Challenges Facing the Implementation of Total Quality Management in Public Services Sector in Saudi Arabia
Challenges Facing the Implementation Total Quality Management in Public Services Sector in Saudi Arabia
In today’s business world, Total Quality Management (TQM) has become a key success factor of every organization. The concept of TQM emerged in 1980s when the world witnessed quality revolution, which was attributed to increased globalization and high competition (Conti, 2012). As a result, several organizations adopted Total Quality Management in order to remain competitive in the market. Japan was the first country to adopt TQM in early 1980s followed by United States (Alaraki, 2014). However, its success led other countries around the world to adopt TQM in 1990s. Initially, TQM was adopted by manufacturing firms as a way of ensuring quality of their output. Today, TQM is widely used in all sectors of the economy including public service organization. According to Conti, (2012), Total Quality Management is defined as an organization management approach that is centered on quality based on the participation of all its employees and other stakeholders, such as suppliers to ensure the long-term success of the organization through customer satisfaction. TQM ensures that customers are satisfied in the most efficient and cost effective way by involving employees to continuous improvement of the organization (Alaraki, 2014).
Like other countries in the world, Saudi Arabia has adopted TQM in all its sectors including private and public service sector to ensure quality products and services (Alaraki, 2014). In the private sector, TQM has been adopted successfully, and most of the organizations are reaping the benefits through increased customer satisfaction, which has led to increased profitability of the organization (Talib, Rahman, & Azam, 2011). However, the adoption of TQM in the public service sector has been slow, and most public service organizations are yet successful in implementing TQM. The public service sector has been facing various challenges in the implementation of TQM and thus the process has been slow as compared to the private service sector (Alaraki, 2014).
The study aims at establishing some of the challenges facing the implementation of Total Quality Management in public services sector in Saudi Arabia. The paper starts by establishing the problem and stating the study objective. Research questions, which are based on the objective of the study, will be highlighted to guide the researcher in conducting the study. A literature review will be conducted to give the researcher an insight on the study topic. The methodology of conducting the study will also be indicated in the paper.
Statement of the Problem
Saudi Arabia adopted TQM in early 1990s. Most of the manufacturing and construction firms have successfully adopted the concept of TQM to improve the quality of their product and services. The government of Saudi Arabia has also put a lot of efforts to implement TQM in the public service sector in order to improve the quality of public services. Some of the areas that the government is adopting TQM include public health service, education, security, social services, judicial services, and telecommunication among others. However, the research has indicated that there has been less success in the implementation of TQM in the public service sector. Various researchers show that public service organizations are faced with conflicting demands for productivity and quality that increase the chances of failure of any quality measures. There is also high resistance to change in the public service sector. Research has also shown that the bureaucratic nature of public service organization of contribute to the slow adoption of TQM. Hence, the quality of services in the public sector organizations is very low compared with the quality of service in the private service sector (Kumar, 2013).
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study will be to establish challenges facing the implementation Total Quality Management in the public services sector in Saudi Arabia. The research will also aim to:
- Determine the benefits of implementing TQM in an organization
- Determine the level of TQM adoption in Saudi Arabia
- Give recommendations on how the challenges can be avoided
The Study will answer the following study questions:
- What are thechallenges facing the implementation Total Quality Management in public services sector in Saudi Arabia
- What are the benefits of implementing TQM in an organization?
- What is the level of TQM adoption in Saudi Arabia?
- How can the government deal with challenges facing the implementation of TQM in the public service sector?
In the course of the study, the researcher has formulated a research hypothesis that he will test. The research hypothesis of this study is the implementation of TQM in public service sector in Saudi Arabia is very slow due to several challenges faced by public service organizations.
Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management is a structured organization managerial approach that aims to improve the quality of products and services by involving all members of the organization in continuous improvements. TQM seeks to ensure customer satisfaction by offering quality products and services and hence the long-term success of the organization. TQM originated from manufacturing sectors where quality was seen as key success factors of the industries and has since been adopted in other sectors including both private and public sectors.
Implementation of TQM
TQM implementation involves everything and every member of the organization from the top management to employees and from input to output. Sabella, Kashou, and Omran (2014) indicate that successful implementation of TQM must involve everyone and every department in the organization. Employee management is the crucial point in ensuring continuous improvement of quality in the organization. Therefore, management must find ways of improving performance of employees and also ensure employee satisfaction to maintain quality (Goetsch, & Davis, 2014).
As indicated, TQM is a structured managerial approach to quality and hence, there are various basic elements that are involved in the implementation of TQM. TQM involves continuous improvement, customer’s satisfaction, process involvement, focus on employees, supplier involvement, teamwork, training, and management commitment (Youssef, Youssef, & Saleh, 2014). The integration of these elements ensures that the organization achieves its goals of ensuring customer satisfaction in the most efficient and cost effective way (Talib, Rahman, & Azam, 2011).
Training involves improving employee’s knowledge and skills and keeping them updated with changes in the business world as well as organization changes. Management commitment involves designing the mission and vision of the organization and also designing strategies to achieve them (Aspinwall, & Elgharib, 2013). Communication helps to increase understanding between employees and management and hence improving their performance. Teamwork involves everyone in an organization working together to achieve a common goal. Customer satisfaction involves ensuring that products and services are able to satisfy customer’s needs. Continuous improvement involves getting customers feedback o improve the quality of product and services in order to meet their need. The organization also improves its processes to ensure quality production and also reduce costs. Supplier involvement helps to ensure that the quality of input is high in order to get quality output (Goetsch, & Davis, 2014).
Benefits of TQM
There are several benefits that can be derived from the implementation of TQM in an organization. These benefits include:
- TQM improves the quality of product and services
- It ensures better control of processes which ensures consistency of product design through to delivery
- Reduce production time and waste
- Lead to increased measurement of performance
- Increases customer satisfaction
- Increases company’s profitability
Challenges Facing Implementation of TQM in Organizations
Suleman, and Gul (2015) have outlined some of the common challenges in the implementation of TQM. Some of these challenges include:
- Inadequate knowledge and information about TQM implementation
- Resistance to change by employees
- Difficulties in measuring effectiveness of TQM
- Poor communication between the management and subordinates
- Insufficient training resources
- Difficulties in measuring customer’s satisfaction
- Poor management
Customer satisfaction refers to the degree on how products and services supplied by a company or organization meet customer’s expectation. The measure of customer’s satisfaction helps businesses to manage and improve their products and services to meet customers demand. Total Quality Management is one of the best ways of meeting customer’s satisfaction by improving quality of products and services. Customer’s satisfaction is usually measured by the number of repeat customer as well as increasing sales of product and services (Bienstock, Mentzer, & Kahn, 2015).
The study will use quantitative research methodology to determine Challenges Facing the Implementation Total Quality Management in Public Services Sector in Saudi Arabia. A survey will be conducted by gathering relevant data from managers and employee in the public service sector in Saudi Arabia. Questionnaires will be the main data collection tool during the study. The question will consist of close-added questions where the research participant will be required to select an answer from a group of available choices. The questionnaire will also include open-ended questions where participants will give their own opinion of implementation of TQM in public service sectors as well as give a recommendation on what should be done to ensure effective implementation of TQM. The collected data will be analyzed using quantitative data analysis method to give findings that will be used in drawing conclusions and giving recommendations. Ethical issues such as privacy of participant and confidentiality of information will be addressed during the research by obtained an informed consent to participate in the study (Mackey, & Gass, 2013).
Limitation of the study
In the course of the study, the research is likely to face several limitations. One of the major limitations is lack of participation. The selected participant may fail to respond to the survey as anticipated by the researcher. The other limitation of the study is time constrains. Collecting data in the public service sector is a huge task and require a lot of time. The researcher may lack enough time to collect data from all public service organizations. Inadequate finance will also be a major limitation in the study. The researcher has limited finance to fund the study hence he may fail to collect the data from anticipated areas due to financial constraints (Mackey, & Gass, 2013).
Implementation of the TQM in public service sector in Saudi Arabia has been very slow as compared to the private sector. Research has shown that there are several challenges that face the implementation of TQM in the public sector. The study aims at determining the Challenges Facing the Implementation Total Quality Management in Public Services Sector in Saudi Arabia. The study will conduct survey using questionnaires to collect data from managers and employees of the public service organizations in Saudi Arabia. The data collected will help in drawing a conclusion on the challenges facing implementation of TQM in public service sector as well as give recommendation on what should be done to ease the implementation.
Note to the Lecturer
I am very flexible when writing the dissertation and I am committed to do any correction as guided by the adviser.
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Conti, T. (2012). Building total quality: a guide for management. Springer Science & Business Media.
Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. B. (2014). Quality management for organizational excellence. pearson.
Kumar, R. (2013). Implementation of Total Quality Management in Small and Medium Enterprises: An Analysis of the Problems Based on Demographic Variables. IUP Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 10(4), 44.
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Suleman, Q., & Gul, R. (2015). Challenges to Successful Total Quality Management Implementation in Public Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Kohat District, Pakistan. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(15), 123-134.
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The Value Stream Mapping
Value stream mapping relates to a Lean-management approach that serves in analyzing the current state as well as designing a future position that is coupled by a series of occurrences that take a product or service from its initial process through the customer (Nicholas 2010, p 26). The process is mostly applied in Lean environments to enhance analyzing as well as designing flow within the system levels. Despite the process application occurring associated mostly with manufacturing procedures, it is also used in a variety of other fields. Taking such a consideration, it is therefore apparent that application of visual stream mapping is also effective on the individual level (Tabanli and Ertay 2013, p.999). Like organizations, individuals also need to develop plans that that are aimed at ensuring that a difference is created from the current situation when compared to the future situation (Hasle 2012, p 49). On the individual level, value stream mapping aims at adding value to an individual with career development, a notable value addition concept. However, it is important to note that different individuals despite possessing a variety of similarities in their value stream maps, they equally experience some differences (Keyte and Locher 2004, p.179). It is very important to note that the implementation of proposed future value stream map is subject to potential risks, and it is important for a person to prepare in offsetting such risks. Preparation to offset the risk involved is very important, and should not be ignored.
Through identifying areas as well as respective steps essential for improvement, like in the organization platform, it is also possible for an individual to apply the same process of lean manufacturing to achieve set goals and objectives. The attainment of a good VSM requires application of a variety of mapping tools that aid in identifying various processes as well as actions that posses the capability of adding value to an individual. It is however important to note that some of these value-additional processes or actions may prove costly but where the returns are significant, it is worth to incur such costs. While comparing my individual Value Stream Map (VSM) with that of my classmates, it is clear that there is a connection between my VSM and that of my colleagues. However, there are also differences. In a management class, it is apparent that one of the notable shared concepts across all students relates to landing of management roles in the near future with most students projecting a period of between ten to fifteen years to have accomplished their goals. As management students, aligning goals towards achievement of a top management post is in line with the goals of potential managers after acquiring the skills. Management skills gained during the course of education as well as the experience that will result in the period of the proposed ten to fifteen years works as the tools towards Lean-thinking approach.
