Effects of Gender Inequality in Education
Education is the key to success in one’s lifetime. It is considered as the most valuable possession for mankind in the today’s world. It is also the most important tool for human development. Regardless of where one comes from, education is a universal human right as it presents many opportunities in life. One issue that has made it had for many people to access education is gender inequality. Evidently, like in any other areas, gender discrimination is both formal and informal. In some cases, it does affect both men and women depending on place of origin.
Gender inequality in education exists in almost every underdeveloped country and among those languishing in poverty. From a report presented by the World Bank in 2001, there has been a considerable increase in gender disparity in education in the low income countries over the last three eras. Inequality in the education sector starts from the word “go” as some people fail to access even the least education services that can be offered in a learning institution. Hence, many people fighting for equality in the education have never left any stone unturned for better and educated societies in the future.
There are different ways through which gender inequality has been practiced. For instance, there have been disparities on how boys and girls have to access school or university. Primarily schooling became a universal right from 1877, but girls’ secondary school opened 15 years later after boys’ school. Women were allowed to attend university is they make it through secondary school, but there are areas that prohibit boys from attending universities. Educating girl child has been seen by many 19th century parents as waste time and money. Daughters were to marry, raise children and keep houses. Today, the number of girls graduating with degrees is high than that of men.
In the early 20th century, girls were limited to undertaking areas that include motherhood like sex education, health, hygiene and domestic skills. For boys, they had to pursue those areas that would help take care of their families socially and economically. The move a parent or government made on education had effect on the society and the nation in general. For instance, lack of education meant that there will be disparities in income among men and women. Those who were undertaking taxing jobs were to be paid more than the rest of the group and this led to discrimination of women as they were seen as the minority jobwise.
Uneducated women were discriminated in the society and at workplace as they were seen as passive, less assertive and quite due to the impact of hidden skills and curriculum. Education inequality also affected economic growth of a nation. Women are seen to be more productive than men in regard to the many chores that they undertake on daily basis. Hence, if this group is despised, it means that there will be less labor force and less output is expected.
By promoting equality in education, it means that a nation is encouraging economic growth and promoting important development goals that entail lower child mortality and low fertility. By giving every individual an opportunity to learn, inequality will be a long gone vice. Men are the promoters of inequality in the society, but if there educated or re-educated, both socially and professionally, it will be easy to improve productivity, economic and our living standards.
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An Analysis of the Economic Importance of the Amazon River
The Amazon River is the second largest in the world. Found in South America, the river is 4,200 km long and holds a fifth of the whole world’s fresh water. Experts state that the Amazon flows at more than ten times the speed of the Mississippi river and every minute 12 billion liters of water flow in this river.
There are many benefits that the Amazon River offers the people who live around it. Amongst the key economic gains from this river include:
- Fishing activities. The Amazon River has over 1,500 species of fish and some of these are harvested for trade purposes. These include the cat fish, turtles and other rare species of fish which are found in this fresh water river. These fish species are usually traded within the Amazon basin or outside to hotels and other traders in search of rare fish species.
- Trade channels. The governments of countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia have constructed transport systems especially roads around the Amazon River area to facilitate development projects and trade within these areas.
- The Amazon River has thousands of species of flora and fauna, most of which are exotic and rare. This has attracted several tourists to the area who come in search of adventure as well as research. These tourists come to see fish, animals, plants, flowers, insects and different species of living organisms. This has generated revenue for countries which are visited with Brazil reaping the most benefits.
- Mining and energy. Since the discovery of gold along the Amazon River in the 1980s, there have been several miners migrating into the area surrounding the river. Apart from gold, among the major minerals being mined includes bauxite. Research shows that 15% of bauxite in the world originates from the Amazon River basin. Other minerals include iron, steel, tin, nickel, manganese and copper. Additionally, the Amazon River is also known for hydro energy. Many companies are settling within the area in order to exploit the high potential of hydroelectric power supply.
- The Amazon River is surrounded by tropical rainforests which have a huge variety of trees. Some of the trees that have attracted several developers are the mahoganies which are usually harvested for their popularity in building furniture. The rubber trees in the rain forest are also very popular because of their high quality rubber products. There are also rose woods, Tonka bean woods and other scented trees that are used in making perfumes and other scented products. Lumbering is thus a popular economic activity along the Amazon River.
- A lot of land along the Amazon River has been turned to commercial farming purposes. This is because there are parts of the river basin which are highly fertile. Some of the crops that are grown on large scale are soybeans and corn. These are actually sold locally and exported. Farming of rice, manioc and other crops is also very popular.
Unfortunately, there have also been illegal economic activities within the Amazon River basin. For instance, illegal extraction of cocaine from the coca trees is one of the most lucrative economic activities that go on along the banks of river Amazon.
