The editorial ‘‘Gun Control’’ highlights major advancements in the debate on gun control in the United States and opinions on how the two debating cliques base their arguments. It tracks back the footsteps of gun ownership debate since the Second Amendment of the US constitution in 1791, to the present Obama administration.
Early gun control opponents argued that the Second Amendment allowed every individual a right to own a gun for self-defense against federal government. The argument was Second Amendment interpretation that allowed State militia to own guns to protect State freedom. Gun control, however stated in this clause, interprets otherwise.
They also argued that Second Amendment precisely specified ‘A well-regulated Militia, being essential to security of a Free State, the right of the people to bear and keep Arms, shall not be infringed’’. Therefore, the right to own guns in their own opinions was reserved, to a ‘‘regulated state militia’’ and not members of the public. The clarification of the phrase ‘regulated state militia’ appeared to be the source of contention.
While pro-gun parties considered it as referring to military force selected members, anti-gun control individuals thought it out that all citizens of the state had a duty to defend the freedom of their state and the public in general fall under the category of regulated militia as long as they observed regulations.
Laws on gun control were also put in place to solve the constitutional uncertainty. The first law was created in 1934 and it restricted the sale as well as possession of lethal guns for instance the sawed-off short-gun. In the upsurge of assassinations in 1960, more stringent law was created prohibiting the sale of guns to minors, the mentally sick and to those with criminal records.
Legal purchase of guns required a declaration that a person was eligible to own a gun. Even so, criminals would offer false information and possess the weapons without detection. Such a loophole was also filed by Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act in 1994. It also expected gun applicants to wait for at least five days for proper screening of their criminal records.
The screening was automated in 1998, because of the use of computers and the waiting period was therefore eliminated. Gun related violence as a result, reduced between 1992 and 2000 by 35 percent. Such efforts were also enhanced by President George H. W. Bush’s move in 1989 to ban importation of assault rifles.
The courts additionally played a significant role in modelling the direction of gun control debate. In many landmark rulings, the verdict of the Supreme Court also favored pro-gun control activists. In the United States vs. Miller (1939) for example ruled out that the transferal of sawed-off short-gun from one state to the other should be outlawed because there is no supporting fact that it can be utilized as a military equipment for the common state defense.
It was later in 1969 and 1980 that the other two rules were made favoring strict legislations on gun control. The rulings later influenced lower courts verdict until late 20th century.
Efforts to manage gun ownership have since been successful in reducing gun related crimes or violence more specifically in the 1990’s. Even the efforts seem inadequate bearing in mind rampant mass shooting reports in the last decade. This is based on the fact that legal system still has loopholes that let guns into ownership of wrong individuals including the mentally sick and minors.
Guns for example are still traded in places with no screening in private shows and if there is a screening process, it still lacks sufficient data to ensure legal purchases. More effective and strict legislations however are still needed to control gun ownership. The Obama administration has also proposed amendments to the legislation to help control gun ownership more effectively, for instance, that which, aims at expanding background checks on those interested in gun purchases.
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Drug Testing at Work Place
Testing drugs at the place of work is always controversial. According to the human rights activists, the move violates civil liberties. However, drug testing is necessary for most employers who see it as a means that control drug abuse at work places. The position of this paper is that testing drugs at the place of work violates privacy. The paper also supports this position with two reasons.
Normally, drug testing entails taking samples of the blood and urine as well as other excretions of the employees. In itself, the practice invades the body of a person even when actual testing is not done. The body of an individual is a private possession. Urine collection is particularly highly intrusive. According to Nash (2010), the ruling of the Supreme Court stated that some activities in the society are private such as passing urine.
This is why people do it privately and when done in public, social norms and the law often prohibits it. Generally, passing urine is a topic that embarrasses people. This is why euphemisms are mostly used in reference to this act. In that kind of a setup, asking people for urine for observation purposes as well as other excrements for purposes of chemical analysis violates not only their privacy, but it also humiliate them.
Once collected, the samples are then submitted for the purpose of testing. The entire idea is about testing people for drug and to determine if they are using prohibited drugs. Nevertheless, Eisaguire (2008) notes that, samples’ analysis provides more than evidence of drug abuse. For instance, the chemist can trace the HIV, reproductive illnesses, depression and other medications that are taken for various conditions using urine samples. Such information should be kept private for most average employees. Thus, accessing such information about the health conditions of the employees implies a violation of their most private lives.
According to the above stated reasons, workplace drug testing can be considered a violation of the employees’ privacy in two stages. These are the sample collection stage and the sample analysis stage.
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Eisaguirre L. (2008) “We Need To Talk” – Tough Conversations With Your Employee: From
Performance, Massachusetts MA: Adams Media. Retrieved on February 8, 2014 from; http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=ItHHluLyutAC&pg=PT113&dq=DRUG+testing+invades+employees+private+life&hl=en&sa=X&ei=J0f2UqyQLY3Q7Aal2ID4Cg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=DRUG%20testing%20invades%20employees%20private%20life&f=true
Nash J.R. (2010) Workplace Privacy: Proceedings of the New York University 58th Annual
Conference on Labor, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International. Retrieved on February 8, 2014 from;
The American Airline Report
The Business Model Canvas
The canvas of the American Airlines’ business model offers a rationale that the company uses in creating, delivering and enhancing values in its services and products. There are nine blocks of the American Airlines which indicate its interest in improving service delivery. This company focuses on four major areas that include customers, infrastructure, offer and viability. The canvas of this business model serves as the strategy that is implemented through the frameworks, systems and processes of this company.
As such, the canvas of the American Airlines’ business model is reliable and it guides its strategies and operations towards the achievement of the set targets. This company aims at expanding its share of its target market within five years as well as to enhance service delivery (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2013). This canvas offers a detailed direction and approach that will enable the company to achieve its targets.
Fig 1. The Business Model Canvas of the American Airline
|Key Partners||Key Activities||Value Proposition||Customer Relationship||Customer Segments|
|Joint ventures||Production||Easy traveling||Personal assistance||Mass markets|
|strategic alliances||Problem solving||Frequent and reliable departures||Self-service||Diversified|
|Buyer-supplier||Networks||Low prices of tickets||Communities||Segmented|
|Cooperation||Refundable and ticketless flights||Co-creation|
|Physical assets||In house sales|
|Cost Structure||Revenue Streams|
|Fixed costs||Asset sales|
|Variable costs||Ticket fees|
|Economies of scale||leasing/renting|
In the canvas of the American Airline’s business model, there is a customer segment that is made of the individuals who serve the organizations’ aim. The survival of American Airline is dependent on its customers. For customers to be satisfied, their needs should be grouped in this segment by the company. In the canvases of other businesses, models have customer segments that have several small and large customer segments. Nevertheless, the canvas of the business model of this company has a common segment that identifies different customers that the organization serves.
