Silent Springs by Rachel Carson
According to the Silent Springs thesis, organisms that include birds, human beings and animals are dying because modern pesticides are being used without restrictions. The emphasis of this thesis is that silent spring was caused by pesticides’ use without proper precaution which destroyed every organism. The population poisoned itself slowly by misusing pesticides. Using pesticides in this manner leads to the death of not just the pest that is targeted by the pesticides but also the essential organisms.
The aim of giving this thesis this title was to remind readers about the nature of a spring that was there before the introduction of pesticides. This title was aimed at making people envision a silent spring without birds’ sounds since all birds have been eliminated by the used pesticides. The poem, “La Belle Dame Sans Merci” by John Keats inspired this title. There was a line in this poem stating that sedge was withering in the lake and that there were no birds singing.
Carson stated clearly that she is not an advocate of the prohibition of pesticides. Instead, she advocates for proper and responsible handling and use of pesticides. People should be informed about the effects that pesticides have on their environment. Using different case studies, she explained how chemical pesticides affect the environment negatively. She also gives instances where organisms have been hurt by chemicals when handled poorly.
These problems happened because the country focused more on economic growth as well as the benefits of increased agricultural production without paying attention to the negative effects that are likely to occur.
Pesticides refer to chemical or biological substances that repel, control or kill some plant or animal life that hurt the needed organism. There are two major categories of the pesticides that humans use in controlling pests. These are organic and synthetic pesticides. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloror-ethane (DDT) is among the popular synthetic pesticides. This belongs to a category of chemicals that are called chlorinated hydrocarbons. Despite being extremely dangerous, it is used to kill insects and its effects are not realized immediately. It has lasting effects because it moves through the food chains.
This implies that once used, it can affect organisms that it was not sprayed on directly. Dieldrin, aldrin, chloridane, heptachlor and endrin are other types of the commonly used synthetic pesticides. Organic pesticides include malathion, parathion and arsenic. In the Silent Springs thesis, Carson describes the chemical poisons used by most farmers and households in killing insects. During the time when Carson wrote this thesis, DDT was a common non-organic pesticide in use.
Once a DDT pesticide has been introduced in the environment, the movement and persistence of this pesticide determine the level of harm that it will cause on other organisms that the user was not targeting. Majority of the used pesticides are not degradable. As such, they penetrate the soil after dissolving in water after which they harm the organisms that they get into contact with. Aquatic organisms and those living within the soil are affected the most. Many people believed that DDT was harmless because in the power form in which it was used, its effects are not instant. Nevertheless, essential enzymes within the animal bodies are inhibited by the active ingredient in DDT. The accumulation of this pesticide in the body causes adverse effects which eventually are transferred via the animals’ food chains.
DDT is also capable of moving across the placenta’s wall to affect the unborn children or animals after the parents get in contact with it. It affects vertebrates as well since they mostly feed on worms. High quantities of DDT were used to spray trees. Earthworms ate and mulched leaves that fell with this chemical. Birds fed on these warms and therefore they acquired the chemical. There were also birds which ate insects on trees which already had the chemical. Most farmers use insecticides in their farms and these affect fish in their ponds. This is because the chemicals are washed from the trees by rains and deposited in the ponds and other water bodies by the surface runoff.
Humans are also affected by these chemicals. Most people working in the field were affected by DDT. Cancer was one of the effects of DDT in both adults and children. Humans absorb these chemicals through the skin. Rachel Carson conducted extensive research in ecology before writing this thesis. Her thesis introduced the basic ecological concepts in America. Exactly how did the failure to note this interrelatedness led to different problems that Carson highlighted? How was the control programs’ effectiveness limited by this interrelatedness or how did it render them counter-productive?
In the last chapter, “The other road” Carson provides the alternatives that people can use in saving organisms from chemical pesticides. The best alternatives that Carson suggests are biological controls. This is because using biological controls is easy. They are also safe to humans and animals, effective and cheap. Biological controls work within the natural rules. They have no interference with the target insects’ predators. Additionally, they do not affect the environment and habitat of their target insects. There are also biological controls that are able to sterilize insects.
Inspiration that is similar to what Carson provides in her thesis is very important in the contemporary world. With the current technological advancement, people are just using pesticides without considering their effects on them and the environment. Cancer is a disease that is affecting adults and children. Build-up of chemicals in the body might be one of the causes of cancer in the contemporary society yet people are using chemicals uncontrollably.
Biological controls were commonly used in the past but these were gradually abandoned when chemical methods emerged. This is because people wanted to find out if they were effective. Almost the entire population is now using chemical methods and this is becoming problematic. This is because even with the risks that these chemicals pose, people still use them and using biological pest control methods seems difficult to most people.
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Capitalist Democracy and Democratic Capitalism
Capitalist democracy defines the rights that are exercised in the market or social setting in the use, abuse, exchange, and output, along with the inhabitation of resources, properties, and property rights. Therefore, capitalist democracy regulates the equal achievement of degrees between economic powers and political powers. A government that embraces capitalist democracy is, thus, a state that adopts a systematic manifestation of private property rights in the way that citizens use their resources, properties, and other available opportunities, in full knowledge of the adverse social impacts (Maria 2).
On the other hand, democratic capitalism refers to states that have embraced capitalism through political parties. In such countries, people are expected to publicly show the interest in owning properties and resources, while in full enjoyment of their rights. Those who embrace capitalist democracy are mainly political parties that pretend to not care much about the necessary measures of poverty eradication. Thus, it is clear that the government places limitations on economic and political powers among the citizens, organizations and corporations. This is done while also making sure that citizens who contribute handsomely to the economy get the most benefits, while the rest are left with just enough capital and resources to ensure that they are able to sustain themselves on a daily basis (Maria 4).
Capitalist democracy is therefore, better since it accords the people the power to grow without discrimination but based on their contributions to the economy. This ensures that all people are empowered politically, economically and socially in equal measures so as to sustain their daily lives. In the US, it can be said that the country is practicing democratic capitalism. This is because of the fact that the country has social classes like the lower, middle and upper classes. On the contrary, organizations compete in order to acquire political influence and favors for social, economic and political gains so as to remain in control. Therefore, America cannot be included in the list of countries that are looking towards achieving equality between economic and political powers.
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Maria, Qassim. Democracy and Capitalism: Clash of Ideologies, Theory, Policy, and Practice Development Studies, 2011
Competitive Analysis of Local and International Competition for whiskey Products
When studying the Taiwan whiskey market, it is important to keenly look at the brand that is topping the list in the market. It is a known fact that Taiwan is the largest market probably in the world when it comes to the consumption of whiskey globally. However, sales of the brands are quite diverse. In fact, many brands fail to do well in the market while others flourish with great returns. One of the distillers that have penetrated the larger Taiwan whiskey market is Ole Smoky. The Ole Smoky Distillery is a whiskey production company that manufactures its products from natural ingredients that have carried away many in the market. The whiskey has gained lots of praise from whiskey consumers. The drink is manufactured from corn, which is distilled six times to produce the most pleasant taste to the tongue. The whiskey, Moonshine White Lighting is made from fruity blends of Apple pie, blackberry, grapes among others. The production and sales of these brands of whiskey are not conducted in the blends that are modernly used and adapts to the market today. Instead, the manufacturers package the products in natural guards that depict the purity of their production, thereby making the whiskey more pleasant to consumers. The company sources its raw materials locally, hence enhancing the trust of the people in the brand.
Taiwan has a booming whiskey market. According to statistics, it is reported that 93% of the total mega whiskey valued at about $342 million is in Taiwan. It can apparently occur that the number of whiskey-producing industries in the country are not restricted enough to regulate the market. This allows other potential international companies to also penetrate the market in order to satisfy the overwhelming demand of whisky in Taiwan. This is a fact that is also ascertained by the National Agency of Taiwan. The body even goes further to recommend that it would be advisable if investors were invited to start up industries in the country so as to fill in the gap in the Taiwan whiskey market. The country is the world’s largest whiskey market. The Scotch Whiskey Association points out that, ‘’the market and the consumption of whiskey is becoming broader. They emphasize on the need to produce more whisky in order to meet the demands of consumers. For instance, the scotch has shifted the attention from Britain to Taiwan. Taiwan’s market is doing significantly well, as revealed by this direct indicator. The payments for the whiskey are always quite good. This in return gives the producers an assurance that they will always get better returns for their products. Despite the rapidly increasing demand for whiskey in Taiwan, there is need for a new business venture to tactfully get into the market and win the trust of consumers. It is apparent to the world and the rest of the whiskey producers are free to focus onto this lucrative market. However, penetrating into the market requires proper strategy.
The production of whiskey in Taiwan has been doing fine. The products are manufactured and packaged to match all the classes of consumers. According to Mr. Lee, a holder of doctorate degree in whisky production notes that it one conducts a survey of all the whiskey-producing countries, he or she would find out that Taiwan is the market that the entire world is focusing on as the most ideal target. The company that came up with the whiskey brand known as Kavan earned great benefits, and also saw the merits of putting up a whiskey-producing factory in Taiwan. They noticed that the country has the best temperature for whiskey production. They also found out that the warmer climate in Taiwan is good for faster maturity of whiskey compared to other countries like Britain and Scotland. This also means that for any company that is planning to start producing whiskey in Scotland, human capital investment would be very important since in cooler temperatures, containing the production is much easier as the evaporation rate of whiskey would be slightly lower. The study also reveals that due to the increased production of whiskey, making more money is easier as a result of the readily available market. This stipulates that a lot of emphasis have to be placed on the processes of production. Besides, it should also be noted that whenever there is a fault in the brand, its entire market would be adversely impacted and consumer may tend to shy away from buying the products.