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The Most Endangered Species of the Amazon Rainforest
The Amazon Rainforest is home to many unique animals and plants. Even though this biome has a rich biodiversity, many of its species are considered endangered. This is because of the ongoing developmental activities that have significantly reduced the number of animals and plants in this habitat. The following are some of the endangered species of the Amazon rainforest:
- Golden Faced Lion Tamarin Monkeys. The Golden faced lion tamarin monkey is the tiniest monkey in the world. It is the size of a squirrel and is covered in long, reddish brown silky fur. They feed on flowers, fruit and insects. They also sap gum and nectar from flowers, plants and trees. These monkeys are carnivorous and sometimes eat frogs, lizards and snails. They are hunted down for their silky fur hence considered an endangered species. Scientists and researchers speculate that there are only 800 golden faced lion monkeys in the world.
- Poison Dart Frog. The poison dart frog is one of the rarest amphibians on earth that is found in the Amazon rainforest. Though colorful, these frogs are highly poisonous and produce toxic substances from their flesh. They feed on ants, termites, crickets and fruit flies. They can be found near the Amazon River and are considered endangered species because their natural habitat is at risk of massive destruction.
- The Harpy Eagle. The Harpy Eagle is considered one of the most powerful and largest species of eagles in the planet. These animals feed on animals such as monkeys and sloths. They also feed on different birds and reptiles. It lives in nests made up of twigs and is considered endangered because most of its habitat is being destroyed. It is also hunted down.
- The Jaguar. The jaguar is the biggest cat in the world. It is also the only animal in the panther family that lives in South America. This jungle cat looks very similar to the leopard. However, the jaguar is more stout and shorter in length as compared to the leopard. It cannot run as fast as the leopard and as such sneaks upon its prey before pouncing on it. Jaguars are mostly hunted down for their beautiful fur and experts estimate that only 150,000 of these animals are remaining.
- Hyacinth Macaws. These birds are a species of parrots. They thrive in the Amazon Rainforest because of their feeding habits. Their tough beaks can easily break the hard nuts found on trees growing in the forest. They also have strong feet that hold on to different branches of the trees. Hyacinth macaws are very social animals that live in large groups of 10-30 birds. They are endangered because the nut trees which they depend on for food are being cut down. Additionally, many of these birds are being captured by hunters and sold as domesticated pets.
- Three-Toed Sloth. The three-toed sloth is one of the few animals that rarely move. These animals spend most of their time hanging upside down like bats and can sleep for up to 20 hours. Experts state that the male sloth may live in one particular tree for their entire life. These animals have a hard time controlling their body temperatures and hence thrive in the tropical rainforest of the Amazon. They are endangered because their habitat is being destroyed through deforestation.
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Ancient and Modern Importance of Euphrates River
About the Euphrates River
Found between Turkey, Iraq and Syria, the Euphrates River is part of the Mesopotamia River. It joins up with the Tigris River to form the Mesopotamia River. This river is 2,800 square kilometers long and it originates from Turkey, flowing through Syria before joining the Tigris River in Iraq. This river flows into the Persian Gulf where it ends.
Being the longest river in western Asia, it is regarded as an important part of the ecosystem. The importance of the Euphrates River dates back to the ancient times. Even though the river and its surrounding environment have changed, it continues to play a major role in the countries through which it flows.
Roles of the Euphrates River
The roles of the Euphrates River can be divided according to ancient and modern times. In both instances, the river has been the source of water for its environs and played a huge role in their livelihoods. The following are reasons why the Euphrates River is considered very important:
- Source of water. From time immemorial, the people of turkey, Syria and Iraq have been depending on this river for all their water needs. Indeed, the river has provided a means for irrigating their lands which are arid and thus cannot sustain plants on their own. To date, water from this river has also been piped and is used in homes for day to day needs. There are also dams that have been constructed to harvest water from the river and divert it into manmade reservoirs.
- Source of food. The Euphrates River is one of the sources of foods in the Mesopotamia region. Fish and other small water animals are obtained from this river. Most of the people still depend on the river for fish despite the fact that the numbers of the fish have reduced.
- Archaeological site. Some of the remains of the early man have been excavated from the Euphrates River. This makes it an important archaeological and historical site. Many archaeologists still visit this river in search of other important historical artifacts.
- Transport mode. The Euphrates River has been used as a transport route from the ancient time. In fact, together with the Tigris River, the Euphrates is regarded as one of the major transport routes that led to civilization during the ancient times. At the time, the river was used as a transport channel for merchants from Babylon, Assyria, Persia and other areas within the Middle East. In the modern era, there are many people and traders that still use the river as a transport channel.
- Source of energy. One of the modern day reasons why the Euphrates River is so important is because of its role in the supply of electricity within the region. The river is used in production of hydroelectric power in Turkey, Syria and Iraq. This makes it very important as the people around the area benefit from electrical supply.