Some other attributes shared relates to less painful annual budgeting cycles with expectations for an end to the challenge predicted upon completion of college education. Painful budgeting cycles serve as hindrance towards individual development. This is attributed to the fact that despite gaining opportunities for adding individual value through attending training and development programs, failure to possess adequate funds hinders the development. Once the challenge is over, it becomes easier for a person to add value through learning more about management practices. As it happens within organizations, value-addition may require organizations to incur initial costs despite the overall aim of the organization being to reduce costs of production. Failure to posses the funds required for initial implementation of a project hinders an organization implementation of Lean approach (Laureate Education 2014).
Another shared concept among individuals relates to shorter lead times with every person attributing the importance of shorter lead times to assist in achieving set goals and objectives within the set framework. The process ensures that the projected future plans and continuity is achieved in time if projected employment opportunities are achieved. Shorter lead-time serves as one goal of Lean Thinking in organizations. Through establishing shorter lead times during production, waste reduction is eliminated and thus saving on the company resources (Womack et al. 2003, p. 139). Consequently, fewer raw materials are used in production as waste products are eliminated fully or achieve significant reduction. Focusing on shorter times towards accomplishing set goals is equally mentioned by my classmates as a means to ensure that time wastage is eliminated through trying on achieving unachievable goals and unrealistic objectives. Evaluations and reflections are easily made where short lead times are set and corrections easily made where required as opposed to wastage of resources emanating from long lead times while aiming at achieving unrealistic goals and objectives.
However, I realized that there exist a number of differences from my VSM with that of some of my classmates. The first difference relates to leadership where those aiming to achieve leadership qualities as part of their VSM attribute leadership as an essential factor towards effective management. It is important to note that there is a difference between management and leadership where management involves the activities of coordinating, staffing, and directing among others (Lean Enterprise Institute 2006). Leadership on the other hand, relates to the ability to influence others. Possessing leadership qualities is considered an essential factor in good management among my peers. Those in support of leadership qualities in management rely on the role of a manager as a role model and therefore argue on the need to possess the ability to influence other members within the organization. Aligning the VSM towards achievement of leadership attributes therefore proves an essential tool in adding value to the quality of an individual aiming to succeed in a management role.
Another notable difference is achievement of set goals within an organization without straining. That simply implies to succeed in doing assigned tasks with ease. The last concept relates to quality performance with those achieving that objective terming it as an important tool towards achieving promotions and trust within an organization (Sim and Chiang 2013, p. 203). Success in practical applications was attributed as a major drive towards achievement of higher positions by my peers that classify ease in performing tasks allocated as a tool towards achieving of higher management positions. In essence, it makes sense that in the current world where competition is very crucial, success and one attained with ease is a plus towards achievement of higher positions. Organizations will only reward individuals that portray active and consistent success in their assigned roles with better roles whenever opportunities occur.
After comparing my VSM with those of my classmates, I realized two changes that I termed crucial and intend to make. In addition to the already existing future goals, I consider to incorporate leadership as a key concept. I intend to ensure leadership alignment in all my processes and roles. Ensuring leadership alignment in every action or role I undertake is as a result of realization that leadership alignment serves as a critical tool to enhance in achieving outstanding performance. Aligning towards leadership is essential in that, the psychological directive within the head of every leader is directly tied to how an organization will perform effectively. VSM is essential in helping a manger to align all the team members and departments around the purpose of the organization, strategic direction together with annual goals of the business as well as priorities for improvement. Consequently, through leadership alignment, it becomes possible to identify cracks within the organization’s operation, treatment of customers and suppliers as well as the employees. Therefore, consideration of adding leadership as an essential tool in my VSM is a result of the significant benefits attributed to the concept.
The next concept I intend to incorporate in my VSM is based around the work itself (Martin 2015). Through ensuring that I perform my roles with ease, it will not only serve as a show of my success in my field, but equally as a measure of how I ensure utilization of my skills, knowledge, as well as aptitude for learning. In essence, considering success as an additional tool in my VSM help in adding value and serve as a supportive indicator towards achieving my future goals and objectives. Effective completion of roles assigned opens room for further challenging tasks that serve in preparing my path towards attainment of a top management post. Consequently, success serves as a boost to a person’s confidence and is therefore an essential tool towards attainment of my future goals.
It is however important to note that there exists various potential risks associated with implementing my proposed VSM. Some of these risks relate to poor working conditions within organizations, lack of motivation, and technological changes (Manos 2014). It is important to note that some challenges are beyond individuals control and therefore individuals need to work at their best level possible. For example, a challenge emanating from poor working conditions is beyond individual control as presentation for improvement comes from the management and other parties deliberate on the issue. To facilitate offsetting negative impacts that may affect the process of implementing my VSM, observing various processes prove essential. First, there is a need to continuously engage in training and learning of management roles through attending training and development programs. This serves in ensuring that a person is prepared to deal with a variety of challenges within the organization. Keeping in touch with technological changes is also an essential factor to avoid remaining behind in terms of the direction of the industry and the organization (Womack et al. 2003, p.238). In handling issues related to improvement of employee morale as a result of the possibility of retrenchment, it will require a broad thinking to portray to employees that the performance and success of an individual serves as an assurance of their positions. Encouraging employees to undertake continuous learning will also help in ensuring that they remain competitive.
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Manos, A., (2014, October 20). 12 tips to improve your value stream maps – TheFabricator.com. Retrieved from http://www.thefabricator.com/article/shopmanagement/12-tips-to-improve-your-value-stream-map
Martin, K., (2015, January 27). The Karen Martin Group, Inc. » The Human Side of Value Stream Mapping. Retrieved from http://www.ksmartin.com/the-human-side-of-value-stream-mapping
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Tabanli, R. M. & Ertay, T., 2013. ‘Value stream mapping and benefit–cost analysis application for value visibility of a pilot project on RFID investment integrated to a manual production system—a case study’, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 66, pp. 987-1002.
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The Injection of CO2 in Displacement of Reservoir Oil
To improve extraction of oil, there are techniques used to enhance oil recovery in reservoirs. Gas introduction is the most commonly employed technique, whereby carbon dioxide or nitrogen is introduced into the basin to expand and push extra oil to the nearest fabrication well bore. The injected CO2 lowers the thickness oil and thus progresses its gush velocity. The other important thing is that the injected carbon dioxide swells the crude oil and lowers the interfacial tension between the oil and CO2, and oil phase in the near miscible areas.
The Problems in Inoculation of CO2 in Disarticulation of Basin-Oil
One of the main challenges in the introduction of CO2 concerns basin force required to uphold the produced miscibility. This is because pressure range from about 1150 psi for the carbon dioxide to about 4900 psi for the augmented pressure (Satter 465). In essence, the core issue related to hydro-carbonation miscible flooding concerns poor vertical and horizontal sweep effectiveness based on viscous fingering. In this regard, large volumes of carbon dioxide are expensive and required greatly, but the gas solvent may be trapped inside and prove difficult to or impossible to recover (recycle to reduce costs). It is also significant to point out that huge outlays are sustained in acquiring carbon dioxide, but the end result of augmenting oil recovery causes a problem. This implies that there is relatively marginal contribution in regards to total oil recovered in countries like Canada and the U.S. In contemporary terms, CO2 offers about 279000 containers of oil every day depicting about 4.9 percent of the overall US rudimentary oil fabrication (Rafiqul 187). Recent carbon dioxide flooding has been so expertly and financially attractive that carbon dioxide supply rather than price has been the constraining developmental aspect. In accord, CO2 flooding is carried out by introducing huge quantities of CO2 up to fifteen percent of the hydrocarbon pore amount into the reservoir. In typical terms, it takes about ten Mcf of carbon dioxide to recover a single incremental barrel of oil.
An early breakthrough of carbon dioxide leads to numerous issues that comprise corrosion in producing wells. They carbon dioxide presence also poses the issue of separating it from saleable hydrocarbon, which calls for repressing of carbon dioxide for recycling. The added major problem involves augmented obligation of CO2 in each incremental barrel produced. There is a huge problem in regard to the method that can be used to overcome carbon dioxide miscible procedure constraint and functional issues (sweep effectiveness, unfavorable injectivity profiles, augmented ratios of carbon dioxide to oil produced, as well as gravity override) (Islam 300). It is difficult to recognize and implement affordable and effective carbon dioxide thickeners that would have allowed augment in the viscosity of carbon dioxide. This is also as a result of lack of precision to allow careful regulation of the augment in viscosity of carbon dioxide. Moreover, the possible alternative to this is carbon dioxide soluble thickener composed of brine and crude oil insoluble. However, this presents a challenge since it is bound to inhibit partitioning into other fluid phases and its subsequent absorption onto the reservoir rock. It is also challenging to have an efficient blueprint of carbon dioxide foams for mobility decrease, especially for high temperature reservoirs where chemical degradation of surfactants is of great concern.
The Displacement Differences in Injection of CO2 in Displacement of Reservoir Oil
The technique of gas
injection displacement comprises miscible flooding, oil volume swelling, and viscosity
reduction. Therefore, preliminary reservoir pressure of a sub reservoir is lower
than the minimum miscible pressure. This is in regard to related gas injection
and that is augmented than minimum miscible pressure as a result of carbon dioxide
(CO2) injection. This implies that the dislocation technique of
related chatter inoculation in a sub reservoir is immiscible deluging and that
of CO2 inoculation is ‘miscible
flooding.’ CO2-water alternate ‘miscible flooding’ is the most efficient manner or technique to
enhance revitalization (Dipietro et al 48). At this point, its recovery is
augmented than water flooding, carbon dioxide CO2 miscible flooding,
and related gas-water alternative immiscible flooding. Hence, related gas water
alternative immiscible flooding can also enhance recovery since gas injection
has the impact of distension and it also depicts viscosity lessening as a result
of this process. The other thing concerns the recovery of carbon dioxide, CO2,
and this occurs when water alternate miscible flooding after flooding is
fundamentally the same with merely carbon dioxide, CO2 wateralternative
miscible flooding carbon dioxide- water alternative miscible flooding. This
occurs following related gas- water immiscible flooding that has no apparent impact
in enhancing recovery. As such, this is
centered on the reason that mobility of related gas is augmented in sufficient
levels to result in finger advance and hence form preponderance flow path. The resultant
injected carbon dioxide flows only along this flow path and it would not sweep
more residual oil.
Dipietro et al, “The Role of Naturally-Occurring CO2 Deposits in the Emergence of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery.” Retrieved from: http://co2conference.net/pdf/1.2-Slides_DiPietroCO2Sources2011-CO2FloodingConf.
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Satter, Abdus. Practical Enhanced Reservoir Engineering: Assisted with Simulation Software. Washington, DC: PennWell Books, 2008.
A trial by jury or jury trial is a legal proceeding where a jury either makes a finding of a fact or a decision, which then direct the actions of the judge. It is different from a bench trial where a panel of judges makes all decisions. It consists of five steps: the selection of the jury, the trial, the charge of the justice, discussion and then the ruling.
The choice of the jury is the first and crucial step. The jurors selected must be fair and not biased. In selecting a fair jury, first is to have a venire or a fair jury pool.It is a potential juror assembled for jury duty. They chose a jury for a criminal trial from the venire. A voir dire process takes place to select the jurors. It is a questioning process for the citizens before the selection to hear evidence as jurors. The jurors are then challenged for the cause and peremptory. A challenge is a request by an attorney to disqualify potential-biased jurors. A challenge for cause is an application to dismiss a potential juror based on a concrete and stated reason, which usually revolves around the actual or possible bias of the person. A peremptory challenge is a request to dismiss a potential juror without stating any reason. It is based on the attorney’s experience and gut feeling. Alternate jurors may be selected once a jury selection is done. They are used to replace regular jurors in cases where they are unable to perform their jury duty.
