Human Impact on the Nile River
Nile River is the world’s longest river and it stretches at 954, 817 miles from its main source in the mountains of Burundi in Africa. The river flows north via Lake Nasser, the second largest man-made lake in the world and the Aswan dam prior to splitting into two core distributaries north of Cairo, Egypt. In the ancient Egypt, River Nile was worshiped as a God Hapi. Through the history, the river has been used in many ways, but it is human impacts that have increased its popularity worldwide. There is a complex history on River Nile.
Nile River is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa and it is an “international” river as its water is shared by a number of countries. the eleven countries that benefits from river Nile are Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, democratic of Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. River Nile has been the lifeline of civilization in Egypt. Most of the population and cities of Egypt are found along the parts of the Nile valley. Due to climatic changes and many other human impacts, the Nile River has gone through a lot of transformations.
The past ten decades have marked a great time for human developments. Most of these advancements have come with consequences, positive or negative. Nile River is one of the regions that have been impacted greatly by human innovations. Nile is a crucial part of Africa a s it has impacted many nations. It is a substantial resource that has affected the lives of many communities surrounding it. Nile has a deep-rooted history; moreover it has been used by the northeastern people many years. Unfortunately, humans have changed the uses of this river in many incredible ways.
Human presence in this region has shaped the Nile River in many ways. many communities have moved through these region and different cultures have left their mark in this region. Each community that has gone through the river has used it in many ways. For instance, many relied on the river for transportation, fishing from its deepest waters or have harnessed energy or power. In essence, humans have made their core impact on the river and much more is in the waiting and in the coming years.
The fishing industry has harnessed the resources within the river immensely. Its impact has been heavy than any other sector operating within the Nile. Not everything has been positive within the river. In mid-1900s, the introduction of the Nile perch into Nile River and Lake Victoria was a harmful move as the carnivorous fish consumed most of the small fish and many are extinct today. It is the dominant species in the river and the lake.
Another human impact on the Nile River is that of pollution. Sewage has been dumped into the river from local areas as a result of poor sanitation. The food many residents or communities surrounding the area are made of different chemicals which have great impact on the river. Industries do not follow the rules and regulations set on drainage and many untreated waste material are dumped into the river. Use of pesticides and fertilizers in nearby farms also pollutes the river.
All in all, the construction of the Aswan Dam was a great undertaking as it was able to control river Nile from flooding and leave many homeless or destroy crops and lands. There is overwhelming evidence on the impact of human activities on Nile River. Despite the river being affected, humans, animals and plants all depend on the same river for survival. Hence, communities within the region need to take proper actions and make an improvement to fully harness the river. Governments and agencies should offer funds and capital where necessary to make Nile River one of the greatest resources to exist.
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Problems Associated With the Nile River
Most of Egypt is made up of sandy terrain sand, but it remains to be the third-most populated country in Africa. Egypt has stood above other nations in Africa economic wise thank to the longest river in the world; Nile River. Water is essential for human survival. There are many countries that are facing water shortages on early basis. However, for Egypt and surrounding nations, this has been a gift that has been harnessed aptly. Unfortunately, there are a few problems that are associated with Nile River.
Along with direct human impacts, there exist some natural impacts that have altered the Nile River in some way. Scientists have suggested that rising sea levels coupled with more extreme weather events as a result of global warming have the potential to negatively affect the Nile River Delta. From the United Nations Environmental Program shows the impact of both a 0.5 m water rise and a 1.0 m water rise on the Delta. In the future, with the best case scenario, large areas from this area could be underwater. Since the Nile River Delta is one of the most fertile regions in northern Africa, the loss of cropland will be devastating for farmers.
Runoff from the agricultural sector frequently contains pollutants that may have an adverse effect on the river. Pollutants such as salts, nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and pesticide residue can be found in this runoff. Agricultural runoff often is a “non-point” pollutant, in that it can come from anywhere in a region, and not from a specific drain. This can make it difficult to There are also problems associated with agricultural runoff seeping into the groundwater as well.
There has been some success in mitigating the effects of agricultural runoff as a pollutant. This is a result of increased regulation concerning the use of agrochemicals. A decrease in the use of these chemicals has tended to make the wastewater from this sector considerably healthier.
Being a highly urbanized region, the Nile River has its share of industry, and with that industrial pollution. There are about 700 industrial facilities along the river Industrial waste water is often highly toxic, containing heavy metals that can combine with the suspended solids in domestic waste water to form hard to manage sludge. Besides water pollution, industry has been linked to air pollution, and is responsible for much of the smog cloaking major cities such as Cairo and Alexandria.
Though pollution in the Nile River is certainly a large concern, it should be noted that much of the river water is acceptably healthy and free of toxins. It is only in “black zones” near major drains that the water becomes unhealthy. Still, future measures should certainly be sought out to solve this problem before it does develop into a crisis.
The Nile, of course, has long been a source of sustenance, all the way back to ancient Egyptian civilization. Just look again at where Egypt is situated amid lots and lots of sand. Usually, such a location is hardly conducive to a thriving ancient civilization. How could a people, no matter how advanced, grow crops and raise livestock among sand dunes? Nevertheless, ancient Egyptian civilization was able to thrive due to the Nile River. Every year, the water in the Nile rose and filled carefully engineered canal.
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Challenges Facing Enterprise Applications
While enterprise applications are great assets for businesses, they face numerous challenges. Some of the most common challenges can be easily highlighted as below:
- Difficulty getting cloud apps-Though infrastructure abstraction has assisted in application management and agility, it does not make things easier for the writing of sophisticated applications. As a matter of fact, developers of enterprise applications lose infrastructure visibility and services like elasticity, multi-tenancy and high availability of application responsibility.
- Technology bleed through-There are in-house development applications that have to be coerced so they can fit limitations and capabilities of development tools rather than meeting users needs within organizations.
