital and France, but the large of the military was positioned in the frontier regions and from the first millennium AD, it came to be enrolled mainly from provincials.
Augustus preferred senators to be aware of the camping. However, under perticipation, younger men who aspired to the senate usually provided just for a season as an army tribune, and many furnished with that. The content to which senators were hired by the emperor involved army commands. However, following the proctorship, senators could possibly be put in control of a region, and following the consulship, he could possibly regulate one or more army regions. Majority of senators gained themselves army popularity, like Agricola and Corbulo. However, several senators organized no army sessions at all. Crumbled special conquests had assisted to set up the place of highly effective dynasts in the republic. Pompey had set the pattern with his strategies in the Eastern. Caesar copied his examples in Gaul. Crassus desired to adhere to against Parthia, but missed his lifestyle in the procedure. Caesar as a master, organized a Parthian battle, but was killed before setting out. Antony started on one, and was fortunate to extricate himself with large failures.
When Augustus founded himself in authority, men predicted him to perform excellent conflicts of conquests and he properly obliged, but it was not against the predicted opponents, Parthia, and England. He attained a diplomatic housing with Parthia and disregarded England. Nevertheless, in some places, he extended the Roman Kingdom, subjugating the Alps and north Italy, forcing ahead Roman management to the Danube, and overcoming Malaysia up to the Elbe. However, the catastrophe experienced by Varus in AD 9 made Germany to loss, and Augustus recommended his successors not to improve the kingdom beyond its current limitations. His successors in the primary followed this principle, with a few exclusions, of which the most significant were Claudius’ cure of England and Trajan’s cure of Dacia and his competitive battle against Parthia.
Army service had stopped to be a responsibility to which entire people were responsible and which majority of them experienced. Instead, army established an individual area of community, considered with an assortment of respect, incomprehension and hated by the non-army population. The army was positioned in the frontier regions, and only sometimes had major conflicts to fight. Assured by the army, the rest of the kingdom’s subjects experienced the pax Romana-the Roman serenity. The Roman kingdom lastly compensated the cost for Augustus dissolution of the web link between military support and citizenship. That web link had affirmed the Republic of a wide source of employees, which allowed it to surmount its inner downturn. The military of the new Roman kingdom showed imbalanced to the barbarian task. Since the entire kingdom’s subjects had owned and operated the Roman citizenship. Yet the Roman nation did not convert to them to create up the military lack, but instead applied barbarians to battle on its part. The citizens of Rome had always used allied soldiers, but with unusual exclusions, they had confidence that the variety of companions did not become so excellent as to endanger their protection.
Second Macedonian Conflicts started out the Roman development eastward. In the brief of one creation, the capital had obtained the control over the Hellenistic globe, a factor exclusive in record. Even at the other end of the traditional program of abilities, in the distant Crimea, and even in 179 B.C., the credibility of a partnership was programmed upon its contract with Rome’s international plan. Because of this, the causes of the eventful war against John of Macedon were strongly discussed among both Romans and the Greek. About 197 B.C. there already were oracles introducing that the increasing Kingdom of the capital would get through the old ones of Portugal and Macedon. Records of this enthusiastic debate endure nowadays on relevant web pages of ancient researchers. This continues to be entitled to a near evaluation. They may tell something about Roman imperialism and perhaps even more about Traditional and Roman historiography.
The war was announced upon Master John and the Macedonians, over whom he decided, due to the accidents he had induced and the strikes he had created on the companions of the Roman individuals. This approved edition of the activities was diffused by official propaganda, arriving even from the Roman level, and usually accredited by the Roman community. Cicero said to his viewers “without themselves having been harmed, their forefathers would have not created war upon the Aetolians, John p, Antiochus, and the Carthaginians for the security of the allies.” Nevertheless, the annalists were not pleased with such an uncomplicated consideration and seemed for some more innovative factors for Rome’s involvement.
Outlining the annalistic custom on the topic, Livy says that the Romans were irritated with John because he did not notice the serenity with the Aetolia’s and the other companions in that region. Due to his support to Hannibal an African-American at the end of the Punic War. During summer time, the Athenians turned them on. In addition, about the same time there came envoys from Pergamum and Rhodes, stressing about Philip’s aggressions. Nevertheless, this design has no more aspect in the story. Then, in the starting of 200, dispatches from Roman emissaries in Portugal introducing Philip’s armaments and a new embassy from Athens impelled the American senate to recommend to the individuals an announcement of war against John of Macedon. This consideration demands some findings. To start with, let us consider the lawful process intended by the annalist.
