This report offers an analysis of training design I will use to train trainees on the how to use presentation skills effectively. It is a report that elucidates ways and methods I will use in my training to ensure that trainees get a clear view of these skills and use them in different occasions when delivering a presentation. Additionally, the report acknowledges the necessity of planning because it is a crucial step that helps to enhance efficacy of training.
Planning will enable me to employ effective methods to successfully complete the training. The report as a matter of fact offers a clear review of training design for quality and good presentation skills. It also endeavors to focus on the significance of availing regulations and rules that every trainee in the session should adhere to ensure that they behave in a responsible manner throughout the training period.
The report also highlights objectives of the training in regards to what is expected of trainees at the end of the program. Gathering apparently will not be successful if trainees fail to acknowledge and realize the significance of the training. The report also points out different presentation skills while offering an explaining of each and in intensely for proper understanding.
Additionally, the report offers a clear analysis of different training methods, their contents, when and how they can be best used in different presentation occasion. It also concludes with a restatement of subject matter as well as recap of main points captured in the discussion.
Training Design for Presentation Skills
In a quest to present information clearly to target audience, presentation skills are very important. Having good presentation skills enables an individual to communicate with other people effectively. The speaker needs to prepare effectively for a presentation because it will enable him or her to communicate a given message effectively without misinforming target audience.
Good public speakers also acknowledge the importance of good preparation in relevance to effective message delivery to the public. Therefore, it helps to eliminate fear while giving them determination and courage to address target audience with confidence. It also explains the importance of training and equipping people with essential presentation skills for them to become good public speakers.
Additionally, many people do not understand or know how to deliver a presentation best with a purpose of delivering a message. This is largely attributed to lack of good presentation skills to enable individuals to communicate effectively. Training therefore, contributes a great deal to education of people on ways and methods of good presentation. Any form of presentation skills training is additionally beneficial to trainees and related parties in a given field.
It is essential to note that training offers trainees an incredible opportunity to deliver an expected message efficiently. Other indirect beneficiaries also will be in a position to get the right information in regards to the subject matter. People who are trained on how to give a presentation effectively also tend to deliver good speeches in public. There are also other related benefits accrued from good presentations.
This report therefore, offers a strategic analysis and review of training design that is required to train people on effective presentation skills.
Establishment of ground rules and regulations
Saks and Haccoun (2010), emphasize that there is need for any training environment to set ground rules to provide instructions and procedures to ensure good behaviors amongst trainees in entire training session. Besides, trainers need good instructions and procedures with an aim of ensuring good management of limited resources and time. Rules therefore clearly state the best way to tackle misconduct amongst trainees as well as ways of encouraging good behaviors.
There are also other significant benefits of ensuring good ground rules and regulations, which encourage creating an ideal learning environment. Rules and regulations enable me to provide pertinent, edifying and effective training to my target audience. I shall always endeavor to familiarize trainers with different rules and regulation applications with an aim of ensuring they behave well and make the training exercise manageable and easier.
Guidelines and rules are also essential because they prevent friction among all participants. They also have a great impact on realization of set goals and objectives of the training by ensuring that learners are well familiar with different presentation skills.
Training objectives state what trainees should achieve at the end of the training. The training is directed at ensuring learners grasp presentation skills to make them good public speakers and good communicators. It also helps to ensure that learners learn how to pass the right message effectively to different audiences.
I do acknowledge the fact that understanding, confidence and early preparation as well as control are essential requirements for successful presentation. My training therefore seeks to provide good knowledge on good presentation and aims at building confidence, courage and control in learners they needs at any given time for the purpose of making a great presentation.
As a matter of fact, a speaker who is not prepared cannot deliver a good presentation. Training is essential as it prepares a person to have confidence and to be ready to give an excellent presentation. There is need to understand how to become a good speaker and a person should seek to give excellent presentation and it is all about passing the right message while entertaining the audience
Preparation also enables the presenter to be face his or her audiences confidently and pass a message as expected. It also makes desiccated subjects and different scenarios enjoyable and vivid because the presenter is specialized and has the right knowledge to address target audience in an interesting way.
Therefore, training prepares learners adequately and enables them to familiarize themselves with essential presentation skills for addressing target audience on a given subject successfully. Training also ensures that the right standards are set for trainees will be judged based on their presentation skills. It is expected that at the end of the training session, all trainees will have comprehended what a good presentation entails as well as necessary skills that are needed to make an excellent presentation.
This training aims at ensuring clear understanding of essential presentation skills and at equipping learners with the same despite the fact that it can be difficult to give an exceptional presentation. It is therefore highly advisable to prepare systematically before making a presentation in an effort to gain confidence of passing a message effectively to target audience.
It is additionally good to note that there are no short cuts to making a good presentation besides preparation. According to Atwood (2007), a presenter should, independent of the occasion aim at offering a logical and clear presentation at all times. This calls for proper organization of needed presentation skills which, demands that the presenter realizes how best and exactly how a message should be passed to target audience.
Before giving a presentation, it is also essential for one to write down the presentation, develop, select ideas and arrange main points for effective delivery of the message. Atwood (2007) also states that a person needs to understand an occasion and type of audience he or she will be addressing before giving a presentation as it helps to pass a given message effectively.
Control, besides confidence is very essential as they allow a presenter to manage his or her nerves as well as target audience thus, enabling them to respond to any question with assurance and confidence. Personal grooming and appearance is also crucial when it comes to presentations. As they say, a person’s look speaks volumes about him or her. Understanding target audience and occasion is also essential because public speakers or a presenter is judged based on looks.
Good appearance anytime for any occasion is essential as it offers confidence needed for a speaker to face his or her target audience and present information without reservations.
I intend to use different training methods in the training session to ensure that the objective and purpose of the training is achieved. These methods will enable me to train learners effectively for great results. I shall also blend techniques that combine different approaches for proper knowledge to learners. This is essential and appropriate because of its capability to cut down on costs as well as its flexible features. Blended training as such, uses classroom and computer technology for effective learning experience and greater result.
It is at this point where experimental learning is highly emphasized with an effort to encourage trainees to engage in an intermittent form of practice of learnt skills amongst themselves. According to Saks and Haccoun (2010), practice strategy is very essential dispenser tool for knowledge and I shall consider it because it enables trainees to rehearse acquired skills amongst themselves and ensure that they are acquainted with desired effective presentation skills.
This will also enable trainees to reach greater heights in regards to application of essential skills in real life situations and to enable them engage in the right presentation practices as the right approach to achieving set objectives at the end of training period. Saks and Haccoun (2010), also explain why active approach is significant based on the fact that it enables trainees to showcase mastery of the skills and in providing an exclusive presentation opportunity as far as learnt skills are concerned.
The method is also considered essential because it offers more inherent benefits compared to incur costs. I shall additionally use productive responses training approaches in an effort to achieve effective learning, allowing trainees to apply training materials efficiently as training progresses. The technique notably offers opportunities to help learners realize set goals and at an affordable cost.
Attentional advice is also very essential during training and a method I will use to give trainees relevant application details and strategies needed to successfully and effectively provide the program at a minimum cost. As a goal oriented trainer, I will therefore, give my trainees factual information to create an ideal learning environment for adequate training through the entire period.
Presentation is also sensitive as the information itself. For this reason, it will be essential to engage use of an important strategy as attention management to ensure training objectives are achieved per se. metacognitive strategies including self-direct, self-monitor and self-evaluation is also an incredible approach I will use in my training to enable each trainee to regulate his or her learning strategies for enhanced understanding of the presentation skills.
Active learning and understanding of the subject is also something I would highly encourage. This is because it enables trainees to be in charge of their learning endeavors. As such, it will enable them master acquired skills and become acquainted with each for ease of application of the skills during and after training.
To achieve set objectives for the program, it will also be essential to engage learners and arouse their inner desires to understand what I will be teaching them. According to Saks and Haccoun (2010), it is essential to employ error avoidance form of training in entire training. In effect, I shall employ this approach to ensure all details in regards to training period are availed to each and every trainee.
I shall therefore provide relevant training materials to each learner with proper skills while avoiding errors. This is a technique that shall serve as a way of reducing and eliminating errors during training that would otherwise make it futile and not in a position to achieve set goals.
I would also use audio visual strategy that is equally essential in relevance to points that are needed for good understanding of necessary skills. Besides his, I will help learners to familiarize with the strategy to ensure efficacy in speech and to motivate speakers to use presentation skills effectively in their training.
Application of these skills indeed will help trainers to enhance their presentations for ease of communication of the desired message. Consequently, this will make each presentation easy and possible for good understanding by those whom the message is intended for. I will therefore try to encourage learners to appreciate the fact that they need to realize they should always capture the attention of their audience by all possible means in any form pf presentation.
What’s more, they should ensure that the intended message is delivered and understood more efficiently.
Evolution and future of training
When it comes to current training approaches, the future of training entrenches itself in an experience that is lifelong to prepare individuals for more challenging experiences in their professional fields. According to Saks and Haccoun (2010), there are competent training models that can be used efficiently to enhance learning experiences amongst trainees and they have necessary considerations for training ethics.
As world changes and poses complex new challenges by the day, training will serve as a very ideal purpose to developing a positive attitude amongst individuals as they prepare for such situations. Trainers will additionally be kept on their toes to have employ the best practices in an effort to educate others people various fields. Competitive evaluation strategies will also be dependent upon in an effort to evaluate and gauge trainees as well as their abilities to deliver as they have been trained.
For example, using reliable evaluation strategies will be designed to give essential and crucial data that define trainees at the end of training session. In collaboration with other training strategies, this will play a crucial role in training programs for reliability and effectiveness of undertaking training in any given field.
In relevance to presentation skills, technology is imperative and it will keep on offering new challenges that are needed and require persistent training of individuals as a way of equipping and familiarizing them with future needs.
A training design is no doubt a very crucial tool that offers guidelines for successful completion of presentation skills training programs. Training design for effective skills in presentation is essential for the purpose of equipping learners with the right presentation skills. This report has therefore, expounded on a strategic analysis and review of training design that is required to train individuals on effective skills for presentation with a clear presentation of various techniques and methods I will employ to train learners on the skills.
The report notably has given me critical scrutiny of methods and techniques as well as contents of each technique as far as objectives of the research study is concerned. One also needs to comprehend the subject matter as a trainer because it enables him or her to have clear knowledge on the most ideal way to deliver quality training.
Before beginning a training session, it is equally important to table rules and regulations applicable in a training session and to ensure each learner is familiar with the rules. The purpose of the rules and regulations as earlier explained in the report is to normalize the behavior of learners during the training period.
Presentation skills are equally important techniques that enable speakers to pass information to target audience more clearly. Without proper understanding of presentation skills, a presenter will not apply them efficiently and successfully for effective communication.
In summary, this report offers the guiding principles I will employ to deliver quality training on presentation skills for effective communication of a given message to the intended target audience or a large group of people.
Atwood, C. G. (2007). Presentation skills training. New York: American Society for Training and Development.