- In the ancient days, the Euphrates River was used as a boundary between Syria and Turkey. Even though this is no longer the case, this waterway remains an important landmark in the region.
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The Main Importance of Tigris River
A brief background about the Tigris River
The Tigris River is one of two rivers that flow in Mesopotamia which is modern day Iraq. Even though it starts on the eastern part, it joins River Euphrates and flows from Turkey into Iraq. The river is 1,900 km long and is one of the more important sources of water in the Middle East.
The major benefits of the Tigris River
There are several key roles that Tigris River plays. These include:
- Source of water. The Tigris River has always been regarded as an important source of water for the arid and semi arid lands in both Turkey and Iraq. Both Iraq and Turkey have diverted some of the water from this river to create irrigation channels for their lands. Dams and water reservoirs have been constructed to harvest some of the water from the river for human activities. It is possible to farm using this water despite the arid conditions of the land along which it flows. This river has indeed sustained crops and human being in the dry areas.
- Source of food. Tigris River is a major source of fish of different species. Many of the inhabitants who live along the river have relied on this river for food for many years. It is not just human beings that rely on the river for food, animals and birds as well get food from it.
- Transport mode. From time immemorial, Tigris River has been considered a major mode of transport. During the civilization era, most goods and people were transported through this river. This has not changed and today water channels such as canals have been constructed to accommodate different vessels that pass through the Tigris River.
- Source of livelihood. Many people who live along the Tigris River consider it a source of revenue. There are fishermen who obtain fish from the river and sell it to consumers. There are also those who operate different vessels across the river and help to ferry both people and goods. During constructions of dams and waterways, many people get employment from activities related to the river.
- Source of energy. Hydro power from the Tigris River has helped to save energy while providing electricity to different parts of the region surrounding the river. Many people who live near the river can get cheap hydroelectric power because of its role as a source of energy.
- Means of recreation. There are also many people who use the Tigris River as a means of recreation. These include both inhabitants of the regions around the river and tourists who visit the region. These people engage in a range of water activities that include swimming, sailing, kayaking and fishing amongst other things.
In the recent past, many controversies have arisen concerning the Tigris River. This is because there are environmental concerns surrounding it. With Turkey constructing major dams at the mouth of the river, Iraq is worried about interference with the normal flow of the river. The government has also relaxed its laws and the river has become a dumping site for both dirt and sometimes dead bodies.
Environmental Degradation and Pollution of the Sahara Desert
Brief Overview of the Sahara Desert
The Sahara desert is the located in North Africa and is the largest hot desert in the world. It is spread across a number of countries within the continent and occupies approximately 10% of Africa. It is 9,100,000 km2.The desert has arid and hyper arid conditions. It is also known for extreme temperatures.
There is minimal vegetation cover in the Sahara desert and precipitation in most of the parts is low and scanty. Rainfall precipitation is between 0-25mm per annum and it can take a couple of years before the desert experiences rain. The desert’s surface is also divided into different ranges of surfaces. There are parts of the desert that are composed of gravel plains while others are made up of stone plateaus, salt flats and sand dunes.
Temperatures vary in the desert. Days and nights usually have extreme temperature ranges. A day can be as hot as 37 degrees while nights can get as cold as below zero degrees. The hot winds also tend to make the days seem hotter as the blow hot dust over the desert. Areas in the desert that have stone plateaus also experience colder weather especially during the night. Both the northern and southern ends of the Sahara have more vegetation because these experience precipitation more often.
Pollution within the Sahara Desert
Despite the extreme conditions in the Sahara, there are animals and plants that grow and thrive in this desert. Pollution within the deserts is that of great concern. The Sahara was not always a hot hyper arid mass of land. In the previous 5000 years, the whole of North Africa, including the Sahara was covered with water. However, degradation of the environment slowly eroded the water and created the desert. In the recent past, the following are some of the concerns that environmentalists have raised over pollution within the Sahara desert:
- Diversion of water from aquifers. Despite the extreme lack of water in the Sahara desert, there exist aquifers below the hard desert rocks. These are underground rocks that store water deep within the earth. Algeria and Tunisia have recently begun projects that divert the water from these aquifers to the countries’ water reservoirs in a bid to meet their citizens’ needs. Environmentalists have warned that these projects will drain the desert further and cause soil degradation as well as massive erosion.
- Hunting of endemic desert animals. Animals such as desert antelopes and the sand cat have always thrived in the desert. Yet they remain an endangered species because of the amount of hunting that goes on in the desert. Hunters in the Sahara range from the inhabitants of the desert who live on its edges to visitors who tour the desert for hunting purposes. There are some animals which have already become extinct because of the hunting activities.