- Bureaucracy-Changing technology is far easier than changing culture and developers of enterprise applications feel as if they code with one hand while the other is tied because they don’t have any ultra-conservative and burdensome operational models. However, they are pessimistic about adoption of new technology and tools because they are afraid they will get watered down and this could eliminate the possibility of application successes.
- Difficulty making a choice-With a myriad of choices to pick from when buying application components and services, it has become increasingly difficult for developers to choose the most suitable enterprise applications. Unlike in the past, they are no longer faced with the no option of using the default enterprise standard web server, database and app server. While this is a good thing (options to choose from) it is also quite a challenge as there is a need to map technical options and find appropriate training. These options have however increased the level of flexibility as well as opened a door to unlocking business value that previously was too complicated and costly.
- Mastery of technologies-Developers of enterprise applications are supposed to master different types of technologies and this can also prove to be a major challenge. Developers of these applications lack the mastery and skills needed to carry out a successful business domain.
- Inconsistent and conflicting data maintenance, presentation interfaces and capture are also some of the challenges that enterprise applications face.
These are major challenges and while most of them are not new, they are yet to be addressed. Users expect to get into a marketer that is ‘consumer style’ oriented and yet, the rapid integration and access makes it impossible to come up with practical and innovative solutions. Most of these challenges also have some inverse problems which should be addressed in order to ensure that they are effectively addressed.
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Challenges Posed by Al Qaeda
For the longest time, the Al-Qaeda was practically unnoticed in the United States and it was not seen as a major threat in the country. It was not until after the 2001, September 11 attacks that Americans became fully aware of the threat the group posed.
Known as one of the most dangerous terror group in the world, it posses unique challenges because of its versatility and strength. It is precisely for this reason that it is difficult to combat the group.
Though the Muslim world is largely torn by war between varying sects, they share the same ideologies that unite them in a miraculous manner because they have the same righteous cause. The ideology attracts Muslims from different ethnicities and backgrounds to produce a supply of supporters and recruits.
The organizational structure of the Al-Qaeda also makes it difficult to combat the terror group. Just like any other traditional terror organization, it is directed by leaders who are divided into 6 committees and a council. Another aspect that makes Al-Qaeda indestructible is the fact that it has a side structure. Rather than having one single structure under its leadership, it is actually made up of different cells that are found in every country across the globe.
While these cells maintain communication with leadership structure and cells that are close, most of them are designed to operate independent of the Al-Qaeda leadership. The most startling fact though is that there is no single face that can be linked to the terror group.
The terrorists come from different ethnic groups, backgrounds and nations. Some of the cells actually have individuals who are not even members of the terror group. They are devoted supporters, close allies and at times, members of other terror groups. Consequently, this means the individuals have the capability to blend easily and become part of a network that is far stronger.
The al Qaeda terror cells also have varying objectives for instance one cell might have the mandate of raising support within a specific area while another is supposed to collect intelligence. What is more, these cells can either be or not be in a given area for long before the attack.
There are cells which are established in a region for long periods of time so they can carefully make observations and prepare for an attack. Often, such cells are known as sleeper cells. The insurgencies of the terror group are focused around Gulf of Aden and most of the top commanders have either been killed or imprisoned as such, it no longer has the ability to replicate the threat and terror it once posed.
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Challenges Posed by Al Shabaab
Since Somalia emerged from colonialism era under Britain and Italy, the country has gone through civil war, famine and military dictatorship to regional fragmentation. Recently, pirates operate from the coast of Somalia coast hijacked ships attracting global attention.
The biggest threat in the country though is as a result of lack of internal order which has exposed the country to rise of Islamist groups that use hard stances. The greatest threat is that posed by Al-Shabaab which has risen from obscurity to become the most prominent international threat.
The ideological commitment the Al-Shabaab has to global jihadism, military capabilities, Al-Qaeda connections and ability to control and capture territories clearly suggests it will continue posing strategic challenge to Somalia neighbors and the United States.
Since the emergence of the group:
- It has played a significant role in insurgency that helped drive Ethiopian forces out of the country
- It received endorsement from Osama bin Laden
- A large number of Somalis from the West have been flocking its camps
Al-Shabaab is committed towards implementing a strict Shari’a version into key regions of Somalia. It has spread throughout the country with camps from which western Muslims graduate. It is because of this reason that the Al-Shabaab has become a major security threat to several countries and that includes the US.
Terrorist training is one of the major challenges posed by the group as it includes interlocking leadership and affinity in its training. There are also worries about the connections Al-Shabaab have to transnational terrorism. The concerns of terrorism are further bolstered by the operation of training camps for terrorists and ICU successor camps.
Most of the terrorist training camps in the country have been reopened and there are reports of young men from different regions such as Minneapolis-St. Paul and other regions of the US joining the training. Additionally, young Somali men go missing from Saudi Arabia, Canada, Australia and Europe which only proves that training has commenced.
The major isn’t what the individuals do in Somalia but rather, what follows once they get back to their countries of origin. This is a major concern for Britain and the US as well. While it is not easy to determine the total number of militia men that make up the Al-Shabaab, it is estimated they are somewhere between six thousand and seven thousand. Overall, the group will continue been a major threat and challenge to the rest of the world.
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Challenges Posed by Boko Haram in Nigeria
Boko Haram which operates in Nigeria has been performing terror acts since 2009 to create palpable fear not only in country but beyond. Boko Haram is a domestic terror organization that poses a major threat to the property of the Nigerian people as well as their lives.
It participates in nefarious activities and has attracted the attention of the international community following the 2009 July attacks in Nigeria and specifically the attack of the UN at Abuja in 2011.
The sect does not have any clear or known structure of command and is so far responsible for more than 1200 deaths. Boko Haram poses serious challenges key among them capitalizing on religious frustrations, social difficulties, economic difficulties and religious differences in order to undermine the Nigerian government and exploit religious differences for purposes of creating chaos making it ungovernable.