Saks, A. M., & Haccoun, R. R. (2010). Managing performance through training and development. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Gender and Management
For many companies today, gender in management has been of great concern. Men have been seen individuals who hold top managerial positions for many years while women keep missing in executive tables. This has generated management disparities, calling for the need to include labor force principles that are gender balanced in order to benefit from information, pool of ideologies as well as expertise by creating leadership diversity.
Managers should utilize decisive capabilities and interpersonal skills to behave in a dignified manner and to show interest in realizing the goals of an organization. Some of gender disparities displayed in management positions and roles include efficiency, planning, courtesy, flexibility, skillfulness and courtesy alongside motivational aspects. Even so, this has lately changed because women have to a great extent taken up managerial positions.
Gender and Management
For any organization, management is a very crucial activity because it covers different motivation degrees, riles and resources. For examples, human resource management calls for job designs, compensation, exceptional motivation standards and equity. Gender has indeed become an issue in management of organizations where many people have been fighting unfair treatment in their places of work (Ibarra, Carter & Silva, 2010).
The requirement for equity conception has also resulted in the need to enhance balance in the workplace by improving impartiality feeling. The significance to reduce discrimination is therefore gaining attention via policy measures in a given labor market. Modern management theory has also transformed the workplace environment making it safe for everyone.
It is for this reason that employees are considered the most importance resources hence, the need to treat them with concern and respect. Even so, labor force diversity is a crucial issue based on benefits promised to international establishments. This is because of rising concern over gender discrimination that is continually eating away the progress of many companies.
Organizations therefore have to resolve many surrounding issues including ethnicity, age and gender discrimination. The issue of concern also involves predomination of males in organizational management. Gender sensitivity calls for crucial decisions and analysis to ensure equality and success in role tasks (Helfat, Harris & Wolfson, 2006). Additionally, top management should set to accommodate both genders in labor for sound judgments in decision making process.
Management challenges are as result of the need to involve workers, convince and maintain command over them. Both male and female managers are therefore very essential in the administrative process aimed at ensuring justice for all.
Management is a very crucial practice as it involves bring and manipulating minds with an aim of achieving objective action. In this regard managers control resources in an organization based on set goals and targets. Management concept therefore calls for high competency, alertness and professionalism. Managerial competencies also involve having systematic and continuous training along education programs that enhance skills.
Even so, effectiveness of programs that enhance skills depends largely on personalities displayed by individual managers (Ibarra, Carter & Silva, 2010). Communication, principles, intelligence, equity and emotional constancy among other personality features affect knowledge adequacy for managerial selection and position. Therefore, in the event where women fail in management test, inequity occurs. This is based on the fact that women executives are unwelcome to server in top management positions compared to men.
Even so, the situation can be attributed to belief that traditional management is best done by a man. Additionally, this is enhanced by the fact that women do not support other women in leadership. Many women will settle for a man claiming that a woman is characterized with hysteria, pettiness and gossip.
Management has also advanced a great deal to enhance organizational behavior. It is a process that involves different activities that also need cooperation, coordination and supervision. Decision making in this area is a common activity even though it is faced with many coordination challenge. Therefore, rules should be applied at all times because they are guiding principles in the implementation of techniques desired as per work, results and control.
In the above case, management involves these activities effectively and efficiently to achieve the desired results (Vuksanovic, 2012). The process is also faced with many problems including situational conditions, threats and risks. A high number of male managers in different organizations can be attributed to the conception that many men are willing to take risks and deal with the result as opposed to women.
Management process additionally involves different activities such as marketing, production, planning and distribution which carry significant risk level. The overcome such risks, managers need to exercise skill, strong leadership and workmanship (O, Neil, Hopkins & Bilimoria, 2008). All in all, men are still considered more superior than women.
Governance means responsibility that is bestowed to managers to deal with changing nature of work on different organizations as far as processes and tasks are concerned. The world is constantly changing at a high rate thus introducing new processing models. This has created the need to beat tight deadlines in assigning team work (O’Neil, Hopkins & Billimoria 2008).
Gender in this type of leadership has been a matter of concern to women as they are termed less advanced technologically. Even so, research reveals that women in executive positions are in a better position to fulfill their managerial duties more efficiently in the changing world owing to their flexibility (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). This has also seen many companies’ record high returns over previous periods when man was in top management.
This is also enhanced by increased career openings for women offered by different organizations to get rid of unjust treatment in management. Effectiveness is also another issue in regards to decision making in top management teams because of diversity (Helfat, Harris & Wolfson, 2006). Gender diversity in top leadership enables members to look for data, enhance point of views and to generative the best alternatives to getting the most ideal solutions.
Additionally, this reduces conflict levels and it negates primary team roles by creating communication challenges among top management. Gender diversity should therefore be considered when valuing an organization’s top management (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). Even so, this can contradicted by the need to employ the best managers who may not be diverse.
Talents also vary from one individual to the other where some people are disadvantaged when it comes to management positions based on lack of competencies and skills for such positions. Women in the modern day have taken up professional and managerial duties compared to men. Therefore, there is need to outsource for talents from large diversities for good decision making especially on including women in top managerial or executive duties (Vuksanovic, 2012). This should also transform the view held by women who are considered to be incompetent in top management positions in different corporations.
This is a situation being witnessed in the way organizations promote gender sensitivity in the place of work. Women in the end will be encouraged to go for top managerial positions based on earned skills and exceptional management values. The situation is going to change the misconception that management can be efficient when men are in control, a notion that has made it easier for men to dominate workforce for a long time now.
According to research, almost half of many organizations have never had women executives in top management. Even so, there are companies that have had up to three women in top management representing only 30 percent or less average of management team (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). This is an indication that even in modern times; the ratio of men to women in executive positions is still unfair.
In certain organizations however, there are women organizations hired from outside to top management level with the intention of pooling in expertise. Organizations with no women in top leaderships have also had recruitment issues for top jobs based on the fact that the process is costly and tasking.
Nonetheless, the number of women in executive jobs has increased gradually with time. This has been enhanced by the desire to test competencies of individuals by skills as opposed to gender. Women, as a result, have taken much of managerial positions compared to men due to high competency levels and the need to increase governance competency. The result of such is quality decision making process and great outcomes in relevance to profitability and productivity.
A labor force that is gender balanced has also led to good management policies and practices aimed at ensuring long term efficacy (Eagly & Carli, 2007). The problem however comes in when ladies are about to get better appointments but reservations emerge terming such tasks as risky. Many women have had to go through mentorship programs because they enjoy support from many sources.
This is a fact that led to increased number of women in top management jobs (Powell, 2010). Even so, more men are still reported to enjoy promotions despite mentorship programs that are designed for women. Such unreasonable moves are attributed to differences in job allocations where certain tasks are considered to have high potential exposure. Therefore, even though women are highly mentored, there is still no promotion going their way.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Management is a tasking duty and a process that calls for critical decision making. Even so, management of humans has been designed for complex and by the need to influence functioning, ideology and contributions towards set objectives. Gender diversity however is a crucial aspect in the current world of business because of its role in enhancing decision making process.
Experiences in business organizational management looks at males from a different point of view compared to women. Top executive positions are dominated by males while females secure jobs that are less demanding (Powell, 2010). It is however notable that women and men accomplish same tasks but under different point of views.
Diversity in point of views also enables an organization to enjoy implementation of quality products and services. In this case, all managers should work towards eliminating gender disparities and eliminating conflicts that arise from inequality. It is hard to change personalities but managerial characteristics should be highly fundamental in ensuring good management or governance.
Management styles used in organizations should also be in line with skills and personalities to enhance profitability and productivity (O’Neil, Hopkins & Bilimoria, 2008). If the personality of an individual does not match that of a given group, the manager should then be replaced.
It is also worth noting that management abilities vary from one individual to the other. A good manager should without prejudice develop perception. Even so, this ability is subject to learning through intellectual or experience (Eagly & Carli, 2007). It is also highly recommendable that managers should acknowledge the system of value in regard to morality, fairness and integrity values.
Another trait that determines level of confidence in managers is risk tendency. Men are seen as individuals who are more willing to take up risks compared to women, a notion that has enabled men to hold on to top managerial positions. Therefore, if women would develop competencies in critical decision making and risk taking in vital aspects of organizations, it would easily lead to their promotion in top management positions.
This has been lately achieved where women have taken advantage of mentorship programs proving their exceptional capabilities and enhanced management outcomes. However, even though women go back to gain more knowledge, they are yet to be accepted in terms of promotion based on merit (Vuksanovic, 2012). This is based on research that men still enjoy promotions more than women despite women mentorship programs.
Management is a process that involves directing of an organization’s resources to accomplish set goals. It calls for managers regardless of gender to participate through decision making, idea generation and analysis. Having a labor force that is balanced enables an organization to enjoy the possibilities of sharing expertise and information thus, enhancing profitability and productivity.
Managers have to understand the importance of equal but different to give males and females the respect they deserve. By doing so, companies will be able to appreciate similarities and dissimilarities between men and women in labor force thus, creating an incredible work environment. Managerial positions at times are characterized by neutrality, accuracy needed, power and wisdom ( Cheung & Halpern, 2010).
Such characteristics are linked to men and because of such; managerial positions were based on masculinity therefore, creating more opportunities for men than women. All in all, gender labor force that is balanced in management has transformed the perception encouraging women executive leadership and power. The result has proven that women executives are proficient to lead groups of people thus, enhanced productivity.
Cheung, F. M., & Halpern, D. F. (2010). Women at the top: Powerful leaders define success as work+ family in a culture of gender. American Psychologist,65(3), 182.
Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. L. (2007). Women and the labyrinth of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(9), 62.
Helfat, C. E., Harris, D., & Wolfson, P. J. (2006). The pipeline to the top: Women and men in the top executive ranks of US corporations. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(4), 42-64.
Ibarra, H., Carter, N., & Silva, C. (2010). Why men still get more promotions than women. Harvard Business Review, 88(9), 80-85.
O’Neil, D. A., Hopkins, M. M., & Bilimoria, D. (2008). Women’s careers at the start of the 21st century: Patterns and paradoxes. Journal of Business Ethics,80(4), 727-743.
Powell, G. N. (2010). Women and men in management. New York: Sage.
Vuksanović, M. (2012). Is manager’s gender an important factor in selection to a position? Megatrend revija, 9(1), 265-277.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Examination of the CSR Strategy
The most verified economic advantage of operation corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies is connected to areas such as operational cost savings, branding, company status and human resource (Tzu 17). This paper therefore will be looking at what an operational CSR approach involves via investigating the strategy’s usefulness at Hewlett-Packard (HP). The Corporation’s plan looks at the worldwide social and environmental issues utilizing their portfolio and skill in dealing with difficult problems. Such consist of enhancing the ease of access and quality of education, improving energy productivity and also ensuring healthcare is progressively easy to get, inexpensive and available. The corporation undertakes such problems all-inclusively, going further than disjointed as well as quick fixes solutions. These facets prove that HP has been working on a useful CSR approach that has witnessed the corporation being rated amongst the topmost Fortune 500 corporations. This paper, as a result, will be founded on the thesis that ‘Hewlett-Packard has an effective CSR strategy.’