- Desiccation of the land. The fact that the Sahara desert is not well protected makes it susceptible to encroachment. There are North African tribes that live off the desert. These are mainly nomadic tribes and they continue to deplete the scanty resources of the desert even further. Resources such as the oases are fast draining because of occupation of the desert.
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Reasons why the Amazon River is Important to People
Facts about the Amazon River
The Amazon River is one of the largest rivers in the world. Even though it is found in South America, its importance goes way beyond the region. Experts state that this 4,200 km long river provides the earth with up to a fifth of its fresh water. The fresh water is drained into the oceans and dilutes some of the saltiness of these oceans. 12 billion liters of water flow along the Amazon River every 60 seconds.
Importance of the Amazon River to the People
The Amazon River is relied upon by many people in different parts of the world for several reasons.
- Source of Water. The Amazon River is the largest source of water for the South American countries along which it flows. Most of the inhabitants directly or indirectly use the water from this river for their daily needs.
- Determines Climate around the world. The Amazon River is surrounded by a large rainforest. The rain forest depends on the river for survival and it determines the climate of the entire earth. Without this rain forest and the river, the climate cycle of the earth would be destroyed and people would suffer.
- Source of Food. The people who live along the Amazon River depend on it for food. The river is said to have as many as 1,500 species of fishes. The inhabitants derive most of their protein from the fish as well as other water animals that thrive in these waters. Oil is also gotten from some of the fishes and creatures harvested from the river.
- Source of Energy. The Amazon River is an important source of hydro energy. This is used by the governments in South America to harvest hydroelectric power which they supply to the people who live along the river.
- Source of Livelihood. There are many minerals along the Amazon River. These are usually mined by the people and they provide a source of livelihood. Some of the common minerals that are harvested around the Amazon River include bauxite and iron. There are large deposits of bauxite around the Amazon River and 15% of the world’s share is mined from this area. There are also minerals such as gold, nickel, tin and steel which the inhabitants and immigrants living around the Amazon River depend on for livelihood. Lumbering is also another major source of livelihood practiced along the river. Many of the locals harvest rubber from the rubber trees and other woods found in the Amazon rain forest for commercial purposes.
- Most farmers who live around the Amazon River depend on its waters as well as silt for their farming activities. There are both small scale farmers and subsistence ones who depend on the river for irrigation and farming. One of the common crops that is grown along the river is soya beans.
- Source of Medicine. From time immemorial, the inhabitants have always looked up to the rain forest and some of the plants that grow along the Amazon River for medicine. This is a practice that is still observed by the natives who live along the river banks.
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Ecosystem of the Nile River
There is a rich history on the ecosystem of river Nile. Many times, people look at the river on its own, but there is a lot also know. Ecosystem of the Nile River is made up of many things. It is made up of many inter-related living and non-living parts. Nile River has been able to provide free ecosystem services for many years. Hydrology is the core driving force when it comes to river Nile. The many living organisms within the river help create stability and resiliency by easily moderating environment change.
The flow of the Nile River is one of the great areas to look at while gathering facts or information on Nile. The flow of the Nile or any other river is made up of a number of elements and this include magnitude, duration, timing rate of change and frequency. The Nile is known as the longest river in the world and has two chief tributaries the White Nile and the Blue Nile. There is a smooth water flow from White Nile in Khartoum and the Blue Nile joins it from Ethiopia. The basin is complex as water discharge at any position along the mainstream depends on factors such as groundwater flow, evaporation, diversions and weather.
The main source of the Nile is Lake Victoria, but there are also feeder rivers that offer enough amount of water. TheKagera River that flows into Lake Victoria near Tanzania is the longest feeder, however, many historians dispute on which is the possibly largest tributary. Atbara River is the major tributary with Blue Nile and it originates from Lake Tana. The Nile River water chemistry varies greatly. The water chemistry of the Nile River is determined by the inputs from the geology of its watershed or mainstay catchment area. However pollution in the Nile River has great impact on its water chemistry.
There are many living systems in river Nile. They are made up of individual organisms that work together and interact with non-living organism to form the large ecosystem. Within the Nile, floodplains, wetlands, the river itself and the riparian areas detail its great ecosystem. The living systems use complex systems to moderate the flow of the Nile River and provide stability in times of environmental changes such as floods and drought.
River Nile is a source of fish and many legal fishermen are making good income from the River. Food production is the in-thing for the many farmers embracing the Nile waters. Floods have also been controlled since the construction of the Aswan Dam. Hence, migration from the most areas that used to be hit by floods has decreased. Energy production has also become easy has the river offers enough water for hydroelectricity production. Unfortunately, the human impacts on the Nile have been unbearable. Water pollution has impacted living organisms in the river and many people who depend on the water for irrigation and daily consumption. Nevertheless, many policies that have been introduced by the nations that depend on river Nile have aided greatly.
