Gang Reduction in Big Cities
Grant Proposal for Gang Reduction in Big Cities: Focus on New York City
Definition of the problem
The gangs’ number has always been high regardless of the high anti-gang activities that have been performed in USA. According to the National gang Center’s statistics, gangs’ number has been high since 1996 (National Gang Center). Actually, there were about 30,000 gangs within USA in 1996. From 1996 to 2011, a reduction in this number was registered in 2003 only. There was a reduction in this number from 30,000 to 20,000. However, this number rose to 30,000 again in 2011 (National Gang Center). The concentration of the gangs is high in larger cities, with smaller cities as well as sub-urban regions and rural areas following in that order. These gangs are mainly made up of the youth.
What could be causing the rise in the number of gangs, particularly in larger cities?
Larger cities such as New York have experienced drugs abuse and small arms proliferation. These are mainly the factors that motivate the gangs (National Gang Center). Large cities’ congestion as well as technology advancement also motivates gangs. Youths who abuse drugs and access fire arms including guns can easily engage in criminal activities. Specifically, such youths need quick wealth due to the high rate of joblessness and the increasing living cost. These factors hinder the youths from acquiring wealth. Therefore, they use fire arms that they can easily access while injecting themselves with the drugs that give them a high feeling while committing crimes. Gangs have been found to be organized. There are top commanders in the gangs who plan different crimes. There are also hit men responsible for implementing these plans. The generated revenue is shared by the gang members. Top commanders get the largest portion. Peers influence is common among the youths especially on the realization that one can acquire wealth within a short time (National Gang Center).
Why this program is needed
This is an important program because it aims at reducing gangs’ number. A lot of properties and many lives are destroyed when a crime is being committed. Increase in the gangs’ number causes fear among the populace and this interferes with economic productivity as well as the citizens’ wellbeing.
The mission of this program is to minimize gangs’ number via collaborative participation of the state governments, federal government, law enforcers, local communities and NGOs as well as any other like-minded entity.
- Reducing drug abuse within New York City
- Reducing small arms’ proliferation among the population of New York
- Encouraging stricter immigration laws
- Enhancing rehabilitation services
The endeavors of this program are to reduce gangs’ number within New York City. It aims at achieving this by addressing crime motivators that include drug abuse, small arms and guns access, poor laws of immigration as well as inefficient rehabilitation solutions. Through a reduction of access to small arms, illegal drugs as well as improvement of immigration policies, gangs’ number will reduce significantly in this city. Youths who do not have access to drugs and guns are less likely to engage in crime. Additionally, youths who drugs have already affected will have access to proper rehabilitation. Currently, low rates of retention hamper rehabilitation programs. The aim of this program is to improve retention rates in order to enable the youths within rehabs to complete the programs that they are enrolled in.
Additionally, strict policies for immigration will assist in decongesting and identifying locals. Immigration policies’ loopholes make it possible for most people to enter New York City illegally. There are people who enter this city with an aim of committing a crime. The program intends to work in collaboration with Justice Department, Defense Department, Local health facilities and correctional facilities, Immigration Department as well as the New York City Council. Eight gang control strategies will be employed as set out by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJP). These are community mobilization, opportunities provision, social intervention, organizational programs and change, suppression, enforcement of targeted gang and anti-gangs programs (U.S Department of Justice 10).
The expectation is that this program will take 3 years. It will be championed by a six experts’ panel. This will comprise of the chief coordinator as well as two assistants (a manager and a public relations expert), the other panel members will be programs coordinator, financial officer as well as a professional psychologist.
Budget: The cost of this program will be $100,000.
Program evaluation: How the attainment of goals will be measured
|Objective||How to attain the project/ Project methodology||Evaluation|
|To minimize drug abuse within the New York City.
|Working with the state and federal authorities, this project will close all dealers in illegal drugs. This will eliminate illegal drugs supply which is its main target.||A comparison of drug abusers at the start of the project and at the end of this project will be done. The expectation is that there will be a significant reduction in the addicts’ number.|
|To reduce small arms proliferation in the population of New York.||Strict gun control will be supported by this program. Registration of the guns under the public ownership will be encouraged and punishing of owners of illegal guns.||Small arms owned by the public will be compared when the program starts and when it ends. The anticipation is that there will be a significant reduction in their number in the population of New York.|
|To encourage the enactment of strict laws on immigration.||This will be implemented by the Immigration Department and the New York City Council. A crucial census will map the city’s occupants. There will be an assessment of all houses as well as their occupants. Occupants will also be assessed to determine how they entered the city. Illegal immigrants will all be deported.||The Immigration Departments as well as the New York City Council will compare their notes to determine the exact number of occupants. The expectation is that it will be possible to account for all residents.|
|To improve rehabilitation services.||Poor retention is the major challenge that rehab services are facing currently. Additional psychologists will be employed to boost counseling and improve the stay of people in the rehab so that they can be trained and offered the necessary opportunities for starting SMEs.||A comparison of the number of the individuals recruited in the centers when the program started and the number of those who will complete the process successfully will be made. The anticipation is that the rate will increase within three years.|
Data and reporting procedure to the DOJ
The Department of Justice (DOJ) will be used to channel the collected data. There will be a website created for making major announcements and allowing data sharing.