Taiwan’s whiskey market is quite unique in its own way. In fact, it has shocked many companies that have tried to introduce their brands in it. Even though some are fairing on in this market, many fail and are baffled why their brands are not selling unlike others’. The country’s locals love whisky will juicy ingredients obtained from blended fruits. In fact, it is this juicy effect in the whisky that accords them the pleasure of the drink. Just like the ingredients used by Ole Smoky Original Moonshine, extracted from natural fruits and corn that are grown locally. This inspires a natural feel that makes everyone to want to be associated with the whiskey. It is produced from natural products that are chemical-free, which form the largest percentage of the whiskey brands in the market.
Kavan whisky, another brand that has also received good reception in the market, brings in whisky that is manufactured from carbon, which is carbonated whisk soda. The packaging of the brand is done in aluminum cans with a target of the young people who are going out. The whiskey also contained the highest alcohol content ever been produced in the market. However, the company that produces this brand also manufactures other kinds of whisky to cover this promising market. Despite this, they have not been able to beat Ole Smoky in the Taiwan market. In fact, Ole Smoky has managed to successfully enhance its popularity without regards to the pressure mounted by its competitors. Pricing is Ole Smoky’s strength that is not an element in the penetration and success in the market. This is because there are several companies that have brought in lower prices than those of Ole Smoky but still not been able to drive Ole Smoky out of the market. There are some brands that present themselves as very special by the achievements that they have made in the international market even though Ole Smoky Distillers still has the lead in this market. It also stands that the natural taste of Ole Smoky Distillers is another strength that keeps them highly placed in the market. Considering that whisky consumers in Taiwan have identified themselves with the fine fruit-blended whisky that is produced by this company, their loyalty remains tied to this brand since it has never shifted.
There are several whine distillers across the world that are causing ripples in the market. The Japanese whiskey is the largest producer of whiskey in the world. In Japan, there are quite a number of distilling companies that have made significant impact in the market. They command the largest market share in the world. However, their common whiskey is malt whiskey. The companies are just unique on their own and do not trade with other competitors across the globe. The malt that they use in the production of their whiskey is manufactured by the same company that also distills their whiskey. Japanese companies capitalize in the production of a variety of whiskey blends to give them a unique edge in the market. However, in the Taiwan market, the Japanese whiskey may not do quite well since their products lack the fruity ingredients like those loved by Taiwan whiskey consumers. This means that, Japanese whiskey is not a threat in the Taiwan market. On the international scale, Japanese whiskey, however, poses a great threat and is worth looking out for.
Irish whiskey is secondly placed. The whiskey is reputed to be among the oldest whiskey brands in the market. This reputation has accorded them a cut above other distillers. In fact, they are more trusted than other producers. Irish whiskey is manufactured in various blends, some of which are made from a mixture of barley and grains. The whisky is naturally produced from the pot, blended and packaged in containers. Because of the natural flavor that this product has, it is the Irish favorite. This whiskey blend is compared to the Ole Smoky Tennessee Moonshine, which also has natural tastes from fruit blends. In case the Irish whiskey gets entry into the Taiwan market, there are chances that they would pose some threat since they offer one of the products that are desired by Taiwan whiskey consumers. Contrary to the traditions of whiskey and spirits that are distilled more than three times, the Irish whiskey is only distilled two times to deliver the purest form of whiskey. This clearly brings out the fruity and juicy taste of the whiskey. On the international market, this whiskey brand has gained considerable popularity and is preferred by many. This element of including spicy fruit and its smooth texture enables it to gain immense acceptance in the Taiwan market.
In order to acquire an equal market share, and even outdo the Irish whiskey, a company has to carefully look into implementing marketing strategies that shall include the production of the most preferred whisky blends in the market. Another brand that has also made significant impact in the international market is Bourbon, which is quite a unique product in the US. The roots of the brand can be traced back to Irish whisky and has been celebrated in the market for a long time. The Bourbon blends are also known in the global market as those manufactured from natural corn and fermented traditionally.
For a company to gain smooth entry into the Taiwan market, it has to first evaluate the whisky products that are available in the market. Based on the Analysis on Ole Smoky Distillers, it is undoubted that their whisky is much celebrated in Taiwan and is produced from fruity raw materials. The conditions under which the whisky blends are produced also reflect the originality and culture of the Taiwan people. A company can be successful by adopting their production. It is also important to consider the quality the products and prices. For any whisky product that is eyeing the Taiwan market, the prices should be set with the financial abilities of the social class that is targeted in mind. From the view of Ole Smoky’s marketing and pricing strategy in comparison with other whisky companies in the Taiwan market, it is clear that price is not an important factor in winning the market. It is ideal to come up with good prices while also producing better quality products that shall surpass the standards that have been set by Ole Smoky.
Since the whisky company has plans of venturing into the market, it needs to adopt adequate promotional strategies. Customer has to be well informed about the product that is making its entry into the market. The way in which information about a brand is relayed in the market determines its reception. It is advisable to master the most attractive methods of advertisement in the market while also looking into whether the method used in the promo will at some point come to an end, or help in the promotion of the products in order to boost the sales of the brand. The company should also be able to narrow down to the place where the target customers are available. This is important since it is quite easy to take good products to the wrong place, thereby resulting into losses.
Packaging is also an important factor that has to be put into consideration when planning to enter into a new market. The first impression that the people shall have on the brand shall significantly impact its future in the market. Ole Smoky Tennessee Moonshine controls the Taiwan market, thus a new company has to make a positive impression that can enable it beat Ole Smoky. Besides, the company also has to find ways of placing itself strategically in the minds and hearts of whisky consumers in Taiwan. This is achieved through putting great value in customer service and how they relate to the products. Ole Smoky Tennessee Moonshine is well placed in the minds and heart of many customers, thereby enabling the brand to perform well in the market. A new whisky company has to also offer the best blends than those of Ole Smoky in order to have an impact in the market.
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There are numerous effects of keeping discontented workers in a company. The first effect is that most workers will probably undergo and report traumas on the job due to the fact that they are discontented with the employment. Worker discontent can as well cause poor general self-esteem in the company as other workers in the company can be considerably affected by the negative outlooks of workers who are dejected in undertaking their jobs. Worker discontent can as well lead to poor worker efficiency, which in the long run causes poor organizational enactment as well as loss of revenue. It can as well generate huge worker turnover rates because of the closure of agreements of lowly performing workers, as well as the departure of workers in hunt for healthier jobs in a different place. As workers are the expression of the company, workforce discontent will significantly impact a company’s status as well as its capability to keep clients. value concept can be used to enhance worker contentment as it concentrates on the differences amongst what workers want from an employment, as well as what they really obtain from the work concerning the consequences they vastly treasure.
Increasing what worker’s treasure most, for instance salary as well as learning prospects can enhance their job contentment considerably. The social information-processing theory is founded on the fact that the outlooks of workers towards their job are chiefly impacted by the details they get from other individuals. Interaction with the company towards workers ought to be operational and apparent to shun gossips by workers on their works. The dispositional model points out that worker’s job contentment relies on the traits that people hold through circumstances. Dispositional factors; for example personality impacts can influence job happiness. Worker job gratification can be amplified by assigning them duties that go with their dispositional factors. The two-factor concept points out that issues causing job contentment are diverse from those that lead to job displeasure (Kreitner, 2009, p. 328). To inspire workers, an individual has to get rid of the discontentment they are exposed to, and then aid them find happiness. Job displeasure can be eradicated via offering job security, as well as making sure salaries are competitive. To build work pleasure, workers ought to be offered with openings for accomplishment, learning as well as acknowledgment for their work input.
Intrinsic job satisfaction alludes to the job pleasure that comes from within workers due to their job traits, for instance freedom on working techniques, acknowledgment for their excellent work attempts, openings to use ones capabilities as well as the amount of duty given to them (Rahim, 2012, p. 64). Extrinsic job satisfaction comes externally from the job setting because of set of circumstances for instance job security, salary or physical job environments.
To inspire vast work input, companies ought to pursue objective recognition as well as obligation by workers. The significance of the objective ought to be made certain to offer a worker with the inspiration to move away from disappointment, and concentrate on the route to objective apprehension. Workers ought to be made to have faith that the established objectives are achievable. In addition, the objective must be explicit and quantifiable to make sure that workers are mindful of what is anticipated in certain duties in reference to satisfactory working echelons. Moreover, objective challenge can inspire work input. Great objective degrees will probably spur exceptional input, however ought to be amply low to be achievable. Discreetly challenging objectives have the greatest inspiration and work input levels. At last response is crucial in making sure that the goals remain useful as well as workers maintain their pledge to the objectives. Response will make workers aware of their input levels towards meeting the set objectives for them to make essential changes to pursue the objective.
Employment type can be a source of inspiration for workers. Designing employments in a manner that supports specialization can be spurring for workers who are masters specifically errands. Work ought to be sorted out in a manner that makes workers effective. Duties ought to be designed in a manner that permits workers to finish the whole undertaking persistently, instead of in a disconnected manner. Occupations ought to likewise be intended to permit a level of flexibility in arranging and planning, choosing the best system to fulfill the assignment (Jex & Britt, 2008, p. 290-291). It ought to be intended to make sure that it does not negatively influence the lives of workers and those outside the work environment. At long last, it ought to be designed in a manner that gives workers successful response with respect to their performance.