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Facts about the Nile River
There are many resources in the world that have made life smooth and interesting. Rivers are substantial natural resources that present many benefits to human beings. A river is a natural watercourse usually of freshwater flowing towards ocean, lake, a sea or another river. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle and there are numerous roles used as source of water, for food production, for transport or as a source of hydropower. One of the famous and widely acknowledged rivers is Nile River.
Nile River is the longest river in the world and got its name from the Greek word Neilos- meaning a valley. The Nile River floods into the lands in Egypt and usually leaves behind black sediment and this made the ancient Egyptians name the river Ar to stand for black. The Nile River serves 11 countries and this includes Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eretria, Sudan and Egypt. Above all, Nile is the core water source for Egypt and Sudan. There are incredible facts about the Nile River that you should be well-versed and they include;
- Many people know Nile is the longest river, but many do not have clues on the actual size. Surprisingly, Nile is 6695 kilometers or 4148 miles long.
- For many people, it is a fact that the Nile winds from Uganda to Ethiopia flowing via a total of nine countries that entail Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania , Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan and Egypt. A navigation team recently revealed more on Nile, by following it from the main source to the final destination.
- The Nile river flows from the high mountain of the eastern part of Africa and middle regions within the northern section of Africa to Nile Delta.
- There are two major branches of the Nile; the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The two branches join at Khartoum.
- The core sources of Nile are Lake Victoria which feeds the White Nile branch and Lake Tana that feeds the Blue Nile.
- The ancient Egyptians used the Nile in many ways. The river helped greatly during the civilization period and helped shape the life and history of the Citizens. The river has helped to produce extremely fertile soils which made it easy for the focused farmers to excel in food production. The waterway also offered fresh drinking water and for irrigation. The river also made it easy grow papyrus reeds making it easy to make papers and quality building materials. The river also served as a great source of transportation.
- You can also find the largest crocodiles in the Nile River. Other animals living in and within the surrounding region close to the river include mongoose, turtles, hippopotamus, tortoise, baboons, frogs, different types of fish and hundred species of birds.
- The Aswan High Dam was built in 1970 to help regulate flooding of the Nile River. The dam has offered immeasurable benefits in controlling floods and drought within the river basin.
Today the Nile River has brought a lot of changes in the regions. Attractive and refined cities like Cairo, situated within the banks of the river are great attraction not only for the African people, but also foreigners from every walk of life. More matchless developments are also taking place in the regions and more is anticipated in the future.
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Importance of the Amazon River
Rivers are a great resource for every nation. In every continent there is that river that attracts the residents and even foreign to experienced great wonders of the world. Despite Nile River being widely acknowledged as the longest river, Amazon River is the largest river according to survey and research conducted by a number of historians and ecologists in the world. It averages about 7,050000 square kilometers and it drains it water from west to east in Iquitos, Peru and across Brazil and the Atlantic. The local people refer to Amazon River as El Jefe Negro to refer to an ancient god of fertility.
Amazon River is indeed a wonder and it presents many benefits to the people who rely on it within South America. The Amazon River and its tributaries are characterized by far-reaching forested areas that are flooded on rainy seasons. The river is known to rise more than 30 feet making the amazon flooded forest as the most widespread example of a great habitat type globally. The amazon basin is the largest drainage basin that changed the lives of many people in South America. Its incomparable benefits to the many people and nations out there have been matchless.
Many rivers in the world have disappeared due to human activities regardless of their sizes, but amazon has been a great wonder to treasure. And here goes the mainstay significances of the Amazon River;
- Its great ecological importance- The Amazon River helps feed the large rainforest with enough water. Plants cannot grow without enough water and with the Amazon basin which is the largest reservoir of freshwater many plants growing within the forest are not easily affected during dry seasons.
- Amazon River is a great place to tour- There are incomparable attractions within the amazon that presents great sight-seeing scenes that you can find nowhere else. Local residents and foreigners can visit the areas where river passes through and see the largest rainforest in the world and many other attractions within the region.
- Provides fresh water for domestic and industrial uses- Thousands rely on the Amazon River for fresh water whereas there many industries that use the water for industrial purposes.
- Offers thousands of fish species for consumption- There are more than 3,000 species of fish that offer enough food for the people. Hence, they offer and alternative diet for better health.
- Easy for shipping and boating- The Amazon River offer a great means of transport within many nations, thus trade has been quite effective ever since.
The Amazon River is quite substantial not only for the nations within the river basin, but also southern America in general. Despite all the afore-mentioned benefits, the Amazon River has posed many dangers to the people. There is increased pollution in the river and disease outbreak has been widespread. Plants, animals and the environment have been affected by human activities. Being the deepest and the largest river in the globe, there are dangers that came with unprofessional boating and shipping. Above all, Amazon River is a wonder of the world and every person should aid protect the river.