Agency’s past record of accomplishment
According to DOJ, a strong correlation exists between drugs and crime. More than 83 percent of the people in incarceration have used drugs (NCJRS 1). Actually, 51% note that they were under drugs’ influence while committing crime (NCJRS1). DOJ has played an influential role in drugs and their supply’s reduction in New York. Therefore, DOJ has a successful record in the war against gangs. As such, this project will closely work with DOJ as well as the agencies mentioned in this proposal.
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U.S. Department of Justice.”OJJDP FY 2011 Comprehensive Anti-gang Strategies and Programs.” Municipal Association of South Carolina 10 Jan. 2011. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
National Gang Center. National Youth Gang Survey Analysis. n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
NCJRS. A Comprehensive Approach. Jan. 2014. Web. 12 Jan. 2014.
Collective efforts are required to eliminate the serious condition of poverty. The survival needs of the people who are considered poor are minimal. They include shelter, clothing and food. They also include other essential wants that are necessary for the improvement of life. In nations where poverty prevalence is high, growth rate is increased while production is economically low. Both emergent and developed economies experience poverty. For example, about 46.5 million or 15% of the American population is estimated to be poor. Statistics also reveal that out of five children aged below 18 years old, four are impoverished. Unfortunately, this is the current reality regardless of the efforts that the United States has put in eliminating poverty. Poverty remains a problem globally and this indicates that there is so much that needs to be done about it. The aim of this proposal is to study actions that are necessary or appropriate in enforcing the efforts that are aimed at eliminating poverty.
Poverty is a complex issue in most developing countries since their economies cannot put appropriate measures in place in their fight against poverty. The main factor that is necessary in the war against poverty is economic development. The main goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was to help in the establishment of a common front in the war against poverty all over the world. While trying to meet Millennium Development Goals, the UNDP works hard in its efforts to ensure the elimination of poverty among the developing nations within a set timeframe. This proposal agrees to the fact that poverty elimination requires alteration of the existing measures that national and international bodies have in place in their efforts to eliminate poverty. Several researchers have established poverty statistics. Nevertheless, these do not have much to show in relation to actual measures that have been implemented to eliminate poverty within their societies. This proposal seeks to realize this.
The research body has points that will deal with poverty elimination measures. Poverty elimination is only achievable if poverty cycle is broken. For this to be achieved, young children should be empowered so that they can grow up with the necessary hope. Consequently, one point that is dwelled on by this section is ensuring access to education for children by supporting initiatives that are aimed at promoting areas that are hit by poverty. Efforts that can enable the society allow children access to education includes building schools, sensitizing communities about education benefits for both girls and boys and training teachers. Healthcare is also an important poverty indicator and more efforts should be put towards the empowerment of health clinics and providing the required equipment and medicines.
Clean water access and sanitation can also help in poverty elimination. This has a direct relation with environmental preservation and conservation. This implies that communities ought to get assistance in order to get clean water access and efforts should also be put towards the prevention of environmental pollution. Lastly, ensuring economic security requires consideration since it enables individuals to take good care of families. The implication of this is that when citizens are equipped and trained they acquire important knowledge and skills that help them in fighting poverty by engaging in economic activities. These are among the points that the research body will be addressing.
Information that will be collected from these sources will show poverty status in various regions globally. It will also assist in establishing the efforts that are already in place and being used by various governments and organizations in trying to identify failures. Apparently, many lapses of the measures that different governments and organizations have in place in their efforts to fight poverty been identified. Although many projects are already being funded in areas where poverty index is high, the situation’s prevalence shows that something might be wrong and appropriate ways are necessary to save the situation. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the concentration of this research will be on ways through which poverty can be eliminated. This implies that the study will not consider information about poverty that does not provide poverty elimination methods.
Poverty elimination entails attempts to improve poor people’s lives in a society. Regrettably, aid which is among the most vital tools for eradicating poverty has in some cases been used as the tool for other gains in developed countries. For example, this aid is tied to agreements of purchasing some products from the donor countries. Such agreements have a problem because products that come from the donor nations are expensive and therefore unaffordable to the recipient nations. Technology and health are among the areas which require aid. Nevertheless, it is important to note that using donations in fighting poverty is difficult. In most countries, researchers have forwarded creating opportunities for people to ensure their self-sufficiency as the best means of fighting poverty. For a while, debt relief was used in fighting poverty. This entails canceling debts that poor countries owe rich countries due to the fact that the involved amount is too large. Poor nations can get direct help from debt relief by using the money in vital projects such as health provision and education. It ought to be noted that this has benefited developing countries because debt relief has enabled them to offer medical services freely to citizens.