The group does not have any respect for human life and instead, it kills civilians in an indiscriminate manner. In addition to this, there is also an insurgency in the northeast part of the country that has created insecurity throughout northern Nigeria. The group has also created increased tension between different ethnic communities and also interrupted development of activities generated concerns and interrupted development activities.
Nigeria does not have the ability to become a stable leader unless it overcomes the challenges posed by the group successfully. While it is not an easy task, using a comprehensive approach is important in order to articulate engagement rules, socio-economic problems and accountability in order to ensure the future of Nigerians is brightened.
The insurgence also has a great effect on Nigeria’s corporate image within other committee nations. The image of the country is also dented as a result of drug trafficking, crime, high corruption level, fraud and prostitution that has affected the reputation of the Nigerians and Nigeria throughout the globe.
For close to a decade, efforts have been made without any success in order to rebrand Nigeria’s image. There is no image laundering level that will influence the international community to change the negative image they have about the country.
While it will not be easy to get rid of Boko Haram, the diverse people of Nigeria, their spirit and land will make it easy for the regional and national stability to be reestablished. The commitment to human dignity and life should be restored in order to prevent atrocities in the future and build peace.
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Silent Springs by Rachel Carson
According to the Silent Springs thesis, organisms that include birds, human beings and animals are dying because modern pesticides are being used without restrictions. The emphasis of this thesis is that silent spring was caused by pesticides’ use without proper precaution which destroyed every organism. The population poisoned itself slowly by misusing pesticides. Using pesticides in this manner leads to the death of not just the pest that is targeted by the pesticides but also the essential organisms.
The aim of giving this thesis this title was to remind readers about the nature of a spring that was there before the introduction of pesticides. This title was aimed at making people envision a silent spring without birds’ sounds since all birds have been eliminated by the used pesticides. The poem, “La Belle Dame Sans Merci” by John Keats inspired this title. There was a line in this poem stating that sedge was withering in the lake and that there were no birds singing.
Carson stated clearly that she is not an advocate of the prohibition of pesticides. Instead, she advocates for proper and responsible handling and use of pesticides. People should be informed about the effects that pesticides have on their environment. Using different case studies, she explained how chemical pesticides affect the environment negatively. She also gives instances where organisms have been hurt by chemicals when handled poorly.
These problems happened because the country focused more on economic growth as well as the benefits of increased agricultural production without paying attention to the negative effects that are likely to occur.
Pesticides refer to chemical or biological substances that repel, control or kill some plant or animal life that hurt the needed organism. There are two major categories of the pesticides that humans use in controlling pests. These are organic and synthetic pesticides. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloror-ethane (DDT) is among the popular synthetic pesticides. This belongs to a category of chemicals that are called chlorinated hydrocarbons. Despite being extremely dangerous, it is used to kill insects and its effects are not realized immediately. It has lasting effects because it moves through the food chains.
This implies that once used, it can affect organisms that it was not sprayed on directly. Dieldrin, aldrin, chloridane, heptachlor and endrin are other types of the commonly used synthetic pesticides. Organic pesticides include malathion, parathion and arsenic. In the Silent Springs thesis, Carson describes the chemical poisons used by most farmers and households in killing insects. During the time when Carson wrote this thesis, DDT was a common non-organic pesticide in use.
Once a DDT pesticide has been introduced in the environment, the movement and persistence of this pesticide determine the level of harm that it will cause on other organisms that the user was not targeting. Majority of the used pesticides are not degradable. As such, they penetrate the soil after dissolving in water after which they harm the organisms that they get into contact with. Aquatic organisms and those living within the soil are affected the most. Many people believed that DDT was harmless because in the power form in which it was used, its effects are not instant. Nevertheless, essential enzymes within the animal bodies are inhibited by the active ingredient in DDT. The accumulation of this pesticide in the body causes adverse effects which eventually are transferred via the animals’ food chains.
DDT is also capable of moving across the placenta’s wall to affect the unborn children or animals after the parents get in contact with it. It affects vertebrates as well since they mostly feed on worms. High quantities of DDT were used to spray trees. Earthworms ate and mulched leaves that fell with this chemical. Birds fed on these warms and therefore they acquired the chemical. There were also birds which ate insects on trees which already had the chemical. Most farmers use insecticides in their farms and these affect fish in their ponds. This is because the chemicals are washed from the trees by rains and deposited in the ponds and other water bodies by the surface runoff.
Humans are also affected by these chemicals. Most people working in the field were affected by DDT. Cancer was one of the effects of DDT in both adults and children. Humans absorb these chemicals through the skin. Rachel Carson conducted extensive research in ecology before writing this thesis. Her thesis introduced the basic ecological concepts in America. Exactly how did the failure to note this interrelatedness led to different problems that Carson highlighted? How was the control programs’ effectiveness limited by this interrelatedness or how did it render them counter-productive?
In the last chapter, “The other road” Carson provides the alternatives that people can use in saving organisms from chemical pesticides. The best alternatives that Carson suggests are biological controls. This is because using biological controls is easy. They are also safe to humans and animals, effective and cheap. Biological controls work within the natural rules. They have no interference with the target insects’ predators. Additionally, they do not affect the environment and habitat of their target insects. There are also biological controls that are able to sterilize insects.
Inspiration that is similar to what Carson provides in her thesis is very important in the contemporary world. With the current technological advancement, people are just using pesticides without considering their effects on them and the environment. Cancer is a disease that is affecting adults and children. Build-up of chemicals in the body might be one of the causes of cancer in the contemporary society yet people are using chemicals uncontrollably.
Biological controls were commonly used in the past but these were gradually abandoned when chemical methods emerged. This is because people wanted to find out if they were effective. Almost the entire population is now using chemical methods and this is becoming problematic. This is because even with the risks that these chemicals pose, people still use them and using biological pest control methods seems difficult to most people.