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Jex, S. M., & Britt, T. W. (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Kreitner, R. (2009). Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Rahim, M. A. (2012). Social intelligence, leadership, and problem solving. New Brunswick: Transaction.
New products in terms of yields that have an improved quality than before aid sustain development in a business corporation as well as safeguards the workers and stakeholders’ wellbeing. Companies improve the quality of their commodities because of environmental changes such as competition, technology or client liking. These quality alterations of commodities guarantees that company stay competitive in the market making a corporate firm complete to be the topmost competitive company.
Corporations ought to be extremely cautious in the setting that their product utilization is as well as technological reforms specifically whether technologies can be utilized to enhance their commodities. On the other hand, company administrations ought to be inquisitive on the quality of the goods of the rivals to make sure that they are yet up in front of the competitive market. For example, the social media has had extensive competition because of advanced technologies being revealed regularly for example Facebook as well as Google+. Google+ has an amusing public search service for updates in comparison with Facebook. The whole Google+ flourishes on this search with developing terms in the use exposure (Stay, 2012, p. 88). Google+ developed its social network well in accord to advanced technologies as well as what clients need. The social network has a characteristic that portrays an improved manner to plan communication and associates.
The endowment of diverse services on Google+ has surged the number of clients both corporations and private entities to make their dealings smooth. Subscribers can advertise on diverse materials and data there are fascinated by, on social ads on Google+ through AdSens and this has made Facebook seem less advanced (Stay, 2012, p. 89). Companies ought to improve commodities in accord to corporations’ plans.
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Stay, J. (2012). Google+ Marketing For Dummies. New York: Wiley.
The Laramie Project
Ethnic and cultural value forms a major theme in the play by Moises Kaufman, The Laramie Project. Members of the tectonic Theatre team acted this play. The play is about the murder of Matthew Shepherd, the main character who was killed while 21 years old. He was murdered because he was a gay, a culture that was viewed at as a crime.
The play depicts Matthew as a student at the university. He was a representative of a culture that was considered unethical and illegal by most residents of Laramie, Wyoming. This was a culture of the gays. As such, most people under the leadership of Russell Henderson and Aaron McKinney decided to frustrate this minority group. They planned to kidnap Matthew and then tie him up so that he can be beaten thoroughly. They did this and Matthew was critically injured. He died five days later after being put in a coma for those five days after the beating. This murder angered the Laramie city’s citizens especially because of the fact that lesbians and gays’ rights have been supported strongly by America.
In this play, Kaufman appears to highlight challenges that lesbians and gays face in the contemporary society. They are discriminated against by the other members of the society because they consider them as promoters of a contrary culture. Due to the death of Matthew, several protests were staged in the entire country with lesbians and gays as well as their supporters sending a clear message that they demand respect for their rights. Kaufman uses this play to highlight the major issues using the words of the characters. He uses their voices to represent the voices of gays as well as those of the minority groups in the society that are treated with contempt just because they are different.
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How the Irish Saved Civilization
Thomas Cahill wrote How the Irish Saved Civilization. This author was born in an Irish American family with six children. He grew up in Bronx. He was knowledgeable about Jesuits and he always mulled over aged Greek and Latin. This enabled him to make personal interpretations of his exploration. It also made him think about the unique plans of the antiquated creators. He joined the University of Fordham to study philosophy, medieval theory and the scripture. Additionally, he concentrated on Greek and Latin literary works. He acquired a BA in advanced logic and literary works. In addition, he pursued an ecclesiastical reasoning degree.
He earned a film and memorable literary degree from the University of Columbia. He also joined the Union of New York Theological Seminary where he studied scripture. This balanced instruction, breadth and depth of what he considered as the essentialness of the stories as well as the foundation of the Irish Catholic (Cahill 9).
In the book, How the Irish Saved Civilization, Cahill focuses on past events starting with the demise of a domain that had existed for 1100 years. He continues to inspect an agnostic Irish and a Celts’ member. Celts had ruled a large part of the Western Europe for a long time. Cahill informs the reader about the copyists, friars and unskilled Irish. These could not get adequate books because the brutes burned and destroyed extraordinary libraries across Europe unexpectedly. Additionally, he reveals how both the antiquated and new books were replicated. He goes ahead to describe the way progress was reseeded by the Irish friars across Europe (Cahill 19).
The extraordinary aspect of this book is its narrative approach. From the collapse of the realm to the Irish friars’ evangelical works, the story is narrated through the eyes of the people who existed during the transitional period. These were the Romans who included Patricius, Ausonius, Hippo Augustine as well as St. Patrick. There is also the Columcille or the minister. These were generally people who could reflect on the time of their existence and they affected what was to happen later.
The book of Thomas Cahill demonstrates the way the accommodating evangelists were prepared in the remote corps in Ireland during the Stone Age period. It also introduces the medieval society in Europe during the XI century which ended at the time when the Emporium of Rome fell. If this exertion though not regarded outside Ireland did not exist, innovative advancement of human could as well be extraordinarily distinctive.
First, the book establishes the achievement’s foundation by showing readers the late Roman Empire in the 406 CE periods while Germanic savages Roman regions in Rhine. The Roman people are unable to consider the lifestyle’s results because it has existed for approximately 11 centuries. It extends to Britain, the Mediterranean and Gaul. Cahill extends his investigations from the 15th century to the time when the Roman Empire collapsed. The investigations involve estimating as well as evaluating the essence of the Roman administration.
Readers learn about the ordinary servitude practice from this point because it was all over Europe. This prompts an investigation of Ireland as well as the war parties which extended to the Britain shoreline. Many slaves were caught by these parties on the basis of tribal orders in Ireland. Cahill proceeds to inform readers about the plight of a slave from the “cultivated” Rome. This slave remained outdoors because of the Irish tribes wile. It is obvious that this slave will become a focal player as the narrative unfolds (Cahill 30).
Later, this book bypasses mainland Europe. It digs into Hippo Augustine’s establishments. This is a regretful scholarly and mastermind Christian. After several foundational dialogues about Greek influences through Plato and Socrates, the book reviews Virgil, Cicero and Homer. It proceeds to demonstrate the Roman domain obliteration. Cahill demonstrates how Rome was stripped of its gold, capable laborers and grain by a wave of the brute tribes. He also illustrates how the Roman society, proficiency and science were washed into obscurity by these tribes.
The Europe of Cahill is about to reach fruition. Readers can now see that as the governments emerge slowly, the Catholic Church administered a feeling of untouchable prevalence and power. The book takes another twist to explore Ireland. Readers are briefed about the Celts history through literary works’ recitation and legend arrangement by an Irish persona (Cahill 39).
Patricius is introduced again. Here, the book illustrates him as a slave who is now free from the Irish captor. The slave through a divine revelation re-imagines his own existence while preaching in the previous country where he was held hostage. On coming back to reality in Ireland, he transforms the entire nation into a Christianity state. To Cahill, this is a significant suggestion that Irish can be transformed from a country of brutality to a country of book fans, copyists and educated masterminds (Cahill 42).
The entire book indicates Augustine and St. Patrick as playing vital roles in the civilization of Ireland. The Christian mission of Patrick for instance nurtured Irish scholarship. Additionally, Patrick realized the importance of Christianity in Ireland. Thomas clearly knows that Christianity was accepted by men who refused to abandon their unique historical, cultural and psychological prints through the teachings of St. Patrick. In doing this, Thomas shows that Patrick has a real Irish identity.
Nevertheless, Cahill shows that Christianity is now a reclamation and collection of scientific literature and cultural regions. Additionally, he says that monasteries in Ireland became Western civilization’s databases at the time when Rome was decimated by military campaigns of the surrounding nations. Patrick provided Christianity and traditional education in Ireland. This was kept for safekeeping purpose by the Irish until the end of the Roman obliteration. According to Cahill, the Mainland shores in Europe, Britain and Gaulish were overwhelmed by the Irish ministers and cloisters to take this literary work to the western nations when this happened (Cahill 87).
It is evident that the work of Cahill is noteworthy. It can be seen as a story workmanship and as a chronicled perception. The work is a story, history and yarn all in a splendid postulation. Nevertheless, the reader gets a legendary feeling from the trails that the book weaves. In addition, the book ends by imparting a feeling of the ideas of Cahill by educating the reader about the past as well as how the past can transform the present (Cahill 99).
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Cahill, Thomas. How The Irish Saved Civilization, New York, NY: Anchor Books, 1995. Print.
Economics of International Business
- a).What are the factors that explain the reasons why trading nations across the world have increasingly become interdependent after the World War II?
There are several factors that have played a role in increasing interdependence among the global trading countries. These factors have both the economic and political perspectives. Development of economic bodies or entities in various regions whose focus is to promote interactions past the boundaries of a country is among the critical factors that have led to this interdependence. An example of this is the establishment of the EC or the European community which has increased interdependence among different trading countries worldwide.
Additionally, multinational corporations have continued to acquire increasing significance. This has also enhanced interdependence between trading corporations and countries. Interdependence was also enhanced in the 1970s by the global oil markets’ power. Finally, global trading bodies are maximizing globalization by using common currencies such as the way the Euro was used during the 21st century. Infrastructural development, economic disparities and technological advancement are also the other factors that are increasing interdependence among trading countries.
- b).What disadvantages and advantages do globalization has? Illustrate with examples.
Globalization is the process of cultural, political and economic integration and unification of huge enterprises and different nations. There are diverse implications of globalization on nations, consumers and business entities. A major benefit that people enjoy from globalization is the enhancement of development of the international companies and trade. For example, the Coca-Cola Company has grown because globalization expanded its market’s coverage.