At the trial, the judge may deliver remarks concerning the case to the jury. The attorneys give their opening statements. The openings statements are the outlines of the imminent proof to be presented to the jury on trial. They are not evidence, but a prototype of what their testimony would lean on. The accused has a right to impartial judge. Offenders are entitled to a speedy trial though there is not the exact time limit. If the judge feels the trial has been delayed, he or she can throw it out. The span and motive for the deferral are examined, and a resolution is given.
At this stage, witnesses are summoned for direct and cross-examination. District attorney presents his/her case first. One side calls their witness for direct examination then the other hand cross-examines them. After the hearing and presentation of facts, the attorneys make their closing statements.
The Judge’s Charge
After the presentation of evidence and closing remarks, the judge then makes a charge. The judge instructs the jury as to what laws apply to the given case and the meaning of those laws. These instructions are read to the jury. It defines the issues the jurors must decide and informs the law governing the case.
The jury heads to the consideration room to deliberate the case and reach a decision. The jury first selects a foreperson. The respresentative ensures that dialogues are steered in a practical and organized fashion, that all subjects are discussed fully and equitably, and that every assessor is given a reasonable chance to contribute. If the jurors have an inquiry during their discussion, they may write it down and have the bailiff deliver it to the judge.
The jury returns to the courtroom and foreperson
presents the verdict to the judge and the court. The attorney may ask for the
polling of the jury.
Jury hears phone analysis evidence at kidnapping trial Kildare Nationalist [Newbridge] 21 Oct 2013. Retrieved from
Jury hears phone analysis evidence at kidnapping trial Laois Nationalist [Laois] 21 Oct 2013. Retrieved from
Jury hears phone analysis evidence at kidnapping trial Waterford News & Star [Waterford ] 21Oct 2013. Retrieved from
Tax research case
Morris, Inc., is an Indiana-based business operating as ‘Morris’. The company sells groceries and other related products in most parts of Midwest and was founded by John Morris. Having been in the company for a considerable duration, and having dedicated his time and resources in the establishment, Morris is entitled to a great share of the Company’s assets. Under the Management and stewardship of Morris, the Company grew tremendously from a profit of $60 million in 2001 to $318 million in 2013. The Company’s shareholders equity also grew outdoing its closest competitors.
Being the largest shareholder with approximately 55% shares, Morris owns all the voting rights in the company with other stakeholders being non-voting shareholders. Morris holds a senior position in the company and is paid a relatively modest salary as other administrators. However, Morris still contribute in other profit-sharing plans such as bonuses and other related incentives.
The company’s board of directors, for instance, introduced a 5% bonus program that was to be applicable to all stakeholders in the establishment. However, some members of the board suggested that Morris, given his role in the management of the company, should be given his own bonus plan. The plan was voted and passed but after sometimes most of the shareholders departed from the company leaving the board with Morris, his family members and the treasurer. The Internal Revenue Service, however, declared the 5 % bonus an extreme administrative compensation.
Any government globally will have viable and authoritative legislations that explicitly regulate the levying and collection of taxes. A taxing authority, for instance, is limited to very particular jurisdictions in a company or an establishment. Any issue that relates to the initiation of tax rates must be through the approval of the appropriate laws and decisions of board of governors. Bonuses in numerous cases are issued when the company is not in a position to pay cash dividends despite the massive profits realized. Bonuses, as a result, are relatively powerful alternatives in a company.
Rule of law
The IRS Code and Committee reports explicitly stipulate the rights to owning property with the right of administrative prowess precisely stated. The IRS takes into account of all the receivable in a company by looking at the financial records and other assets in the company. Morris, Inc. Company is vehemently subjected to IRS and committee regulations and must operate within the stipulated legislations. The committee carefully estimates the company’s financial stand and estimate the amount of tax to levy on the company.
The issue of Bonus Shares to the parity owner like Mr. Morris cannot be subjected to taxation, as it is not considered as a dividend. However, in a situation where the ideal shares are issued as Bonus Shares, they are arguably taxed as dividend. Given that, the Company with Morris as the major shareholder and who is treated to any capital gain in the company is chargeable to Tax levies according to the IRS and Committee Reports. Correspondingly, if Morris decides to relinquish his share bonuses, he will be liable to pay tax from the accrued capital gain on the bonuses sold.
Mr. Morris’ accrued bonuses under the recommendation of the Committee and the IRS is liable to taxation. Despite being a major shareholder in the company and having exclusive rights in the company, the legal authorities have the prerogative to tax Morris.
The case defined by the UK’s Court of law had been appealed by the HM Company and its customers over some schemes developed to avoid any potential levying of taxes on accrued bonus.
Berman, Daniel Marvin, and Victoria J.. Haneman. Making Tax Law. Carolina Academic Press, 2014.
Reda, James F., Stewart Reifler, and Michael L. Stevens. “Appendix D: Sample Compensation Committee Charters.” The Compensation Committee Handbook, Fourth Edition (2014): 527-545.
Salbador, Debra, et al. “ATA Tax Policy Subcommittee Report on Book-Tax Differences.” Journal of Legal Tax Research (2015).
Contributions of Dorothea Lange in the American Depression-era
The study of women and photography art has lagged behind compared to that of male photographers in the last century. However, women photographers have greatly been recognized today as most published research works have concentrated on women photographers. Prominent women photographers have been revisited in many websites and journals; heroines such as Cunningham have been widely acknowledged. This is contrary to previous assertions that most female photographers did not have much impact during the pre-1900 photographic era.
Women have been playing active roles in photographic art despite not being credited its invention. To a greater extent, women have been on the forefront in printing, publishing, and taking photographs for their spouses. Studies reveal that notable women photographers include Talbot, the wife of the inventor of the Talbotype process, who wrote of her own experiments with photography as early as May 1839 (Bill n.p). Similarly, Anna Atkins, in the early 1840s, created an outstanding series of photo grams of plant specimens. Significantly, many women photographers pursued themes that touched on real issues that affected the society. In the United States, for example, a lot of activities happened during the Depression-era. During the period, women photographers like Dorothea Lange were participated in documenting such occurrences. The paper discusses the contributions of Dorothea Lange in the Depression-era, highlighting how she revealed the plight of displaced migrant workers and promoted the figure of women in society.
American women and photography art data gleaned from public records establishes that women photographers found in the American West during the period between 1850 and 1950, approximately 10%. However, the number kept on rising as most women began taking active roles in voicing society concerns through photography. Nonetheless, women began taking multiple roles in the course of their photography career; such roles included employing print finishers, camera operators among others. Likewise, most women photographers were also involved in the art as amateur photographers. According to research findings, these women regularly participated in camera hubs and exhibited their works in different fine-art collections that were increasingly becoming common during the last century (Bill n.p). Women were attracted to photography the same way as other occupations such as medicine, nursing among others. Dabbling in fine art to capture landscapes and plights of people in society was considered a daring and remarkable achievement and venture at the time.
Catherine Weed has been acknowledged for many of her contributions in strengthening beliefs that women were critical in promoting photographic art in an area that was dominated by men. In fact, she wrote several materials and even lectured on the subject of women in photography beginning the year 1889. The most notable assertion was the elimination of special awards for ladies stating that “If the work of men and women is admitted to the same exhibition, it should be on equal terms” (Bill n.p). Studies have also revealed that years after 1890, there was an onset of a progressive era that greatly altered the role of women in the American society. It is during this period that many women were involved in jobs that were previously closed from them due to social, political, and economic factors. It is worth mentioning that greater female participation was witnessed in photography scene during this period. Photography became a phenomenon that appealed to many women; they began learning basics, especially from their family settings. It has been revealed through studies that majority of women began working with their family in some aspect in their photographic careers (Bill n.p).
Contributions of Dorothea Lange in Feminism Art
Dorothea was an accomplished American documentary photographer whose artworks have been displayed in many exhibitions and collections across the world. She was born on 1895 in Hoboken, her career span for many years until her ultimate death in San Francisco on 1965.
Specifically, Lange vehemently captured images of displaced farmers during the Great Depression in America. Her assertions created a strong foundation for documentary and photographic journalism. To acquire photography knowledge and skills, Lange studied photography at Columbia University in New York City. Using acquired knowledge from her study, Lange was able to travel around the world showcasing and selling her already composed photographs. She settled to work in a photography studio after running out of funds. It is at the studio that ideas and themes were manifested to her.
Helped in Policy Making by Government Agencies
Lange began taking images of unemployed men who wandered the streets of San Francisco. Such images earned her accolades as she was able to bring to light the desperation of men in society. These images were publicly exhibited and received recognition from the public on how part of the American population was suffering in the wake of the Great Depression. For instance, images by Lange led to the creation of a commission that created an agency, Farm Security Administration established by Agriculture Department. This agency was to respond to deplorable living conditions of men captured by Lange in images that often displayed actual names of immigrant workers. Her first major exhibition was held in 1934 establishing her reputation as a skilled documentary photographer. It is asserted that she later published her book that bundled most of her photographs (VanDemark 8). Meanwhile, in the course of her career, Lange received a Guggenheim fellowship that enabled her to record the mass evacuation of Japanese Americans to detention camps after Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor in 1942 (VanDemark 8). Lange is remembered for exposing the plight of sharecroppers, displaced farmers, and migrant workers in the 1930s, and since most of his activities were carried out for a government agency, her artworks informed many government policies.
Different artists employ different techniques and styles in order to compose art and communicate vividly to the audience. For that matter, Lange borrows a lot from the lexis of modernism where she uses dramatic scenes to compose visually disturbing images objects. Based on this technique, design elements do not overpower subject in the composition but instead vehemently direct the viewer to a fresh appreciation of the individual’s predicament. According to visual analysts, mature work composed by Lange proved that works of art and documents are not mutually exclusive and that they can combine to produce beautiful, moving, and campaign images (VanDemark 9). Moreover, Lange used innovative techniques proving that modern art should serve myriad purposes other than just conveying private feelings of an artist. In fact, popular modernist art should be integrated into services of popular journalism. “Lange’s works were not only useful in the Depression but also in the post-war years; they are characteristic of a lost age when a broad swath of the mass media was profoundly concerned with social issues” (VanDemark 5). Moreover, “she saw herself first as a journalist, and secondly, as an artist, and she worked with a burning desire to effect social change by informing the public of suffering faraway” (VanDemark 5).
Exposed Human Suffering
The White Angel Breadlin, composed in 1933 by Lange, has often been cited as prompting her breakthrough. It can be viewed at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Henry Swift Collection. This piece of work assimilated what she was working on with what was going on in the streets. Specifically, the artist uses dull black and grey colors to convey the somber mood of the situation. It is evident from the painting that objects are drawn to the lines of people waiting for compensation and food relief. An elderly man is conspicuous in the photograph; the individual is facing the opposite side and is waiting for food at the soup kitchen. The elderly man is exhibiting depression which embodies the entire surrounding and picture. Lange focused her camera on the man’s face and had to achieve and explore texture as an element in art composition. Texture as an element of design has extensively been used to produce this visually disturbing image. To achieve this, Lange has expansively managed to depict rough body surface and wrinkles manifested on the hat of the main subject. As mentioned above, Lange has employed modernist technique to create an illusion of a fence in the foreground of the scene.