Effective CSR Strategy
An operative strategy ought to hold a social drive that is business centered. Majority of CSR approaches in numerous corporations overlook the basics of a corporate like its operation. HP’s strategy is, as a result, useful due to the fact that it is convincing as well as apparent, whereas backing an inclusive corporation’s strategy. Hewlett-Packard (HP) in the corporate approach emphasizes on turning the company into the topmost IT Corporation globally. The corporation’s aim is apparent as well as motivating to their worker. HP has in the same way created three self-reliant approaches incorporating capital plan, efficiency to accomplish their purposes as well as targeted development. The company’s CSR efforts back their usual business roles like production, marketing as well as sales to name but a few. Many other corporations, nevertheless, are not sure which objectives they ought to create or approaches to undertake (Wheeland 1).
Operational strategy ought to have an intense effort whereby a corporation looks at a particular goal every time. Backing most social problems all together fails to accomplish success on their CSR strategy. HP, nevertheless, has shown guidance in their approach by concentrating on their efforts on a particular social problem dealing with communal difficulties through education, healthcare as well as entrepreneurship. The firm brings into line this social problem to their in-house and exterior means. In 2011, for instance, nearly 1.2 million individuals merited from the Hewlett-Packard (HP) entrepreneurs learning initiative (HP LIFE), which let the people reach technology and also real teaching. The same year, about 744,000 workers from HP offered to serve the communities worldwide at the cost of $26 million US dollars.
Uniting with professionals is in the same way an imperative facet of an operational CSR strategy. Leadership, in addition, requires building a great echelon of integrity. This can be ably undertaken through relations with professionals in social matters and NGOs. The corporation utilizes their wide portfolio, professionalism as well as technology to hunt for the means of administering particular globe’s social difficulties and associates together with states, corporations, social businesspersons, NGOs, scholars and selfless leaders to aid in mounting accessible, viable solutions to CSR. HP has united with numerous shareholders in their solid efforts to encourage viability. The company’s efforts have been shown via numerous accomplishments the firm has reached via such associations (Hur 7).
HP has a incessant venture with the ‘Business of a Better World’ (BSR) to improve the supply chains’ working situations, certainly focusing on those situated in China. In 2007, for instance, HP in association with China Training Institute as well as BSR improved the ‘Focused Improvement Supplier Initiative’ (FISI). This project provides 40 top-levels distributors to HP with the assets as well as tools focused on improving CSR management in their amenities (Hur7). Moreover enhancing the working situations, the program as well emphasizes on teaching the people in administrative positions as well as employees. The venture incorporates their social evolution worth into their general whereas their managerial exercises as well as ethics push their economic merits in the advancement of their social or environmental situations.
The above debate backs the thesis that ‘HP has an effective CSR strategy’. Numerous ways via which the corporation’s CSR strategy works are a complete evidence of its usefulness. The company controls the global social as well as environmental problems and difficulties via their portfolio and expertise in dealing with challenging issues for instance encouraging quality learning, guaranteeing the cost-effectiveness or easy reach of exceptional healthcare whereas improving energy productivity. HP deals with these problems in a general way, away from the simple conventional solutions.
Wheeland, Matthew. “HP CSR Report Highlights Helping Customers Solve Green Challenges.” Greenbiz.com News. 10 May 2011. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
Tzu, Sun. “Building your CSR Business Strategy.” CSR Management Journal, 1.1(2011):13-24.
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Hur, Eileen. “Hewlett-Packard’s Global CITIZENSHIP Program Social and Environmental Responsibility (SER) Program: The Model of CSR Alliance with Profit, the Corporation’s Ultimate Goal.”CSR Management Journal 1.1(2012):1-16.
From a wide-ranging viewpoint, cultural dimensions allude to psychological scope, or value concepts that are sometimes used to expound a certain culture. On the subject of international corporations, majority of the individuals hired are from different backgrounds as well as cultures. In most situations, this fundamental idea of change is termed as an exceptional resource for majority of the corporations. This is founded on the idea that it acts as an exceptional base for encouraging modernization. Nevertheless, there are circumstances where short of suitable data as well as comprehension of different cultures these modifications lead to problems more than it results to triumph. In essence, it is thus crucial to have a simple comprehension of variances in cultures so as to enhance accessible labor as well as lessen skirmishes. Diverse nations have numerous cultures concerning work and business in general. This research will be concentrating on disparities amongst Germans and Japanese concerning their culture towards work. Moreover, the study will as well focus on creating practical endorsements for international companies that are characterized of German and Japanese workers to be precise.
In line with Basabe et al. (20), the simple idea of diverse cultures is not wholly based on the ideas that they are casually unique from one another; however slightly vary from certain and conservative conducts. This is founded on the idea that every culture has its peculiar way of reasoning as well as exploring factors, its specific values, principles as well as different liking towards diverse features concerning work. For example, in Japan, a Japanese man and his household are regarded from the viewpoint of the organization they work for and the position they hold with regard to social status. Additionally, this is with prospects that a Japanese man might have concerning the company they work for. With regard to the study and research results, the success of entrepreneurial economies in areas for instance the United States and Europe is well-thought-out to have substituted the notion of social casting via work. Nevertheless, this is not the situation in Japan whereby entrepreneurs are not freely treasured; reasonably they are seen as peculiar or out of place.
Business cards deliberated as imperative with any respect to Japanese corporate as well as social gathering. It is termed as one of the main features that an entrepreneur ought to bear in mind when making transactions in Japan. Japanese corporate culture is dominated by the idea of lifetime working. For example, in the circumstance of being hired by a conglomerate, a young individual who has completed school, particularly tertiary education, has the notion that by the time he will have pensioned off, he will still be employed by the company. In some instances, this is the situation with small business ventures. For many years, an exceptional link has been developed amongst the members of a specified company. This is looked up as one of the distinctive features of businesses in Japan.
So as to better comprehend cultural patterns of Japan, an individual ought to consider the idea of homogeneity. There have been debates that Japan is not a homogenous nation in any aspect. On the other hand, the cultural myth of homogeneity is a part of publics and thus is an essential cultural idea. Founded on the idea that Japan is an island, it has no margins with other nations. This is one of the essential factors that have guaranteed there had been less foreign impact on the nation up to the early 1850s from the early BC. This in turn has played great purpose in making the history of Japan. In essence, all individuals share same belief; this is founded on little impact from the western nations. Additionally, assumed that it is a heavily crowded area, there is ease in sharing of data and thoughts. Japan’s homogeneity improves people’s interaction without dialect. It is said that being monolingual as well as monoracial makes room from Japanese to understand what the other is saying with less words.
In relation to Hofstede (8-10), dimensions of culture are apparent as an industry tool that is internationally recognized and is used in the gauging of cultural diversities. Frequently used dimension are Geert Hofstede’s cultural scopes. It acceptance was improved by the idea that it includes cultural information gathered from 70 diverse nations concerning IBM workers. This information were further improved with information collated from learners as well as pilots from commercial airline in 23 nations, civil service administrators in 14 nations as well as influential individuals from 19 nations. From his study Geert (70-80) created five features of cultural dimensions. This incorporates; Power distance; Individualism–Collectivism; Masculinity–Femininity; Uncertainty avoidance; and Long-term or short-term orientation.
About power distance; it includes the level to which members of an assumed culture with failrly less authority are in pact with the notion that authority is distributed inequitably. This is in precise to the idea that there is a great implication amongst individuals who have authority and those who do not hold ample power. From the overall viewpoint, the measurement apparently highlights disparity, putting into account that such a view is known from below, as well as not pushed from above (Hofstede 45). For instance, there is a high authority disparity in Japan, but this is not the situation in Germany.
With reference to individualism versus collectivism, this link includes the level to which diverse people are combined into groups or not. The fundamental theory of individualism is central in the western nations as well as other established countries. In addition, collectivism is leading in eastern nations and nations are still growing. In this incident, Japan is well-thought-out to be in a central position, but German is considered to be amongst the best, particularly to this measurement. Essentially, individualism is prevailing in Germany. In the working setting, precisely in individualistic cultures, the manager-worker relation is based on the terms of agreements, as well as appointing and confirmation of policies is based on expertise and laws. Conversely, in communist cultures, the employer-worker relation is seen from a moral viewpoint for instance family link, promotion and confirmation of policies as well as taking into account the authority of workers in groups (Triandis 100).
Individualism and collectivism have been connected with direct as well as indirect methods of interaction. In essence, the level in which presenters reveals the drive via open verbal communication. With respect to direct style, connected to individualism, the needs and goals on the side of the presenter are come to life in verbal message. When it comes to indirect style, which is connected to collectivism, the needs and intents of the presenter are not clear in the verbal message.
On the subject of masculinity versus femininity, this connection is not largely concentrated on gender purposes as the chief factor, but quite it is founded on other features for instance triumph, caring, accomplishment, modesty, completeness as well as confidence. This is particularly to the perception of culture. Achievement and assertiveness are regarded as biggest in men whereas modesty and inclusiveness are more dominant in women. In Japan their culture is based on the fundamental idea that man is the leader of a household, in regard to the point that masculinity is high in males than in females. For example, majority of the individuals who make policies in bigger corporations in Japan are chiefly men, women on the side o not concentrate on their careers, but quite on raising their kids as well as caring for their households. In contrast, founded on the hierarchical structure of Germans, masculinity is regarded as reasonable. This can be chiefly accredited to their culture that is more concerned on individualism.
As much as vagueness averting is considered, it is the measurement that it is concentrated on a presumed community’s approval of indecision and vagueness. Cultures, where the level of vagueness is high, they attempt their best to lessen the possibility of instance that cannot be expounded with suitable details. This is typically accomplished via firm regulations and guidelines that have been initiated. This is in addition to security and wellbeing actions and clear mind to ethical or religious faith, particularly regarding the perception of complete truth. One of the chief facets of cultures who lean to this dimension are the point that they are motivated by inner nervous energy as well as their nature is more expressive as compared to other cultures (Markus, H.R. & Kitayama 226-228). A feature that alludes to a vagueness tolerant culture is that they are more tolerant to diverse views and also they are thoughtful and cold. This is one of the measurements that are dominant in both German and Japan. For example, dependability as well as constancy is seen as certainly essential to and integral in German attributes. On top of this, members of the German culture have a great weakness to shun vagueness. In essence, Germans create necessary structures as well as regulations in order to spur confidence in coping with each other.
Pertaining to long term or short term orientation, it seems to be a dimension that concentrates on the chief subject of virtue. Long term cultures treasure caution as well as strength of mind; in contrary, short term cultures respect traditional mores, the achievement of social duties and guarding individual’s integrity. Japan is regarded to be a long term focused on culture, whereas German is perceived in terms of being a short term concerned with country.
Continuing from the defined dimensions above, it is fairly clear that there is a huge disparity among German and Japan customs. For example, in majority of German corporations, staff members are guided by numerous regulations, processes, laws and practices. These are a number of fundamental features that impact the German business persons to have a taste for written pacts and settlements. The fundamental feature of the arrangements and written contract is that they are typically obligatory and are used on a systematic basis. Germans have firm fines concerning breach of agreements, and this is what separates them from other cultures.