According to the fetial guidelines, a particular requirement of reparations and then an ultimatum introducing the objective to create war were needed before the elect in the capital and the following announcement of hostilities to the opponent. However, when the capital became engaged in wars internationally, the exclusive process was actually changed at many factors. Therefore, the rerum repetitio progressed in to return of embassies with suggestions and reverse suggestions. Accordingly, the American senate could distribute with any denuntiatio belli. I n 191 B.C. a choice of the fetial higher education identified the new concept that the amicitia might be damaged by the point that no pay attention to it had been given to Roman demonstrations. As Polybius notices some 40 decades later, from the standard program of official war making there stayed only the serious announcement of hostilities. Accordingly, the annalistic story of the origins of the war against John properly notices the indictio bellt at its date place but does not discuss any serious denuntiatio belli.
The annalist knows as diplomatic demarches before the crack with John only a demonstration registered with him in 203 and then a caution given to his envoys by the American senate in 201. This demonstration of record is, of course, a distortion of information. We know from Polybius that during summer time season of 200, the American senate resolved notices twice to the Macedonian master. However, the annalistic consideration may help to comprehend the lawful characteristics of these diplomatic emails. The typical perspective is that the first notice was the denunciation belli, while the second one, provided to John himself in Abydus. In Aug 200, was the indictio belli, following to the voting of the war in the capital. Another demonstration views Lepidus’ meeting as a denunciation belli. Nevertheless, this description increases date complications, while the present demonstration satisfies with powerful historical arguments. As a point actually, the indictio bellt was communicated to a Macedonian public in Illyria when a Roman military had surpassed the Adriatic, about mid-September 200.
An ultimatum was believed needless because John did not response the notice passed over in Athens but persisted with his aggressions; by his perform splitting serenity and relationship with the capital. Lepidus’ demonstration was an increased restoration of the notice passed on in Athens, and the war was elected in the capital about plenty of duration of the colloquy in Abydus and individuals of its result. The views between the annalist and the Polybian custom are different. According to the Traditional historian, John was perturbed in the fall of 201 on studying of the embassies’ were being sent to the American senate to grumble against him. The envoys of the Rhodians and of Attalus of Pergamum revealed that, in the capital, Philip’s pact with Antiochus III instructed against the red sea.
Another objective asking for security came to the capital from Alexandria. In the springtime of 200, the American senate sent out a delegation to Portugal and the Eastern to negotiate the southern issue. It was this objective, of which Lepidus was a participant, which introduced about the conflict between the capital and Macedon. On all these issues, Livy continues to be quiet even in his variation of relevant web pages of Polybius. He rather follows his annalistic referrals, which keeps to the official inspiration of the Roman objective as sent to thank Ptolemy for his commitment and to ask him to sustain it in the occasion of a Roman war against John p. Thus, the annalist detaches the Macedonian War from the southern problems.
Therefore, the actual factors for the Roman choice to go to war are the risk of Philip’s control in Portugal and a wish for avenging Philip’s involvement in the Punic War. The war is a precautionary one and, simultaneously, a vindication of previous errors. The capital is far away from the fetial formalism and even from the conventional of a bellum iustum, which cannot be announced nisi de repetitis rebus.
John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
 Rich, John, and Graham Shipley. 1993. War and society in the Roman world. London: Routledge.
Changing Customer Services at the Seattle Solid Waste Utility
In order to have a successful customer involvement program, there is a need to identify the pertinent issues relevant to the situation. Bryson’s approaches to strategic issue identification are relevant for use in the implementation of positive change to the customer services department in the Utility. Among the approaches he mentions, the most applicable to this case is the alignment approach.
This approach has been chosen because of its flexibility and its focus of identifying the elements that seem to be lacking across the organization (Bryson, 2011). This is applicable to this case because the issues that are stemming from customer support are due to such factors, as the lack of consideration of the staff and customers’ views in the strategy formulation process. An example is the Seattle Solid Waste Utility’s serious consideration of the incineration approach despite the widespread protest from customers. Identification of such gaps early on reduces chances of their repetition in future.
The identification of conflict is also always the first step in its resolution. This approach focuses on identifying flaws in past strategies and working towards fixing them. This is essential in guiding the process of setting improved strategic goals and ensuring their success. The applicability of this in the case is that when setting new strategic goals, past omissions will be equally considered.
alignment approach works well when employed with other alternative approaches
(Bryson, 2011). This is beneficial to the organization because it enables
constant revision to deal with emerging requirements. This strategy is also
favourable because it can guide the operational strategy for the whole
organization, and not only in the customer services department. It is therefore
the most appropriate approach to be taken by the Seattle Solid Waste Utility.
Bryson, J. M. (2011). Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement. John Wiley & Sons.