In The White Angel Breadlin, Lange explores a theme of showing the plight of farm workers who remained to struggle to survive in desperate and deployable condition due to the Great Depression. Historians assert that during the 1930s, many Americans migrated from Midwest and Southwest to California (Flynn 7). The result of this migration was the creation of physical and ideological conflicts on how to deal with seasonal farm labor. According to Lange, many American immigrants faced starvation and had to line in kitchens to get soup as compensation after enduring hard labor in farms. Lange managed to communicate to the entire country and world on the effects of the depression to individual livelihood.
Enumerated Societal Problems
There were a lot of societal problems during the Depression as depicted in “Ditched, Stalled and Stranded, San Joaquin Valley, California (1936)” where the artist captures an individual whose anxious face tells it all. This photograph can be viewed at The Dorothea Lange Collection, The Oakland Museum of California. In this picture, a man seems to be beached and appear confused in his car. In addition to emphasizing to the theme of seclusion, Lange intentionally secluded a female occupant in the car. In order to achieve the intention of communication, Lange decided to catch the man unawares to persuade the audience and viewers to the true issues surrounding the image. Just like in other images, Lange uses dull colors, black and grey, to portray a gloomy mood of depression and desperation that was characteristic of the period. The texture was achieved through the depiction of rough surfaces necessitated by wrinkles on the face, clothes, and the rugged nature of the car’s interior surface. Lange tried to communicate themes of hardship and social problems using the image. Research has established that many artists tried to envisage the problems that the society faced due to the Great Depression (Flynn 4). Such problems included loss of jobs, food shortages, threats of deportation and forced repatriation.
Highlighted on Poverty
Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California (1936) is perhaps one of the most famous photographs in her collections. It can be viewed at San Francisco History Room, San Francisco Public Library. The photograph depicts an encounter with a woman trapped in extreme poverty during the Great Depression; the female subject was recognized as an Oklahoma migrant, Florence Owens Thompson. “Lange vividly remembers her interactions with the woman because at the age of 32, the woman was already living on frozen vegetables from surrounding fields and wild birds killed by her children” (MoCP n.p). Further, it has been revealed that as a matter of concern, the female subject had sold car wheels to buy food to affirm the state of poverty at the time (MoCP n.p). At the moment Lange met the woman, life was unbearable as can be seen from her face. The state of extreme poverty is reinforced by the expressive look of the woman and her children who can do nothing but just bow down their heads. Dull colors, black and grey, have been used to convey the sad mood arising from desperation and depression from lack of food and other basic amenities.
Highlighted and Spoke against Discrimination
Lange pursued other themes that bordered on discrimination. She was instrumental in depicting scenarios of racial discrimination and thus contributed in stemming the vice. Lange is among few women who were against racial discrimination and greatly campaigned against it. Discrimination and unfair treatment of blacks is depicted in “Plantation overseer and his field hands, near Clarksdale, Mississippi (1936)” artwork where a supposedly white man is courageously and proudly showing off his property, this is based on his face and how he is resting his foot on the car.
Also, the man is also showing off for Black men who can be seen in the background. Lange uses comical relief to communicate discrimination theme to her audience as depicted by how she conveniently positions objects in the composition to fit her racial and social observation. In fact, Lange expediently contrasts the main objects of the composition and alludes to the assertion that they are from two different worlds. At the time of Great Depression, many African immigrants were employed to work on farms owned by whites. There were rampant cases of racial discrimination exhibited through poor payment of wages, harassment among other social ills. Through art, Lange was able to manifest the suffering of citizens arising from racial discrimination.
Discrimination and unfair treatment of people can also be said about the Members of the Mochida family (1942) photograph where members of a particular family are seen awaiting an evacuation bus. Comically, the individuals captured in the photograph are seen with identification tags to keep the family intact during the process of evacuation. At the time when America was considerably affected by the pangs of Depression, Mochida family was already a recognized household name in Eden town; this was partly because of the agricultural prowess of growing sweet peas. Despite their agricultural prowess, members of Mochida’s ancestry were to be interned as they were treated as lesser beings. The tags on the family and luggage echoed assertions of unfair treatment of people as they are viewed as less human. Despite the state authorizing use of this artwork, it was consequently seized for uncertainties that it would trigger global queries on how internees were treated in American soil.
Championed Rising Status of Women in Society through Art
As a woman, Lange championed on how relationships could be strained when women changed their roles in society. This is well depicted by Argument in a Trailer Camp (1944) image that shows an argument between couples. The composition is Tempura on canvas and can be viewed at the Museum of Contemporary Photography, Columbia College in Chicago. It is affirmed that psychological depth and intensity substantively characterized some of Lange’s photographs. Lange depicts strained relationships in marriages at the time of Depression using this image, this was majorly anchored on the notion that women were readily assuming roles played by men in society, and were even engaging in hard labor as workforce. From the photograph it can be witnessed that the man is a sleuth of the woman, this is because the woman is captured on the lighted foreground in respect to the man. Consequently, Lange was highlighting the power of women at the period of war relegating men below the social order. Moreover, Lange was reinforcing the fact that women could do things previously reserved for men thus making women appear more powerful.
Women have been key pillars in promoting photography art. The foundation stone had been laid by prominent women photographers like Cunningham and Lange among others. Women photographers brought to light the suffering endured by American citizens during the Depression era. Likewise, they played crucial roles in uplifting the status of women in society. This is supported by the assertion that women began picking up roles initially reserved for men. Dorothea Lange was among influential photographers because her photographs humanized negative effects of the Great Depression and highlighted the emerging role of women in American society.
Flynn, Kyle. Photographing the Great Depression: Recovering the Historical Record. Inquiry
Journal. 2009. Accessed from http://scholars.unh.edu/inquiry_2009/5
VanDemark, Laura H. Dorothea Lange: Capturing the Reality of the Great Depression and New
Deal Era. Undergraduate Research Conference. 2017). Accessed from http://commons.lib.jmu.edu/madrush/2017/greatdepression/1
Bill Jay. Women in Photography: 1840 – 1900. The British Journal of Photography, 20 March
MoCP. Dorothea Lange: Migrant Mother and the documentary tradition. Museum of
Contemporary Photography. Web. Accessed September 22, 2017.
Figure 1: The White Angel Breadline (1933)
Figure 2: In Ditched, Stalled and Stranded, San Joaquin Valley, California (1936),
Figure 3: Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California (1936)
Figure 4: Plantation overseer and his field hands, near Clarksdale, Mississippi (1936)
Figure 5: Members of the Mochida family (1942)
Figure 6: Argument in a Trailer Camp (1944)
Family and Consumer Science
From the primordial times, the term ‘Family’ has been viewed as a social institution established by the act of marriage. The term ‘Family’ was conceptualized is inclusive of individuals related to the wedding, decent adoption and affiliated kin (Strong & Cohen, 2013).The concept of a Family is usually set upon legal terms where both spouses in matrimony sign a contract that defines their specific obligations, responsibilities, and rights. Family as a social institution has undergone a series of change with regards to its structure. This is due to the continuous evolution of the society’s values and beliefs. Consequently, the term ‘post-modern family’ has come into use as families exhibit multiplicity as portrayed by new or altered forms of families.
the heydays, marriage was perceived to be a unique entity that symbolized a
covenant made between man and woman. Indeed, marriage was regarded as a
significant transition of life that would be marked with celebrations and
merrymaking. Additionally, marriage entailed an elaborate ceremony, witnessed
and legitimated by others after which a set of expectations, obligations, rights,
and privileges were bestowed on the newlyweds (Wardle, 2016). However, over the
past Century, the definition of marriage has substantially changed as a result
of the social and economic alterations.
Tremendous decline in marriage over the past half a Century ranks among
the most profound demographic transformations in the American demographic
history (Strong & Cohen, 2013). Amid the massive transformation and
variation of culture and beliefs, the term ‘marriage’ continues to change with
regards to whom to marry and the number of spouses that one ought to get
married. Admittedly, nowadays most young people postponed marriage as they
willingly accept cohabitation as an alternative form of union.
Unlike the ancient days where marriage was strictly between man and woman, different societies have allowed same-gender marriage. Admittedly, gay marriage was prohibited and considered as a taboo in most cultures. However, this analogy is slowly changing as witnessed by the unprecedented increasing rate of same-gender marriage, by 80% between the years 2000 and 2010, in different parts of the world. Concurrently, divorce among married couples has flawed the ancient belief of marriage being a long-term covenant between spouses. The rate at which couples are filing for a divorce is alarming and worrying. Most of these divorce cases have stemmed out from social, emotional or financial disagreements. As a result of this, broken families have taken the order of the day thereby resulting to the skyrocketing number of single distressed mothers.
Family as a social institution has evolved as a consequence of the change in its structure and functions. Furthermore, our ideologies of what makes up a family continue to change overtime. A vast majority of people are more accepting of failed marriages, divorce, single mother/fatherhood and cohabitation (Strong & Cohen, 2013). In comparison to the older days where a family was all about self-sacrifice, the current family only exists where both spouses feel that their rights are well adhered to. According to a demographic research (Wardle, 2016); approximately 86% of people who were unhappily married in the late 1980’s stayed in the marriage and were happier when interviewed five years later. When questioned, 60% of the once unhappily married couple rated their marriage as either being ‘satisfactory’ or ‘less satisfying’ (Wardle, 2016). This is clear evidence that most of the ancient marriages were set upon the ground cultural rules of sustaining a family. Moreover, families were maintained, and the children lived in a household that had both parents. However, the current turmoil in immorality cases such as infidelities, physical and emotional abuse has threatened the mere existence of a family as a social unit (Hareven, 2013). The current trend of toxic marriage has led to couples forsaking their marital commitment to one another as they pursue their freedom in courtrooms. Eventually, hapless children are left to silently suffer as they end up lacking the full support and love from either of the parents who won’t have custody over them. Furthermore, most family households have foregone the idea to having children, which has further weakened the institution of marriage that is currently viewed as an institution with excessive individualism and self-indulgence. The family decline is also attributed to factors such as same-sex marriages, a death of a spouse, cohabitation, and postponement of the wedding (VanOrman & Scommegna, 2016). ). The unprecedented increase in family decline is a clear indication of a “truce in the war over family”
Social conditions that impact families
Amid the fast-paced rate of technological advancements, the creation of a family is a piece of cake. In the ancient days, marriage was the only entity that served as a foundation for a growing family. However, due to the current cultural evolution and variation, a person can decide to start his/her family tree by utilizing today’s biotechnology techniques (Hareven, 2013). Most people are currently opting to go through an assisted reproduction technology processes to have children of their own.