American Airlines require customer segments to make relating customers to various distribution challenges, promotion of different products and justifying offers as well as understanding various aspects of relationships and offers possible. The focus of the American Airlines is on mass markets. As such, the company does not distinguish distinct segments of its customers. The focus is on distribution channels, value progressions as well as customer relationships. The company focuses on mass markets so that it can promote its products and services to different profitable and potential customers.
This aspect of the canvas of the business model of the American Airlines is aimed at understanding different services and products during the promotion of value to specific customer segments. Value proposition helps in enabling the company to compete with other airline firms in satisfying the needs of customers. The company considers running a cheap airline in order to accommodate different business travelers. This aspect includes frequent and reliable departures, easy traveling, refundable and ticketless flights as well as low prices of tickets.
The needs of specific customers are identified by the company through value propositions. This can be innovative and therefore, it represents offers. However, value proposition is used in identifying the existing offers in the markets. Value is created for different customer segments using value proposition via differentiation of distinct needs of customers. In value proposition, performance is an important and relevant aspect (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2012). It helps in the creation of the value of services and products. The canvas of the business model of this company has enhanced graphics that produce a corresponding growth as a way of meeting the needs of the customers.
Communication of this organization is explained by the channels that help in reaching the target customers in order to deliver the company’s value proposition. Sales and communication strategies as well as the distribution channels enable this company to link itself with potential customers. These channels serve an important role of enhancing the experience of customers from the services of this company. The role entails raising customer awareness, helping customers, enabling customers to evaluate value proposition of the company, delivering value proposition as well as providing post-purchase support.
The company meets the customers via these channels. Channels segments play an important role of delivering value proposition to the company’s mass markets. The company values the challenges that it faces by including website and in-house sales. Website and in-house sales enhance the channels that link the customers and the organizations. The channels also help in the integration of customer experience as well as increasing the revenues of the organization.
Customer relationships are greatly upheld by the American Airlines. This is because they enable the company to identity the existing relationships within particular customer segments. The relationships that the company would like to have with the customer segments are clearly stated by the management. The relationships that this company has with the customers are specific motives of this organization whose aim is to realize increased sales, customer acquisition and customer retention. Lowering the discounts of return tickets motivate these relationships. There are discounts that help the company in conquering its target markets by enhancing customer retention as well as maximizing revenues. In most cases, the company engages automated services. In this relationship, customers are able to engage in self-service. Customers as well as their personal attributes are recognized by automated processes. In American Airlines, this relationship is the best because it offers a reliable and simple way of stimulating personal relationships. Customer relationships also help in improving the model that the company uses to enhance customer experience.
The canvas of the business model of this company uses revenue stream to obtain the money that is realized from every customer. As long as customers remain relevant in the canvas of the business model of this company, revenue streams will always play an important role in the canvas of this business model. Every revenue stream has a unique pricing strategy. As such, its management is done separately. This company uses a business model that helps in the provision of value proposition.
However, revenue streams aim at relating revenues and value. Different ways are used to obtain revenues for the company. They include subscription fees, assets safes as well as renting and ticket collections. Revenue streams of the American Airlines are maximized as way of increasing productivity in the organization.
The organization has key resources which enable it to operate and control its business model. These resources enable the company to reach its markets, earn revenues and maintain relationships. As such, key resources play a relevant management and operation role of the company’s business model. Key resources cover financial, physical, intellectual and human aspects. These resources in the American Airlines are either leased from the major partners or owned. They are important to this company. Therefore, the airline company cannot function or operate without these resources.
Various essentials in the promotion of the operations of this company are represented by its key activities. American Airlines depends on these key activities to maintain proper business model functioning. Key activities and key resources help in the creation and provision of value propositions, reaching out to new markets, maintaining relationships with customers and earning revenues. The key activities of this company include an online tickets system which enhances the online sales of tickets.
There are also production activities that include the provision of services by the firm such as carrying passengers to their preferred places (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2013). Additionally, there are problem-solving activities which provide solutions to certain problems that the company faces. Key activities of American Airlines are recorded as a vital productivity of the processes.
The traditional canvas of the business model of the American Airline includes key partners as well. This shows the connections that partners have with suppliers in business. This organization has established alliances with different business models as a way of reducing risks as well as acquiring new resources. Among the partnerships that the company has include joint ventures, buyer-supplier relationships as well as strategic alliances. The major partners of this company have a design that facilitates the allocation of available resources to appropriate or optimum levels. The logic in this is that partnerships that promote the economies of scale help in cost reduction. Key partnerships are important because they help in cost reduction which promotes relevant capabilities.
Incurred costs and expenses are indicated by a cost structure within the business model of this company. Value delivery, revenues generation and customer relationships are enhanced by the incurred cost in this business-operating model. Other segments of the canvas of this business model incur costs. As such, American Airline has a cost-driven business model. Thus, this company has to established low-cost structures. Reduction in the operation cost in this organization assists in maximizing margins. Minimizing cost is important as a way of maximizing the acquired revenues.
New Business Model
Running an airline is a complex venture that needs a new or unique business model. The airline should make flying at low prices possible for different people. IATA notes that there has been a reduction in travel costs by 60%. Travelers have also increased rapidly. Towards the end of the 2000s, the EBIT margin earned by the airlines was 0.7 percent. The fact that price variation is dependent on the systems of price differentiation of different processes has been accepted by customers. The aim of a new model should be to introduce a new way of repositioning this company in the industry so that it can tackle pertinent issues with ease. The model will enhance sustainability and competitive advantage.
The new model’s generation will enable the company to use ideation process which occurs via prototyping. Prototyping enables the company to reduce issues that affect the five major innovations of the potential business. The five major innovations in this business are from the prototyping business model idea. The creation of a business model by the American Airlines entails innovations that will increase its influence, revenues and enhance competitive advantage. This company chooses a team to participate in innovation as a way of indicating the value of exploring the business model.
Open strategy assists in the promotion of future business strategies while focusing on an open innovation approach. This aims at expanding value creation for various organizations. Open strategy should sustain a section of the created value. Openness has helped in shifting focus from ownership to reconsidering the processes of capturing and delivering value.
However, the products of open innovation face the challenges of the traditional strategy. Industry’s costs are reduced by some costs despite the increased competition (Kaplan, 2012). The business model that is based on innovation is customer-oriented. It is based on the needs of customers and it facilitates access as a way of enhancing competitiveness within the industry.
Fig4. Customer-Driven Business model that is based on Innovation
|Key Partners||Key Activities||Value Proposition||Customer Relationship||Customer Segments|
|Joint ventures||Production||Easy of travel||Personal assistance||Mass markets|
|strategic alliances||Problem solving||Frequent reliable departures||Self-service||Diversified|
|Cooperation||Refundable ticketless flights||Co-creation|
|Physical assets||In house sales|
|Cost Structure||Revenue Streams|
|Fixed costs||Asset sales|
|Variable costs||Ticket fees|
|Economies of scale||leasing/renting|
The focus of customer-driven model depends on open coordination while establishing stronger relationships in business processes. Different units’ integration is represented by business innovation within the open innovation model that has multiple segments. A company that engages in innovation processes can notice the bulkiness of innovation as well as the protection of flight rights. The focus of the American Airlines is on minimizing costs for customers and expanding the markets and destinations. As such, incorporating open innovation in its new model enhances the efforts of accomplishing the set goals. Development of new products focuses on creation of this business model to enhance diversification of markets and capturing greater value. The focus of innovation is also on sales success and technical success’ translation in order to commercialize the company’s systems.