Additionally, the speed of acquiring and disseminating information is promoted by globalization due to technological advancements. Globalization is also important because it reduces the probability of the trading nations going into wars. This is because such nations have effective social, political and economic relationships (Kale et al. 286).
However, globalization increases unemployment. This is due to the fact that most multinationals send professionals and staffs to work in their branches in other countries. This reduces employment opportunities for the local people. Globalization has also led to increased dependence of some countries on the others to realize development objectives (Tajgardoon 137). Additionally, globalization is among the contributors of environmental destruction and pollution.
How does transportation cost affects the patterns of international trade?
There are different effects of transportation costs on the patterns of the international trade in the contemporary economy that is being influenced by globalization. When compared to domestic trade, transportation costs are higher for international trade. This is due to the fact that one has to go beyond the boundaries of a country. Patterns of the international trade are limited by an increase in the transportation costs and this decreases trade volume. This is due to the fact that executing business ideas past the border becomes expensive. Therefore, international companies evaluate transportation means that include ocean/sea, air and road.
Most patterns of the international trade are affected by transportation costs and this is integrated in the cost of the final services and products. The international trade volume is increased by reduced transportation costs because nations and investors are able to ship more services and goods across the world. Additionally, the international trade’s course is dictated by transportation cost in relation to volume and sequence of international transactions or trade volume.
- What are the factors that underlie the values of currency exchange within a free market?
The vital factors underlying the value of currency exchange within a free market include currency demand and supply levels. When the demand for a currency is high, exchange value will improve or transform as long as other factors remain constant. This is related to the desire that services and goods of a country get from the other countries. This is an indication that currency demand is important for exchange value within a free market.
The amount of services and goods that a country is willing or wishing to import or export is another factor. How money flows is important in determining the value of currency exchange. Additionally, the influence or outcome of import or export to other countries also determines the value of currency exchange within a free market.
- What factors apply in short- and long-term exchange rates?
Short- and long-term exchange rates are affected by several factors under globalization’s influence. Among them is the importance of the differentials in regards to inflation. When there are low rates of inflation, the value of a currency increases and its purchasing power also increases as compared to the other currencies. Differentials in regards to interest rates are also another factor.
When the central banks manipulate interest rates, they influence exchange rates and inflation. When the interest rates change, they manipulate currency values and inflation. A deficit in the current account also affects short as well as long term values and exchange rates of a currency. The other important factors that affect values and exchange rates of a currency include economic performance, public debt, monetary policy, trade terms, market judgment, speculation and political stability (Benigno 248).
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Benigno, Gianluca, Pierpaolo Benigno, and Salvatore Nisticò. “Risk, Monetary Policy, and the Exchange Rate.” NBER/Macroeconomics Annual (University Of Chicago Press) 26.(2012): 247-309.
Kale, Sudhir H., and Sangita De. “The Impact Of Globalization On Individual Customers: Implications For Marketing.” International Journal Of Management 30.3 Part 1 (2013): 286-293.
Tajgardoon, Gholamreza, Mehdi Behname, and Khosro Noormohamadi. “Globalization Effect On Employment: An Evidence Form Islamic Countries.” Journal of Business & Retail Management Research 7.1 (2012): 130-137.
Goodness of UN PRI
The UN PRI organization is an investor plan that is supported by the United Nations. Its focus is mainly on responsible investment. The body is so far quite good and successful in assisting investors to integrate good practices in their activities and investment processes. Besides, it also seeks to promote and enhance sustainable financial markets. As a result of this, the organization is a network of international investors with the commitment of putting together its six principles into action.
For example, in January 2009, investors whose values surpassed the $3 trillion mark launched an initiative to assist in boosting the corporate responsibility with regards to the UN PRI principles. This is a revelation that as an organization, UN PRI initiative is good and many investors have great belief in it. In the same way, during the crisis of 2007, quite a number of investors joined the initiative of the UN PRI. This is an indication that the organization can be of help during times of economic crises.
The increase in the number of members of the UN PRI has been impacted by two good qualities of the body. The organization holds the belief that even in times of global financial turmoil; many investors are convinced that the consideration of various factors like climate change, socio-environmental elements and good governance in the process of making investment decisions and exercising ownership is very critical. On the other hand, this impacts responsible investment as an aggregate for long term benefits. The organization ensures that long term results are achieved on investment despite the conditions of the market. This is acquired through appropriate consideration of social, environmental and governance matters.
Members of UN PRI also have the opportunity of maintaining responsible asset ownership as a group with various investors instead of a single entity. As a result of this, the joint initiative supports the sustainability of entrepreneurship that benefits all the investors, owners and communities. Several companies are already experiencing the benefits of the integration of the UN PRI’s six principles. This points out that the organization is a unique venture that is quite good.
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UN PRI (2009). Rapid Growth in Responsible Investment despite Credit Crisis. Retrieved from
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross is an organization that is quite interesting. It is very popular and highly recognized in the country. This is as a result of the work that the organization has done during times of disasters in various parts of the country, when the Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans. The American Red Cross has been on the center stage when it comes to raising funds for the recent humanitarian crisis in the Philippines. Its humanitarian work is what really interests me. Thus, I will do a study on the organization with a view of becoming one of its volunteers.
The American Red Cross was founded by Clara Burton in 1881 DC in Washington (Liudzius 1). Burton was touched by the global Red Cross movement that was inspired by the Swiss while visiting Europe. On her return to America, she campaigned for the formation of the organization. On her time of resignation, Clara Burton has headed the American Red Cross for 23 years. The organization attained its congressional charter in 1900 with the second one received five year later. After the onset of World War I, the membership of the organization grew exponentially (A brief History of the American Red Cross 1).
The American Red Cross is a charitable organization, which mainly relies on volunteers to carry out its activities. It undertakes crucial functions in the community. The organization has the objective of sheltering, feeding and counseling the victims of disasters across the nation. It also helps in the collection and provision of almost half of America’s blood supply. Besides, it also teaches life saving skills- first aid skills to members of the public who are interested. The organization is also mandated with supporting the members of the military and their families. On the other hand, it also goes a notch higher in offering material and emotional support to people who are victims of disasters.
The Red Cross operates on an open door policy. This is conducted by helping those who are undergoing trauma after disasters. It offers them emotional; support through the provision of counseling services and urgent material needs. The body also helps patients who are hospitalized by collecting blood across the country. It also assists military personnel by integrating them into the local community after completion of their duties. It also offers support to families of those who are in the military by giving them the support that they need.
The American Red Cross serves various purposes (What are the goals of the American Red Cross? 1). One of the goals of the organization is making sure that community services are availed to the needy locally. It also aims at providing international relief to people in need. It endeavors to prepare the populations for emergencies.
The organization provides relief services during national disasters by getting volunteers to offer help through building temporary shelters and distribution of food stuffs. It also aims at raising funds for the procurement of supplies for victims of disasters. The American Red Cross offers support to the locals who are poverty stricken. It undertakes this role by starting and running homeless centers where the poor are able to acquire places of sleep and food. The organization also offers mental health services and financial services to those who are in need.
With regards to the military, the organization supports them by making sure that separated families are able to stay in touch. It offers a means of communication between the officers who are in service and their families (Matza). The American Red Cross is among the main providers of blood in health facilities. It also collects blood through organizing blood donations across the country. In fact, statistics indicate that about four million Americans donate blood through the organization each year.
The American Red Cross is mainly focused on international relief (American Red Cross donates initial $6 million to typhoon Haiyan relief in the Philippines 1). In case there are disasters on any part of the world, the organization sensitizes the American population about the occurrences. It passes information to the public about the needs of those affected, and the extent of the disaster. It then organizes fund raising events. The organization further opens centers in the local community where people are able to give their donations of foodstuffs, clothing and anything else that they can give towards disaster relief. It then collects the donations and puts them in one place. The staffs who are mainly volunteers of the organization then create an inventory of all the donations that have been collected. It then gets in touch with the Red Cross chapter in the areas affected by disasters to make arrangements for the collection and transfer of the donations which are then sent to the affected areas to help in saving lives.
The Red Cross plays a significant role in the prevention and management of disasters. It has quite a number of training programs. The organization teaches people about the strategies of disaster management, and how to offer first aid to those affected. The training also involves aspects on the mode of behavior in times of crises. The training is of importance since it helps in preventing panic in the event of disasters. In such events, many people lose their lives as a result of panicking which results from stampedes. Lives can be saved if people stay calm in situations of pressure.
The activities that are conducted by members of the American Red Cross are many and vary based on the conditions. Members organize for blood donations by distributing flyers showing the venues and times for the blood drives. The organization sends its members to handle the blood collection in the various centers. These representatives help in the welcoming ad registration of donors. Those with some medical training expertise undertake the blood collection process. The members of the organization are facilitators and offer training to the public on matters of public safety and disaster management. Besides, they also run local shelters, and assist in the collection and transportation of donations to the final collection points.
Members of the Red Cross are immediate counselors to victims of disasters. They also offer first aid services to those who are injured during crises. Members can volunteer to help in the distribution of relief across the world. This occurs in cases whereby the disasters are of a large magnitude that the local agencies are unable to contain on their own. Members carry out advocacy campaigns to inform the general population about the activities of the American Red Cross and recruitment.
Members of the organization also assist in conveying information from the army personnel to their families back at home. They can get in contact with the Red Cross chapters in various countries with which American forces are in conflict in order to provide information from the prisoners of war. Since the Red Cross is not politically motivated, its members are able to go into war zones without being molested. Combatants offer safe conduct for the members of Red Cross. This is important in making sure that prisoners of war get the care that they need. The members of the organization are also instrumental in organizing community initiatives like the enhancement of safety and health conditions.