According to research, millions and millions of people worldwide are undergoing procedures such as donor insemination, in-vitro fertilization, gestational surrogacy and embryo transfers all in an attempt to have a family (Hareven, 2013). As an alternative form of having children, most people are forsaking the idea of getting married. Therefore, assisted reproduction technologies have resulted in many single-parent families thereby denying the children the rights to having a complete traditional family set-up. Economic factors such as economic recession and financial crisis serve as a significant determinant of household creation (Strong & Cohen, 2013). This is because most couples have decided to postpone marriages, or having children due to the harsh economic times (Hareven, 2013). Additionally, most people are prioritizing education as opposed to going into marriage. Unlike before where men and women did not mind about their education status, most men and women are currently opting to spend more years in school with the aim of pursing an honorable certificate and afterward, a prestigious career. This has ultimately led to an increase in 27-70-year-old unmarried, single women and men (VanOrman & Scommegna). The current digital era has also contributed to high rate of broken marriages as a result of the internet being a source of family conflicts, defined cyber-bullying, cyber-infidelity and online addictions among others.
is ultimately clear that marriage and family
ideologies have historically evolved in our society. In comparison to the past
where marriage was a holy union between couples, this entity has been marred
with cohabitation, divorce, and single-parenthood. An ideology such as same-sex
marriages has resulted in a new definition of marriage with regards of who to
marry. Nevertheless, race and ethnic diversity are continually leading to more
interracial and interethnic marriages. In essence, marriage and family
ideologies are bound to evolve with time as a result of an endless change of
culture and beliefs.
Hareven, T. K. (Ed.). (2013). Transitions: The family and the life course in historical perspective.
Strong, B., & Cohen, T. F. (2013). The marriage and family experience: Intimate relationships in a changing society. Cengage
VanOrman, A. G., & Scommegna, P. (2016). Understanding the Dynamics of Family Change in the United States. Population Reference Bureau.
Wardle, L. D. (2016). Marriage Is the Best Measure of Society’s Commitment to Child Well-Being.
Global Economy and Trade
Globalization is an important factor that drives the economic activities in the world today. Globalization has enabled goods and services to easily move from one part of the world to the next through an increasingly complex system. In most cases, the interaction involves various people, companies, as well as governments through activities like trade, investments, and the exchange of technology. Large corporations currently find it easier to set their operations in various countries as dictated by the various economic factors than before (Aggarwal and Evenett 552). It is important to note that adopting the global economy and trade poses numerous impacts to the local persons and business.
The global economy is a complex system that connects people and the various parts of the world through the movement of goods, services, and information technology. Therefore, it eases the movement of goods and services to the various parts of the world, which has increased in the past decades. Consequently, various countries have registered an increase in exports and imports that have boosted their economic balance and trade. At present, multinationals and individual medium companies can easily set their operations in different parts of the world with limited trade barriers (Sturgeon and Gary 3-7). Undoubtedly, the interconnection to form the global economy has led to positive trade results. Globalization started thousands of years ago and evolved to its current state of global economy. During the Middle Ages, Silk Road was used in connecting China, Europe, and Central Asia. However, the increase in trade across borders started in the early 1950s and by 2000s, the amount of foreign investment had significantly increased. After the Second World War, many governments expanded foreign investments and trade by adopting free-market policies that encouraged trade between countries.
According to Aaronson, the expansion of the global economy is a result of various factors (6). For instance, innovations in information technology have made it possible for accessing of information on the best practices for trade. Development in the transport industry is another factor that has contributed to the expansion of the global economy. It has led to a decreased cost of transporting goods and services to the various market destinations. Additionally, the formation of regional blocs has worked towards creating centers of operations with specific laws and regulations. Some regional blocs like the European Union (EU) and the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) have played major roles in encouraging export and import activities as regulated by trade laws (Utting-chamorro 590-591).
The global economy depends on available policies and related legislations in place. Before the current trend of globalization, countries had legislations that did not allow free trade with other countries. Today, countries around the world put in place policies that allow for the domestic and international movement and consumption of goods and services. Free-market economic systems have made it possible for the governments encourage their growth potential, as well as attract international organizations to operate in their economies (Utting-chamorro 590-591). In most cases, countries with favorable trade policies attract multinationals who establish operational bases to the benefit of the host countries. Governments also negotiate to allow exports and imports into their countries, providing more opportunities for business. With such arrangements, goods can easily be moved from one country to another to increase consumption.
Technological advancement has been the most important factor in driving globalization. In the global economy, technology provides a tool that producers, investors, and marketers use to identify markets for operation. The market analysis provides information that investors use to map out economical situations for different regional markets (Mohan 6). Proponents of globalization hold the opinion that a global economy is the only solution of making the world a better place because of the employment opportunities and eradication of poverty that it offers, especially in the developing countries. Additionally, the global economy is an indication of the free trade between different countries, which leads to the economic growth. This means that a country benefits from opportunities provided by the trading partner. New jobs are created from the new companies that establish their operations in the new markets (Bowman 12).
A free-market economy encourages competition amongst the companies in the market, leading to the reduction of consumer prices. Competition is an element of the global economy that helps in lowering of prices goods and services. In most cases, this strategy works as customers enjoy lowered prices. However, opponents of global economy note that most countries end up manipulating their currencies to enjoy the differences in price. Another advantage of globalization comes from the fact that poor countries benefit from the foreign technologies and capital brought by the multinationals. In such circumstances, the poor country has an excellent chance for economic growth, as well as gaining democratic virtues. Most of the countries with policies that allow free trade also gain from the expansion of the democracy.
Consumers easily access goods and services from other parts of the world because of the global economy. Such a system is an advantage to local consumers and businesses that enjoy goods with minimal effort, adding value to money and consumption. In addition, the expansion of world economy has led to the emergence of a new global power system whereby politics ensure that decisions are made with respect to their economic significance. With time, all political decisions are made for the benefit of the global population. Moreover, globalization has encouraged the movement of people and information to and from different parts of the world. Cultural interaction has made it possible for coexistence with people who were considered as aliens; people are becoming more tolerant of others because of the shared business and cultural practices (Utting-chamorro 590-591).
At present, people travel faster through the development of better transport networks across different countries. Also, the internet has made it easy passing information from one part of the globe to another. These, among other gains, result from the quest to achieve a global economy in which people and information can travel faster. Developing countries have continued to benefit from sharing of technology with developed countries, spurring growth. When new multinationals establish their operations in developing markets, they train and employ local workers to help fight poverty and improve their standard of life. Globalization expands from the various trade agreements by various blocs. Therefore, those countries that are interested in the global market must agree to sign the agreements. Consequently, many countries have adopted free-market policies to attract investments and enable economic growth.
The major argument against the global economy comes from the fact that some countries are poor while others are rich which makes it hard for all countries to benefit equally. Additionally, with a global market, investors and business owners enjoy all the benefit at the expense of the workers. In most cases, large companies establish their operations in the developing or emerging economies to enjoy benefits such as cheap labor and raw materials. Such companies take advantage of the poor labor laws in these countries to reduce their production cost through, for instance, offering poor pay to the workers. The developed countries also face a challenge when multinationals relocate their manufacturing plants to the low-income countries to take advantage of the low wages. For instance, the U.S. has lost millions of jobs to China as most companies base their operations in the latter country today. Furthermore, most of the workers in the developed countries face pay-cut as the business owners threaten with relocation to other countries if they do not conform to their demands. This means that the global economy would make the middle-class threatened and insecure. Multinationals pose various problems to the individual countries regarding their immense influence. These large organizations may have the ability to manipulate and avoid paying taxes, to the disadvantage of the local economies (Jaffee 101). Additionally, some of these multinationals have also been accused of funding operations that affect the environment and ecology. These are a part of the worker exploitation and poor working conditions in the foreign countries of operation. The growing fear of globalization comes from the increasing influence when it comes to the local political decisions. For this reason, opponents argue that globalization will soon lead to the large corporations ruling the world.
From the arguments above, it is clear that the global economy plays an important role in ensuring economic growth in the world. The benefits are immense, making it an important concept of creating wealth and eradicating poverty. However, arguments against are also valid, which suggests that the adoption of certain measures to safeguard against exploitation and negative influence is necessary. Globalization is an important economic concept that exists for the benefit of everyone. Moreover, to counter the negative indicators, there is a need for a firm’s leadership to confront trading partners who manipulate their currencies. Imports from these countries should have some special tax to discourage unfair practices. Similarly, Trade Agreements are good; however, they do not favor other markets as they work to make developed countries jobless while rewarding others. Countries should also work to enforce trade rules to have a fair group of operation. For instance, the U.S. accuses China of manipulating their currency, subsidizing those companies owned by the state, selling counterfeit products and imposing trade barriers without notice (Jaffee 100). When these factors are enforced, global trade remains to be a game-changer with regard to the economic growth.
Global Fair Trade
Trade is the major driver towards globalization. From the historical times, merchants traveled from China and Europe to Southeast Asia to obtain agricultural products. Over time, migration started with the establishment of the trade routes that made it possible for more merchants to move safely. Therefore, trade is an important part of economic activities as it spurs growth. For instance, there would be no global economy without the trading activities of the products within the market. Trading involves the exchange of goods and services within the economy, with all players benefiting from the process. Trade is the only method that ensures the movement of goods and services to different parts of the world in order to satisfy a certain demand. The current trend in the global economy entails the establishment of the free-trade concept that allows the market forces to control the process. The free-market economy has worked to the disadvantage of the local producers by reducing their ability to achieve economic growth.
According to Buthe, the free-market global economy has failed in the protection of the local exporters (9-11). The social and economic activities in the current system lead to the exploitation of some people while enriching others within the trading chain. Consequently, most of the people at the bottom of the production chain do not have product value. As a result, people in the underdeveloped and developing countries face numerous challenges such as poor housing, lack of electricity, poor healthcare, among other challenges. Globalization leads to the loss of land and inability to keep pace with the growing national debts.
With the continued problem in developing countries, competition has increased in an attempt to attract more foreign investors into the local economies. Consequently, some of these countries lower their minimum wages to appeal to the foreign investors. The locals who remain landless and jobless have no option but to work in such companies without proper remuneration. Most of such products are exported to other parts of the world for trade. It, therefore, follows that while trade is essential, it does not guarantee fairness in terms of the input in the process. Thus, there is a need for fair trade to ensure that all parties benefit in the exchange of goods and services. Currently, the corporate control and global policies in place do not guarantee wages and remuneration that can help the workers meet their basic needs or achieve economic growth. The inequality has existed for a long time to the disadvantage of the workers. Fair trade is possible if certain factors are put in place to bring onboard all the relevant stakeholders. Sustainability is an important factor that makes fair trade necessary. Trade should ensure that the producer earns the right amount for the product to sustain the social and economic activities in place (Tojo 13).
Fair trade is achievable because it seeks to pay farmers and producers extra in order to cater for other social and economic development within the society. Most of the traders who deserve fair trade are small farmers who may not have much money to diversify their operations. Therefore, diversification of the resources could help the farmers improve their income due to price fluctuations. Making trading fair demands that laws and policies are put in place to safeguard the rights of the farmers and small traders who export their products. When laws are in place, such traders have a voice and right to demand fair prices that enable them to make social and economic progress. Small-scale producers and workers need to have a say on matters that affect their welfare. Therefore, they can only achieve fair trade when they are empowered to negotiate, control, and hold accountable some of the institutions with the mandate of representation. As a result, one of the strategies that can be implemented towards achieving fair trade lies in the formation of independent organizations for the small-scale producers with a common goal. Such organizations would help when it comes to the negotiations with employers or starting other investment projects (Aggarwal and Evenett 550).