In terms of technology, product innovation plays a significant role in the enhancement of the competitiveness of the American Airlines. Innovation process, more so the organizational formats need new, unique business models. As such, technological innovation leads to the development of new business models. This helps in handling the increasing costs of development while reducing the lifecycles of the products of this company. This shows the importance of controlling development and research resources to save money and time that is spent on innovation processes. Additionally, an innovation model can transform revenue streams requiring the company to seek license for new services and products that it will offer. This shows that the company is willing to pursue more revenue opportunities (Kaplan, 2012).
The American Airlines’ traditional model explains carrier adoption in the marketplace that is always changing. There are disruptive changes that relate to business behaviors of passengers and competition which requires more resources. The current airlines firms are unable to charge premiums to customers in some markets because of the low cost carriers at the entry points.
The new model seems perfect when compared to the traditional model. The new model will undergo alteration and experimentation to produce better results. This helps in identifying the needs that new business models and value creation should entail. Innovation business model’s approach has several benefits in terms of the identification of various risks, understanding weaknesses and strengths, market changes, as well as emphasizing on mutual reliance on people. This depicts it as an appropriate approach that can be used to leverage value which is important in sustaining the profitability of organizations (Kaplan, 2012).
Kaplan, S. (2012). The business model innovation factory: how to stay relevant when the world is changing. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2013). Business model generation: a handbook for Visionaries, game changers, and challengers. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Do Ends Justify The Means?
International human rights, for personal integrity refers to the right not to be tortured or exposed to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (CID). These are different ways of inflicting pain to people to get specific information. Experts however argue if these methods have substantiated differences. Nowak and MacArthur (2006) observe that there exists a line between torture and degrading treatment. Thus, it is possible to differentiate these terms, which denote the degree of suffering.
According to the United Nations Conventions Against Torture, denying one food and drink do not amount to torture unless it is accompanied by prolonged mental harm (Bakalar, 2007). Nevertheless, the difference between torture and CID depends on the nature, aim and intensity of the treatment applied. Not all inhuman acts constitute to torture. For example, loud noise from the neighborhood cannot be compared to a terrorist who chops off a victim’s tongue. It is clear that the degree of pain in the two cases is different. Nowak and MacArthur hold that degrading treatment is humiliating victims without severe pain whereas torture is inflicting physical and mental pain (2006).
Oftentimes, investigators may use excessive force and cruel tactics to get information from dangerous terrorists. Notably, the law allows use of force and sometimes weapon in specific cases. For example, police can use weapons to apprehend criminals who defy surrendering (Nowak & MacArthur, 2006). Here, a terror suspect who is a threat to state security yet refuses to divulge important information to detectives undergoes forceful interrogation. However, this should be withdrawn once the victim accepts to cooperate or experiences deteriorating health (Bakalar, 2006). This is because torturing a sick person may lead to permanent ill health or death. In all these cases, investigators are to exhaust all possible options before reverting to excessive force.
While defiant criminals deserve forceful interrogation, they need not to be extradited to countries known to use torture when interrogating suspects. In some cases, criminals get exaggerated penalties to compel them to confess. This amounts to abuse of human rights and integrity. For instance, some Middle East countries mutilate victim’s body as an interrogation technique. Guantanamo bay in Cuba is an example of a prison known to torture victims even when they are willing to volunteer information (Carey, 2012). Countries that lack capacity to conduct conclusive interrogation on lethal criminals can outsource them. Thus, terror suspects ought to be interrogated in countries they targeted and not in a different state (Carey, 2012).
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) prohibits torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading handling of criminal (Langley, 2010). Clarke argues that no country can make exceptions after the ratification of a treaty (2012). While some countries use rendition to hand over criminals to another states, irregular renditions are not permitted. Rendition is acceptable where a country is incapacitated in interrogating specific criminals and gives them up to knowledgeable countries. Irregular rendition is where a criminal is secretly handed over to another country, known to have to weak laws for human rights (Langley, 2010). Clarke describes irregular rendition as an extralegal way of charging criminals as they undergo excessive physical and psychological pain (2012). It thus undermines the bill of rights and societal morals.
It is not possible to distinguish torture, cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment (Nowark & MacArthur, 2006). The understanding of these terms depends on the degree of pain and suffering, severity of the treatment and nature of the situation. For example, it would be inhuman to take a suspect who commits a pretty crime to Guantanamo Bay. However, the society is comfortable when deadly terrorist are sent to the same prison. Likewise, while less ill-treatment does not amount to torture, they could be cruel. Thus, authorities should only use excessive force and rendition during interrogation as the last resort. In summary, the use of physical or mental force on a criminal to humiliate amounts to degrading treatment while torture is applying severe pain with a reason (Carey, 2012).
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Bakalar, N. (2007). The line between torture and cruelity. The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Carey, H. F. (2012). Reaping what you sow: A comparative examination of torture reform in the United States, France, Argentina, and Israel. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Clarke, A. W. (2012). Rendition to torture. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.
Langley, E. E. (2010). The loss of American values in the case of erroneous irregular rendition. Georgetown Law Journal, 98(5), 1441. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/761183586?accountid=1611
Nowak, M. and MacArthur, E. (2006). The distinction between torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. 16(3), 147-151
It is clear that crime in the 21st century has become more complicated as compared to past years. With the emergence of new forms of property crimes that relate to cyber activities, authorities have no option but to improve their approach in handling crime. Hacking and cracking are the two main means through which people commit cyber crimes. Hacking is access to computer systems illegally and retrieving information. On the other hand, cracking is unauthorized access to copyrighted materials by altering their encryption. Cyber crime takes various forms like theft. Here, you access a person’s private details and commit financial fraud or identity theft.
Additionally, people commit cyber crimes through copyright infringement or distribution of intellectual information. With copyright infringement, you distributes of a company illegally for profits, leading to losses to the parent company. Access to intellectual information and distribution encompasses hacking websites and servers and retrieving confidential information and distributing it without consent of the owners. Notably, cyber crimes have become more serious than traditional forms of theft. This is because of how criminals maneuver and hide their identities behind firewalls and false proxy IP addresses. Thus, it is hard to track and charge cyber criminals. Moreover, most justice systems in the world have weak laws to curb cyber crime. Lastly, the massive use of the internet in the world today makes it easy to share and intercept information without detection. The implication is that cyber crime will continue evolving into a complex affair as technology advances, making it hard for law enforcement agencies to find a single solution.