The main mission of the Red Cross is to prevent and alleviate human sufferings in times of emergencies. The extent of the human suffering is however, varied. Due to this, the organization requires volunteers from various fields. It needs mental health professionals to provide counseling to victims of disaster. The Red Cross collects a considerable amount of money from volunteers. Therefore, it requires volunteers with expertise on finances to assist in accounting of the collected funds. The organization offers first line care services for victims of disasters, and therefore requires doctors to handle this mandate.
The donations that are collected from fund drives are to be transported. This means that the organization requires volunteers with experience in hauling. The blood drives also require health professionals who are also willing to donate blood. There are just but some of the examples of the volunteers that are required by the organization. On conclusion, it should be noted that the American Red Cross requires any healthy adult with a passion for helping. The professional background is not considered in this drive. Instead it enriches the organization since varied talents can always find an area to fit in within the organization.
More than 95% of the American Red Cross’ workforce is made up of volunteers. As a result of this, the kinds of people who work for the organization are derived from various backgrounds and with different competencies. The organization has got a small core of permanent employees. These are people who are passionate about the humanitarian cause. The volunteers also have different qualifications to help them serve in areas where they are well conversant with. The American Red Cross is a national body with a presence in all the states. In fact, its presence is also felt in the counties and local communities where it offers the required care.
I have a background in accounting and office management. I believe that if I get the chance of joining the American Red Cross, I am able to make contributions to the organization in a way that will be beneficial. I can help in blood drives by setting up the tents in a friendly and inviting manner so as to attract more people to donate blood. Besides, I can also assist in the local Red Cross office by offering my accounting expertise to help in balancing the accounting books. Based on my office management experience, I can also volunteer to run the front office in the local Red Cross office.
I can also volunteer in raining awareness about the organization’s activities. This can help in increasing the awareness about the work of the organization in my city. Through this advocacy, I believe that I can persuade quite a number of people to also volunteer to work for the American Red Cross. It is my belief that the organization requires more local offices for easy accessibility to the people. If I get the opportunity, I would first propose the setting up of a local office for the organization. I am confident that I can set up and run a new office for the American Red Cross.
I believe that working for the organization would positively impact my life. Working together with people who are in dire need is a step towards developing a sense of direction. I have spent my entire life in similar environments, surrounded with friends. Working for the American Red Cross will be an opportunity for learning a lot. It will enable me to meet new people in new environments and also make new acquaintances. Volunteering with the organization will accord me the opportunity of travelling around the country. If I am lucky, I may even get the chance of travelling abroad for humanitarian mission. Such are great life-enriching experiences.
My terms of working with the American Red Cross would be on the basis of a volunteer. However, there is a chance of practicing my professional skills as an accountant while also volunteering with the organization. This can be a great opportunity for growing my professional competence by gaining experience from the field. Besides, it will also help me in becoming a better accountant and office manager. The work of a volunteer provides an opportunity for me to enhance my job prospects as a result of the experience that I am likely to acquire, that could be included in my Curriculum Vitae.
I have a passion in helping others. I am open-minded and also very kind. I have the ability of empathizing with people who are in trouble. Thus, I believe that if given the opportunity to interact with people who are faced with problems, I can be able to inspire their lives in a positive way. People who go through difficult times require understanding and empathy. Those are attributes that I believe I have the ability of conveying. Based on the background that I have in accounting, I can assist people who are experiencing hard economic circumstances to make better economic choices in the times to come.
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“A brief history of the American Red Cross.” 12 Oct. 2012. Web 29 Nov. 2013 <www.wbmac.amedd.army.mil/Departments/OtherServices/AmericanRedCross/history.a spx>
“American Red Cross donates initial $ 6 million to typhoon Haiyan relief in the Philippines.” 2013. Web 29 Nov. 2013 <www.kbzk.com/news/american-red-cross-donates-initial-6- million-to-typhoon-haiyan-relief-in-the-philippines/
“What are the goals of the American Red Cross?” eHow.2013. Web 29 Nov. 2013 <www.ehow.com/facts_4867451_what-goals-american-red-cross.html>
Liudzius, R. “The woman who founded the Red Cross: Clara Barton.” Masslive. 6 Nov. 2013. Web 29 Nov. 2013 <www.masslive.com/red-cross- connection/index.ssf/2013/22/the_woman_who_started_it_all_c.html>
Matza, M. “One man’s story shows Red Cross work reconnecting families.” The Inquirer. 28 Nov. 2013. Web 29 Nov. 2013 <www.philly.com.news/nation_world/?wss=/philly/news//nation_world&id=233686671 &>
As cloud computing grows into a core disseminated computing policy, safety turns out to be a genuine concern. This is in regard to the point that cloud computing is swiftly turning to be the approach computing is carried out. The influences of Harauz, Kaufman, and Potter to the IEEE Security and Privacy Proceedings denote that Elastic Compute Cloud (E2C), US internetworking (USi) and Web 2.0 are a number of accessible cloud computing services (61-62). Cloud computing, the link of several computers via actual communication network for example internet, got protection as well as trust as its key focuses. Even though cloud computing has several merits, its vulnerability to dangers is existent. The possible and freely available platform with several users from different backgrounds undertaking their day to day chores via a shared virtual technologies, the persistent development of technology as well as the existence of hackers and other cyber wrongdoers spur data safety emphases. As its applications multiply, majority of these hackers as well as cyber lawbreakers may find out new methods to take advantage of the system and its vulnerabilities.
Numerous dangers and difficulties in cloud computing increase the compromise danger on data. Data security is focused on the discretion and dependability of information (Mather, Kumaraswamy & Latif 357-450). It entails safeguarding data against illegitimate users. In the computing world, when servers are compromised there could be significant detriment to the cloud users as well as providers. One key threat that can be detrimental to cloud users together with providers is the loss or leak of crucial data such as credit card and social security numbers and private messages. This is a core emphases in this technology era where most of private information is kept online. A network computing blogger perceives that while some in IT management fault technology on information safety emphases, other elements for instance outdated corporate security policies add up to these data safety concerns (Turner, “Data Protection in the Cloud Era”).
In cloud computing, information transmission prompted via the virtual settings brings up numerous storage emphases where users may fail to recognize the real location of their data storage or the nature as well as source of information that is kept along with theirs (Harauz, Kaufman & Potter 62). Sajal, Kant, and Zhang state that users as well fail to recognize if their information is kept at a reliable non-trusted data center (358). This brings out essential concern where data reliability and storage is concerned. Cloud storage is a suitable and cost-effective means of keeping records (from music files to pictures to sensitive documents) on a server in the cyberspace. It not only replaces getting rid of aging records to make space for new ones and buying an external hard drive, but also allows user to secure, match, as well as get information across a number of devices via an internet link. Dropbox, Amazon Cloud Drive, SugarSync, Google Drive and Windows Live Mesh are a number of the accessible cloud storage services. Harauz, Kaufman, and Potter (62) provide the least possible condition of a cloud storage provider as being capable of offering a weathered encryption plan to safeguard all information in the shared storage setting. Others incorporate securing against illegal reach to information via rigid access controls, data gridlock at regular intervals, as well as the storage of this backup information in a safe setting.
In these capabilities, data safety is essential, however extra imperative emphases that require attention occur. For example, is safety the duty of the service provider or the users who keep their data and applications? The 2013 data breach investigations account by Verizon says – once more – that cloud data security relies on individuals as well as technology (Brenner, “Is Anyone Really Responsible for Your Company’s Data Security?”). As stated by Verizon, majority intrusions for a number of years-78 percent this year- are “low difficulty” and simple or mid-level security processes could avert them. This spells an administration calamity and not just a technological problem. On top of this, legal issues for instance regulatory compliance, e-discovery and auditing crop up, for example, the security breach at Heartland Payment Systems Inc. where information on millions of credit cards vanished. To withstand these and other disquiets, a security model that enhances privacy, reliability and accessibility is essential. This concept could permit every cloud to offer a gauge of its current and probable privacy, accessibility and reliability. One of the chief problems in the whole set up is the establishment of confidentiality and guarding of the information at one go.
Evidently, cloud computing is as well an extremely easy target for hackers. A number of service providers for instance Google and Amazon have the fundamental set-up to repel as well as overcome cyber-attack, however others do not have this degree of proficiency. Because of their design’s vital nature, clouds provide the opportunity for orchestrated attacks to several websites, and with unsuitable security, a single cruel deed could compromise hundreds of websites. Thus, larger providers usually require their users to put all their information in the provider’s cloud for the sale of cloud’s reliability. A cloud system with multi-configurations as well as numerous entities is deliberated as safe as its feeblest connection (Harauz, Kaufman & Potter 63). This turns out to be a high-priority target for hackers due to the poor security linked with every single entity. Hackers hunt for providers with the easiest vulnerabilities to abuse and note them as the most probable target. Unluckily, most of breaches consume time to realize and these hackers have a routine of hanging around particularly when they enter into business setups. The security dangers that must be reduced incorporate sensitive data access, privacy, data segregation, recovery, bug exploitation, accountability, management console security, malicious insiders, and multi-tenancy and account control problems.