As noted above, sustainability is an important factor that determines the fairness in trade. Such sustainability should be measured in the livelihood of people. Therefore, fairness relies on the ability of the economic activities in place to withstand economic shocks(Bowman 2). For instance, many of the small-scale producers face numerous challenges concerning the economic fluctuations. Additionally, people should be able to register improving income, better lifestyle, and a healthier environment without depleting economic resources. Small-scale farmers and producers can achieve the above in a trading system that encourages fairness. A fairtrade approach should include creating elaborate supply chain models, customer awareness, and strengthening civil societies. Achieving fair trade requires that small producers come together in organizations that are independent with the ability to provide various forms of support to the farmers. Support should include credit, training, and negotiating power with the buyers. Besides, workers should join strong trade unions in order to have a voice when it comes to negotiating issues that affect their welfare. Workers and other small traders should be aware of the chain of command that exists in the local as well as international levels. Such organizations help the participants have a say in the making of various trade policies and legislations.
Having a clear business chain helps the traders or small farmers achieve prosperity through confidence. Such confidence ensures that all members are respected while the value of the goods and services is achieved (Bowman 12). Adequate investment can only take place where there is confidence. Consumer behaviors also determine the survival of the local workers or producers. The locals within a country must be aware of some of the unfair trade practices in place to influence their choices. Such a move can help the consumers make decisions towards consuming the local products. Such a move can help spur growth, especially in developing countries. Lastly, civil society action still plays an important role in helping push for the fair trade practices at the local, regional, and international levels. Such actions groups excel at mobilizing members at the grassroots to participate in advocating for the favorable trade policies.
It is apparent that trade is an essential activity that influences economic growth. Globalization has been realized in the quest for trade between different countries. The global economy is important because it avails goods and services to the locals. It has also led to the integration and ease of tension between countries. Most importantly, economic growth in developing countries has been possible due to globalization. Nevertheless, there is a need to ensure proper leadership and strict adherence to trade laws and policies to avoid unfair trade policies that affect the local producers or workers. Globalization remains an important part of the world economy. Since various challenges face the present situation, governments should ensure due diligence concerning the formulation and implementation of necessary laws. Though multinationals are blamed for improper trade practices, this paper finds that the measures taken by the local producers and workers remain important in advocating for proper trade practices. Fairness in world economic activities depends on various laws that make it difficult to manipulate people. Globalization remains a viable option in easily accessing various resources across the world. Besides, countries have also realized significant strides towards economic growth and self-sufficiency.
Aaronson, Susan. How China’s Employment Problems Became Trade Problems. Global
Economy Journal Manuscript, 1635.
Vinod, Aggarwal K., and Evenett, Simon. A Fragmenting Global Economy: A Weakened WTO,
Mega FTAs, and Murky Protectionism, Swiss Political Science Review, 19, 2013, 550-
Bowman, Sam. “Markets, poverty, and Fair Trade.” Adam Smith Institute, 11 March 2011.
Buthe, Tim. The politics of market competition: trade and antitrust in a global economy, Oxford
Handbook of the Politics of International Trade, 2014.
Jaffee, Daniel. “Weak Coffee: Certification and Co-Optation in the Fair Trade Movement.”
Social Problems. 59 (1), 2012, 94–116.
Mohan, Sushil. Fair Trade Without the Froth. Institute of Economic Affairs. Monographs,
Hobart Paper No. 170, 2010.
Sturgeon, Timothy and Gary Gereffi. Measuring success in the global economy: international
trade, industrial upgrading, and business function outsourcing in global value chains. Transnational Corporations, Vol. 18, No. 2 (August 2009).
Tojo, Yoshizumi. Trade and competition policy in a global economy: convergence or
Utting-chamorro, Karla. “Does fair trade make a difference? The case of small coffee producers
in Nicaragua,” Development
in Practice. 15, 2012, pp. 584–599.
Aggarwal K. Vinod and Simon Evenett, A Fragmenting Global Economy: A Weakened WTO, Mega FTAs, and Murky Protectionism (Swiss Political Science Review, 19, 2013), pp. 551.
Karla Utting-chamorro. “Does fair trade make a difference? The case of small coffee producers in Nicaragua,” Development in Practice. 15, 2012, pp. 584.
Sushil Mohan, Fair Trade Without the Froth. Institute of Economic Affairs. Monographs (Hobart Paper No. 170, 2010), pp. 12-13.
Montefiore Health System Improvement
The Montefiore Health System is an organization consisting of eleven hospitals. The hospitals provide primary and specialty care in a network of over 180 locations. These locations include Children’s Hospital, Montefiore Hospital, Nyack Hospital, White Plains Hospital and St. Luke’s Cornwall Hospital.
Status of the Patients at Montefiore
According to the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (2016), the report highlights that there are several issues with the patient welfare concerning how they are handled at the different hospitals belonging to the organization. The report indicated that there were issues with the accuracy of the identification of the patients (Baillie & Maxwell, 2017). It is dangerous for such a scenario if there was a wrong identification of patients or illegal release of information; it might be detrimental to the patient and the organization.
The report further indicates that there is no security to medication in the hospital. There are existing standard procedures which indicate the guidelines for use in the healthcare. Any mishandling of medicine might also be catastrophic, not just to individuals, but also to the hospital at large. The Montefiore Health System has tried to ensure that there is sufficient safety of the drugs and medication. However, there are still aspects that need improvements like the need for a strong security procedure to protect unwanted access to drugs and medication. Also, there are still risks and vulnerabilities associated with care infections.
There is consistent communication in the system. However, it is up to the organization to ensure that the communication among the caregivers is efficient enough to guarantee that no information can go unnoticed. There is sufficient harm that the patients might have reported that is as a result of the clinical alarm systems. It must be directly associated with the patients who have problems with their ear systems and other patients who are not suffering from any ear-related issue.
Additionally, the report indicated that there are occurrences whereby there were risks associated with the patient population. These vulnerabilities could emanate from airborne diseases and ailments. Appropriate measures to ensure the safety of the patients against other patients who might pose a health risk because of overcrowding in the facility were absent. According to Joshi, Ransom, Nash, & Ransom (2014), a universal protocol is necessary for information transmission from one party to another either horizontally or vertically and in this case, from the report, it was absent.
Goals for Recommendation and Improvements
The current situation in Montefiore Health System necessitates the need for recommendations and improvements to establish mechanisms for solutions. Where the patients did not have an appropriate identification given by the healthcare organization, the use of Two Patient Identifiers helps to solve the situation. The identification is made in two-tier, which authenticates the patient without the loss of information or risk of impersonation in the healthcare (Bisognano & Kenney, 2012). Similarly, on the safety of using medications, it is recommended that the reconciliation of medical information is mandatory. There has been growing and increasing use of technology in healthcare systems. The inconsistency of the medical records is always associated with the use of other means of storage of information. The use of technology in the healthcare systems solves the issues related to information accuracy and medication safety.
Consequently, with the use of technology that integrates an evidence based practise with clinical expertise, patient preferences and values and best research evidence, the hospital management will alleviate issues including unreconciled medical records and patient-caregiver communication.
The quality of the healthcare provider is very critical for the patients. In cases where there is risk associated with care infections or patient harm, there is the need for protection and quality improvement of delivery. The hospital management should also meet the demands of hygiene guidelines to ensure that there is adequate hygiene in the healthcare. Water is very critical to any single healthcare system. It has to be used appropriately for the cleanliness of patients and caregivers. Additionally, in regards to improvement of the quality care, the Montefiore Health System can come up with an implementation plan and Fall Reduction Program that would reduce the occurrence of harm from falls.
The healthcare system, through the use of associated technology and innovative ways, can improve communication among the caregiver. Simple mistakes and issues in healthcare system were caused by poor communication within the organization. Poor communication could range from patients to caregivers, among the caregivers or between the caregivers and other health providers (Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2011). There is a need for the management of these organizations to encourage communication and help the patients communicate through evidence-based practice. Also, the management should encourage dialogue among the caregivers to ensure efficient flow of information. It will improve the safety because it reduces the possible occurrence of mistakes.
Therefore, service quality improvement, efficient communication and integration of technology into clinical processes with the use of evidence-based practise will definitely improve the performance of Montefiore Hospital System.
Timelines for the improvements in the healthcare system
Bisognano, M. A., & Kenney, C. (2012). Pursuing the triple aim: Seven innovators show the way to better care, better health, and lower costs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
In Baillie, L., & In Maxwell, E. (2017). Improving healthcare: A handbook for practitioners. New York, NY: Routledge.
Joshi, M., Ransom, E. R., Nash, D. B., & In Ransom, S. B. (2014). The healthcare quality book: Vision, strategy, and tools.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. (2016). Comprehensive accreditation manual: CAMH for hospitals: the official handbook. Oakbrook Terrace, Ill: Joint Commission Accreditation.
Case Brief: United States v. Abel
The case encompasses Abel and two cohorts who were accused of taking part in a bank robbery. However, Abel’s co-accused pleaded guilty while he went on trial. Ehle, one of the cohorts, testified against Abel but Abel countered his testimony with a witness, Mills, who had spent time with both Abel and Ehle in prison. Mills testified that Ehle had confided to him that he wanted to implicate Abel falsely to earn favor from the government. The prosecutor attempted to discredited Mills testimony by pointing out, through Ehle’s testimony that Mills, Ehle, and Abels belonged to a secret gang when they were in prison, called “Aryan Brotherhood,” and that the group required its members to deny its existence. Additionally, the gang was said to perpetrate crimes such as theft, perjury, and murder on behalf of its members. On the ohther hand, the defense counsel objects to this type of rebuttal testimony and points out that it is merely prejudicial to respondent (Buckles, 2017).
The court needed to decide whether Ehle’s rebuttal testimony’s probative value outweighed its prejudicial effect to be used to show that Abel was guilty.
The district court ruled that Ehle’s rebuttal testimony carried a probative value that outweighed its prejudicial effect leading to the conviction of Abel.
The court took into consideration Mill’s and the respondent’s membership in the “Aryan Brotherhood” prison gang and its stipulations of denial. It court concluded that Mill’s testimony might have been compromised because of his allegiance to the group. Hence it couldn’t be admitted into evidence (Buckles, 2017). The court, citing Alford v. the United States, 282 U.S. 687 (1931) showed that it had a right to effectively cross-examine a witness to find out if there was any possibility of bias. The implication of Mills’ testimony being termed as biased was that it could not be used to prove that Abel wasn’t guilty of the crime that he was accused to have committed with his cohorts. At the end of the trial, Abel was convicted (Buckles, 2017).
Thomas Buckles (2017). Laws of evidence. Cengage Learning
The Indian Great Awakening: Religion and the Shaping of Native Cultures in early America is perhaps one of the greatest historical and religious book ever written. The events of the time are organized in a chronological manner making it easy for the reader to follow them. It then informs the reader of historical, cultural, and religious colonization and an awakening of the Indian community living in the pre-historic America (Fisher 24). The Euro American missionaries invaded the culture of the native Indians with Christianity, which they eventually adopted despite initially retaliating. This review looks at the historical and social contexts described in the text. It also analyses the writing of the book and how the author captures the attention of the readers to make them understand the various concepts explained in the book. The text also raises various questions about religion and other thoughts which will be described in the review. The review further shows its connection with the course and other religious phenomena described in class.