Researchers Charles Hampden-Turner and Fons Trompenaars have a more or less the same plan to dimensions of culture regarding what Hofstede has projected. They have grouped national cultures into six diverse facets. A number of them are similar to those of Hofstede, whereas others are distinctive to a certain extent (Cross, Bacon, and Morris 65). They incorporate a number of things: individualism–communitarianism; universalism–particularism; specificity–diffusion; inner direction–outer direction; achieved status–ascribed status; sequential time or synchronous time.
When it comes to universalism–particularism, worldwide cultures focus on regulations, guidelines as well as generalities; in contrary, particularistic cultures consider exclusions, exclusive circumstances, as well as responsibility established by relations. Universalist cultures, for example the one usual Germans, would not think an individual to confess that they were driving at a reasonably low speed than the real speed they were driving at. Conversely, in particularist cultures, for instance Japan, there is a possibility that an individual would concede to driving at a particular spend irrespective of whether it was slow or fast.
In connection with the relation individualism–communitarianism, this seems to be a dimension that is alleged to be similar as that put forward by Hofstede, with a relevant focus on self-accomplishment or the fulfilment of aims and intentions in a certain group of people.
In point of fact, specificity–diffusion dimension alludes to the level to which individual concentrates on the fundamentals or the entire, the direct or the framework. Specificity focuses on distinct purposes, while drawn-out cultures take in less variance amongst private and public worlds. In Ilyas Halil’s story No One to Yell At, the Turkish executive operational in Montreal fails to understand why a Christian worker sulks when they are released to get two Turkish coffees for him and a customer.
To the extent that achieved status–ascribed status relation is concerned, achievement cultures critic an individual certainly on their individual accomplishment, as well as the question that is asked is “What did you study?” Ascription cultures critic an individual particularly on their kinship, birth and relationships; the question that is mainly asked is “Where did you study?”
With reference to inner direction–outer direction correlation, it concentrates on the matter of whether an individual is inspired by inner desire as well as a sense of right and wrong, or by the situation or power of others. In essence, the question comes up that makes an individual either seek control and change their personal surrounding or adjust and move with it. As a result, for example, there is a view that boxing ensued from inner directed cultures, whereas judo came from an outer-directed setting (Cross, Bacon, and Morris 70).
In chronological time or synchronous time link, the last alludes to an arrow, whereas the second deals with a circle. In connection with sequential time, it is based on the theory that ‘time is money’. Then again, synchronous time is founded on the theory that ‘timing is everything’.
Schwartz (50) differentiates cultures on the foundation of autonomy and embedded dimensions. In autonomous cultures, peoples are seen as independent, controlled entities. They are inspired to develop and clear their personal preferences, status, thoughts as well as ability and to grow their personal comprehension as well as discrepancy facets. This might be accomplished via the quest of person’s thoughts as well as balanced directions autonomously. This is designated as intellectual autonomy. In addition, a quest of positive exposures for a person is known as an effective autonomy. On the other hand, the significance of life for peoples living in cultures of embeds is developed via social relation, through associating with a group of individual, participating in collective lifestyle, as well as driving towards combined objectives (Schwartz 50-60).
Embedded cultures place weight on protecting the status quo as well as safety measures that may interfere with in-group harmony or the traditional directive. Nations that succeed in embed; perform poorly in intellectual as well as effective autonomy. Other dimensions that Schwartz has considered incorporate the following: Hierarchy: it looks at the central point of the importance of hierarchical links in society and political system. Hierarchy is different to egalitarianism as egalitarianism points at the standard of Universalism and parity of rights of individuals.
Harmony concentrates on the significance of the competence, especially to relationships, evasion of change and conflict, while mastery places weight on self-assertion and achievement as strong principles. It is fairly apparent that a number of Schwartz’s dimensions can be connected hypothetically to Hofstede’s one-dimensional discrepancy between individualism and collectivism. A positive association exists between the level of urbanization and Hofstede’s individualism and Trompenaars’ egalitarianism (Singelis et al 255-260). In contrary, the connection between urbanization and power distance is negative. However, there is no link between this feature as well as the principles of intellectual and affective autonomy. Urbanization, which is connected to industrialization, with the development of the market, with modernization and with greater problems of social life, acts as a great influence of instrumental individualism. Fundamental facets of individualism are individual independence and uniqueness. The typical features of the Protestant work morals, which in earlier eras characterized modern and capitalism communities, are these days more characteristic of mutual communities with improved hierarchical reserve (Singelis et al 261). Moreover, this is as well in agreement with the better presence of competitive approaches in growing, collectivist and hierarchical nations for instance Japan.
It is relatively apparent that the subject of cultural dimensions is essential in any company, especially, as much as international companies are in the context. This in go, will make sure that there is parity in the company as well as sturdy relations between the workers despite their cultural background. In examining the dimension of individualism-collectivism, it is the main cultural variable that undertakes a crucial role concerning the long term development. Nevertheless, this fails to give to difference of opinion that other cultural variables have a comparative essential impact on presumed elements of economic conduct as well as economic performance (Smith & Bond 50-90). The attraction with these other cultural dimensions is that they have less impact on long term development. Therefore, so as to produce the excellent results, a corporation ought not to concentrate on forthcoming or categorizing the exceptional culture. Additionally, the corporation ought to as well consider that ranking cultures would not produce useful outcomes that can be useful to a firm. Classifying cultures is as well in a way an attempt to make reforms, particularly as for cultures in diverse nations, which is not the situation in an international corporation. The goal of comprehending diverse cultural dimensions is to create parity among societies as well as yield excellent results. This is channeled by the point that cultures are profoundly rooted on history and to alter them would take a long duration. Being acquainted with the impacts of culture on economic outcomes ought to suave the growth of improved interaction as well as discussion across culture instead of turning cultures against one another.
Basabe, Nekane, Páez, Valencia, González, Rimé, & Diener, Eric. Cultural dimensions, socio-economic development, climate and emotional hedonic level. Cognition and Emotion, 2002, Vol 16, pp103-126. Print.
Cross, Bacon, & Morris. The relational interdependent self-construal and relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000 Vol. (78), pp (791-808). Print.
Hofstede, Geert. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, and Organizations Across Nations. 2nd edition. Sage Publications. 2001. Print.
Markus, & Kitayama. Culture and the Self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 1991 vol 98, pp 224-53. Print.
Schwartz, Shalom. “Beyond Individualism/Collectivism: New Cultural Dimensions of Values” Sage Publications. 1994. Print.
Singelis, Triandis, Bhawuk, & Gelfand. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: a theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-cultural Research, 1995 vol 29, pp 240-275. Print.
Smith,., & Bond. Social psychology across cultures. (2nd. ed.). London: Prentice Hall. 1998. Print.
Triandis. Individualism and collectivism. Boulder:Westview Press. 1995. Print
Crisis Communications and the Effect on Brand Reputation
Roughly, each day, organizations, government corporations and people come across situations they consider as crises. However, a large number of these incidences are mere routine annoyances; they do not meet the criteria of crises. More appropriately, such situations can be perceived as inevitable challenges or problems that are normal to any person or organization. However, an actual crisis is a rare experience. Nevertheless, crises do arise frequently to organizations, government institutions and individuals.
During crises times, unlike mere problem or incidence, concerns will flow from different circles with interested parties making calls that seek to understand what is taking place within an organization. In some cases, crises also threaten the actual existence of those affected. Unlike the day to day incidences and occurrences with insignificant effects on an organization, crises often have irreversible impact as such, it is important that the best mechanisms be employed to respond to the challenges. Crises can also have a negative impact on an organization causing members to be uncomfortable thus leading to decreased productivity (Griese, 2002).
In all manner of crises from societal crises like accidents, civil disorders and crimes to common business crises like negative coverage by media, litigation and customer boycotts, crisis communication plays an important role in addressing problems that cannot be underrated. Griese (2002) observed communication during and after a crises is important especially in relation to reputation restoration within an organization. The approach government organizations and corporations employ in communication during such incidences is of great importance as the kind of information they pass.
Communication with the public is of great importance during a crisis to maintain the reputation of a band. In modern days, the opinion the public has about the brand is not influenced by what one says but how they say it. Apologies and/or information is received and accepted today by the public in social media differently when compared to past traditional communication strategies.
Communication during Crisis
According to Timothy Coombs, crises act as a threat a company’s reputation. During such incidences, both product and organization brand/reputation is vulnerable to damage. Crisis affects how clients and stakeholders interact with the company. Coombs and Holladay in their works of 2005 made the observation that post-crisis communication plays an important role in repairing prevalent reputation damage. The field of crisis communication also has several case studies that attempt to explain how response strategies either lead to destruction or repair of corporations or organizations.
Coombs (2007) argued crisis management calls for “evidence-based crisis communication guidance” (p.163). Evidence that s based on guidance is supposed to be supported with scientific evidence, which should employ empirical research opposed to individualistic preferences as well as intuitive experiences. SCCT (The Situational Crisis Communication Theory) facilitates creation of frameworks that are based on facts, as such, seeking optimization to safeguard the brand or reputation as it is provided for in after-crisis communication.
While attempting to explain how an organization is able to restore normalcy in its brand, Fearn-Banks (2010) identifies a couple of steps that aid in serving to enhance communication after a crisis. The first step is upholding crisis communication whenever an organization is undergoing a crisis. At no point stop enlightening stakeholders on what is taking place within an organization or what is expected from them. The second step is development of a service or product that has the capability of promoting the brand, making sure communication plays a significant role in updating stakeholders and the consumers. While rebranding might serve as the ideal strategy for arising crises, leadership is supposed to be careful when it comes to the communication technique used in publicizing a new brand since it is at transitional stage that most organizations crash.
Fearn-Banks although argues that the third step which is reexamination of social commitments like corporate responsibility has too little to do with crisis communication, communication between and amongst stakeholders determines how successes an organization is in terms of responding to such issues. An organization in hopes of promoting its brand after crisis is supposed to use crisis communication skills in order to enlighten the society of the intentions it has in relation to activities of public relation before their position is communication from other quarters that are unreliable. The last step involves making a public announcement to the public on enhanced productivity and performance as well as revival from the crisis. Such approach is aimed at calling clients back and other stakeholders who might have lost their confidence in the said organization (Fearn-Banks, 2010).
During the Yuhan-Kimberly crises in 2005, the company’s salvation was the result of appropriate and speedy crisis communication mechanisms. The company’s management kep communication going with explanations that were timely regarding what was taking place within the organization and how it planned to overcome the difficulties. The recovery of the company’s market share was facilitated within the shortest time by communication. By 2005, February, the ‘wet wipes market share recorded 50%… and dropped to 21% two months later; however, it recovered after that and recorded 30% in June and 40% in October’ (Fearn-Banks, 2010,p.242). The observation made by the author was that 2008 annual market share was over 46%. General evaluation posited Yuhan-Kimberly’s communication program during the period of the crisis received high level of trust from spectators and stakeholders due to the concerns it expressed regarding consumers.