Solutions to cloud security problems incorporate cryptography and certainly public key infrastructure (PKI), standardization of APIs, the utilization of multiple cloud provider, legal support as well as enhancing virtual machine support. In business environment, the application of latest device for better information safety planning and installing corporate-critical application on centrally controlled serve in the data center or in the cloud will improve data safety. Cloud providers should capitalize in danger assessment to guarantee data encryption, create safe platforms and infrastructures, as well as promise auditing to create compliance. Presently, there is an industrial attempt to computerize security together with virtual device. Implementing global universal security policies, and testing them carefully before adopting may improve cloud computing. This will put countless cyberspace users at peace and will surge not only the output of the cloud computing, but also the reliability of this latest improvement in computing. Cloud computing corporations must look analytically at the requirement for establishment of security on this platform to lead in the area. It is not only due to the fact that this is the latest method of computing, but also actually what is yet to come.
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Brenner, Joel. “HBR Blog Network.” Harvard Business Review. N.p., 19 June 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/06/is-anyone-really-responsible-for-your-companys-data-security/>.
Das, Sajal K, Krishna Kant, and Nan Zhang. Handbook on Securing Cyber-Physical Critical Infrastructure: Foundation and Challenges. Waltham, MA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2012. Print.
Harauz, John, Kaufman, Lori M and Potter Bruce. Data Security in the World of Cloud Computing. 61-64. 2009. Print.
Mather, Tim, Subra Kumaraswamy, and Shahed Latif. Cloud Security and Privacy. Beijing: O’Reilly, 2009. Internet resource.Trainer, Tom. “Network Computingwww.networkcomputing.com.” Network Computing. N.p., 18 Sept. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. http://www.networkcomputing.com/cloud-computing/data-protection-in-the-cloud-era/240161485
Newman, Henry. “Data Storage Issues: Cloud Computing Fails Again.” Data Storage Issues: Cloud Computing Fails Again. N.p., 13 Nov. 2013. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. http://www.infostor.com/blogs_new/henry_newman/data-storage-issues-cloud-computing-fails-again.html
Today’s society comprises of populations from different economic, religious and social backgrounds hence, quite diverse. The diversity plays a very crucial role in cushioning people and supporting social grown from negative impact of social problems. To enjoy peaceful coexistence, members of the society have to be tolerant at all times bearing in mind that societal survival is threatened by unnecessary conflicts.
Any form of prejudice as well as discrimination denies part of global population an opportunity to share the natural resource base. Therefore, from an ethical point of view, discriminatory practices are considered unjust and immoral. This is based on the fact that they do not allow populations to benefit from their entitlements as well as their rights. In this regard, this paper offers a clear and in-depth analysis of islamophobia concepts.
After defining islamophobia, the paper also discusses a different practice that is manifested currently as well as the impact it has on affected groups. Lastly, the paper explains several measures that can be adopted to use to address the concern and to ensure peaceful coexistence between the people.
Lean (2012:23) in his research study explains Islamophobia as an irrational and powerful fear or dislike of Islamic religion. Islamophobia according to Lean attacks followers by perpetuating prejudice, stereotyping, discrimination and hatred amongst them. Essentially, Islamophobia is a kind of religion based resentment and it encourages people.
Proponents of Muslim religion also present Faithfull as people who are highly resistant to change. From the point of view in regards to the western culture, the religion is an extremist, inferior, primitive and irrational (Kumar, 2012). These are prepositions that enhance hostilities against devotees and in the end, results in their exclusion from the society. In this regard, practices that are anti-Muslim are known globally to be normal and hence, live in line with social, political, religious and moral values that ensure the society stays put. It is a move that affects the afflicted individuals negatively.
There are many causes of Islamophobia. Weller (2006:295) believes that ignorance of the religion by non-Muslim societies is one of the reasons that have contributed a great deal to the current state of affairs. In this relevance, non-muslims do not truly understand ethics and values of the religion. They also presume that it promotes hatred and violence towards non-believers.
This is a believer against practices and western ideals that global community consider highly instrumental for harmonious co-existence and living. There is also misconception and it propagates discrimination based on the fact that Muslims are considered to be anti-social.
The other cause of Islamophobia according to Igbal (2010:82) is poor reporting that Muslim nations are victims of violent attacks pursued by Islam extremist groups. The media and political leaders state that Muslim states have not be disseminating and reporting factual information in regards to any violent attack. This has made the global community strongly believe that Muslims are perpetrators of the attacks and not victims.
Similarly, incitements by groups, organizations and individuals contribute to Islamophobia. In this regard, Igbal (2010: 83), states that there are different groups globally whose sole intentions are to cause and spread cross religious violence and intolerance. By perpetuating such acts in certain geographical regions for example, they are in a position to access different resources especially in the affected areas and benefit a great deal from them.
However, they cannot achieve this objective under peaceful coexistence. Since it is also globally known that many extremist groups embrace Islam, they take advantage of this to create violent conditions. The media is additionally known to play a role in the rise of prejudice and discrimination against Muslims. Khalil (2013: 87) believes that western media have played a crucial role in the growing number of people who are hurt and insulted by Muslims.
They use the strategy to achieve their economic and social interests. By perpetuating hatred amongst believers, western countries have also had an opportunity to speak out their ideals and remain highly competitive. What’s more, with the fact that the media is highly influential and powerful tool, it makes it easy to convince global population that Islam is an inferior and irrational religion.
Additionally, Lean (2012:92) also assumes that there is no legal binding instrument that presently addresses the concern. This has led to increased perpetuation of statements that incite religious and intercultural intolerance. Individuals across the globe are also free to spread false information on a certain religion as well as its cultural values that people hold in the same regard.
What’s more, the go unpunished and as a result, they consider the practice to be socially acceptable. Debates have also emerged on intolerance and religious discrimination that are more confined to the elite group in the society. In other words, a good percentage of global population doesn’t really understand different forms of religious intolerance and its impact on wellbeing of those affected.
Grass root populations are also unaware of statuses and public dialogues of these vital debates. Therefore, the objective of the malpractice has prevented them from achieving objective and rational decisions related to the malpractice (Weller, 2006). The political groups are also not willing to engage in dialogues aimed at resolving the issue amicably (Bleich, 2011). In this regard, it is worth noting and appreciating the fact that political classes are influential and authoritative.
Political classes are also responsible for creating laws and regulations that guide an individual’s behavior in different ways. Political class by showing reluctance in addressing the issue promotes its growth in the society. It also gives room for perpetrators to continue with their mission and at all levels.
Finally, following the September 11 attack, there has been exacerbation of many anti-Muslim tendencies in the global society. Muslim involvement in such event also intensified generalizations and stereotypes against Muslims. What’s more, the global community and population employ the use of collective punishment for the Islamic community focusing on adherents to be violent thus, associating them at all times with terrorist activities.
Manifestation of Islamophobia in the current society manifests itself in different ways and in different ways. Besides social agencies, the media, political and religious leaders are also known to perpetuate the malpractice in different ways. In his study, Bleich (2011: 1583), he cites a renowned figure in Italy who planned a competition aimed at choosing the most beautiful pig.
The event organizer considered mosques as the best locations used by perpetrators to recruit terrorists who engage in violent crimes. These remarks were no doubt unfounded and the event was derogatory. It was also insulting to the Muslim community and it underestimated the fact that there are certain society facets that are ignorant of the virtues and values advocated for by Muslims.
Danish caricatures are also a classic indication of hostility towards the Islamic religion (Buehler, 2011). The caricatures of Prophet Muhammad were not only provocative but also insulting and discriminatory. These were additionally accompanied by inflammatory remarks and publications. Instead of speaking peace, making the commentaries led to social unrest and violence. Even though western governments regretted over the matter later on, they did not make any step to prevent a re-occurrence.
Such practices have continued to undermine and unabated sustainable peace. They are also pursued under the pretense of freedom of expression. The degree of negativity and hostility towards Islamic religion is additionally manifested on different types of media. Besides social media, there are also a good number of scholars that closely relate Islam to violence (Kumar, 2012).
Additionally, influential social leaders, political leaders and policy proposals portray the Islam as a religion that backs up violent practices. Therefore, the media truly succeed in convincing global populations that Islam is an extremist religion based on such speeches and publications directed at large target audience. The remarks shape up the society’s attitude.
Lean (2012:93) in his review indicates that media personalities use print and film media to propagate islamophobia. The films they present to the audience confirm that many global terror events were and are planned by Muslims. In this regard, they discriminate against and hate adherents to Muslim religion. Similarly, Poynting (2007:66) indicates that Islamophobia manifests itself through workplace discrimination.
There is also a lot of statistical evidence that confirms that since the September 11 attack of the pentagon, Muslims in different western countries have continued to live or struggle with unemployment (Igbal, 2010). Many companies as a matter of fact are not willing to employ Muslim followers despite their qualifications. This is a fact that has had a great impact on the financial or economic well being and quality of life lived by the individuals.
It is a fact that prevents Muslims from actively participating in formal employment and benefiting from opportunities presented by the society. On the other hand, political leaders are known to promote Islamophobia in different ways. Use of derogatory remarks when making public address in rallies is also not willing to cooperate with them in pursuit of economic objectives and goals. Through the speeches, they also inform the public that Islam embraces radicalism.
Muslim settlers are also faced with many challenges emanating from Islamophobia. Sheehi and Churchill (2011:89) states that there are western countries that introduce stringent regulations and laws that prohibit Muslims from exercising their cultural rights comfortably. For example, Muslim émigrés are prevented from putting on or using their religious attires and symbols publicly on the premise on claims that they cause culture clash.