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Controlling Prisoners’ Technology
With today’s technology, inmates have communication gadgets like mobile phones in cells, which they use to commit crimes. It is a common trend in the world’s developing nations like Brazil and Columbia. For example, a terrorist group in Afghanistan executed attacks by planning in a prison in Pul-e-Charkhi. Using Smartphones, they coordinated attacks in towns, twenty miles away.
Inmates are likely to take their activities a notch higher as the world experiences massive advancement in ICT. They will have more Smartphones and integrate the outside world in committing these criminal activities. There is a likely collaboration between the prisoners and drug traffickers. Nonetheless, responsible authorities have put in place measures to address this problem. A common approach is jamming mobile network within prisons and their surroundings to disable communication. However, some tech-savvy inmates still bypass such measures.
A possible alternative could be reverting to the use of mobile drones with Wi-Fi signals to run their illegal activities. In such a case, authorities could consider allowing prisoners to have mobile phones but monitor their activities. They could fit them with tracking gadgets to gather information on illegal activities. Alternatively, prison could turn off virtual identities of criminals upon their incarceration. Such individuals would then be under watch and probation once they are released. This would reduce the risk of inmates to cause havoc in the society.
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Bollati, V., & Baccarelli, A. (2010). Environmental epigenetic. Heredity, 105(1), 105-112.
Bollati and Baccarelli in their article environmental epigenetic describe epigenetic as the study of changes, which take place as a result of heritable variations that occur not necessarily with DNA involvement. In the article, the two authors depict how genomic under exogenous offer a mechanism for the continuity of gene activity. They agree that two epigenetic can be inherited together with chromosomes, including DNA methylation and and histone modification. They underline several environmental factors like metals, poly hydrocarbons and phytoestrogens among others, which could cause heritable epigenetic factors. Additionally, epigenetic disease results from the interaction between environmental factors and individual genetic make up. In any gene-environment interaction, the effect of variation follows the channel dominant, co-dominant and recessive. For mammals, DNA methylation is important for embryogenesis when methylation order changes to align with embryos to allow further differentiation.
Smith, G., & Ritchie, M. G. (2013). How might epigenetic contribute to ecological speciation? Current Zoology, 59(5).
The two writers argue that speciation takes place because of adaptation of different population to environmental conditions and the concurrent evolution of isolation, which contributes to higher compatibility. In particular, ecological speciation needs a range of selection from abiotic and biotic environmental conditions. Speciation involves several processes like phenotypic plasticity, which refers to the change of an organism because of environmental conditions. From the two writers, this may encompass hierarchical levels and phenotypic classes, including history, learning, morphological, and behavioral. Importantly, phenotypic plasticity allows speciation. Secondly, epigenetic mechanism and evolution denote the capability from a steady phenotype that is heritable, which stems from variations in the chromosomes within the DNA sequence. However, epigenetic marks are not always heritable since they could emanate from environmental induction. These marks lead to normal development despite the fact that changes could occur through phenotypic plasticity. They are also important in adaptive evolution.
Baranowski, E., Ruiz-Jarabo, C. M., & Domingo, E. (2001). Evolution of cell recognition by viruses. Science, 292(5519), 1102-1105.
The authors of the article, “the evolution of cell recognition by viruses” argue that specific receptors are responsible for the entry of viruses and bacteria in animals. These receptors are proteins, liquid families or carbohydrates and some of the families are used in signal pathways and cell unity. However, some of these families lack any function. In this case, it is hard to determine the function of any receptor molecule though two receptors enhance mediation of cells. The editors agree that though structures behind immune responses are not obvious, they are subsets of molecules that occur on the cell surface and activate virus uptake. Viruses only get in when there is uncoating and genome replication. In most cases replacement of amino acids in the capsid or surface protein influence how receptors are recognized, cell tropism and pathogenesis. From genome and complete cellular, it is clear that viruses change through the cellular world. With some minimal variations in the cell genome, receptor sage for virus entry may shift.
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Baranowski, E., Ruiz-Jarabo, C. M., & Domingo, E. (2001). Evolution of cell recognition by viruses. Science, 292(5519), 1102-1105.
Bollati, V., & Baccarelli, A. (2010). Environmental epigenetic. Heredity, 105(1), 105-112.
Smith, G., & Ritchie, M. G. (2013). How might epigenetic contribute to ecological speciation? Current Zoology, 59(5).
Sociological imagination refers to a term that C. Wright Mills introduced in 1959. Mills notes that this term means the ability, quality and capacity of a person’s mind that enables them to establish the relationship between their life and dynamics and forces that affect it (Mills, 2000). Sociological imagination’s main objective is to perceive the larger picture of where a person lives. Therefore, it assists a person to comprehend the society where he/she lives by establishing a link between societal life and personal life.
Additionally, sociological imagination makes it possible for a person to comprehend what other people face and what oneself faces (Mills, 2000). Looking at ones biography and relating it to the broader context of the history of the society as well as the tradition of where a person lives makes this possible. When a person acknowledges that there is a relationship between biographies and history, it becomes possible to comprehend the link that exists between societal problems and personal troubles. Mills noted that on several instances, individuals do not find solutions to problems because they do not view their biographies in relation to various issues that the entire society is facing (Scott & Nilsen, 2014).
A major reason why one should take this perspective while viewing the lives of others is to comprehend an intricate connection that exists between the patterns of the life of an individual in relation to the history of the world. According to Mills, most people fail to know the value that this connection has in regards to the type of individuals that they become and the history that they make while participating in it (Levine, 2004).
Therefore, sociological imagination is vital in assisting a person in coping up with personal problems in a way that regulates structural transformation which usually lies behind them. Mills notes that understanding and adapting to this manner of thinking depicts the highest social consciousness’ level (Hughes & Coser, 1994). When applied correctly, individuals with thoughts brushed by narrow orbits’ chain often realize a sudden awakening within a field that is filled with familiar ideas.
Such individuals usually feel courageous and content because they believe that it is possible for them to offer themselves adequate abstracts, all-inclusive orientations and organized assessments. The previous decisions which may have initially appeared logical may now appear as the outcomes of the inexplicably dense mind. The individuals develop the capacity of astonishment while acquiring new modes of thinking because they experience a revaluation of the values of their surroundings. Individual sensitivity and reflection makes this possible because one realizes the relationship that personal life has with the society (Harvey, 2009).
As a university student, one meets many people. Some were brought up under foster care programs with other siblings and they age to leave the system as they approach graduation. While trying to raise siblings and maintain a family bond, these students foresee several personal problems. This can affect them directly in terms of college or university performance. Such students endure excessive stress with some of them dropping out of school. Some of them have mastered courage and this makes sharing personal problems possible. This can appear personal to some students. However, it is a public problem because several miners are also brought up under foster care and they are forced to leave the system after they attain 18 years of age so that they can live alone.