Though the reputation of the company was in part damaged as a result of the crisis, consumer confidence was recovered within a short duration. The unswerving and prompt response synonymous with crisis communication and reputation building program an organization employs plays a major role in quick recovery. Though the longstanding reputation of the company contributed to its recovery, this might not have been achieved without use of communication approach. Between 2004 and 2006, the company slipped from position four to six within Korea’s Management Association’s Most Respected Companies list. However, the focus of the company on image rebuilding through sharing its strategies and experiences wisely with the public to overcome crisis, the company was able to recover to the fourth position by 2006 and in 2008, it advanced to third position, a position that it maintained in the 2009 listing (Fearn-Banks, 2010).
When the crisis began in the company, the management acted swiftly by appointing its representative from whose office all the relevant communication with spectators and external stakeholders were carried out. The representative has the duty of understanding and knowing the progress of the company to overcome the crisis and followed selective communication of information to the public. He used different kinds of media including radio, magazines, newspapers, social media and telephones to promote the company while also responding to public concerns. He created great confidence among people regarding the products of the company and helped customers to see indestructibility of the company. Fearn-Banks (2010) observed that at the time of crisis, a company adopts some novel crisis prevention measures that also communicate to stakeholders thus helping a company become better and prepared to better deal with similar future crises. The prompt communication and action during crisis facilitates minimization of negative opinion that can cause long term effects on an organization.
Efficient Crises Communication
While attempting to understand the effectiveness of communication during crisis, Valackiene (2010) posited primary steps in effective communication in times of crisis are not multifaceted, though they call for work to be carried out in advance to reduce the extent of possible damage that emanates from the crisis and also redeems the institutions or organizations reputation.
Bernstein (2004) in his works on communication crisis implemented ten steps relevant in crisis communications. He posited the first 7 steps should be taken prior to emergence of any kind of crises. The first step is selection of crisis communication team which should ideally be led by a CEO and other executives at the top in an organization. Identification of representatives is the second step in which the potential of a person is determined from their previous performance. Step three encompassed spokesman training so that they can be equipped on how they will redeem the reputation and brand of the organization after and during crises. The fourth is establishing notification systems through which internal and external stakeholders interact. Identification of stakeholders both external and internal as well as disaster anticipation are the 6th and 5th steps respectively. Step seven is preparation for what will be said and the representative is supposed to develop some holding statements though full statements must wait till the outbreak of the crisis (Bernstein, 2014). These 7 steps are supposed to be ready before the crisis emerges since it might prove too late to prepare for all the steps once the crisis begins.
During the eight step, an individual should evaluate the crisis situation and in the 9th step, they should identify key messages they intend to share with stakeholders and the public. In the 9th step, focus should be addressing the crisis while at the same time seeking to promote the brand or organization. The last step is referred to as ‘riding out the storm’, and involves looking objectively at stakeholders reactions and responding accordingly without risking the reputation of the company (Bernstein, 2004). Valackiene (2010) argues that the final step demands keen observation of the trends: “Decide if another communication to those stakeholders is likely to change their impression for the better. Decide if another communication to those stakeholders could make the situation worse” (Valackiene, 2010, p. 104).
Tylenol Poisoning Case
The Tylenol poisoning case of 1982 provides the ideal crisis communication case. Tylenol capsules became impure after contamination with cyanide leading to the deaths of 7 people. The market share of the company dropped drastically from thirty seven percent to a mere seven percent. The crisis communication involved saving both lives and the reputation of the company. Some immediate actions involved putting a stop to all adverts as well as recalling over 31 million Tylenol bottle throughout the country. A team was also formed with the role of looking into consumer concerns while saving Tylenol. The team was responsible for holding press conferences and making live satellite feed in the attempt of responding to the situation.
The crisis communication approach the company used involved assuming responsibility for the crisis as well as giving assurance to the public regarding safety by recalling all capsules. Reintroduction of Tylenol was followed by discounted prices, unique and new ads as well as triple seal aimed at resisting all kinds of tempering and media presentations thus making sure the product was more renowned (prbookgroup, 2009).
How to Communicate
There were varied questions asked from different quarters during the crisis. Stakeholders in the organization wanted to know what was taking place, what triggered it and the implications as well as the kind of solution there was. Internal members of the organization like the management and employees wanted to know their fate while the government was concerned about the people, the revenues as well as implications of the crisis; the desire of external observers was to know if there was hope for the organization due to the crisis. This implies during a crisis, majority of people are interested in knowing what happens for either shared or personal interests. Beckwith noted at this juncture, crisis communication is extremely important as it determines whether the reputation of the brand or the organization is jeopardized or not. The representative is supposed to be careful regarding what they say and how they say it carries a lot of weight (Beckwith, 2006).
Beckwith (2006) also made the observation times of crisis are not easy. When something bad happens and the stakeholders of the organization are not happy with it, whatever that might be, one is supposed to face reality and approach the situation head on. One way of facing the problem is by confronting the fears one has, speaking about the issues to interested parties as well as answering any relevant questions before the crisis is leaked out through wrong media. The author argues that:
“What you say is important, but so is how you say it…. Your face should reflect the gravity of the situation. If you’re tired because of the strain caused by the crisis, it’s okay to show that: At the same time, you want to appear strong and confident so you inspire faith in your organization as well as your words” (Beckwith, 2006, p. 142).
The author felt majority of situations can benefit from compassion and confidence attitudes: The compassion is supposed to be in respect of victims and opposite views while confidence should be related to doing the appropriate thing regardless of the crisis extent.
The endeavor of maintaining organizational credibility is one f the strategies for crisis communication and brand of the product is to “share what you know when you know it” (Beckwith, 2006, p.143). When an individual is faced with hostile situation with protestors, advocates and victims , emphasizing with them is important. One is supposed to put themselves in their show in order to understand their pain, argument, feelings and predicaments regarding the entire scenario. It is by understanding their perspectives and opinion that one is able to address such interests and concerns. Failure to address what is wrong therefore can leave them more confused and concerned. “When your organization is being painted as the bad guy—whether rightly or wrongly—you are automatically in the worst position: You are guilty until proven innocent” (Beckwith, 2006, p. 143). In such a position, one is supposed to use all non-verbal and verbal clues to show empathy and at the same time, pass the point home. The point one intend to pass is supposed to emanate from strategies set for addressing the crisis. Initially, before information was gathered about the issue, one was supposed to indicate they were aware of the situation and disturbed by it thus they are investigating it and are interested in sharing what they find once they uncover it.
With the current technological advancement, one is supposed to be careful in order to ensure they have control over the information shared. Failing in addressing issues and keeping those interested in the dark often triggers presumptions and rumors which can easily be shared via social media and which affect the reputation of the organization. Regardless of the nature of crisis, communication plays a crucial role in damage control, lack of distorting messages and accuracy aid in crises communication and they preserve or redeem the reputation of the brand in question. If for instance wrong information leaks through social media, it spreads to millions of people within an hour as such, communication experts in an organization are supposed to do their best in order to control information leaving the company in such occasions. One can use media like blogs, twitter, Facebook, radio, internet and television in sending the appropriate message to stakeholders in order to counter possible negative implications of information distorted (Beckwith, 2006).
It is also of great importance for management to make sure there is no internal information leakage. The objective can easily be realized through emphasizing to all staff members that information regarding crisis is serious as such, sharing the same with friends is not secure since the information can leak to the press and lead to downfall of the company or brand (Beckwith, 2006).
While crisis are not common, they do occur once in a while in government corporations, organizations as well as individuals. The major challenge during crises is brand reputation which can be greatly jeopardized. Once an organization fail to address the issue in time, especially through communicating with stakeholders, the damage caused by such an occurrence is irreversible and at times, it leads to downfall of the organization. As such, crisis communication is crucial in such instances as it relates to having an understanding of what one will say, when they say and more importantly, how they will say it. A communication team that is led by management of the corporation or organization and with representatives who are talented is supposed to assume the responsibility of keeping the public well informed, showing concern and empathy while at the same time safeguarding the organizational image as well as brand reputation.
Beckwith, S. (2006). Publicity for Nonprofits: Generating Media Exposure That Leads to Awareness, Growth, and Contributions. Washington D.C: Kaplan Publishing.
Bernstein, J. (2004). The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications. Crisis Response, prevention, planning and, Training, 106. Retrieved from http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/docs/ the _10_ steps_ of_crisis_communications
Coombs, W., & Holladay, S. (2005). ‘Exploratory study of stakeholder emotions: Affect and crisis,’ in N.M. Ashkanasy, W.J. Zerbe and C.E.J. Hartel (eds.), Research on Emotion in Organizations: Volume 1: The Effect of Affect in Organizational Settings. New York: Elsevier, pp. 271 – 288.
Fearn-Banks, K. (2010). Crisis Communications: A Casebook Approach. London: Routledge.
Griese, N. (2002). How to Manage Organizational Communication during Crisis. New York, NY: Anvil Publishers, Inc.
Prbookgroup. (2009).Crisis communication: Case Study: Tylenol Poisonings. Retrieved from http://crisiscomm.wordpress.com/2009/04/13/case-study-tylenol-poisonings/
Turney, M. (2004). Six Steps to Preparing a Rudimentary Crisis Communication Plan, 29.
Valackiene, A. (2010). Efficient Corporate Communication: Decisions in Crisis Management. Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics, 21(1), pp. 99‐110.
Back to Your Roots
It is believable that in the past, Jack and Belinda have made some significant decisions that have lead to success of their venture Back to your Roots, a hairdressing salon. As they make plans for expansion, among the important decisions they have to make is the kind of legal structure the business is going to take (Mitchellette 125). Their structure presently has been a partnership. Their concern is on whether to carry on with that structure or set up a limited company. The decision made by these two will have a great impact on their taxable amount, amount of paperwork, ability of raising money as well as personal liability they are going to have towards the business. This report discusses their options and recommends the most ideal form of structure. In the second section, the paper will discuss contractual terms they are supposed to include while constructing contracts for employment.
Partnership refers to an implied or express agreement by 2 or more individuals to begin a common business with the purpose of making profits (Mann and Barry 572). All the partners contribute capital, skills, property or labor in varying forms in accordance to the agreement. Additionally, they expect to share profits as well as losses and deductions that arise as a result of operations. However, it does not make payment of annual income tax. Simply, it passes the losses and profits through to its partners all of whom are required to include their share of the business loss or income in their tax return.
As there is no employer who can withhold the income taxes, each partner is supposed to put aside enough money to make tax payment on their annual profits share. This implies partners must approximate the tax amount they are obligated to pay for the year as well as pay HM Revenue and Customs. Partners are also supposed to pay taxes whether the business makes a profit or not (HRMC 1).