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Capitalist Democracy and Democratic Capitalism
Capitalist democracy defines the rights that are exercised in the market or social setting in the use, abuse, exchange, and output, along with the inhabitation of resources, properties, and property rights. Therefore, capitalist democracy regulates the equal achievement of degrees between economic powers and political powers. A government that embraces capitalist democracy is, thus, a state that adopts a systematic manifestation of private property rights in the way that citizens use their resources, properties, and other available opportunities, in full knowledge of the adverse social impacts (Maria 2).
On the other hand, democratic capitalism refers to states that have embraced capitalism through political parties. In such countries, people are expected to publicly show the interest in owning properties and resources, while in full enjoyment of their rights. Those who embrace capitalist democracy are mainly political parties that pretend to not care much about the necessary measures of poverty eradication. Thus, it is clear that the government places limitations on economic and political powers among the citizens, organizations and corporations. This is done while also making sure that citizens who contribute handsomely to the economy get the most benefits, while the rest are left with just enough capital and resources to ensure that they are able to sustain themselves on a daily basis (Maria 4).
Capitalist democracy is therefore, better since it accords the people the power to grow without discrimination but based on their contributions to the economy. This ensures that all people are empowered politically, economically and socially in equal measures so as to sustain their daily lives. In the US, it can be said that the country is practicing democratic capitalism. This is because of the fact that the country has social classes like the lower, middle and upper classes. On the contrary, organizations compete in order to acquire political influence and favors for social, economic and political gains so as to remain in control. Therefore, America cannot be included in the list of countries that are looking towards achieving equality between economic and political powers.
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Maria, Qassim. Democracy and Capitalism: Clash of Ideologies, Theory, Policy, and Practice Development Studies, 2011
Competitive Analysis of Local and International Competition for whiskey Products
When studying the Taiwan whiskey market, it is important to keenly look at the brand that is topping the list in the market. It is a known fact that Taiwan is the largest market probably in the world when it comes to the consumption of whiskey globally. However, sales of the brands are quite diverse. In fact, many brands fail to do well in the market while others flourish with great returns. One of the distillers that have penetrated the larger Taiwan whiskey market is Ole Smoky. The Ole Smoky Distillery is a whiskey production company that manufactures its products from natural ingredients that have carried away many in the market. The whiskey has gained lots of praise from whiskey consumers. The drink is manufactured from corn, which is distilled six times to produce the most pleasant taste to the tongue. The whiskey, Moonshine White Lighting is made from fruity blends of Apple pie, blackberry, grapes among others. The production and sales of these brands of whiskey are not conducted in the blends that are modernly used and adapts to the market today. Instead, the manufacturers package the products in natural guards that depict the purity of their production, thereby making the whiskey more pleasant to consumers. The company sources its raw materials locally, hence enhancing the trust of the people in the brand.
Taiwan has a booming whiskey market. According to statistics, it is reported that 93% of the total mega whiskey valued at about $342 million is in Taiwan. It can apparently occur that the number of whiskey-producing industries in the country are not restricted enough to regulate the market. This allows other potential international companies to also penetrate the market in order to satisfy the overwhelming demand of whisky in Taiwan. This is a fact that is also ascertained by the National Agency of Taiwan. The body even goes further to recommend that it would be advisable if investors were invited to start up industries in the country so as to fill in the gap in the Taiwan whiskey market. The country is the world’s largest whiskey market. The Scotch Whiskey Association points out that, ‘’the market and the consumption of whiskey is becoming broader. They emphasize on the need to produce more whisky in order to meet the demands of consumers. For instance, the scotch has shifted the attention from Britain to Taiwan. Taiwan’s market is doing significantly well, as revealed by this direct indicator. The payments for the whiskey are always quite good. This in return gives the producers an assurance that they will always get better returns for their products. Despite the rapidly increasing demand for whiskey in Taiwan, there is need for a new business venture to tactfully get into the market and win the trust of consumers. It is apparent to the world and the rest of the whiskey producers are free to focus onto this lucrative market. However, penetrating into the market requires proper strategy.
The production of whiskey in Taiwan has been doing fine. The products are manufactured and packaged to match all the classes of consumers. According to Mr. Lee, a holder of doctorate degree in whisky production notes that it one conducts a survey of all the whiskey-producing countries, he or she would find out that Taiwan is the market that the entire world is focusing on as the most ideal target. The company that came up with the whiskey brand known as Kavan earned great benefits, and also saw the merits of putting up a whiskey-producing factory in Taiwan. They noticed that the country has the best temperature for whiskey production. They also found out that the warmer climate in Taiwan is good for faster maturity of whiskey compared to other countries like Britain and Scotland. This also means that for any company that is planning to start producing whiskey in Scotland, human capital investment would be very important since in cooler temperatures, containing the production is much easier as the evaporation rate of whiskey would be slightly lower. The study also reveals that due to the increased production of whiskey, making more money is easier as a result of the readily available market. This stipulates that a lot of emphasis have to be placed on the processes of production. Besides, it should also be noted that whenever there is a fault in the brand, its entire market would be adversely impacted and consumer may tend to shy away from buying the products.
Taiwan’s whiskey market is quite unique in its own way. In fact, it has shocked many companies that have tried to introduce their brands in it. Even though some are fairing on in this market, many fail and are baffled why their brands are not selling unlike others’. The country’s locals love whisky will juicy ingredients obtained from blended fruits. In fact, it is this juicy effect in the whisky that accords them the pleasure of the drink. Just like the ingredients used by Ole Smoky Original Moonshine, extracted from natural fruits and corn that are grown locally. This inspires a natural feel that makes everyone to want to be associated with the whiskey. It is produced from natural products that are chemical-free, which form the largest percentage of the whiskey brands in the market.