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Importance of the Nile Delta
The Nile River is one of the greatest rivers with a rich and complex history. It runs back to the Egypt civilization era when it changes the lives of many people and helped the nation developed. It also played great roles in the civilization and development of 10 more countries that include Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The Nile delta made it easy for the river to spread out and drain into the Mediterranean Sea.
It is one of the largest deltas in the world and it has made the coastline of the richest agricultural region. The delta starts down-river from Cairo, Egypt. From the south to north, the Nile delta is about 160 kilometers in length and covers 240 kilometers from west to east. The delta had several tributaries, but the impact of controlled, changing relief and silting has all led to the loss of the delta. The Nile delta is usually described as arc-shaped as it resembles a triangle or lotus flower. People who have lived in the Nile Delta region for thousands of years have at all times enjoy the fertile soils within the region.
It used to flood on yearly basis leaving behind fertile soils and nutrients, unfortunately the construction of the Aswan dam have made it ineffective for farming. About half of the Egypt population of 80 million people lived in the Delta region. Alexandria is the largest city in the delta. The Nile delta has changed many lives. In fact, there are many reasons as to why many people rely on the Nile Delta.
- Wildlife- Nile Delta held the largest concentration of wildlife. Abundant plants grow in the Nile River including the Egyptian lotus. The lower Nile has abundant Cyperus papyrus; hence there is plenty for the wild animals. There is a widespread species of birds in the delta including little gulls and whiskered terns. The delta is also a great home for other bird species like grey herons, egrets, ibises and Kentish plovers. Tortoises, nile crocodile, Nile monitor, tortoises, turtle and hippopotamus habitat within the Nile delta.
- Agriculture- Prior to the construction of the Aswan dam, great fields around the Nile delta act as great site for farming as floods left behind fertile soils for growing crops and many other farm related produces. Reeds were also grown in the Nile basin and many farmers would make good profits from their produce.
- Tourism- Many people visit the Nile Delta to learn more about it was formed and the impact it has on the surrounding areas. More so, foreigners visit to enjoy boating and shipping within the river. Delta towns and landscapes also attracted many people and more so migrants.
- Hunting and fishing- In ancient Egyptian epoch, the Nile delta also translated into an invaluable source of hunting and fishing. Hence, the residents had plenty of food for consumption and sale.
The Nile delta has been quite substantial to the many Egyptian on the upper or lower parts of the Nile. Creation of new cities in the delta region led to development of residential areas, industries, learning institutions, health centers and temples. Unfortunately, construction of the Aswan High Dam and human activities has influenced efficiency of the Nile delta.
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Factors Affecting Egg Production
For every country to satisfy the needs of its citizens, food is one of the necessities to easily access in adequacy and the best quality. Farmers have always tried different ways of making income and egg production has been one of the greatest strategies on their agenda. Poultry enterprise has become the in-thing for many farmers out there. However, it varies from basic poultry keep approaches to mechanized and automated production. To excel in this enterprise, there are also factors that affect egg production that every entrepreneur should be well-versed with.
There are different types of poultry enterprises that every farmer or interested business personnel should be familiar with. This includes backyard egg production where birds live free range and hatch their own eggs. Their diet is supplemented with waste or food leftovers. We also have the farm flock production where eggs production involves hatching them at separate places where the hatch and the sexing of birds is controlled. Commercial poultry is where farm egg production involves full-time labor and is directed towards producing on a sufficient amount of eggs and meat for sale.
Another type off egg production is the specialized type where we separate meat and egg production. A specialized farmer will oversee every specific aspect of egg production. Lastly, integrated egg production is a type where most of full mechanization and automation of egg production including battery egg laying, scientific feeding, temperature controls and mechanized egg collection methods take place.
The egg production sector is highly disjointed as most of the production is done by vast number of farmers each with a certain number of flocks. Most of the produce is sold within the markets close to the farms. It is not a challenge to access chicks locally. There are also hatcheries licensed by international hybrid breeding companies that farmers can rely on. Depending on one’s goals, there are different varieties of chickens for egg production to go for. Unfortunately, there are factors affecting egg production that every farmer should be conversant with all the time. They include;
- Breed- The breed of the laying bird that farmers go for influence egg production. However, it is wise to consider the feeding practices and management factors.
- Mortality rat- Deaths of egg laying birds may rise due to disease, high temperatures or action of predators. The mortality rate of a flock ranges from 20 to 25 percent a year.
- Age- Egg chickens start producing eggs in their 20th or 21st week and continue laying for slightly over a year. The more chicken keep on producing eggs their sizes also increase until the end of the egg production phase.
- Feed- Hens will continue to produce more eggs depending on the supplemental food. Fresh and clean water should always be available. Selection of these hens should also be done depending in how resistance they are and best feeding strategy that they go well with.