Laws from Denmark and Netherlands among other such western countries have laws created to prevent Muslims from having cultural centers or erecting religious symbols public places (Igbal, 2010). Governments of such countries arguably consider Muslim as a religion that promotes values that disregard its legal provisions. They also fear the fact that expansion and growth of Muslim across the globe can undermine harmonious living. Muslim immigrants also find it very difficult to gain entry into certain countries. This is largely attributed to the fact that there is widespread fear that they engage in terrorist activities. Moreover, law enforcement agencies in many countries across the globe use the attribute in criminal reporting.
Islamophobia in modern day society is also demonstrated in many ways and fundamentally aim at alienating Muslims from the society. The negativity and hostility related to islamophobia prevents people from appreciating and understanding desirable attributes and values of Muslim religion upholds. This is a fact that has a negative impact on the welfare and functioning of the global society.
Gottschalk and Greenberg (2007:114) also points out that the concept prevents Muslims from participating in cultural, economic and political activities held in the society. For example, their needs and demands are not addressed adequately by political leaders. Negative attitudes from the public also do not give Muslims an opportunity to engage in constructive or critical debates aimed at addressing the issue.
In the end, it enhances hatred and strains vital social relations that are critical for grown and development. At this point, it is also worth noting that Muslims are an important social group. Therefore, excluding them from vital economic and social processes, the society also fails to achieve sustainable and holistic growth and development. Therefore, the practice prevents economic development and hurts Muslims (Gottschalk and Greenberg, 2007).
Social exclusion and social hostility characteristics holds on to the idea that Islamophobia has a negative impact on mental wellness of the affected persons. Apart from preventing them to participate in vital social projects, it also exposes them to a wide range of mentally distressing conditions. They also feel alienated from the society that is in normal circumstances required to support them in different ways.
(Khalil (2013: 48), also agrees disrespect from the global society leads to development of destructive anger feelings, alienation and disaffection. This underrates performance of young Muslims in different spheres of life. Apart from leading to their educational failure, negative treatment also leads to unemployment. Social alienation generally prevents young Muslims from living a normal life.
Mainstream parties also use anti-muslim messages and slogans to succeed in elections. The messages convince the masses that they do not support Islam. This indicates that they distance themselves from the religion. Since they assume vital political positions and leaderships later on, it also implies that laws and rules formulated by the politicians, implemented and enforced by the same people do not favor the general wellbeing of Muslims. Lack of political will to address Muslim problems also has an adverse impact on their survival.
It also reveals that social programs and other development initiatives do not focus on the needs of the Muslim brothers and sisters. This kind of exclusion deters Muslims from sharing and benefiting from available resource base. Finally, injustice and violence drive young Muslims to engage in criminal activities. According to Sheridan (2006:324), characteristic disaffection towards Muslims leads to violent radicalism. This can also be used to explain rising representation of this group in the criminal justice system.
From a psychological point of view, populations that are considered to be violent reach a point where they actually engage in violence to assert the claims. Rising incidences of violence also prevent governments from addressing terrorism and initiating development. It also exposes the masses to negative religious extremism and violence. It also divides the society and leads to significant losses.
Ultimately negative effects across the nation outweigh and overwhelm the benefits of Islamophobia. For this reason, it is vital for governments to employ ideal ways to address the matter effectively and efficiently.
Different stakeholders need to formulate, implement and affect laws addressing religious intolerance to counter the effects of Islamophobia. These will help to define clearly the meaning of freedom of expression and to advocate for exercise of related rights to the later; Kumar (2012:72) in his study indicates that laws should promote cultural and religious tolerance. Those who contravene the provisions should be held responsible for their actions.
The strategy will be quite instrumental in ensuring that religious and political leaders refrain from making insulting or inflammatory comments. Additionally, it will reduce incitement as well as negative impact on the general wellbeing of Islamic religion. To ensure its effectiveness, legal provisions should also be quite comprehensive and inclusive.
Non-governmental organizations and civil society should also assume active roles in reconciling differences and in addressing the concern. Therefore, in his research, Weller (2006:295) is contended that these are the institutions that play a very critical role in today’s international relations. They also contribute significantly in addressing global matters of great importance. Specifically, their activities help to bring together different stakeholders including academicians, religious leaders, diplomats and the media.
Therefore, they can make the most of such a platform to discuss important issues that relate to manipulation of religious practices and faith by radical groups and unlawful justification of their acts. Additionally, they can make suggestions on the best solutions that can be used to manage the trend and to ensure the wellbeing of Muslims.
Governments should also incorporate important also incorporate changes in the educational systems used in their institutions. Such vital changes enhance sustainability and in this regard, Gottschalk and Greenberg (2007:98), recommend that the syllabi should be revised by the government at all education levels. The revision should additionally include incorporation of vital concepts that focus on religious tolerance as well as the negative effects associated with cultural defamation.
Philosophy, history, religious studies and human sciences among other related disciplines are vital avenues that can be used to achieve this goal. They should also in this respect focus on presenting a balanced view of religion, civilization and cultures to target audience. Education is a vital tool because of its capability to align and change attitudes towards achievement of set goals. What’s more, it redefines behaviors and beliefs of the people.
Education is no doubt an important instrument that can be used efficiently to address the issue in a sustainable and effective manner. Similarly, the national, local and state governments should focus on developing and engaging in campaigns against Islamophobia. As earlier indicated, such institutions are highly influential and they can use their authority to bring change.
They can also use the strategy to relay factual and important information on religious and cultural diversity. The government should involve relevant stakeholders from all facets in the society actively and utilize all forms of media. This will be very effective in creating awareness amongst current population on Islamophobia, its negative effects and its implications on the wellness of the society. Most importantly, it will enhance objectivity in decision making process by ensuring that the masses base their decisions on informed choices or opinions.
Islamophobia is a delusion that has affected Muslim population negatively. It is a concept that enhances aggression and hostility towards this group of the population. From the preceding review, the concept of islamophobia is caused by many factors including misuse of the freedom of expression, ignorance on Muslim religious values, lack of legal instruments addressing the concept and misinterpretation of the idea of freedom of expression among others. It is highly manifested through enhance media coverage of islamophobia, discriminatory employment tactics and political commentaries that are derogatory.
Besides propagating hatred, the concept compromises economic development, strains social relations and prevents Muslims from sharing or benefiting from natural resource base. This is a concern that can be addressed efficiently by educating the society on the importance of cultural and religious respect as well as tolerance. It is a step that will take the efforts of the civil society as well as nonprofit organizations and pursuing anti-discriminatory campaigns to achieve the goal.
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Bleich, Erik. 2011. “What is Islamophobia and How Much is There? Theorizing and Measuring an Emerging Comparative Concept.” American Behavioral Scientist, 55 (12): 1581-1600.
Buehler, Arthur. 2011. “Islamophobia: A Projection of the West’s Dark Side.” Islam and Civilisational Renewal, 2 (4), 639-653.
Gottschalk, Peter, and Gabriel Greenberg. 2007. Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Igbal Zafar. 2010. “Islamophobia or Islamophobias: Towards Developing A Process Model.” Islamic Studies, 49 (1), 81-101.
Khalil, Mohammad. 2013. Between Heaven and Hell: Islam, Salvation, and the Fate of Others. Oxford: University Press.
Kumar, Deepa. 2012. Islamphobia and the Politics of Empire. New York: Haymarket Books.
Lean, Nathan. 2012. The Islamphobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims. London: Pluto Press.
Poynting, Scott. 2007. “The Resistible Rise of Islamophobia: Anti-Muslim racism in the UK and Australia before 11th September, 2001.” Journal of Sociology, 43 (1): 61-86.
Sheehi, Stephen, and Ward Churchill. 2011. Islamphobia: The Ideological Campaign Against Muslims. New York: Clarity Press.
Sheridan, Lorraine. 2006. “Islamophobia Pre and Post September 11th, 2001.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21 (3): 317-336.
Weller Paul. 2006. “Addressing Religious Discrimination and Islamophobia: Muslims and Liberal Democracies. The case of the United Kingdom.” Journal of Islamic Studies, 17 (3), 295.
Poverty, Social Welfare & Social Policy
This paper focuses on the causes, impact of poverty as well as reviews of social welfare and different policies that can be employed to reduce poverty amongst individuals. The paper also takes a closer look at policy strategies from the United States for a comparative point of view with countries with high poverty levels. Additionally, the topic includes a wide range of research studies from economic, sociology, psychology, public health and political science (O’Connor 25-80). Lastly the paper addresses a number of questions including
- What is poverty
- Why is poverty persistent
- Why are poverty rates among the minority high
- What is the causal impact of poverty on adults and children and
- What is the effect of social welfare and policies on poverty
Additionally, the topic defines poverty as lack of shelter and minimum food among other necessities for maintaining good life. Extreme lack of essential needs including food and clothing is known as absolute poverty. For example, a high number of up to 35million people live in poverty in the United States of America.
There are many causes of poverty across the globe. While some of the causes can be completely eliminated by employing certain measures, getting rid of underlying and major causes remain a highly critical challenge across the globe. Changing economic trends, lack of access to education, epidemic diseases, corruption, overpopulation, environmental issues and culture of poverty are leading and root causes of poverty. There are also a wide range of social implications in relevance with this topic (90-102).
The effects of poverty as well as its sociological implications are widespread and quite adverse on the populations of many countries across the globe. Those who grow up in poverty experience severe, persistent and regular health issues compared to those who grow up in areas with low poverty levels. Additionally, many children born in poor environments tend to have physical, mental and low birth weight related problems.
Many infants also die before they are born and for those who are born, they end up being severely affected by high poverty levels. Similarly, children born in poor backgrounds miss school frequently because of illness related issues. Moreover, people from poor families are known to have high accident rates compared to those from rich backgrounds (105-110).