Kavan whisky, another brand that has also received good reception in the market, brings in whisky that is manufactured from carbon, which is carbonated whisk soda. The packaging of the brand is done in aluminum cans with a target of the young people who are going out. The whiskey also contained the highest alcohol content ever been produced in the market. However, the company that produces this brand also manufactures other kinds of whisky to cover this promising market. Despite this, they have not been able to beat Ole Smoky in the Taiwan market. In fact, Ole Smoky has managed to successfully enhance its popularity without regards to the pressure mounted by its competitors. Pricing is Ole Smoky’s strength that is not an element in the penetration and success in the market. This is because there are several companies that have brought in lower prices than those of Ole Smoky but still not been able to drive Ole Smoky out of the market. There are some brands that present themselves as very special by the achievements that they have made in the international market even though Ole Smoky Distillers still has the lead in this market. It also stands that the natural taste of Ole Smoky Distillers is another strength that keeps them highly placed in the market. Considering that whisky consumers in Taiwan have identified themselves with the fine fruit-blended whisky that is produced by this company, their loyalty remains tied to this brand since it has never shifted.
There are several whine distillers across the world that are causing ripples in the market. The Japanese whiskey is the largest producer of whiskey in the world. In Japan, there are quite a number of distilling companies that have made significant impact in the market. They command the largest market share in the world. However, their common whiskey is malt whiskey. The companies are just unique on their own and do not trade with other competitors across the globe. The malt that they use in the production of their whiskey is manufactured by the same company that also distills their whiskey. Japanese companies capitalize in the production of a variety of whiskey blends to give them a unique edge in the market. However, in the Taiwan market, the Japanese whiskey may not do quite well since their products lack the fruity ingredients like those loved by Taiwan whiskey consumers. This means that, Japanese whiskey is not a threat in the Taiwan market. On the international scale, Japanese whiskey, however, poses a great threat and is worth looking out for.
Irish whiskey is secondly placed. The whiskey is reputed to be among the oldest whiskey brands in the market. This reputation has accorded them a cut above other distillers. In fact, they are more trusted than other producers. Irish whiskey is manufactured in various blends, some of which are made from a mixture of barley and grains. The whisky is naturally produced from the pot, blended and packaged in containers. Because of the natural flavor that this product has, it is the Irish favorite. This whiskey blend is compared to the Ole Smoky Tennessee Moonshine, which also has natural tastes from fruit blends. In case the Irish whiskey gets entry into the Taiwan market, there are chances that they would pose some threat since they offer one of the products that are desired by Taiwan whiskey consumers. Contrary to the traditions of whiskey and spirits that are distilled more than three times, the Irish whiskey is only distilled two times to deliver the purest form of whiskey. This clearly brings out the fruity and juicy taste of the whiskey. On the international market, this whiskey brand has gained considerable popularity and is preferred by many. This element of including spicy fruit and its smooth texture enables it to gain immense acceptance in the Taiwan market.
In order to acquire an equal market share, and even outdo the Irish whiskey, a company has to carefully look into implementing marketing strategies that shall include the production of the most preferred whisky blends in the market. Another brand that has also made significant impact in the international market is Bourbon, which is quite a unique product in the US. The roots of the brand can be traced back to Irish whisky and has been celebrated in the market for a long time. The Bourbon blends are also known in the global market as those manufactured from natural corn and fermented traditionally.
For a company to gain smooth entry into the Taiwan market, it has to first evaluate the whisky products that are available in the market. Based on the Analysis on Ole Smoky Distillers, it is undoubted that their whisky is much celebrated in Taiwan and is produced from fruity raw materials. The conditions under which the whisky blends are produced also reflect the originality and culture of the Taiwan people. A company can be successful by adopting their production. It is also important to consider the quality the products and prices. For any whisky product that is eyeing the Taiwan market, the prices should be set with the financial abilities of the social class that is targeted in mind. From the view of Ole Smoky’s marketing and pricing strategy in comparison with other whisky companies in the Taiwan market, it is clear that price is not an important factor in winning the market. It is ideal to come up with good prices while also producing better quality products that shall surpass the standards that have been set by Ole Smoky.
Since the whisky company has plans of venturing into the market, it needs to adopt adequate promotional strategies. Customer has to be well informed about the product that is making its entry into the market. The way in which information about a brand is relayed in the market determines its reception. It is advisable to master the most attractive methods of advertisement in the market while also looking into whether the method used in the promo will at some point come to an end, or help in the promotion of the products in order to boost the sales of the brand. The company should also be able to narrow down to the place where the target customers are available. This is important since it is quite easy to take good products to the wrong place, thereby resulting into losses.
Packaging is also an important factor that has to be put into consideration when planning to enter into a new market. The first impression that the people shall have on the brand shall significantly impact its future in the market. Ole Smoky Tennessee Moonshine controls the Taiwan market, thus a new company has to make a positive impression that can enable it beat Ole Smoky. Besides, the company also has to find ways of placing itself strategically in the minds and hearts of whisky consumers in Taiwan. This is achieved through putting great value in customer service and how they relate to the products. Ole Smoky Tennessee Moonshine is well placed in the minds and heart of many customers, thereby enabling the brand to perform well in the market. A new whisky company has to also offer the best blends than those of Ole Smoky in order to have an impact in the market.
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There are numerous effects of keeping discontented workers in a company. The first effect is that most workers will probably undergo and report traumas on the job due to the fact that they are discontented with the employment. Worker discontent can as well cause poor general self-esteem in the company as other workers in the company can be considerably affected by the negative outlooks of workers who are dejected in undertaking their jobs. Worker discontent can as well lead to poor worker efficiency, which in the long run causes poor organizational enactment as well as loss of revenue. It can as well generate huge worker turnover rates because of the closure of agreements of lowly performing workers, as well as the departure of workers in hunt for healthier jobs in a different place. As workers are the expression of the company, workforce discontent will significantly impact a company’s status as well as its capability to keep clients. value concept can be used to enhance worker contentment as it concentrates on the differences amongst what workers want from an employment, as well as what they really obtain from the work concerning the consequences they vastly treasure.