The cost of the current housing system is relatively high especially for fresh graduates. Finding a place where one can live can be a problem due to the fact that they earn a relatively lower income. Thus the link that exists between public issues and personal trouble offers a better understanding of the life of a person.
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Harvey, D. (2009). Social Justice and the City. Athens: University of Georgia Press, pp.23
Hughes, E. C., & Coser, L. A. (1994). On Work, Race, and the Sociological Imagination.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 178
Levine, R. F. (2004). Enriching the Sociological Imagination: How Radical Sociology
Changed the Discipline. Leiden [u.a.: Brill, pp. 170, 265.
Mills, W, C. (2000). The Sociological Imagination. New York University Press, pp. 7. 12, 14.
Scott, J., & Nilsen, A. (2014). C. Wright Mills and the Sociological Imagination:
Contemporary Perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 62
Masculinities and Femininities
The roles that the society endows a woman or a man and the roles that women and men are considered to undertake distinguish them. The presence of the testosterone hormone among other physical attributes is what gives manhood a definition. Other defining characters include the traditional status of a man being the head of his family, aggressive nature, catering for the needs of the family including shelter, clothing and food among other needs that are necessary for a family’s existence. Being a woman on the other hand entails possessing feminine characters as well as playing feminine roles. Women naturally have feminine reproductive organs. Women are traditionally considered to be caring, tender-hearted and submissive.
Among the words that are used in describing men include caring, gorgeous, and handsome. Women are described using adjectives that include sexy, charming, beautiful and seductive among others. An ideal woman or man has these good qualities without a fault. As such, finding an ideal human being is impossible because in some ways, everybody has a fault.
The applicable expectations for women in today’s society include their collective responsibility. This is because both women and men have been made equal by justice and equality. As such, the expectation of the contemporary society is that a woman should be considerate, sensitive and hardworking. On the other hand, the contemporary society expects men to be hardworking, caring, loving and gentle. There is a variation in these expectations when compared with those of the older generations since the traditional society had distinct duties and roles for women and men. However, these duties and roles are not distinct in the modern society. The law takes both genders equally.
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- There was an extensive damage caused by Hurricane Sandy in the Caribbean Islands. The hurricane landed in these islands before reaching New York. Here is a description of the damage caused by the hurricane:
- 69 people died within the Islands (Williams 2012).
- 200 people died in New York (Super-storm New York 2:20).
- The hurricane damaged the communication system. It knocked out telephone network completely (Super-storm New York 14:30). A large portion of the infrastructure of the cable companies was lost.
- The hurricane knocked down power lines and over 8 million residents of New York lost power (Super-storm New York 2:35).
- The storm dumped sea water inland causing an explosion of power substations and further destroying electrical grid (Super-storm New York 11:50).
- Fire was sparked by the power lines that were brought down in Queens. This destroyed 111 homes at the Breezy Point (Super-storm New York 19:35).
- The hurricane destroyed a subway system in New York, more so the substation at South Ferry. The storm left it unusable (Tollefson 2013).
- The storm destroyed coastline houses with some being lifted from the ground and later dumped inland. The storm left some houses structurally unsound forcing owners to demolish them.
- The waters of the storm washed away the tracks of overland railway which necessitated their complete replacement.
- The hurricane damaged road network, more so the bridges which were affected the most. The flood waters dumped debris along the roads
2. Hurricane Sandy growing into a super-storm
Several factors created conditions that facilitated the formation of a “perfect storm” which increased Hurricane Sandy (Masters 2012). This hurricane was formed from a huge wave from the African tropics. The wave interacted with the pressure of the low regions found in Central Caribbean. In general, hurricanes that form as a result of huge tropical disturbances grow to larger sizes and this was the case with Hurricane Sandy. This hurricane formed within Caribbean which is a relatively humid region. It is possible for a hurricane to increase in size when it forms within an area where the atmospheric pressure is high.
This storm’s center point passed through Cuba. Despite the fact that this center point lacked energy of a warm ocean since it passed over a land, it had outlying air that was circulating over a warm ocean which kept drawing ocean’s energy. On re-emerging from the ocean, hurricane Sandy had outer portions with extra energy. These may have enabled it to expand further. From Cuba, it moved to the Bahamas. Here, it had an interaction with a trough of low pressure. The upper-level winds of this trough created a shear of a high wind for this hurricane which destroyed it making it weaker. Nevertheless, because of the storm-force winds from the tropics, this storm was able to cover a larger area which compensated for the lost energy.
As it moved towards North Pole, the storm acquired additional spin because of the rotation of the earth. This Hurricane leveraged extra spin which grew its size further. Ideally, hurricane Sandy ought to have entered the Atlantic Ocean to peter out. Nevertheless, the high pressure area over Greenland made the hurricane not to turn into this ocean. It was compelled to double back and move to the continental U.S.
When it approached the New Jersey land fall, it had a contact with a system of low pressure of the extra-tropical region. Cold air was pumped into the hurricane by this extra-tropical storm. This turned it into a system of extra-tropical low pressure. In most cases, the coverage of extra-tropical storms is wider than that of hurricanes. This can be attributed to the fact that their force is drawn from the frontal boundary which may have a length of many miles. As such, hurricane Sandy created a landfall with its strongest winds being spread over a wide area making people in Indiana and Nova Scotia to feel its effects.
Hurricane Sandy grew to form the ‘super-storm’ because several factors were combined in its formation. This hurricane was an event that occurs once per 500 years. Nevertheless, with the changes in the conditions of the global weather that are causing global warming, events similar to hurricane Sandy can become a common phenomenon.
3. Storm surge
Storm surge refers to an increase in water past the predicted astronomical tide (Introduction to storm surge n.d.). The winds of the storm cause this surge while driving water towards the shoreline.
The surge of super-storm Sandy was very large because of two major reasons. One, it was during the full-moon when it arrived in New York (Super-storm New York 37:25). At this time, the earth and moon gravitational attraction is very strong. The bulging of sea water tends to move to the moon. This causes a rise in tides by up to two feet.
Second, this hurricane was already an extra-tropical storm which had winds that were stronger than those of a hurricane. A storm surge was created by these winds. Their combination with high tide caused a large surge of the Sandy storm.
3. Low Manhattan’s damage
Hurricane Sandy caused severe damage in Lower Manhattan because of where it is located. The land on which Lower Manhattan is built was realized after a sea reclamation process. For many centuries, city boundaries were expanded by the residents through damping of different materials into this sea. This created a land where buildings were erected (Super-storm New York 28.00). With increasing land pressure, wetlands of the city became prime real estate that were encroached by the people. Water was taken back after striking of the hurricane Sandy to the initial high line of water. This inundated the settlements of the low lying areas. There were no wetlands that serve as the storms’ buffer. This made the storm hit the human settlements instantly which led to an extensive damage.
There was also a considerable damage in the coastal cities. This is because there were coastal developments near the line of the high tide.