Social welfare on the other hand can be defined as prosperity, health and general wellbeing of the people of a country. It represents crucial values that the society can be built on. It also aims at ensuring awareness amongst the people on the most ideal ways of enhancing the quality of life. Social welfare programs aim at enhancing goals and values that support the way of living in the society.
The implications of such programs are to enhance and facilitate the quality of life by initiating the programs directed at uplifting individuals as well as providing quality education and health programs. Social welfare programs are also made probable through application of social policies aimed at achieving set goals and objectives for enhanced quality of life amongst the citizens of a given country.
Social policy denotes activities, guidelines, legislation and principles that affect and influence the lifestyle or living conditions favorable to welfare of humans. It also analyzes the response of the society to social needs of the people. Additionally, it is primarily focused on issues affecting the society, policy and economy among such factors that are very critical to human living and ways in which they can be made available.
The policies shape access and distribution processes of goods as well as resources in a given country with at aim of promoting equality for all (Whitman 28-100).
Observations and analyses
In Canada, poverty remains high and common. Its rate of poverty is high amongst the world’s richest nations. Canada experiences declining poverty levels in the recent past and some of the programs employed in the country to help citizens are designed by the government based on what the country’s market can provide.
Canada also has a high rate of government transfer payments to the citizens and it amounts to more than $176.6billion shillings. What’s more, the government has taken the initiative to fund public education and Medicare for its people as a policy measure to help reduce poverty levels and to enhance the quality of life (World Development Indicators 58).
All provinces in Canada provide publicly funded and universal healthcare services to its citizens. The services are medically essential especially for citizens who cannot afford high Medicare costs. There are also other social programs that have been subsidized by federal authority in Canada. Provinces in the country are also responsible for ensuring that children going to school access quality education.
Education in Canada is a must up to the age of sixteen. Both high school and elementary education in the country is available at a normal cost to ensure that many citizens afford. Similarly, federal government in the country provides safety nets and funds to students and the elderly. All these steps are aimed at reducing poverty levels in the country (108-1588).
Another good example of poverty, social welfare and social policy is Bangladesh. It is the most densely populated country in the world with more than 150million people. Bangladesh also has more than 20 percent of its total population living under the poverty line of 2 US Dollar a day.
Bangladesh also has child malnutrition rate of 48 percent. The country is also characterized with high corruption levels, overpopulation, insufficient electricity, poor roads, overpopulation and political instability. Economic growth in Bangladesh is also low, between 5 and 6 percent per annum. The country similarly, remains overpopulated, poorly governed and poor (198).
The population in Bangladesh is also predominantly rural with high rural poverty levels. More than 45 percent of the people of Bangladesh rely on agriculture for their livelihood. Additionally, it lacks enough working welfare programs that can help enhance the lives of its citizens. The government of Bangladesh also has limited social policies that can be pursued to ensure equal sharing of resources amongst its people (200-289).
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O’Connor, Alice. Poverty Knowledge: Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2001. Print.
Whitman, Sylvia. World Poverty. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc, 2008. Print.
World Development Indicators, 2005. Washington, D.C: World Bank, 2005. Print.
Merlen Sparza is one of the famous Hispanic female boxers. She was introduced to Houston boxing gym at a tender age of eleven. While at the gym, she admired Rudy Silvia, a legend at the gym who was conspicuously training with men (Kahn 234). As she gazed at the people training at the gym, Merlen admired their sharp punches, fit bodies and champions. She was confident and determined to walk in the footsteps of her mentors and become a renowned boxer. Merlen continued to train against the wishes of her father and brother who opposed her boxing career. (Kimball 323).
Barely twenty years old, the 5-feet Merlen made history in 2012 in Olympics Women boxing. She was so enthusiastic about boxing that she even trained in the ring and displayed unmatched skills in punching and attacking. She wakes up at 6a.m for serious training. She later takes lunch with high protein content in order to improve her boxing skills (Sugar 245). It was joy when she raised her country’s flag after emerging winner in flyweight category in the tourney in 2012. However, some people believe that she has constantly faced weak opponents in most of the competition. For instance, she knocked out her opponent in the first round in June 2013 in Houston (Toole 234).
Merlen Sparza became a source of inspiration for most girls in Latin who had interest in boxing. Many approach her for guidance and autographs with the hope of becoming like them. They imitate her determination and boxing techniques and her knack to overcome stigma on boxing, which the world considers a male sport.
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Kahn, Roger. A Flame of Pure Fire: Jack Dempsey and the Roaring ’20s . Mariner Books , 2000.
Kimball, George. Four Kings: Leonard, Hagler, Hearns, Duran and the Last Great Era of Boxing. Mainstream Publishing, 2008.
Sugar, Angelo Dundee & Bert Randolph. My View from the Corner . McGraw-Hill , 2007.
Toole, F.X. Million Dollar Baby: Stories from the Corner. Harper Perennial , 2005.
Mobile Technology and Its Impact on e‐Commerce
E-commerce plays a major role in the world. However, applications and technologies are shifting towards mobile computing and the wireless web. While this is the case, the advancements have also brought into play a host of challenges, especially concerning wireless electronic commerce. Because of varying preferences of customers, development of these applications is a continuous process to satisfy the market. Mobile electronic-commerce, which uses portable devices to transact business, has become a major part of people’s lives. Common portable devices include laptops, mobile telephones, and vehicle-mounted interfaces among others (Lamersdorf 243).
The only requirement for mobile electronic commerce is to have access to mobile wireless, which is Web or WAP enabled (Lamersdorf 255). It is worth noting that phones and other hand-held gadgets have limitations, including low memory, small screens and few input devices. They do not have traditional computer keyboards and have limited text lines and character entries. To the contrary, laptops support many devices, have huge data storage capacity, have traditional keyboards and have large screens.
The main concern for manufacturers is deciding the most effective way individuals to use apps to access information through the gadgets. For this reason, there is need for manufacturers to go back to application software and operating systems for a range of platforms. Portable devices can support apps including Palm’s PalmOS, Microsoft’s Pocket PC OS, WAP, SMS, Web and I-node (Nickerson & Warkentin 446). While some of these apps meet the needs of most users, they have limited functionality. Thus, manufacturers and app developers have the task of improving functionality of these devices to enhance their capabilities (McConnell, Merz, and Maesano 370).
Mobile e-commerce therefore denotes business to consumer moneymaking activities, conducted sing mobile devices. With wireless technology, there is hope for mobile sub-net in the e-commerce world. Today, most people in the world own mobile phones, which largely rely on wireless technology. Other devices allow voice communication while others concentrate on non-voice functionalities like watching videos, Geo-location data, reading emails and accessing internet (McConnell, Merz & Maesano 378). This has led to change in purchaser payment market. With these devices, e-commerce is simpler and convenient around the globe. Because of developments in mobile e-commerce, there is massive manufacture of handsets, improved technology and affordable data prices. These have encouraged more usage of mobile data than in previous years.
Mobile e-commerce has also led to the rise of consumer benefits and protection to consumer issues. They include mobile payment and banking, premium services, mobile shopping and mobile marketing, just but a few. With premium services, users buy digital content and electronic information via text messages, where the costs add up to the mobile phone expenditure (Tsalgatidou 252). Examples of SMS free-based services are horoscopes, SMS voting system, flight status alerts and dating chat sites among others. Because of development of wireless networks, there is enhanced data transfer and better display capabilities by portable devices. They also have good processing power, which promote internet-enabled services (Tsalgatidou 276). Today, there are content portals, which offer a range of free services like downloading games, videos and ringtones. It is therefore clear that mobile content has massively evolved to meet the changing needs of the market. With mobile payment and banking, financial institutions offer text banking to online clients. Through this platform, a customer can view account balance and recent transactions on phone. On the other hand, mobile payment software allow customers to text their payments, where companies offer traditional trust services via the internet by expanding the functionality of the device. Oftentimes, they improve privacy through encryption and public key management (Nickerson and Warkentin 440).
Besides the advantages above, wireless apps and technologies have a range of demerits in mobile e-commerce worldwide. The absence of mobile device standardization all over the world is a major concern. Mobile devices differ from country to country and even within a particular country. The inequality in acquiring and access wireless web technology also affects mobile e-commerce in the world. It is clear that some countries have low demand for mobile device capacity. For example, Japan and Europe have higher demand for mobile devices than the U.S (Tsalgatidou 268). Very few Americans use wireless devices compared to people living in Europe and Asia. Americans also have lesser usage rates than Asians and Europeans. Experts observe that there will be lower demand for 3G internet to hit critical levels, hindering development of e-commerce within affected countries.
In conclusion, technology development has played a major role in mobile e-commerce development. Today, millions of people all over the world depend on this technology to transact businesses. With rapid advancement in wireless devices, there is need to ensure that the devices function properly. There is also need for development of wireless communication with high bandwidth to meet the demands of mobile e-commerce and wireless apps.
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Lamersdorf, M. Trends in Distributed Systems for Electronic Commerce. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, NewYork, 1998: 220-298. Print.
McConnell, M. Merz, L. & Maesano, M. An Open Architecture for Electronic Commerce. OMG/ECDTF/OSM Response, 1997: 315-387 Print.
Nickerson, R. and Warkentin, M. Wireless/Mobile E-commerce: Technologies, Applications and Issues. Seventh Americans Conference on Information Systems, 2001: 420-477 Print.
Tsalgatidou, A. Business models and transactions in mobile electronic commerce: requirements and properties. Computer Networks, 2001: 221-289. Print.