Increasing what worker’s treasure most, for instance salary as well as learning prospects can enhance their job contentment considerably. The social information-processing theory is founded on the fact that the outlooks of workers towards their job are chiefly impacted by the details they get from other individuals. Interaction with the company towards workers ought to be operational and apparent to shun gossips by workers on their works. The dispositional model points out that worker’s job contentment relies on the traits that people hold through circumstances. Dispositional factors; for example personality impacts can influence job happiness. Worker job gratification can be amplified by assigning them duties that go with their dispositional factors. The two-factor concept points out that issues causing job contentment are diverse from those that lead to job displeasure (Kreitner, 2009, p. 328). To inspire workers, an individual has to get rid of the discontentment they are exposed to, and then aid them find happiness. Job displeasure can be eradicated via offering job security, as well as making sure salaries are competitive. To build work pleasure, workers ought to be offered with openings for accomplishment, learning as well as acknowledgment for their work input.
Intrinsic job satisfaction alludes to the job pleasure that comes from within workers due to their job traits, for instance freedom on working techniques, acknowledgment for their excellent work attempts, openings to use ones capabilities as well as the amount of duty given to them (Rahim, 2012, p. 64). Extrinsic job satisfaction comes externally from the job setting because of set of circumstances for instance job security, salary or physical job environments.
To inspire vast work input, companies ought to pursue objective recognition as well as obligation by workers. The significance of the objective ought to be made certain to offer a worker with the inspiration to move away from disappointment, and concentrate on the route to objective apprehension. Workers ought to be made to have faith that the established objectives are achievable. In addition, the objective must be explicit and quantifiable to make sure that workers are mindful of what is anticipated in certain duties in reference to satisfactory working echelons. Moreover, objective challenge can inspire work input. Great objective degrees will probably spur exceptional input, however ought to be amply low to be achievable. Discreetly challenging objectives have the greatest inspiration and work input levels. At last response is crucial in making sure that the goals remain useful as well as workers maintain their pledge to the objectives. Response will make workers aware of their input levels towards meeting the set objectives for them to make essential changes to pursue the objective.
Employment type can be a source of inspiration for workers. Designing employments in a manner that supports specialization can be spurring for workers who are masters specifically errands. Work ought to be sorted out in a manner that makes workers effective. Duties ought to be designed in a manner that permits workers to finish the whole undertaking persistently, instead of in a disconnected manner. Occupations ought to likewise be intended to permit a level of flexibility in arranging and planning, choosing the best system to fulfill the assignment (Jex & Britt, 2008, p. 290-291). It ought to be intended to make sure that it does not negatively influence the lives of workers and those outside the work environment. At long last, it ought to be designed in a manner that gives workers successful response with respect to their performance.
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Jex, S. M., & Britt, T. W. (2008). Organizational psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Kreitner, R. (2009). Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Rahim, M. A. (2012). Social intelligence, leadership, and problem solving. New Brunswick: Transaction.
New products in terms of yields that have an improved quality than before aid sustain development in a business corporation as well as safeguards the workers and stakeholders’ wellbeing. Companies improve the quality of their commodities because of environmental changes such as competition, technology or client liking. These quality alterations of commodities guarantees that company stay competitive in the market making a corporate firm complete to be the topmost competitive company.
Corporations ought to be extremely cautious in the setting that their product utilization is as well as technological reforms specifically whether technologies can be utilized to enhance their commodities. On the other hand, company administrations ought to be inquisitive on the quality of the goods of the rivals to make sure that they are yet up in front of the competitive market. For example, the social media has had extensive competition because of advanced technologies being revealed regularly for example Facebook as well as Google+. Google+ has an amusing public search service for updates in comparison with Facebook. The whole Google+ flourishes on this search with developing terms in the use exposure (Stay, 2012, p. 88). Google+ developed its social network well in accord to advanced technologies as well as what clients need. The social network has a characteristic that portrays an improved manner to plan communication and associates.
The endowment of diverse services on Google+ has surged the number of clients both corporations and private entities to make their dealings smooth. Subscribers can advertise on diverse materials and data there are fascinated by, on social ads on Google+ through AdSens and this has made Facebook seem less advanced (Stay, 2012, p. 89). Companies ought to improve commodities in accord to corporations’ plans.
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Stay, J. (2012). Google+ Marketing For Dummies. New York: Wiley.
The Laramie Project
Ethnic and cultural value forms a major theme in the play by Moises Kaufman, The Laramie Project. Members of the tectonic Theatre team acted this play. The play is about the murder of Matthew Shepherd, the main character who was killed while 21 years old. He was murdered because he was a gay, a culture that was viewed at as a crime.
The play depicts Matthew as a student at the university. He was a representative of a culture that was considered unethical and illegal by most residents of Laramie, Wyoming. This was a culture of the gays. As such, most people under the leadership of Russell Henderson and Aaron McKinney decided to frustrate this minority group. They planned to kidnap Matthew and then tie him up so that he can be beaten thoroughly. They did this and Matthew was critically injured. He died five days later after being put in a coma for those five days after the beating. This murder angered the Laramie city’s citizens especially because of the fact that lesbians and gays’ rights have been supported strongly by America.
In this play, Kaufman appears to highlight challenges that lesbians and gays face in the contemporary society. They are discriminated against by the other members of the society because they consider them as promoters of a contrary culture. Due to the death of Matthew, several protests were staged in the entire country with lesbians and gays as well as their supporters sending a clear message that they demand respect for their rights. Kaufman uses this play to highlight the major issues using the words of the characters. He uses their voices to represent the voices of gays as well as those of the minority groups in the society that are treated with contempt just because they are different.