Partnerships have an advantage in that setting them up is relatively easy and they can run for as long as partners have common understanding regarding management. Everyone has their own responsibilities according to the agreement. Raising capital is also solely the partners’ duty. However, when it comes to general partnerships, all partners are liable for their decisions, business debts and actions. This implies their properties can easily be easily in instances when the business defaults on debts. In cases of a limited partnership, some of the partners have limited liability. This means they are not liable to business debts. The 1907 Limited Partnership Act mandates that in a limited partnership, one partner is supposed to assume full liability for the venture. The 2000 Limited Liability Act defined limited liability partnerships limit all partners’ liabilities (Miller 554).
In laws of the land, limited companies have special status. These kinds of businesses are incorporated which implies they have their unique identity which is different from that of the owners. As such, they can be sued or sue or own property in their individual right (Scott 122). Ownership of a limited company is categorized in equal parts known as shares. Because limited companies have their identity, the owners cannot in anyway be held personally responsible for the debts. This means their property cannot be taken in the event their business defaults on debts.
Unlike partnerships, owners in a limited company are not required to be involved in day to day operations of the business. This implies they can enlist additional assistance from outsiders when they are in need of raising capital. The company pays tax which is a fixed percentage of profits made. Owners who get paid a salary by the business have the obligation of paying income tax (Carysforth and Neild 130).
RECOMMENDATION TO JACK AND BELINDA
Jack and Belinda, in the past ran Back to your Roots as a partnership. Their management has been successful which means the business has thrived such they have considered expanding the business, employing more staff and possibly opening salons in other locations. While the partnership has worked for them, I recommend they change their current set up to limited company.
With a limited company, they will not be involved actively in running the business. If the business expands and opens new salons in different locations, their workload is going to increase considerably. For people used to managing small premises, they will come across difficulties running the expanded business. On top of this, forming a limited company is going to ensure they raise additional capital from outside investors. For instance, they will have the option of seeking loans and using the business as collateral. Even when they default, they will not risk their personal property being taken away (Merrills and Fisher 402). Additionally, to finance an expansion, they can also enlist the business in London Stock Exchange.
With a limited company, they are going to have an identity that is separate from their business. This implies personal actions will not have any impact on the business and that business decisions are not going to have any influence on their personal lives. Their procedure for tax payment will be far less burdensome compared to how it currently is. The business will continue to exist though one of them might make the decision to leave the business. This in turn gives Back to your Roots additional security than when it is a partnership.
Contractual Terms in Employee Agreements
Validity of employment contract is not dependent on its form; it can either be oral or written. However, the 1996 Employment Rights Act mandates an employer is supposed to provide to employees a written stamen of particulars in a span of 2 months after starting a job. Therefore, it is recommendable for Jack and Belinda to come up with an agreement for employees as they seek to recruit more staff and expand. The key terms to be included in the agreement are as follows:
- The employees name and other important personal information that pertains to him/her
- The date the employee started his/her employment
- The date the employee commenced their job. This is applicable when the employee is moved to a different capacity in a demotion or promotion or when they are re-employed after redundancy or unfair dismissal
- The employee title and brief description of the job they are doing
- Length of the contract if the company is not offering employment on permanent basis.
- The salary amount, compensation, bonus structure and other privileges
- Holiday entitlement as well as the amount payable during holidays
- Number of hours the employees is supposed to work and compensation in the event the hours are exceeded or the fine if hours are violated
- Type of leaves permitted and payment during such periods
- Pension rights
- Areas the employee is supposed to work. All employees working outside the country are supposed to be furnished with details of their work conditions and the work they will be undertaking (Middlemiss 36)
- The notice length the employer is supposed to issue the employee before their dismissal. It is supposed to specify the duration an employee is supposed to notify the employer about their discontinuation of employment
- The duties and rights of both employee and employer
- Behavioral expectations of the employee
- Disciplinary actions to be followed when a code gets broken. This is supposed to include grievance procedure for employee so they ensure they are treated in a just and reasonable manner when a dispute arises (Persson 410).
As Jack and Belinda seek to expand their salon business, the most important decision they can make is the kind of legal structure the business is going to take. Currently, the structure has been one of partnership. This has brought success which has encouraged them to consider critically, the possibility of expanding their premise and establishing new salons in other regions. However, for the business to continue thriving, they need to establish a limited company. This is going to reduce their workload as well as give them an identity that is separate from their business. It is also going to enable them seek capital from external sources. Most importantly, it is going to give their salon better security in case one of them makes the decision to abandon the venture.
Carysforth, Carol, and Mike Neild. Intermediate Business. Oxford: Heinemann, 2000. Print.
Clifford, Denis, and Ralph E. Warner. Form a Partnership: The Complete Legal Guide. Berkeley, CA: Nolo, 2012. Print.
HM Revenue and Customs. “Tax returns for partners and partnerships”. HMRC, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. <http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/sa/parts-partners.htm>
Mann, Richard A, and Barry S. Roberts. Essentials of Business Law and the Legal Environment. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Merrills, Jonathan, and Jonathan Fisher. Pharmacy Law and Practice: Fourth Edition. Burlington: Elsevier Science, 2013. Print.
Middlemiss, Sam. “The Psychological Contract and Implied Contractual Terms.” International Journal of Law and Management53.1 (2011): 32-50.
Miller, Roger. Business Law Today: The Essentials, 10th ed. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.
Mitchellette, Ronald J. Entrepreneurial Decision Making: A Must-Read for Every Aspiring Entrepreneur. Philadelphia, PA: Xlibris, 2008. Print.
Persson, Anders J. “The Contract of Employment – Ethical Dimensions.” Journal of Business Ethics 66.4 (2006): 407-15.
Scott, Peter. Accounting for Business: An Integrated Print and Online Solution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
XYZ Remote Access Policy
This XYZ remote access policy is designed and written specifically for XYZ Healthcare Provider.
The XYZ remote access policy is designed and written with the main objective of describing the standards for people who use or connect to XYZ Healthcare Provider’s network from any host. These regulations and standards have been designed so as to minimize possible risks and damages that XYZ may incur as a result of unauthorized utilization of the enterprise services. Such potential risks and damages may include the destruction of important internal systems, loss of confidential and sensitive information as well as intellectual property and even a dent on public image, among other things.
XYZ remote access policy affects all persons that may connect or use the XYZ network including the company personnel, contractors, suppliers, agents, patients and vendors or any other individual or groups of people. In addition, the policy also applies to remote access connections that perform varied tasks on behalf of the XYZ company including sending or reading emails and scanning through intranet web resources.
XYZ remote access policy will cover remote access implementations which will include ISDN, VPN, SSH, DSL, cable modems, dial-in modems, frame relay, cable modems and any other channels that can connect remotely, with the exception of those that connect through web interfaces.
- There will be strict control of the secure remote access and this will be enforced by using a single password verification system combined with private keys with complex pass-phrases.
- All the people who access the XYZ remote connection including the staff, contractors, patients, agents and vendors will be prohibited from sharing their login details with any other persons, including their family members.
- The company will explain and help each member of staff, contractor, patient, agent and vendor who has access to the remote connections, either through company or privately-owned computers or workstations that are connected to XYZ internal network, should not be connected to any other network simultaneously.
- The company will prohibit all members of staff, contractors, patients, agents and vendors with remote access concessions who possess company or privately owned computers or workstations that can be connected remotely to XYZ internal network from sharing these hardware with anyone.
- XYZ will further require that frame relay meet minimum verification preconditions of DLCI standards.
- Prerequisite authentication processes of CHAP must be met by all the routers for ISDN lines that are specifically built for access to the XYZ network.
- It is compulsory for every remote hosts that can connect to XYZ’s internal network via remote access technologies to use updated antivirus software in addition to operating system security patches.
- Each person affected by this policy will be given a detailed report on how implementation and enforcement will take place. Training will also be carried out beginning next week at department level to provide knowledge on how to fulfill these regulations. Policy review will take place every three months.
Given that this policy is new and has never been implemented by the institution before, it is expected that employees may have difficulty adhering to certain regulations especially those appertaining to sharing login details or hardware with family members. However, violations of any regulation will be punishable and persons found to be in violation will be suspended or denied remote access privileges.
Risks of using Public Internet for Remote Access
- Private networks can be risky in terms of spreading viruses and worms because they do not guarantee full protection of remote devices from configuration and software vulnerabilities.
- Exposure to worms and malware may compromise the company’s system resulting in illegal access of the remote access connections. This may lead to the introduction of malicious codes into the organization network (Ballad et al., 2011).
- Access of the network by outsiders may be used for wrongful purposes such as obtaining private information that may enhance susceptibility to phishing attacks and ultimately, loss of information, data or money if organizations are required to pay ransom by hackers (Gregory, 2010).
Need for Remote Access Policy
- The policy ensures that each staff is aware of where, when and how to use the company’s internet and don’ts accompanied by this concession.
- Reduces or eliminates altogether exposure of the organization’s network to worms, viruses and malware from external devices.
- It enhances accountability of internet usage in the organization (Eckel, 2006).
- It ensures that the resources of the company are used for organizational needs and not personal gains (Shoemaker & Conklin, 2012).
- It stipulates actions to be taken in case employees violate the codes of ethics on internet usage.
Ballad, B., Ballad, T., & Banks, E. K. (2011). Access control, authentication, and public key infrastructure. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Eckel, E. (2006, July 19). The importance of a remote access policy. Tech Republic. Retrieved 11 November 2013 from http://www.techrepublic.com/article/the-importance-of-a-remote-access-policy/
Gregory, P. (2010). CISSP guide to security essentials. Boston, MA: Course Technology.
Shoemaker, D., & Conklin, W. A. (2012). Cybersecurity: The essential body of knowledge. Boston, MA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
Information security, is very important as it helps to prevent unauthorized access or use and affects every organization including affected medium-sized enterprises. The essence of information data systems cannot be understated and they should thus be secured at all times so as to maintain their resilience and credibility regardless of challenges they face.
An electronic document security system has to be enforced together with new technologies so as to prevent leakage of important customer information from business information systems. As the management, we need to have in place open channels of creating awareness and enhance management support systems that can enhance the overall security of our medium-size online business. Creating awareness can help in reducing fraud and abuse of computing infrastructure hence increase return on investment for the business (Wright, Freedman & Liu, 2008, p. 3). By implementing the electronic document security, we will be able to control confidentiality of information sent to customers or third parties (Smallwood, 2012, p. 10).
Lack of such technologies would cost our enterprise through different illegal means and also result in loss of potential and willing investors. As the management of our medium-size online business, we have to introduce mechanisms and document security systems for preventing data loss and leakage of confidential information to our competitors. By doing this, we will not only protect our company from the dangers and high potential costs of cybercrimes, but also improve our credibility with our customers and partners.
Networks usually perform different roles, and they can be differentiated in terms of their structure, purpose, activities and results.Therefore, network activity is a technique that can be used to depict differences between activities in a particular operation or project.Some of the distinct network activities may include enforcement of relative delays, preferential caching of data, and placing limitations on the effect of administrative utilities on production work. The amount of incoming traffic flow through a firewall is usually used to monitor the differences between network activities. Anomalies in internet packet flow is used to differentiate between the different network activities and malicious activity are usually detected easily because they tend to send excessive traffic hence exhausting the legitimate resources and often targets unused addresses in the network.