- Laying house- The laying house should be well-built and according to local climatic conditions and farmer’s capital or finances. A good house will keep thieves away, predation, rain, wind and excessive direct sunlight.
- Climate- The optimal temperature should be between 11° and 26° C while the humidity level should not be above 75% as it will cause a reduction in egg production.
- Management – Effective and efficient management strategies should applied to aid increase egg production and increase income.
- Diseases and control- There are different diseases that affect hens and they can lead to low egg production. This includes Newcastle, fowl plague, coccidiosis and perosis among others.
- Egg collection- Frequent egg collection will make it hard for hens to brood eggs, eat them or damage them with house dirty.
In case of any change in egg production, it is wise to consider the above-mentioned factors. It is also wise to understand chicken nutrition to improve the quality of eggs. In case of any worries or complications in egg production, it is wise to seek help from private or state veterinarian or animal health technician and rest assured of more output and income.
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Factors Affecting Food Production in Africa
Agriculture is the spinal column of economy in Africa. Almost every nation in the second largest continent depends on agriculture for day to day survival. Food production industry is quite complex and holds a deep-rooted history. Advancements in technology have also impacted food production. It is a process that comprises factors such as land use and tenure, crop breeding and selection, crop and soil management, livestock breeding and harvesting and much more. A lot of factors have been cited to make it hard for many farmers to enjoy great outputs from their farmers.
Africa population has been increasing on daily basis and the demand for more food has also been affected in most of the nations in need. Millions of people in Africa fight with hunger every day. Most of those languishing in the menace are the victims of natural calamities, rural people and urban poor. African nations have chances of feeding their suffering people if they embrace better governance, better agricultural policies and rely on better agricultural training and many other effective measures.
Africa holds immeasurable potential for boosting food production in every nation. It can easily increase food crops and other profitable agricultural commodities by following the right ways of farming. According to the United Nations, if there is no progress in food production in the continent, then the estimated population of people suffering from hunger will increase rapidly and millions will relinquish to famine by 2050.
Notably, food production in Africa can easily increase with time if better strategies are embraced. For instance, Africa agriculture experienced a 3.5 percent growth in 2008. However, in the same year when recession hit the globe, food price spiked and this was a warning for better production. At the same time, the prices of staple foods also skyrocketed and this makes it clear that governments should be ready to take hold of factors affecting food production. These factors include;
- Water stress- agriculture amounts for 70% of the world’s consumption of fresh water that is also extracted for human use. The United Nations foresees that by 2025, irrigation demands will raise by 50 % to 100%. For farmers living in areas that receive low water amount will suffer greatly. Many countries in Africa take place in water wars, while a quarter of the population is languishing in water stress.
- Climate change- Agriculture is a great supplier of harmful greenhouse gases. Despite climate change been a
globe issue , it Alsip benefits agriculture by providing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere making it easy for plants to releasing more carbon and lead to global warming leading and this will lead to more industrial-scale farming. Unluckily, global warming will lead to increased localized drought. Climate change will also lead to an increase in pests activities which may mitigate food yields. In a sense, climate change can be good or bad for production, but with good agriculture zones, all can be well.
- Global economic crisis- World economic crisis have great impact on food production in Africa. Declining incomes worldwide and the effects of recession have impacted food production in Africa. Other nations that relied on food imports from africa have reduced their spending making it hard for Africa countries to make revenues in return. This has also led to lower exports and prices for agricultural commodities.
- Governmental and institutional policies or failings- many governments in Africa pay less attention on food production or security. Institutional problems have led to lack of funds and debt capital for farmers to invest on farming greatly. Without government incentives, many farmers have moved into other profit making ways.
- Poor access to the markets- Lack of proper infrastructures in Africa has proved to be a challenge to many farmers. Many farmers suffer losses when they lack quicker and better ways of delivering their produces.
Factors such as diseases like HIV/AIDS, slow progress in regional integration and lack sustainability have also made food production challenging in most of African nations. To meet the high demands for food in the continent, multinational and collaborative efforts that integrate the best research, training and technologies needed to increase food production for many decades.
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Factors Affecting Hatchability of Eggs
The success of the poultry industry depends on how an entrepreneur or famer is determined and focuses on excelling in the field. Moreover, it all depends on a regular supply of day-old chicks a process that is impacted by the fertility and hatchability of the eggs. All is not well in egg production and when it comes to hatchability of eggs. There are both genetic and environmental factors that influence this process. Understanding these factors will make it easy to succeed in all scales of egg production.
Hatching of eggs is the production of baby chicks. Different methods have been embraced on how to hatch eggs. Decades ago, eggs were hatched by placing them under broody hens. About ten to twelve eggs were placed under one hen to hatch. This method of hatching eggs has not been effective for vast baby chick production. Today, for better and increased hatching of eggs, Incubators are the best method to go for.