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How the Irish Saved Civilization
Thomas Cahill wrote How the Irish Saved Civilization. This author was born in an Irish American family with six children. He grew up in Bronx. He was knowledgeable about Jesuits and he always mulled over aged Greek and Latin. This enabled him to make personal interpretations of his exploration. It also made him think about the unique plans of the antiquated creators. He joined the University of Fordham to study philosophy, medieval theory and the scripture. Additionally, he concentrated on Greek and Latin literary works. He acquired a BA in advanced logic and literary works. In addition, he pursued an ecclesiastical reasoning degree.
He earned a film and memorable literary degree from the University of Columbia. He also joined the Union of New York Theological Seminary where he studied scripture. This balanced instruction, breadth and depth of what he considered as the essentialness of the stories as well as the foundation of the Irish Catholic (Cahill 9).
In the book, How the Irish Saved Civilization, Cahill focuses on past events starting with the demise of a domain that had existed for 1100 years. He continues to inspect an agnostic Irish and a Celts’ member. Celts had ruled a large part of the Western Europe for a long time. Cahill informs the reader about the copyists, friars and unskilled Irish. These could not get adequate books because the brutes burned and destroyed extraordinary libraries across Europe unexpectedly. Additionally, he reveals how both the antiquated and new books were replicated. He goes ahead to describe the way progress was reseeded by the Irish friars across Europe (Cahill 19).
The extraordinary aspect of this book is its narrative approach. From the collapse of the realm to the Irish friars’ evangelical works, the story is narrated through the eyes of the people who existed during the transitional period. These were the Romans who included Patricius, Ausonius, Hippo Augustine as well as St. Patrick. There is also the Columcille or the minister. These were generally people who could reflect on the time of their existence and they affected what was to happen later.
The book of Thomas Cahill demonstrates the way the accommodating evangelists were prepared in the remote corps in Ireland during the Stone Age period. It also introduces the medieval society in Europe during the XI century which ended at the time when the Emporium of Rome fell. If this exertion though not regarded outside Ireland did not exist, innovative advancement of human could as well be extraordinarily distinctive.
First, the book establishes the achievement’s foundation by showing readers the late Roman Empire in the 406 CE periods while Germanic savages Roman regions in Rhine. The Roman people are unable to consider the lifestyle’s results because it has existed for approximately 11 centuries. It extends to Britain, the Mediterranean and Gaul. Cahill extends his investigations from the 15th century to the time when the Roman Empire collapsed. The investigations involve estimating as well as evaluating the essence of the Roman administration.
Readers learn about the ordinary servitude practice from this point because it was all over Europe. This prompts an investigation of Ireland as well as the war parties which extended to the Britain shoreline. Many slaves were caught by these parties on the basis of tribal orders in Ireland. Cahill proceeds to inform readers about the plight of a slave from the “cultivated” Rome. This slave remained outdoors because of the Irish tribes wile. It is obvious that this slave will become a focal player as the narrative unfolds (Cahill 30).
Later, this book bypasses mainland Europe. It digs into Hippo Augustine’s establishments. This is a regretful scholarly and mastermind Christian. After several foundational dialogues about Greek influences through Plato and Socrates, the book reviews Virgil, Cicero and Homer. It proceeds to demonstrate the Roman domain obliteration. Cahill demonstrates how Rome was stripped of its gold, capable laborers and grain by a wave of the brute tribes. He also illustrates how the Roman society, proficiency and science were washed into obscurity by these tribes.
The Europe of Cahill is about to reach fruition. Readers can now see that as the governments emerge slowly, the Catholic Church administered a feeling of untouchable prevalence and power. The book takes another twist to explore Ireland. Readers are briefed about the Celts history through literary works’ recitation and legend arrangement by an Irish persona (Cahill 39).
Patricius is introduced again. Here, the book illustrates him as a slave who is now free from the Irish captor. The slave through a divine revelation re-imagines his own existence while preaching in the previous country where he was held hostage. On coming back to reality in Ireland, he transforms the entire nation into a Christianity state. To Cahill, this is a significant suggestion that Irish can be transformed from a country of brutality to a country of book fans, copyists and educated masterminds (Cahill 42).
The entire book indicates Augustine and St. Patrick as playing vital roles in the civilization of Ireland. The Christian mission of Patrick for instance nurtured Irish scholarship. Additionally, Patrick realized the importance of Christianity in Ireland. Thomas clearly knows that Christianity was accepted by men who refused to abandon their unique historical, cultural and psychological prints through the teachings of St. Patrick. In doing this, Thomas shows that Patrick has a real Irish identity.
Nevertheless, Cahill shows that Christianity is now a reclamation and collection of scientific literature and cultural regions. Additionally, he says that monasteries in Ireland became Western civilization’s databases at the time when Rome was decimated by military campaigns of the surrounding nations. Patrick provided Christianity and traditional education in Ireland. This was kept for safekeeping purpose by the Irish until the end of the Roman obliteration. According to Cahill, the Mainland shores in Europe, Britain and Gaulish were overwhelmed by the Irish ministers and cloisters to take this literary work to the western nations when this happened (Cahill 87).
It is evident that the work of Cahill is noteworthy. It can be seen as a story workmanship and as a chronicled perception. The work is a story, history and yarn all in a splendid postulation. Nevertheless, the reader gets a legendary feeling from the trails that the book weaves. In addition, the book ends by imparting a feeling of the ideas of Cahill by educating the reader about the past as well as how the past can transform the present (Cahill 99).
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Cahill, Thomas. How The Irish Saved Civilization, New York, NY: Anchor Books, 1995. Print.
Economics of International Business
- a).What are the factors that explain the reasons why trading nations across the world have increasingly become interdependent after the World War II?