Malicious network activity examples may include malicious spams, scanners, worms, and backscatters. Scanners are malicious network activities that come from a single source and usually target the same port in different machines or even different ports on one machine on the network. These will generate excess flow of Internet packet and can also be differentiated by examining the Internet packet size to show whether or not it deviates from the normal. Additionally, scanners can also be differentiated by observing the sources and destinations of the packets. While normal Internet activity possesses different source and destination addresses, the malicious and suspicious Internet activity can share similar source and destination addresses.
The signature-based approach is also used to differentiate these activities by comparing threat signatures to observed events and this helps in identifying particular differences. Malicious network activity can be distinctly identified as they usually originate from the website servers while trying to leave the network through established firewalls. These network activities infiltrate through the firewall and flow into website servers and may also leave the website servers in the nature or form of malicious activity. Compared to normal activity, malicious or suspicious activity flow is much lower.
Traynor, McDaniel, and La Porta identified two new Denial of Service (DoS) threats in cellular services for data. They exploit the link setup and destruction procedures in different networks which implement the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) by utilizing low traffics on average terms.The first loophole entails the attack of logical channels instead of raw theoretical bandwidth, and this leads to reduction of the amount of traffic necessary to deny service (Traynor, McDaniel, & La Porta, (n.d), p. 311). Thus type of attack exhausts resources and prevents access of service temporarily and can be achieved by sending numerous text messages to a particular network sector consistently so as to ensure that the Temporary Block Flow (TBF) timers expire, resulting in denial of the network from reclamation of its logical resources.
The second loophole or susceptibility is caused by the inefficiency in accessing protocols by cellular data networks and the Internet. The denial of service (DoS) vulnerability happens as a result of similarities in the flow of network treatment, where uniform treatment of all flows regardless of size or duration shows the lack of flexibility of the cellular data network. Any slight changes in the conditions of the system can make it vulnerable to such attacks and because of its rigid design, the subsystems implement assumptions appropriate for one sub-set of traffic on every other traffic. For instance, an attack can occur when such assumptions cause the system to automatically amplify a single incoming packet to a series of expensive delay-inducing setup operations. Similarly changes in system conditions can lead to failure of execution of commands in the system. This ultimately makes the system susceptible to attacks and breakdowns.
By exchanging information between foreign and home base stations systems can authenticate or verify the details of any supplementary characteristics allocated, such as special data services (King, 1995, p. 109).Rogue base or corrupt stations imitate the legitimate base stations so as to confuse the subscribers who are legitimately trying to access services (Burmester, 2006, p. 83).Snarfing involves obtaining large documents from computer programmers without the permission of the author and it usually happens when one uses illegal means such as hacking to access the information of the other programmers.
However, eavesdropping is considered to be legal if used for the general good of the public. An example of this is the interception of the communication of terrorist groups planning an attack on innocent people or even helping in tracking stolen goods. Generally, the security goals of GSM are enhancing confidentiality and anonymity on the radio path. It also aims at preventing fraud by creating strong authentication codes and its ultimate goal is to prevent compromise of security amongst competitors with ill intentions. SMS framework is a platform where people can exchange encrypted and digitally signed text messages. Public key cryptography is usually used in this case to secure communication between private parties.
Burmester, M., Yasinsac, A., & International Workshop on Secure Mobile Ad-hoc Networks and Sensors, MADNES 2005. (2006). Secure mobile ad-hoc networks and sensors: First international workshop, MADNES 2005, Singapore, September 20-22, 2005
King, G. A. (1995). Understanding and designing computer networks. Oxford: Newness.
Smallwood, R. F. (2012). Safeguarding critical e-documents: Implementing a program for securing confidential information assets. New Jersey: John Wiey & Sons.
Traynor, P., McDaniel, P., & La Porta, T. (n.d). On attack causality in internet-connected cellular networks. USENIX Association, 16th USENIX Security Symposium. Retrieved from: https://www.usenix.org/legacy/event/sec07/tech/full_papers/traynor/traynor.pdf
Wright, C., Freedman, B., & Liu, D. (2008). The IT regulatory and standards compliance handbook: How to survive an information systems audit and assessments. Burlington, MA: Syngress Publishers.
Email and Instant Messaging
Email and Instant Messaging Proposal
Email and Instant Messaging (IM) have become essential components of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure and companies today use these for purposes of communicating and collaborating with different stakeholders. Such technologies have been key enhancers of teamwork activities and collaboration amongst different people in firms because they facilitate communication through sharing of vital information and raising of pertinent questions. Ultimately, organizations need to use information systems such as emails and instant messaging for beneficial activities that can ad value to the firm.
IT has evolved into a key business and organizational strategy, unlike in the old times when it was treated in isolation. Lucas (2005) further reiterates this point by stating that IT should be perceived as “…. a way to help design an organization. Technology can supplement or substitute for traditional approaches to organization design”. Companies today are therefore faced with the tough decision of how to source for IT services and with this regard they can choose to outsource, insource or subcontract email and instant messaging. Fix, an IT manufacturing company (publicly traded marketplace/IPO), is currently facing the challenge of whether or not to retain the existing email and instant messaging systems or switch to other viable alternatives. The main objective of the company is to deliver quality information to all work groups/virtual teams/users/staff in both the global arena and co-located teams using a credible digital means. By carrying out the strategic evaluation of the email and instant messaging, Fix aims to catalyze communication system for the manufacturing processes. Fix must enhance its creativity and innovativeness so as to be more competitive within the marketplace as well as strengthen its organizational core competencies. The company has three alternatives to consider and these include retention of the current system, outsourcing services from other providers, and contracting IT services to a third party. After careful evaluation of the alternatives, Fix settled on contracting the management of the systems to a third party is selected as its most viable hence best alternative.
The Need or Problem
Currently, Fix channels a lot of resources towards maintaining its email and instant messaging systems. Some of the huge costs incurred include the resources spent on hiring IT staff, maintaining the mail server, and investing in upgrades or maintenance costs which add up to high costs that could be diverted to other core areas or even saved up.
The Fix management team also realized that their core business and competency lies in manufacturing activities as opposed to the email and instant messaging.
In addition, Fix also faces a number of serious security threats and scalability challenges. The company lacks the expertise and resources to monitor its systems on a 24 hour basis and neutralize any potential security threats. Other organizations that specialize in these areas are more capable of handling these challenges because they are placed to monitor email traffic and have higher capacity to handle increased traffic and provide viable network contingencies.
Fix should focus on its core competencies in the manufacturing sector and outsource the email and instant messaging services to a capable and competent third party. The third party will provide the email and instant messaging applications through the cloud technology. This alternative is considered the best because it allows Fix to exercise a lot of flexibility in terms of handling traffic fluctuations and enhances the ease of access to the applications by stakeholders in different locations, using any devices, and at the time of their own convenience. The vendor is thus responsible for adjusting the capacity of the services according to the demand, and hence can increase capacity with increasing traffic. By outsourcing, Fix will easily transfer “server and patch management, system availability, and end-user support headaches” to a trusted third party expert who can offer better and more effective services(Pearlson & Saunders, 2013). Fix, on the other hand, will be able to concentrate more on its core business.
The chosen vendor has vast experience in this particular industry and has amassed sophisticated expertise and knowledge hence is capable of providing quality service to Fix. Having achieved economies of scale, the vendor will be able to pass on cost saving services and techniques to its clients, Fix included.
The recommendation to select a third party vendor was based on the premise that Fix relies heavily on email and instant messaging to carry out most of its businesses. However, the ever changing trends in technology necessitate the need for the company to delegate and offload any extraneous functions to capable and competent third parties that can readily avail required services. This will allow Fix to focus on its main business and core competencies in the manufacturing sector.
Despite its potential benefits, outsourcing any services or applications can pose potential risks in Fix Manufacturing Company. The managerial team at the company must thus ensure that the regulatory factors regarding governance and control are clearly spelled out to vendors that are hired to provide cloud services for e-mail and instant messaging on behalf of the company. McCray (2008) explains that companies can effectively work with vendors by ensuring that before the outsourcing company begins working, it is properly introduced and an efficient sustainable plan for change is instituted as well as high level of performance standards are set in place to ensure success up to the last phase. Some of the end results of a successful or effective outsourcing contract will be depicted by excellent performance of the applications, growth of infrastructure, cost effectiveness and sustainability. Djavanshir (2005) lists the following five concerns that companies should beware of when outsourcing information systems:
- Lack of clarity regarding post-contract processes – the outsourcing procedures must be well known by everyone involved in implementing the program
- Poor support offered by client services companies – sometimes the implementation process may stall if it lacks support from the managerial team and leaders of client company especially if these persons are charged with overseeing the outsourcing process
- Poor comprehension of the contract– poor understanding of the contract can cause problems especially if parties involved fail to comprehend the terms, parameters and limitations of the contract
- Loss of knowledgeable and skilled workers or acquisition of less knowledgeable workers – this can cause uncertainty in outsourcing with regard to human resources and staffing
- Lack of necessary skills by the client company – where a company lacks outsourcing experience and necessary training on governing outsourcing, it may end up with a poor program
One of the dangers and major concerns of outsourcing e-mail services is keeping control of the whole process including filtering what goes in and comes out. The outsourcing company is in charge of choosing the location that will be most optimal and functional hence must ensure at the transferred e-mail data are in a centralized location (Baker, 2008). The option for outsourcing the e-mail means that the service will be provided via cloud and this approach may become an obstacle in the exchange of data, and hence may have adverse effects in varied departments of Fix. According to Baroudi (2012), “the use of cloud computing to run email and instant messaging, VoIP, and cell phones may create security problems for the e-mail applications” (par. 6).
Nevertheless these potential risks and challenges are outweighed by the foregoing advantages of outsourcing these services. In order to reap all the benefits of outsourcing, it is recommended that Fix contracts the services of AliComp outsourcing solutions. AliComp outsourcing offers a variety of outsourcing services that have been specifically designed to cut costs and improve services in the IT sector as depicted in Table 1 (AliComp.com, 2013).