5. Prevention measures
Several measures may be taken as way of reducing the possibilities of the damage of such a storm in future. They include:
- Constructing large walls along the shore or coastline to provide protection against the surge.
- Restoration of the wetlands that serve as buffers of the storm.
- Relocating people to the higher grounds.
- Enforcing and changing the codes of new building to facilitate the construction of storm-resistant structures
Among these measures, some can be implemented with ease. For instance, new buildings that do not conform to new codes should not be approved. People should be encouraged to relocate to high grounds. Barriers might not be effective and building them is expensive. Restoring wetlands might not work either because some are irreparably damaged.
6. New Normal
A ‘New normal’ is emerging. Over the past century, the global temperature has increased sustainably on average. This has an impact on weather patterns globally in different ways. There is a steady rise in the sea level which is reaching high levels that have not been witnessed before. According to the prediction of climate models, such events might start occurring once in every 500 years and eventually once per every 200 years. As such, in the emerging new normal extraordinary weather conditions might become a common place.
- Masters, J. (2012). Hurricane Sandy’s huge size: freak of nature or climate change? Wunderground.com. Retrieved from http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/hurricane-sandys-huge-size-frea k-of-nature-or-climate-change
Introduction to storm surge (n.d). National Weather Service. Retrieved from http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hurricane/resources/surge_intro.pdf
National Geographic Superstorm New York What Really Happened. Youtube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bP1EdsiEO8o
Williams, M. (30 October 2012). Superstorm Sandy damage assessment: a round-up. The Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/world/2012/oct/30/superstorm-sandy-damage-round-up
Tollefson, J. (13 February 2013). Natural Hazards: New York City versus the Sea. Scientific American. Retrieved from www.scientificamerican.com/article/natural-hazards-new-york-city-vs-the-sea/
What Does Your Group Feel Are The Top Three Cultural Factors That Constrain Change In Governmental Organizations In The Inland Empire? Why
Privatization and outsourcing of public functions and utilities is the topmost cultural factor that hinders change. Many governments in the recent past have shifted towards offering of public services via the private sector. They do this by outsourcing services and selling out of public corporations.
With private companies having their major focus on profit maximization, they still lack proper incentives to serve the public more efficiently. This generates conflict because community service is not their main priority and the public does not receive adequate service, thus creating a society that is frustrated (McNabb, 2009, p. 53).
There is also a decline in commitment of public workers to quality in service delivery and performance. This is mainly caused by low wages compared to private sector where the pay is high. Government workers as such, lack motivation to serve the community efficiently as they are often on an exit plan or looking for ways of making extra cash (McNabb, 2009, p. 53).
Procedures and functions in modern day are also changing because of technological advancements and globalization. Change in state organizations also get constrained by rigid performance standard that does not offer room for flexibility. In decision making processes for instance, trivial matters are often subject to scrutiny causing delays. Such events cripple performance of government corporations and they end up lagging behind in regards to efficiency (McNabb, 2009, p. 53).
Top Two Beliefs That The Public Would Argue As Being Weak In Performance Of Public Service Employees? Why?
The fact that public servants should employ public virtues hard work, wisdom, honesty and wisdom does not define public service staff. Employees lack accountability for their actions and they are not destined to employ any virtues in their operations. When a member of the public for instance needs processing of a specific document, public employees can cause delays and the documents take longer than required.
Such delays may also be caused by laxity to deliver the right documents on time or even making enquiries regarding to the proceedings (McNabb, 2009, p. 56). Additionally, public administrators do not carry out their duties economically and officially, for the greater good of the public in mind. This is based on the fact that they do not observe deadlines and lack responsibility.
Workers in private organizations have targets to meet and they are answerable for their actions. This is something that lacks in public corporations. The worker as a result, performs duties at leisure and at own pleasure, leading to wastage of time and other resources (McNabb, 2009, p. 56).
What would your group recommend to the governor as the three best strategies to prepare for change most effectively and why?
Education and Communication
Learning and communication would be the most ideal strategy for the governor to employ because it creates exposure and awareness to employees and citizens of a country regarding proposed changes. It would also sensitize them on intricacies of needed change, a factor that would enable them to prepare efficiently to embrace expected transformations and to utilize them for their growth and development.
Additionally, communication allows parties to pass information to each other. They can communicate their ideas to the government while the government at the same time, informs them of decisions made by top leadership (McNabb, 2009, p. 63).
Participation and Involvement
Participation and citizens as well as employee involvement in change process is imperative because it makes them feel part of the change. It enables them to gain ownership of activities and ideas that the leadership and government undertake. This is carried out by inviting public ideas and opinions, creating room for discussions before implementations.
The step also creates confidence in top management and allows for ease of implementation of proposed changes (McNabb, 2009, p. 63).
Employee empowerment involves giving employees more power to work on projects past their current job descriptions. By doing so, the governor shows the employees that he has confidence in them and is impressed by their work, thus willing to entrust them with even bigger and challenging responsibilities because he trusts in them.
This not only builds confidence in employees but also creates high loyalty level making it easier to introduce and employ any changes (McNabb¸2009, p. 63).
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McNabb, D.E. (2009). The New Face of Government: How Public Managers are Forging a New Approach to Governance. (pp.47-68). New York, NY. Auerbach Publications, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
The role of Glial cells is interesting based on shocking revelation. For many years now, neuroscientists did not think highly of the cells. Their concentration was mainly on neurons that were seen as the major communicating cells in the nervous system and in the brain. Recent studies however prove beyond doubt that the glia is crucial in the body just like neurons.
There are neuroscientists that assert that without the calls, neurons may fail to carry out their roles efficiently. Images and listening instrument reveal a direct relationship between neurons and glia in relation to communication. This also reveals that without the cells, the neurons may not work properly.
It would be interesting to learn what motivated Pathologist, Thomas Harvey to take Einstein’s brain home. The results of such an action are very significant especially in contemporary Psychology. Neuroscientists cannot therefore overlook the role of the cells in the human body. The most amazing revelation is that the cells may not be actually responsible for communication as perceived for a long time because the role of neurons comes from the efforts of Thomas Harvey.
There is also solid evidence that glia is essential to learning, creation of memories and repair of nerve damage. Even though relevant research studies to confirm this is are still in progress, there is still a good reason for scientists to reach such a conclusion because of enhanced imaging and tools have been utilized in the research.
The most significant revelation is that many neuroscientists may not agree with the fact that glia and that neurons work in cooperation with the spinal cord and the brain. The neurons act as communication agents through long axons, and the dendrite to additional neurons but the astrocyte glia transports nutrients and other synapses. This shows that glia just like neurons is significant in the body.
Other types of glial cells are also essential in medical world because specialists associate them with treatment of some diseases. Schwan glia for example can be used in treatment of nerve disease. Other glia cells transport nutrients from capillaries to nerve endings. Such a role signifies that if glial cells are not functioning well, nerves can develop complications.