There are several factors that have played a role in increasing interdependence among the global trading countries. These factors have both the economic and political perspectives. Development of economic bodies or entities in various regions whose focus is to promote interactions past the boundaries of a country is among the critical factors that have led to this interdependence. An example of this is the establishment of the EC or the European community which has increased interdependence among different trading countries worldwide.
Additionally, multinational corporations have continued to acquire increasing significance. This has also enhanced interdependence between trading corporations and countries. Interdependence was also enhanced in the 1970s by the global oil markets’ power. Finally, global trading bodies are maximizing globalization by using common currencies such as the way the Euro was used during the 21st century. Infrastructural development, economic disparities and technological advancement are also the other factors that are increasing interdependence among trading countries.
- b).What disadvantages and advantages do globalization has? Illustrate with examples.
Globalization is the process of cultural, political and economic integration and unification of huge enterprises and different nations. There are diverse implications of globalization on nations, consumers and business entities. A major benefit that people enjoy from globalization is the enhancement of development of the international companies and trade. For example, the Coca-Cola Company has grown because globalization expanded its market’s coverage.
Additionally, the speed of acquiring and disseminating information is promoted by globalization due to technological advancements. Globalization is also important because it reduces the probability of the trading nations going into wars. This is because such nations have effective social, political and economic relationships (Kale et al. 286).
However, globalization increases unemployment. This is due to the fact that most multinationals send professionals and staffs to work in their branches in other countries. This reduces employment opportunities for the local people. Globalization has also led to increased dependence of some countries on the others to realize development objectives (Tajgardoon 137). Additionally, globalization is among the contributors of environmental destruction and pollution.
How does transportation cost affects the patterns of international trade?
There are different effects of transportation costs on the patterns of the international trade in the contemporary economy that is being influenced by globalization. When compared to domestic trade, transportation costs are higher for international trade. This is due to the fact that one has to go beyond the boundaries of a country. Patterns of the international trade are limited by an increase in the transportation costs and this decreases trade volume. This is due to the fact that executing business ideas past the border becomes expensive. Therefore, international companies evaluate transportation means that include ocean/sea, air and road.
Most patterns of the international trade are affected by transportation costs and this is integrated in the cost of the final services and products. The international trade volume is increased by reduced transportation costs because nations and investors are able to ship more services and goods across the world. Additionally, the international trade’s course is dictated by transportation cost in relation to volume and sequence of international transactions or trade volume.
- What are the factors that underlie the values of currency exchange within a free market?
The vital factors underlying the value of currency exchange within a free market include currency demand and supply levels. When the demand for a currency is high, exchange value will improve or transform as long as other factors remain constant. This is related to the desire that services and goods of a country get from the other countries. This is an indication that currency demand is important for exchange value within a free market.
The amount of services and goods that a country is willing or wishing to import or export is another factor. How money flows is important in determining the value of currency exchange. Additionally, the influence or outcome of import or export to other countries also determines the value of currency exchange within a free market.
- What factors apply in short- and long-term exchange rates?
Short- and long-term exchange rates are affected by several factors under globalization’s influence. Among them is the importance of the differentials in regards to inflation. When there are low rates of inflation, the value of a currency increases and its purchasing power also increases as compared to the other currencies. Differentials in regards to interest rates are also another factor.
When the central banks manipulate interest rates, they influence exchange rates and inflation. When the interest rates change, they manipulate currency values and inflation. A deficit in the current account also affects short as well as long term values and exchange rates of a currency. The other important factors that affect values and exchange rates of a currency include economic performance, public debt, monetary policy, trade terms, market judgment, speculation and political stability (Benigno 248).
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Benigno, Gianluca, Pierpaolo Benigno, and Salvatore Nisticò. “Risk, Monetary Policy, and the Exchange Rate.” NBER/Macroeconomics Annual (University Of Chicago Press) 26.(2012): 247-309.
Kale, Sudhir H., and Sangita De. “The Impact Of Globalization On Individual Customers: Implications For Marketing.” International Journal Of Management 30.3 Part 1 (2013): 286-293.
Tajgardoon, Gholamreza, Mehdi Behname, and Khosro Noormohamadi. “Globalization Effect On Employment: An Evidence Form Islamic Countries.” Journal of Business & Retail Management Research 7.1 (2012): 130-137.
Goodness of UN PRI
The UN PRI organization is an investor plan that is supported by the United Nations. Its focus is mainly on responsible investment. The body is so far quite good and successful in assisting investors to integrate good practices in their activities and investment processes. Besides, it also seeks to promote and enhance sustainable financial markets. As a result of this, the organization is a network of international investors with the commitment of putting together its six principles into action.
For example, in January 2009, investors whose values surpassed the $3 trillion mark launched an initiative to assist in boosting the corporate responsibility with regards to the UN PRI principles. This is a revelation that as an organization, UN PRI initiative is good and many investors have great belief in it. In the same way, during the crisis of 2007, quite a number of investors joined the initiative of the UN PRI. This is an indication that the organization can be of help during times of economic crises.
The increase in the number of members of the UN PRI has been impacted by two good qualities of the body. The organization holds the belief that even in times of global financial turmoil; many investors are convinced that the consideration of various factors like climate change, socio-environmental elements and good governance in the process of making investment decisions and exercising ownership is very critical. On the other hand, this impacts responsible investment as an aggregate for long term benefits. The organization ensures that long term results are achieved on investment despite the conditions of the market. This is acquired through appropriate consideration of social, environmental and governance matters.
Members of UN PRI also have the opportunity of maintaining responsible asset ownership as a group with various investors instead of a single entity. As a result of this, the joint initiative supports the sustainability of entrepreneurship that benefits all the investors, owners and communities. Several companies are already experiencing the benefits of the integration of the UN PRI’s six principles. This points out that the organization is a unique venture that is quite good.
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UN PRI (2009). Rapid Growth in Responsible Investment despite Credit Crisis. Retrieved from