Incubators are the vital equipment that makes the hatchery process easy and successful. Many types of incubators are available in the market, but you should always go for the best, although the principle of all modern machines for commercial egg hatching is the same. Incubators can occupy a capacity of approximately 14,000 to 100, 000 eggs. Nevertheless, the egg hatching process cannot be successful if a number of factors impacting the hatchability of eggs are not put into consideration. They include;
- Temperature- The hatching eggs must be kept at temperatures of 25 to 30BC before setting. Normal development of the embryo depends on the heat being held within the incubator. A still-air incubator should be operated at a higher heat than the forced-draft incubator. A temperature of 39BC should be considered to produce good hatching results. In essence, high temperatures at any time of incubation period will led to more harm than lower temperatures.
- Humidity- It is the amount of moisture in the incubator at any given temperature. The amount of humidity in the incubator will control the rate of evaporation from the set eggs that depends on air speed, heat, shell thickness and the size of the eggs. Too much moisture loss from the incubated egg will lead to death of the embryo. For correct amount of humidity in the incubator, it is wise to enlarge the air cells or consider the weight loss of the eggs.
- Ventilation- Free movement of air, water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide through the pore of the egg shells is vital for incubation. The developing embryo should be able to breathe well.
- Turning and position of the incubated eggs- In small incubators ,the eggs should be maintained in a horizontal position during the process while in large incubators, eggs should be placed in a vertical position. In addition, in small incubators, eggs are moved when turned while in large incubators, eggs remain in a stationary position and turned via an angle not less than 90 in opposite direction. The positioning and turning process of hatching eggs helps prevent the embryo from sticking to the egg shell membranes while turning makes it easy to complete contact of the embryonic membranes with food material in the egg.
- Hygiene- Hatching eggs should be clean and stored in neat containers in the sanitary room. Contaminated eggs do not hatch and their poor quality is reflected on the chicks if they hatch.
Other factors affecting hatchability of eggs are egg selection and candling, improper fumigation, egg handling and toxicity to name but a few. Hatchability of eggs requires a lot of efforts. The process can be demanding and costly. Thus, it is wise to pay attention and seek help if having any doubts or complications in the egg hatching procedure depending on the method that you go for. Veterinarian assistance will never disappoint and will guarantee better yields and income.
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How to Achieve Food Security
Food security is a responsibility of every country in the world. It is exists when every person in a nation at all times is physically or economically able to access sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet food preferences and needs. Unfortunately, hunger remains a great calamity in the world with one person out of eight dying on daily basis from hunger related complications. Food insecurity has been a challenge for many countries and achieving food availability, adequacy and free use is the agenda of every developing or developed country.
Food security for developing nations calls for a lot of governmental, intergovernmental and inter-agency cooperation. Good governance, leadership coordination mechanisms are necessary to aid poor countries overcome the consequences of food insecurity and the wrath that comes with fewer actions on eradicating this calamity. It is easy to achieve food security if countries affected corporate and seek regional or international aid if stuck. There are many ways on how to achieve food security; however, most of the strategies to go for are interwoven across wide range of complex issues.
Understanding the key causes of food insecurity is the very first step to put into consideration. These causes include war, migration, poor government policies on food production, water stress and food wastage to name but a few. There are four core pillars of food security monitoring systems that aid determining how to achieve food security, this includes agriculture production monitoring, the market information system, social monitoring and food and nutritional surveillance systems. To learn how to achieve food security, here are a few things to look at;
- Nutrition intermediations- Starvation as damaging effects on any population, as it increases mortality, reduces cognitive abilities of children, reduces labor output, morbidity rates are reduced and affects the quality of victims of hunger. To achieve food stability, each nation should invest on or increase investments on long-term interventions like dietary diversification, bio-fortification and food sufficiency.
- Facilitating easy market access- Countries need to get rid of any barriers on global trade. Increased trading in developing countries can easily consolidate their efforts in taking advantage of the market in future and acquire the necessary income and revenue.
- Capacity building – Countries that are ready to achieve food security should also focus on education, research, development of infrastructure and better access to capital. Benefits that come from any of the mention ways of building capacity must be of the highest priority.
- Gender sensitive development- gender is a common thing affecting many nations in many ways. Every individual should have the chance to lead, work and to enjoy life regardless of whether a male or a female. Every person in the society has a role to play in economy development.
- Maintain good governance- Through a corruption free or peaceful environment any strategy can help achieve food stability. When all political interests of nations or organizations are delinked everything can be possible.
Future food security will require utilization of advanced strategies and a new crop of farmers who have a diversity of approaches to aid in food production. Governments and independent organizations should also provide economic, humanitarian and development aid to meet the Millennium Development Goals in every nation. Explicit goals for agriculture sector that include marketing policies and agricultural pricing should be put into consideration worldwide.
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