Occasional communication between glial cells is also essential in ensuring proper functioning of body organs. Schwan glia can be used to treat nerves including MS because they surround tangential nervous system. Another scientific finding is based on the axons ability to manage Gilas existence. Glial cells are therefore able to detect the actions of neurons through ATP, discharged by axons only.
Glia cells can then pass over the message to other cells and get ability to manage synapses. The present studies reveal the cells determine the number of synapses that can be created by solitary neuron and location of the neuron. Astrocyte glia is central in this part and growing neurons with a small amount of the cells leading to low synapse numbers.
These studies no doubt reveal that there is need to adopt Einstein’s advice of thinking outside the norm. Assuming that neurons are central components of the body needed for intelligence creation in the brain and for communication purposes, has limited discoveries from neuroscientists based on the role of the cells. The role played by the human brain cells cannot also be over expressed because they are equally essential for proper functioning of the body.
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Effects of Population Density and Noise
The number of people residing in one unit of area can be termed as population concentration. This is in relation to human beings and it is put in terms of square kilometer or squared unit of quantifying area. Additionally, it is often used for cities, countries, counties and for the world. The world’s mostly concentrated areas include cities, metropolitan states and microstates.
Similarly, population density and noise puts pressure on individuals and in different forms. The time when individual’s space and field is disrupted by persons, short or persistent noise, the resulting effect ranges from simple form of annoyance to severe illness that leads to anxiety (Straub, 2007). Therefore, with continuous population concentration, there will be encroachment of three aspects and proper measures have to be put in place to ensure prevention of psychological effects that result from population growth.
It also helps to check anxiety, violence and frustration. This paper focuses on three concepts, personal space, privacy, and territoriality. It also analyses their impact on the people and solutions that can be employed.
Privacy is known as a ‘‘choosy management of access to an individual or a person’s group’’ Altman (1977). It also revolves around having information power concerning oneself and applying the same principle to control self-interactions with other people. New technologies in modern world bring about different issues concerning the power of information of others. This is necessitated by description of balance as well as clear clarification between public and individual information.
The level of privacy needs as well as values greatly differs from one individual to the other and from one situation to the other and in various cultures.
Personal space is defined as the physical distance between individuals with a purpose of ensuring interpersonal relationships. Personal space combined with territoriality is seen as a way in which privacy is advocated for. Sommer (1969) defines personal space as a location with unseen borders surrounding the body of a person where intruders can easily invade.
This space, just like privacy is subject to change and it varies based on personal attributes, culture to culture and situation to situation. Brain development are scientific research suggests that creation and negotiation of personal space takes place in human brain. Further research studies also reveal that even though personal space has dynamic boundaries, it is of great significance and value to humanity.
Human territoriality is known as the approach of authority or control. It also means an attempt to influence, affect or control people by asserting to enforce authority over a given geographical area. The definition also encompasses attempts by groups or individuals in any geographic scale from a room to global arena. It is also not based on survival as in the case of animals but humans maintain space via specific behaviors suggesting that action is employed in regards to ownership or it should be simply occupied.
Research studies also suggest that it is imperative to emphasize on environmental variables as a major territoriality determination aspect. As vital resources become scarce, individuals also work hard to safeguard their possessions and area residence.
Relationships with increasing population
Research studies point out that population density has major effects on population of animals and humans. It is a major issue in determining psychological effects commonly related to crowds because individuals feel bound and is restricted when they do not have major access to supplies (Straub, 2007).
Crowding occurring from high population growth has also been tied to increased violent activities, increased criminal activities, social withdrawal and inapt social interactions. To reduce crowd effects, it is imperative to ensure privacy, respect territoriality and personal space as a significant human social want. Decreased resources in relevance to space, personal space and privacy call for greater appreciation to check psychological effects.
People often have less control and more competition when personal space and confidentiality is lacking. This leads to increased tendency of negative reactions towards insignificant anger (Straub, 2007).
Perception can be considered as a revealing population density element based on its sufficient space as well as congestion related vices. When ample space is perceived by the people, they tend to build more confidence and command relating to nature and have reduced stress and anxiety.
Influence of Nature on Urban Areas’ Settlers
Zoos and parks with preserved natural settings offer a platform for support as well as a framework for people’s interaction with nature. These interactions offer an opportunity for humans to nurture and create a microclimate that is quite common in urban areas. Natural settings created in residential urban areas enhance the idea that people need to co-exist with nature.
Parks and Zoos in metropolitan areas also play crucial roles in relevance to physical activities. Research has confirmed that inhabitants of urban areas have lower health complications. The studies have also found out that individuals within green spaces areas have low mortality rates. This is because the spaces are known to reduce noise associated stress especially in urban settings.
Additionally, greener neighborhoods tend to allow for less violent and antagonistic conducts, superior intellectual performance and good interpersonal relations as well as enhanced social interaction between community members (Gidlofgunnarsson & Ohrstrom, 2007).
Impacts of Noise
Noise is known as any kind of superfluous sounds. It ranges from annoying and quiet to injurious and deafening noise. Chronic noisy places have been studied psychologically and found out to create negative impact on human populations (Straub, 2007). Damaging noise effects have also been proven scientifically to contribute to increased cortisol levels and hypertension and in the end, upsurge in levels of stress.
Contact with chronic noise levels may cause cardiovascular issues and reduced learning abilities. Loud noise is known to interfere with immediate recall ability and reduce a person’s capability to deliver simple activities. People have different noise appraisal levels and the more disturbing a person finds the noise to be, the bigger the effect on them. Even though the noise is accountable directly for effects on sleep, stress and anxiety disorders, a personal approach towards noise has unswerving effect on the health of the person (Straub, 2007).
Noise Cutback Approaches
Installation of extra fabric to cover wall decors, windows and use of fabric stuffed furnishing aids helps in absorption of noise from homes because noise travels faster on glass than on insulated walls.
This means the process in which sensitivity of sound is subdued by presence of foreign sound. Introducing simulated or second natural sound in a home can lock out foreign sound signals in homes as well as areas affected by external sources of intrusive sound.
Privacy, territoriality and personal space include private insights and preferences of humans in regards to utilization of space for normal performance. In urban settings, limited space leads to anti-social behaviors between members of the community. Noise therefore has a significant negative impact on populations thus; noise reduction approaches should be adopted to reduce chronic noise related issues.
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How Non-Profits and For-Profit Companies Work
Whenever a corporation pursues to expound its undertakings abroad, there are numerous facets that have to be put into consideration. These facets vary in regard to whether the corporation is a for-profit or a non-profit organization.
For Profit Company
Geographical differentiation includes a number of features. Initially, the venture need to be able to ascertain whether clients in the intended market have the buying power to buy the corporation’s commodities or services, as well as whether the organization can set a competitive rate for its commodities and services. Second facet is the regional labor expenses as well as linked labor regulations. Having know-how of the local labor expenses will aid the venture assess whether the growth will be workable due to high wages can mean high operating expenses as well as lessened gains. In the same way, comprehending labor rules and laws in the intended market is essential in certain nations for instance EU member nations, employing fresh workers is expensive and tough labor regulations make it unachievable to dismiss workers. Presence of raw commodity providers is the third factor.