Fisher Linford wrote and published The Indian Great Awakening: Religion and the Shaping of Native Cultures in Early America in 2012. His story is based on the events of the 17th Century lasting to the 18th Century when the euro American religious converts were going round evangelizing and trying to convert people to Christianity. Fisher describes how the Indians were adamant to abandon their traditional religious practices to adopt Christianity (28). In the book, Fisher also notes that the Indians were fearful of the colonialists whom they perceived as using a different approach to Christianity to continue colonizing them.
The Indian natives were out to protect their land, traditional religion, and politics, which they saw as under threat from the perceived colonialists. Local tribal politics takes center stage in the book as it shaped the various resolutions taken by the community (Fisher 31). Despite the seemingly hostile resistance from the natives, the missionaries went on with their teachings and preaching. The natives, therefore, chose to affiliate with the Christian missionaries to protect the sovereignty of their land, culture, and traditions even though it was evident that they had started enjoying the work of the missionaries.
Fisher gives a chronological survey of the events of interaction between the natives and the missionaries in eight chapters. In each chapter, he presents a description of different processes. The first chapter, Rainmaking, makes a general observation of the lives of the colonialists and the natives (Fisher 16). The second chapter highlights the evangelizing process whereby the colonialists and the natives interact. In the third chapter, the natives begin embracing the activities of the missionaries and are awakened.
Fisher describes the affiliation and the conversion process in chapter four whereby the colonialists begin to assimilate the natives and separate them with their traditional cultures and beliefs in chapter five. Chapter six is the education section of the book whereby the colonialists challenge the natives to take up formal forms of education. Massive migration from the traditional to the modern practices are discussed in chapter seven, while chapter eight concludes the text by examining the reasons why some remained after the migration.
Style of Writing of the Book
Fisher makes the description of his events vividly and uses simple language that can be understood by both native and non-native English speakers. Fisher discusses the themes of the book clearly and extensively making it easy for the readers to understand and follow the events (18). The chronological description of the events from the 1700s to 1820 allows the reader to reflect on the contexts therein. Fisher makes a comparison of the two parties in the book. The natives and the missionaries-cum-colonialists differed significantly, and the author describes these factors of variation to show how the times and practices of these groups had changed considerably over time. Fisher makes use of references to show the origin of his works (56). Even though he does not rely directly on eyewitnesses, he makes a thorough review of the existing literature on these subjects and reflects this in his book.
How the Context Impacts On Understanding of the Book
The social and the historical contexts of the book play a significant role in understanding the book and its purpose. The context introduces and moves the reader to the historical times when colonization was still evident in many parts of the world (Fisher 42). The reader is taken through the period of colonization and the introduction of various modern factors such as changes in religion, culture, and education. This context enables the reader to follow up on the events of that period, while also making them feel the reaction of the natives who were being invaded.
The Indian Great Awakening: Religion and the Shaping of Native Cultures in Early America prompts the reader to ask questions such as how the natives and the world as a whole existed without Christianity. Before the introduction of Christianity, native communities had varying religions. Therefore, why did the missionaries assume that these traditional religions were unworthy? Besides, why and how did the missionaries come up with Christianity? Another question relates to the ease of acceptance of the native Indians (Holloway 88). The natives were easily influenced by the missionaries to abandon their religious and cultural practices and adopt the practices of the missionaries. What was the motivation for this sudden move? Lastly, religion seems to be changing or improving over time. What are the possible religious changes that may be expected in the world since each religious group such as Islam is trying to gain popularity and influence?
Connections between the Book and Other Religious Books and Information
Most books on religion and history are written in the same style using the chronological form of analysis of events (Holloway 67). They also give descriptions of the context of the events discussed in the book for the readers to understand the various concepts outlined in religious studies. These events would, however, be complex without the descriptions. It is evident that missionaries had a powerful influence over other religions since they easily ventured into other communities and altered their religious affiliations. According to Holloway, the missionaries used the same strategy to approach different communities (103). They conducted their evangelic activities, as well as educating communities on different issues. Eventually, they converted a lot of followers in the community.
The Indian Great Awakening: Religion and the Shaping of Native Cultures in Early America is a well-written book that enables students of religion and other interested parties to understand the subject well. It presents a good overview of events and uses a very simple language that is easy to understand. The book can be used to teach religion to different levels of students without any difficulty. It challenges both learners and teachers of religion to teach widely and rationally on these subjects by presenting different views for thought by the readers.
Fisher, Linford D. The Indian Great Awakening: Religion and the Shaping of Native Cultures in Early America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Holloway, Richard. A Little History of Religion.2016.
My major interest in the field of neurological nursing is the working conditions. That is, nurses have to work in diverse, challenging, and rewarding vicinities. For example, attending to patients in health care clinics and brain injury units make it a challenging job.
The main core value that is critical for neurosurgical patients is the stewardship. Stewardship incorporates accountability in the financial, human, and natural aspects of patient care. A proper analysis of stewardship value reveals that other values such as patient care and professionalism are dependent on it.
The American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN) is one of the qualitative paper for nurses. It illuminates on various important facts such as membership, networking opportunities, and certification of materials for the neurological nurses (Olsson et al., 2017). The journal is produced by the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing (JNN). It sheds light on how nurses conduct quality research and learn how to be better professionals. Additionally, it outlines the findings of different neurosurgical nurses.
The three aspects in working neurological patients include helping the patients with neurological difficulties, two post-operative care, and finally, keeping the patients’ records. The pre-operative care creates a good rapport with patients. On the other hand, helping the patients gives both physical and moral support, while record-keeping gives direction.
The key interdisciplinary members to include in the neurological patients include the diverse group members such as physicians, psychologists, and physical therapists. They assist in conducting cognitive, physical, personal assessment, and give adjustment reactions to the neurological nursing field.
The core value of integrity is important as it entails respect, honesty, truthfulness, transparency, and accountability in the neuroscience field of nursing. It is achieved through building trust between individuals and an association in the neurological field.
The most important factor to consider while working with neurological patients is their past medical health records because it gives a clear pathway on what is expected or what should be introduced in the patient’s system.
Olsson, E., Anderson, D. G., Hsu, W. K., Hassanzadeh, H., Puvanesarajah, V., & Dalkin, A. C. (2017). Current Issue Highlights. Journal of Neuroscience, 49(1), 12-14…
TSAs Civil Penalties
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is an agency of the Homeland Security Department tasked with overseeing security in all modes of transportation including, aviation, sea, and road transport. This agency holds the ability to issue and revise regulations whenever necessary to carry out its functions. It inspects, maintains, and tests security facilities, systems, and equipment. Apart from security checks, the TSA issues civil penalties for different violations which are considered serious. It also uses progressive enforcement like counseling and warnings which are used in case of a minor noncompliant or, if the violation could be corrected instantly.
For intentional violations, the TSA
issues civil penalties which apply to passengers, operators, workers, and other categories involved in transport. The penalty
increases with the seriousness of the offense or violation. Lesser violations
could get off with on-spot-counseling or even administrative action while
serious violations attract maximum penalties including fines. To promote
compliance, TSA has civil penalty maximums for each category of violation for
example aircraft operators would receive a maximum penalty of $27,500 per violation.
For passenger violations such as carrying prohibited items or concealed
weapons, they are issued a penalty of $5000 and below. If one is issued with
the penalty and refuses to pay, it is forwarded to a debt agency where the
violator will pay with interest. If one stiff refuses to pay with the agency,
the debt is forwarded to the U.S.A Treasury for collection. As much as TSA can
issue penalties, the alleged offender could also take the different form of
action including reviewing the investigative report; ask for an informal
hearing on the matter or even request a court hearing on the matter.
The mandate of the Federal Bureau of Prison is to institute measures that protect the society. The bureau uses its constitutional authority to confine offenders who have been sentenced by courts of law in controlled environments of community-based facilities and prisons (Prior, 2017). These environments must be safe, cost-efficient, humane, and appropriately secure. They should also be designed such that they provide different self-improvement opportunities such as work to ensure that they assist offenders in their desire to become law-abiding citizens. The objectives of corrections in the United States are to institute certain measures in the form of punishments, but that also enhance the capacity of the offenders to be acceptable and productive to the society upon completion of their sentencing (Prior, 2017). This research paper will investigate the approaches and processes that define the correctional prison system in the United States.
Correctional prison system in the United States
Prisoner classification is an integral aspect and process in the understanding of the operations of the United States correctional prison system. Prisoner classification is an internal process that is provided for by the Federal Bureau of Prisons to sort inmates based on three major factors: intimate needs, internal security, and external security (Prior, 2017). For the prison system in the United States, the highest priority is on security followed by the subsequent classification of prisoners based on their intimate needs.
Prisoner classification based on internal security assess the extent to which an inmate is likely to be involved in any form of misconduct, violence or the creation of disturbance within the prisons. This will prompt the prisons department to alter the type of housing, level of supervision, and limit the possibility of an inmate mixing or interacting with other prisoners. These are techniques of mitigating or minimizing the threat of internal security (Slater, 2017).
External security entails the probability of escape from prison. This classification determines the prisoner who will be transferred to maximum-security areas and those who will be incarcerated in prisons with relatively less security detail. Prisoners with a high likelihood of escaping are often transferred to facilities with detailed security such as gun towers, fences, and high perimeter walls (Slater, 2017). The objective of the prisons is to isolate wrongdoers from the public and to confine them in a controlled environment where they can serve their sentences while also engaging in self-improvement initiatives to enhance the possibility of being law-abiding and productive citizens once they complete their sentences (Slater, 2017). It is therefore critical that they serve their time in prison hence the need to determine their level of threat to the security apparatus established by the prisons.
Whether an inmate possesses internal or external threat, the constitution of the United States requires that all inmates must be assessed and classified according to their intimate needs. This is because it is the responsibility of the prisons as correctional facilities to carry out the sentencing of the courts they also have the responsibility of protecting and enhancing the lives of inmates as stipulated in the eighth amendment of the United States constitution (Prior, 2017). This means that other than providing a clean and safe environment, it is important to classify prisoners according to their medical needs or health requirements. For instance, expectant inmates must be provided with prenatal services to ensure that their health and that of their babies are stable, cancer inmates also have the necessity of chemotherapy while prisoners with communicable diseases have to be isolated to minimize the possibility of infecting other inmates intentionally or unintentionally (Prior, 2017). The objective of this classification clause is to ensure that inmates are not subjected to cruel and unusual punishment. Furthermore, it also ensures that the human rights of the prisoners as documented in the Bill of Rights is protected and advanced by the prison system.