Table 1: AliComp Outsourcing Benefits
|Services and Reliability||· Services mainframe, open system, business continuity
· Provides a robust framework for information systems
· Excellent network design
· Reliable maintenance services
|Hardware & Cloud Services Architecture||· Supported by Linux/390
· IBM Mainframe Processors
· IBM “A” Data Center
· Type II Certified SSAE-16 Standards
· Reinforced network environment
· Services to IT structure cloud computing for applications
|Cloud Security||· Cloud security controls to deter, prevent, correct, and detect threats
· Provide identity management
· Physical and personnel security
· Availability of cloud with secure access to data and applications
· Applications security using testing and acceptance procedures
· Privacy access to application with the used of masked access to data
|Network Cloud Characteristics||· Network framework supported by private line connections with Optical Carrier (OC-192) transmission rates on Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET)
· Infrastructure at Service
· On-demand self-service for computing time, network connectivity and storage
· Broad network access for thin and thick client platforms
· Resource pooling with dynamic resources
· Rapid elasticity for quick up scaling
· Measured service to control and optimize resource
Retain Data Center and its Ownership
Alternatively, Fix has the option of retaining the existing in-house systems. The main advantage of retaining in-house systems is that Fix will be assured of maintaining confidentiality and protecting its trade secrets. If the company chooses to retain its own data center containing the email and instant messaging systems, it will avoid the potential risks of third party intrusion which may lead to leakage of its information to benefit of its competitors. In case the interest of protecting an organization’s intellectual property (IP), proprietary information (PI) and classified data is critical, and then in-house services are the best alternative. However, these concerns may not apply to Fix because the vendor that has been chosen has been found to provide highly secure services. This is because AliComp treats client information with confidentiality and integrity, hence being highly commended for the company. Table 2 offers a summary of the advantages and drawbacks that a company like Fix will face by choosing to retain the data center and ownership of its applications.
Table 2: Retaining the Data Center and Ownership
|Retain the data center and ownership||BENEFIT||DRAWBACK|
|Server room build out investment w/o redundancy backup location||· Secure facility to install high value electronics in environmentally controlled high performance center locations||· Very expensive|
|Thin-client architecture investment||· Increased security and reduced administrative costs||· Requires expensive backend server equipment|
|Physical security system||· Protects IP, PI, and classified data from being compromised||· Can be costly|
|Argonite fire suppression/ protection system||· Protects the high value electronics equipment w/o damaging it as water systems do||· Evacuation must take place immediately upon release of gas|
|Fiber optic cabling||· Allows for higher bandwidth and increased network performance||· Higher installation costs|
Risks and Solutions
The main risk of information theft was identified and this may result in loss of trade and competitive secrets. However, this risk was mitigated by the advanced technological platform provided by the highly competent services of AliComp, which according to the company and client testimonials have never been breached The messages transmitted through the systems are also encrypted. This thus assures the company of protection of all its company secrets.
Consequences of the Recommended Solution
By contracting the email and instant messaging systems to AliComp, Fix will be forced to shut down the existing data center. Additionally, the IT infrastructure components of the existing data center will also have to be disposed of and the IT staff might also be redeployed within the organization. These employees may also be released to seek other jobs outside the company in case there are no positions for them within the company.
In order to enhance its experience with the outsourcing company, Fix has to upgrade its existing network equipment before implementing the recommended solution. Apart from replacing of routers and network cables, the company will need to change client interfaces. It will also have to train the users of the system on ways of coping and handling the new system more effectively.
For the company to implement the solution effectively, it has to undertake several project-related activities. It is important for the organization to consolidate its finances, purchase the necessary equipment, employ highly skilled and qualified technicians that can facilitate the installation process, and also come up with a schedule for executing the project. This necessitates recruitment of a project manager to oversee the execution of the project.
The project has to be implemented in viable stages and the first stage must entail seeking information from all the stakeholders that will be affected by the program and changes. The vendor may therefore have to establish and submit a necessity test for requirements. Pilot testing can be carried out to a small part of the organization so as to determine the viability of the solutions offered by the vendor. Once the users are satisfied with the solution, the vendor cam proceed to effect it into the entire organization. This can be done in intervals or phases. The program must also be well monitored and evaluated to enhance its effectiveness and gauge how well it fulfills the requirements that were identified at the onset of the project.
Email and Instant Messaging are pertinent as support systems for the function of Fix as a company. Nevertheless, the resources required to maintain the system are too high and the company also has to hire workers to maintain the server, software, hardware, and the infrastructure. This increases operational costs for Fix Company and reduces its profitability and performance. This necessitates outsourcing of Email and IM functions from a third party to allow the company to focus on its core business function. This will enhance flexibility and effectiveness of access of email and IM applications the company that will provide the services will use cloud connectivity.
AliComp Outsourcing Company. (2013, August). Fully managed IT solutions. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from http://alicomp.com
Baker, P. (2008, 8 August). The pros and cons of outsourcing enterprise emails. Retrieved from http://www.cioupdate.com/trends/article.php/3764216/The-Pros-and-Cons-of-Outsourcing-Enterprise-Emails.htm
Baroudi, C. (2012). Email security: Big risk to organizations and individuals. Retrieved
Djavanshir, G. R. (2005). 2005. IEEE Computer Society, 32-37.
Lucas Jr., H. (2005) Information technology – strategic decision making for managers. John
McCray, B. (2008, March 3). The top 10 problems with outsourcing implementation. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from TPI.net: http://www.tpi.net
Pearlson, K., & Saunders, C. S. (2013). Managing and using information systems: A strategic approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Amazon: The Kindle and its e-book platform
Technology is an invisible engine that has led to both new inventions and transformation of the publishing industry.Kindle and e-book platforms are major sustainable innovations within the publishing markets that are utilized by Amazon and are expected to conquer the publishing sector. Kindle touchpad and eBook platform are likely to get better with time hence their sustainability as innovative technologies. The eBook fixed layout portions formats and specs are some of the distinctive features of these innovations and they do not have encrypted formats. They are technologies designed to print books which may transition into digital aspects. Amazon’s Kindle format is likely to be sustained in order to create readable screens using modern technology.
Both innovations of Kindle and eBook platforms facilitate access of digital Amazon books and different technologies were built to sustain their existence. Kindle eBook entails utilization of e-ink screens which closely imitates the look of papers and typically does not reflect sunlight. Neither does it use power when displaying selected pages. Instead, it only utilizes adjustable power when downloading Amazon books or when the reader turns from one page to another. Sustainability of the technology applied in the Kindle touchpad is based on the fact that reading devices are energy efficient and user friendly because they are easy on the eye, especially in cases of longer reading schedules. Improved touchpads and e-book platforms have enhanced its sustainability even further and innovation has ventured into models designed primarily as models working as tablets and eBook readers making this platform even more significant.
The innovations adopted by most of Amazon’s profitable customers has been very rapid. This is likely to be the vital source of publishing value to Amazon because the virtual entity literally controls the entire eBook business and technology revolution. Innovations that have been carried out recently may have disruptive impact on the industry and this is because the innovations adopted by Kindle and its eBook platform will be swiftly adoptable by the publishing industry’s potential clients, especially the most profitable customers. The disruptive innovators will be driven up into the publishing present context once the innovation is on track and targeting potential customers. The innovation will have dire effects on publishing market segment that posses the lowest form of profitability.
Launching of the Kindle will directly address the valuable clientele of the industry who are Amazon’s heavy consumers that purchase mainstream books. These are the clients that make the industry profitable and instead of considering their needs, innovations will create complexities. It will reflect on the disruptive innovations that start by addressing unprofitably within the industry. The innovations will revalue the preexisting market and its customers causing disruption.
The acts of Amazon releasing Kindle innovation can be compared to the PowerBooks iteration and this makes it a disruptive innovation. Disruption is based on impacts of technology on industry model. Disruptive measures will occur because tech-oriented online retail perspective of the publishing industry will not get a lead in the eBooks. The innovation will fail publishers because their expertise and skills during formatting transitions will be disrupted within the digital context, forcing the industry to reduce sustainable innovation investments.
The Christian Empire
The start of the worshipping of the Christian emperor was marked by the period during which Constantine took power. Emperors believed in their accountability to God due to the religious strength that was manifested by their followers. Thus, they had the responsibility of upholding orthodox. However, the decisions regarding matters of policy were not made by the royal leaders but bishops. The emperor was charged with the duty of policy implementation, eradication of deviation, and maintenance of religious harmony. His duty was to ensure that God was worshipped in his kingdom. The Church on the other hand, was mandated to handle issues of constituents of proper orthodox and policies.
When Diocletian came into power, he found the kingdom in a desperate situation having been weakened by 50 years of war, epidemics and raids. Devastation and suffering caught up with the people. Many peasants had tied themselves to the soil in the name of local masters in order to be safe. Various sections of the empire’s trade and farming sectors were already in ruins. The currency was significantly losing value with each passing day. The empire was under stiff pressure and reforms were urgently needed in the armed forces. Even though the problems and suffering of the people was clearly evident to Diocletian, the way of obtaining solutions had been severely damaged. This led him to concentrate on three major areas; security, formation of a more competent government and the defense of the emperor against insurgency and killings. Diocletian was committed and managed to double the size of the army which he further split into two groups. He assigned each of the groups its own commander general. Through splitting the government into two sub-divisions with a spate administration, he was able to form an efficient government. However, both divisions answered to the Roman Emperor.
Constantine campaigned for the tolerance of Christianity because when he set out for an important battle which appeared to him in a dream, he was told that he would triumph with the help of a particular sign. He never much about Christianity at first but later became a convert. He named Constantinople as the capital of the kingdom, as required of a large Empire like the one he ruled. He assisted the church financially and saw the building of more basilicas. He also introduced tax exemptions on some clergy, appointed Christians to high offices and granted land for the construction of churches and other properties.
Diocletian succeeded in bringing peace and order within the kingdom. In fact, he helped instill hope in many. However, his reign was hit yet again by another disaster when his economic policies refused to flourish. In order to contain the mess, he imposed death sentence on people who opposed his decrees on prices. Despite this, many still went on to violate the decrees until his government halted the imposition. During his time, he successfully managed to become the ruler of the Western and Eastern divisions of the Roman Empire.
Based on the Emperor’s official proclamation of Christianity, the church earned a significant facelift since worshippers were allowed to freely exercise their faith. This resulted into monasticism, a spiritual way of life that entails renouncing earthly commitments for full dedication to religious work. Monastic life holds a significant purpose in several Christian churches especially the Roman Catholic Church.
The four saints referred to as the Latin fathers were Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine and Saint Gregory. They are also known as the Doctors of the Church. As researchers, tutors and interpreters of God’s word, the Fathers primarily signify the Church of Christ on earth.
The early conversion of many people especially from Germany to Christianity was to some extent mainly influenced by the reputation of the Christian Roman Empire amongst Europeans who were non-Christians. Majority of the Germans who had migrated there adopted Christianity and the orthodox beliefs that were strongly outlined by the Catholic Church in their doctrines. The steady conversion of Germans to Christianity was at times voluntary mainly among those who had links to the Roman Empire. However, many including even those who resided outside the kingdom began converting to Christianity. Others held on and only converted when their tribes settled in the empire.
In the fourth century, Christianity was rapidly growing and the entire Bryzantine Empire had become a Christian kingdom. It became one of the first empires in the world to be formed on the doctrines of the church. However, many people were motivated by paganism in the first period of the Empire. When Christianity became well formulated, the Church leadership was mandated to five patriarchs. After the much popularized division, the Eastern Orthodox Church became independent from the Western church, which was the Roman Catholic Church. This led to the relocation of the center of power to Moscow. The church in Byzantine Empire was largely dominated by the state with its leader positioned in East Justinian. When the kingdom began collapsing, the state’s command over the church came to a halt. During the reign of Ottoman sultans, the power was conferred onto the leaders of Constantinople who were also accorded political influence over their church members.