Fruitful production in the intended market relies on the accessibility of raw materials. If suppliers are far from the amenity, the corporation’s expenses of shipping is probable to be high, leading to increased cost of production as well as high price for the end commodity. The same way, a corporation has to look at distribution facets. These incorporate the shipping network via which the commodities will reach last customers. Perishable goods for instance milk or flowers demand an improved supply link to shun losses. Additionally, an organization has to look at the power of its corporate culture as well as uphold known status in all its undertakings. If the company culture is feeble, it is probable to be weakened in the numerous parts the corporation develops to causing loss of market share and brand.
Product, market or technology differentiation
Provided the diversity in interests and preferences, a corporation ought to look at tailoring its commodity to meet residential needs or preferences. For instance, McDonald’s has thrived in its global markets by tailoring the menus to meet the demands of residents.
The most crucial facets for a non-profit corporation connected to working in other parts or nation incorporate divisionalization differentiation and hierarchical differentiation.
To excel in running a company, executives need to grow and upkeep useful subcultures. They are present amongst workers, bosses as well as leaders. Nevertheless, provided that each company has its subculture, operating in another part with sturdy divisional subcultures may lead to battle with the initial company as such subcultures have great standards that are challenging to change. On top of this, via globalization, an organization may find it hard to retort to human resource exercises in all areas it runs. Leaders ought to take into consideration these divisional disparities when making policies to expand.
As a corporation grows its undertakings in areas in a nation or globally, it develops and more stages arise in its structure. As it has been noted, subcultures are there at every stage of a company. Therefore, when the company’s structure grows, there is a possibility that more subcultures will arise. In the course of growing subcultures, they tend to accord to each other or turn out to be independent in their undertakings. Sturdy subcultures may be separated from the feeble ones. Due to the fact that certain executives in the company fail to concentrate to the numerous kinds of subcultures, it causes considerable battles in the company. To avert incidents of such clashes, leaders ought to spur friendly interactions amongst the parent company and the newly established company in another area or in overseas nation.
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Case Study Analysis
This analysis draws basis from a patient’s local hospital. The hospital drew impetus from the case study of a 26-year-old woman who experienced a gradual shortness of breath in a period of three days. Her experience was free of other symptoms like cough, fever, or wheezing. She decided to go to her local hospital when it became increasingly difficult to breath.
Of interest were the wait times that the woman endured before she could obtain a proper evaluation and diagnosis of her condition, which could be a comorbidity. From her case, wait times were determined as follows; after staying in the waiting area before registration for an undisclosed duration, the patient was registered and made to wait for 20 minutes before the triage nurse took the patients history and vital signs. The patient then returned to the waiting area for some time before detailed history, physical exam, blood tests, X-ray, lung scan, and electrocardiogram. Another three-hour wait followed before her evaluation was out. The physician diagnosed the patient with asthma and informed her that it was nothing serious.
Impetus for Performance Improvement
A meeting between the hospital’s administrators, the director of the hospital’s performance improvement, and the physician director revealed worrying trends in the hospital, notably diminishing patient satisfaction, increased elopements, and patients collapsing in the teeming waiting room.
This brought a need to reorganize the department in order to increase efficiency and address the fundamental problem of excess wait time; the physician director believed that the wait time was inevitable given that most of the patients were severely ill, and the existing resources were inadequate. The performance of the hospital in terms of wait time had to improve, though there was need to measure its performance and benchmark with other hospitals
The performance improvement director requested a departmental reorganization. The hospital developed an ine-month plan to measure, analyze, and improve quality of care. The plan focused established wait times, patient satisfaction, patient return visits with same problem within 72 hours as the measures to use.
To do this, the hospital undertook some restructuring to bring in new staff, reorganize staff functions, and institute new procedures and policies that would govern service delivery. The management also added incentives to boost service delivery. The hospital’s changes were;
- Introduction of a ‘greeter’ to welcome patients, guide them through the registration process, and identify serious cases. The greeter could help serious cases to skip the registration process
- The triage nurse moved to the waiting area
- An electronic sign indicating average wait times in the waiting room
To analyze the plan, one must look at quality from the customer’s point of view. ‘Quality’ represents an individual’s subjective evaluation of an output and the personal interactions that take place as the individual obtains the output. It is rooted in that individual’s expectations, which depend upon the individual’s past experiences and needs. Quality evaluations therefore arise from, and are part of, an individual’s value system. One can measure and change,as a value system, quality expectations over time through education.
Several concepts can measure quality. Quality has two main components—content and delivery. Content quality is concerned with the medical outcome that results. It also refers to whether the output does what the customer believes it should do-whether the output functionally meets the customer’s expectations.
Delivery quality refers to all aspects of the organization’s interaction with the customer in delivering the output. It is determined day by day, moment by moment, in thousands of individual, temporary relationships. It reflects an individual customer’s interaction with the health care system—a patient will consider whether the hospital was clean and whether the nurses were caring and offered rapid services.The patients will also have expectations on how their interaction with employees should be,
To analyze the effectiveness of the quality improvement measures, one may use tools like questionnaires and customer focus groups. Patients and their relatives fill questionnaires to convey their satisfaction and their feelings towards different aspects of the treatment. The questionnaires may also require costumers (patients) to comment on the wait times. (Nash,2006)
The measures used in determining quality improvement can transport time for AMI patients, the smoothness of admission or discharge, courtesy of hospital employees, availability of good emergency care, number of emergency department patients who return with the same symptoms, and the time for getting an EKG for patients with chest pain.
According to a research conducted on four leading hospitals by Sharon Silow-Carroll, Tanya Alteras, and Jack A. Meyer Health Management Associates in April 2007, hospitals that successfully implemented quality improvement measures followed a strikingly similar process of change as detailed in the diagram below;
The first step is evident in the hospital’s institution of the quality improvement program after recording alarming declines in patient satisfaction, increased patient ‘elopements’ and alarming cases of patients falling in waiting rooms. The hospital’s performance improvement director proposed a restructuring of the emergency department to reduce wait times and respond to cases that were delay sensitive by allowing them to skip the registration procedure and obtain quick treatment. The hospital introduced a ‘greeter’ and moved the triage nurse to the waiting room after identifying it as a possible avenue for longer wait times.
The hospital’s quality improvement strategies may succeed since the laid out plan follows laid out concepts and uses realistic measures to measure its improvement.
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Carroll, Sharon Silow.Alteras, Tanya, and Meyer, Jack A. Health Management Associates
(2007) Hospital Quality Improvement: Strategies and Lessons from U.S. Hospitals.The Common Wealth Fund.
Nash, David B. (2006)The Quality Solution: The Stakeholder’s Guide to Improving Health Care. Jones & Bartlett Learning,.