Underlying issues with the prison classification in the United States there are situations in which prisoners are classified according to their crimes. However, existing studies suggest the absence of a single independent variable that relates to violence or misconduct in prisons. This is because ineffective approaches to the classification of prisoners can be dangerous to the employees of the prisons and the inmates (Prior, 2017). To address this concern, it is important to ensure that the classification system is relevant in terms of its ability to realize its intended purpose. In an attempt to prove the essence of prison classification according to their threat to security and intimate needs, Sorenson surveyed 231 inmates in a medium security prison (Prior, 2017). In his findings, he stated that prisoners who were sentenced for violent offenses were not likely to engage in misconduct or commit violence within prisons compared to inmates sentenced on nonviolent behavior. The process of prisoner classification should be based on age. This is because research indicates that as prisoners age they decrease their incidences of misconduct or violent behavior within the prisons (Prior, 2017). This means that as prisoners grow older they become less aggressive and susceptible to lifestyle illnesses. This explains the need to assess them based on their intimate needs.
Despite the existence of a correlation between age and the possibility of violence, the United States Department of Justice National Institute of Corrections (DJNIC) considers age as the least determining factor when assessing prisoner classification. For the DJNIC and other agencies in charge of prison affairs, prisoner classification the severity of the conviction should be the main variable and determining the factor of the threat to internal and external security (Prior, 2017). This is followed by an inmate’s history of escapes and violence. Such information is considered vital in enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of the prisoner classification system.
From the studies conducted by Sorenson, it is possible to assert that the correctional prison system in the United States has been involved in an inefficient way of classifying prisoners. From an intuitive perspective, it may be sensible to separate violent criminal offenders, there is disconnect in their life as inmates and their lives as outside the prisons. Prisons have the responsibility of introducing and implementing regulatory measures to the lives prisoners live while serving their punishment. This means that they have the responsibility of classifying prisoners according to the strongest determining factor of the possibility that they will be involved in misconduct or violence.
In their design, prisons were not intended to provide inmates with pleasant living conditions. Instead, the objective was to subject inmates to a controlled environment that limits certain aspects of free citizens as a means of deterring them from repeating or engaging in other crimes upon completing their sentence (Slater, 2017). Despite this objective, the constitution of the United States under the eighth amendment sets limits to the level of strife that a prisoner can undergo. Prisons have the obligation of restricting liberty by stripping freedom in response to an act against the norms and values of the society (Slater, 2017). This implies that inmates have fewer rights compared to ordinary citizens.
Despite the limits inmates do not lose, all rights because they have to, at all times, retain their humanity. The American constitution gives power and authority to the prisons department to condemn and criminalize any form of acts of violence within the prison. This includes sexual or physical violence. Prison safety is considered as an aspect of priority to prison administration because of the prevailing understanding that the criminal minds of inmates make them, susceptible to be perpetrators or victims of acts of violence within the prisons (Slater, 2017). Violence in American prisons is routine and an expected aspect part of the reason for high level of violence in American person can be attributed to the prisoner classification system. Furthermore, existing research indicates that within proses there is an inherent power structure, which is developed with the currency of fear, which is often defined along racial backgrounds. This has resulted in the formation of prison gangs, which are responsible for most of the violence and drug trafficking in prisons (Slater, 2017). It is under the command of the gang leader that members of the gang inflict fear among other prisoners with the objective of remaining dominant within the prisons.
Privatization of American prisons
The exponential growth of the number of people being incarcerated necessitated the United States federal government to begin contracting its prison population to private facilities in the 1980s. The need to shrink the federal deficit in the 1990s accelerated the policy of privatizing prisons. In the contemporary American society, that policy has been established considering that approximately 20 corporation’s house 30, 000 prisoners in 27 states. There are two companies, Wackenhut control, and Correctional Corporation of America controlling about 74% of the private prison population (Prior, 2017).
Inasmuch as privatization of American prisons appears to be an effective cost a saving technique in addressing the prison population problem, the policy has resulted in the development of numerous problems with limited benefits. From a theoretical perspective, private prisons have the ability to garner more gains because they provide efficient services. It is possible that they may be efficient, but they are relatively costly to construct and manage considering that, they are profit oriented (Slater, 2017). Their desire to invest with the objective of generating certain benefits may imply that private prisons may spend limited financial resources and this has cast doubt on their efficiency. This means that such institutions may be ineffective in meeting the correctional objective of all prison facilities. Their desire to function on low operating cost implies that it may be necessary for the private prisons to operate with minim number of prison guards for a maximum number of inmates (Slater, 2017). This approach may be a cost-saving initiatives but it threatens the safety of the prisoners and that of prison employees.
An additional inefficiency of private prisons is that they do not engage in lobbying efforts seeking limited incarcerations. This is because these facilities depend on a large population of prisoners as a way of maintaining the level of efficiency necessary in returning profits. Inasmuch as this may not seem like a problem considering the large incarceration in the United States, private prisons often ensure that these rates remain high by lobbying for the enhancement of tough criminal legislations. The initial objective of private prisons as solutions to the problem of the high population of inmates, they are currently perceived as the major contributors to the problem. These institutions may be assisting in alleviating budgetary problems of the state and federal government, but they do not assist in matters of prisoner safety and prisoner classification hence the need for freedoms in the correctional prison system in the United States.
Incarceration rates and correspondence programs
The high population of incarcerated citizens defines the prison system in America. This is because currently about 2.5 million Americans have been incarcerated with about 75% of those released having a high likelihood of being rearrested and 50% of them returned to incarceration (Prior, 2017). The increase in the number of prisoners can be attributed to the tough legislations to those who violate the law. This has compelled the federal and state governments to increase their budgetary allocations on the expansion of prisons, training of more prison wardens and the introduction of technology in monitoring prisons. The objective of investing additional financial resources is to ensure that prisons operate with utmost efficiency and effectiveness in relation their intended objective (Slater, 2017). Furthermore, the expansion of prison facilities and an increase in the number of trained wardens is also aimed at ensuring that with the increase in the population of inmates, prison warders have the capacity and skills of managing the inmates according to the stipulations of the constitution. Through the code of conduct, prison wardens are provided with necessary for effective management of inmates.
The high rates of incarceration have also meant that the prisons must enhance their capacity in providing self-improvement skills through training prisoners on business, academic and life skills. The provision of higher education has been a defining feature of state and federal prisons in the United States. The objective of this approach to executing the sentencing of the courts is to ensure that prisoners with the ability to learn are provided with a relevant and updated curriculum that increases their employability prospects despite their incarceration (Prior, 2017). In the United States, the ability of the prisons department to integrate its activities with those of institutions of higher learning has been instrumental in the production of inmates with relatively high and competitive academic qualifications for the job market. This approach is considered as respecting the constitutional right of access to proper education for all Americans irrespective of the prevailing circumstances that define their lives. For the prison systems in the United States, programs such as Pell grant access have been perceived to be instrumental in facilitating self-development initiatives (Slater, 2017).
Existing studies indicate that a high percentage of prisoners have low education attainment .This makes prison education an effective platform that can help inmates in the acquisition of skills necessary for employability. Furthermore, the prisons consider Pell grant to be critical in improving access to college education. This has been critical in removing major barriers such as lack of funding for underprivileged inmates (Prior, 2017). The collaboration between the American prison system and institutions of higher learning is because of the essence of education as an effective reentry strategy. This is because of the realization that majority of inmates were involved in criminal activities as a technique of acquiring the means of survival (Slater, 2017). The deficit in relevant skills and knowledge can be considered as an effective approach towards addressing the challenges.
Correspondence courses are also methodologies that correctional prison system in the United States has introduced with the objective of enhancing self-improvement. This is based on the realization that majority of those under incarceration have been subjected to relatively complex social situations throughout their lives (Prior, 2017). The prison system considers it their responsibility to provide prisoners with alternative and better lives. Correspondence courses provide ways through which inmates can learn a skill or trade. Correspondence courses are therefore avenues of giving prisoners platforms of improving on their economic and social situations (Slater, 2017). The objective of these courses is to provide prisoners with ways of reevaluating themselves to make them realize that they have a responsibility to themselves and the society. The correspondence courses provided by the prisons are often aligned with the specific needs and interests of the inmates. This means that upon incarceration the prisoners are expected to provide details about their professional and life skills objectives (Slater, 2017). The prisons engage different institutions with the objective of collaborating towards the realization of the professional and social objectives of the prisoners while in prison and after they have served their sentences.
There are courses that deal with substance abuse, anger management, self-awareness, and parenting. These courses are meant to help inmates in the development of personal strategies on how to overcome self-destructive behavior and negative thoughts. Furthermore, they are also responsible for providing prisoners with life skills that are critical in enhancing their self-esteem and self-confidence as ways of ensuring that prisoners can adjust effectively in the society after being released (Slater, 2017). An additional way through which the American correctional prison system has been able to enhance the capacity of prisoners is through personal enrichment and personal development correspondence programs for prisoners. Through these programs, the prison department aims at engaging inmates in less intense courses to improve their communication and interpersonal skills. This has been facilitated by incorporating professionals from different fields such as communication skills, mediation and yoga, financial management and personal discipline (Prior, 2017). Inmates are at liberty to choose what they want to learn, and this increases ownership and desire to engage and complete training.
The objectives of correctional prison system in the United States are to institute certain measures in the form of punishments that enhance the capacity of the offenders to be acceptable and productive to the society upon completion of their sentencing. For the prison system in the United States, the highest priority is on security followed by the subsequent classification of prisoners based on their intimate needs. The constitution of the United States under the eighth amendment sets limits to the level of strife that a prisoner can undergo. Prison safety is considered as an aspect of priority to prison administration because of the prevailing understanding that the criminal minds of inmates make them, susceptible to be perpetrators or victims of acts of violence within the prisons. The prison system has developed correspondence courses as methodologies founded on the objective of enhancing self-improvement.
Prior, S. (2017). U.S. Prison System. Gale Virtual Reference Library, EBSCOhost
Slater, D. (2017). Prison Break. Mother Jones, 42(4), 42-49
Argument in Defense of Death Penalty
The ethical dilemma of the death penalty has sparked much controversy amongst the Americans. The death penalty, as a form of capital punishment, is given to those individuals deemed by the government and society as deserving of the infliction of death. The death penalty has ignited a controversial debate amongst many political ideologies, religion, and culture. This paper will asses the ethical issues concerning the death penalty from the views of Jonathan Wolf, as well as modern principles. The questions I seek to explore is quite controversial: Is the death penalty ethical? My answer to this question will be per Jonathan Wolf’s “Readings in Moral Philosophy” and Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative. I intend to prove that capital punishment is indeed, ethical. Immanuel Kant’s categorical seeks to act per the general rule. The general rule applied is hard, and the vast forms of achieving death. He posed the questions of whether capital punishment uses humans as a means to an end. Based on the categorical imperative, societies are obliged to act in such a way that an individual’s action becomes a universal law for all to follow (Kant, 2004). Kent bases his argument that an individual shouldn’t be punished for the sake of benefiting the society since innocent individuals deemed unfit for society can remain innocent of the crimes. Kant argues that Laws that are broken without punishment are flimsy and an indication of a weaker society (Kant, 2004). From the moral point of view, Wolf argues that the problem associated with the death penalty is the burden of proof that everyone on the death row is indeed guilty of the offense punishable by death. He argues that capital punishment is misleading the society. In conclusion, the debate on the ethical nature of the death penalty remains controversial universally.
Kant, I. The Right of Punishing, Retrieved on April 1st, 2004. From: http://w1.155.telia.com/~u15525046/ny_sida_9.htm
Jonathan, Wolff. Readings in Moral philosophy: A text with readings. W. W. Norton & Company, 2017.