Among the main factors that can lead to poverty elimination is economic growth. This implies that the measures that are implemented when it comes to fighting poverty should enable the economy to grow. Nevertheless, large businesses are unable to create adequate opportunities that will enhance the larger population’s self-sufficiency. This leads to a point where governments ought to work with an aim of realizing social goals through the encouragement of microfinance. As stated above, agriculture can accelerate self-sufficiency more than other measures. As such, efforts made towards ensuring water management assist in providing adequate water that can be used in agricultural production because this is among the main issues that should be addressed in the war against poverty.
In addition to these concerns, poverty is entrenched in the developing and developed countries due to inequalities of the opportunities of power structures. This implies that most countries have deliberately embraced discriminatory systems in relation to job and educational opportunities that are available. This is an unfortunate scenario because it increases poverty levels. To get out of such a situation, equal opportunities should be availed to everybody in any country so that people can exercise the ability to develop and grow. Unless there are systems that guarantee this in place, eliminating poverty will be difficult in any nation. Additionally, provision of equal opportunities to all people involves cushioning low-income earners. This is because most poor individuals might be in employment but their income is inadequate to enable them to amass wealth. As such, a system that ensures that all people get minimum wage will help in the war against poverty.
Lastly the major issue that will determine poverty elimination strategies’ implementation is good governance. According to the researchers of the World Bank, graft is a serious problem that hinders the elimination of poverty. Good governance relates to rapid economic growth. On receiving aid money, poor countries divert most of this money to private hands. Eventually, this money goes to private accounts overseas. This implies that aids money is not spent on the purpose for which it was intended and this increases poverty levels. If aid money is used correctly, programs for empowering the poor will be accomplished. As such, the governments of the poor countries ought to be effective and accountable in order to accomplish long-term goals in eliminating poverty.
In a nutshell, it is crucial to consider the fact that as a global problem, poverty calls for everybody’s attention. It is apparent that there is poverty in the developing and developed nations. This makes it an international issue. This study will assist in identifying approaches that should be used to help in poverty eradication. Actually, these approaches need the concerted effort of relevant bodies.
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Evolution of Behavior
Human behavior study has developed to become the assessment of the human beings’ past in order to comprehend the future. According to evolutionary psychologists, past adaptations of human ancestors are related to human behavior (Downes 2010). These adaptations helped our ancestors in reproducing and surviving. For the behavior patterns that have been observed in the contemporary world to be understood, evolution needs to be appreciated via which the ancestors passed. To evolutionary psychologists, the brain is a computer that natural selection designs to extract vital information from human’s surrounding (Downes 2010). The brain is an evolved computer which determines the behavior of a person as a way of reacting to the extracted information. As such, to understand human behavior better, cognitive programs which generate behavior should be articulated (Downes 2010).
Adaptations are involved in the brain’s cognitive devices. The activities, survival and reproductive efforts of the ancestors were promoted by these adaptations. Programs for special purposes were developed by the brain via natural selection and in response to certain environmental conditions (Downes 2010). The selection of these programs occurred due to their ability to enhance the capacity of the organisms to survive as well as to yield offspring. Body organs are used by evolutionary psychologists as the psychological mechanisms’ analogy that produces behavior. There is no general-purpose organ of the body. Instead, the body has organs. Every organ performs a certain purpose. Similarly, behavior provides specific advantage to an organism helping it to reproduce and to survive.
Today, there is a behavior that has been observed and its explanation baffles the approach of evolutionary psychologists. Kolbert (2012) explores the variation in the behavior of the Matsigenka tribe’s children in Peru as well as the behavior of Los Angeles’ children in a book entitled Spoiled Rotten: Why do Kids Rule the Roost? She provides anecdotes to the behavior patterns that have been observed. The Matsigenka children are responsible and they make attempts to be useful. The author provides the example of a girl aged 6 years called Yanira. This girl goes on a trip with an anthropologist, Carolina alongside other members of the tribe to get palm leaves that are used in thatching. The observation of Carolina is that though this girl does not play a specific role, she is useful to the group because she cleans sleeping mats, fishing and even stacking palm leaves. She gathers crustaceans, cleans and boils them after which she serves them to other group members (Kolbert 2012). Yanira does not ask for anything from the members since she is self-sufficient.
The behavior of Yanira can be explained by evolutionary psychologists. Her tribe, which resides in the jungle, struggles to exist. As such, children adapt to specific behavioral characteristics while growing and these allow them maximum survival chances in the harsh jungle life. Children who fail to learn self-sufficiency quickly have limited survival chances because the jungle is unforgiving. Yanira exhibits maturity despite being a child. She has developed this maturity due to the demands of the environment that she is accustomed to. Peru jungle’s children have to learn wild survival tactics quickly or they will die. According to evolutionary psychologists, behavior can be explained better in the way through which humans adapt in order to solve specific problems that were faced by the ancestors at some point (Downes 2010).
The behavior of Yanira is a complete contrast of the behavior of Los Angeles’ children. Angelinos depict a unique lack of competence and initiative in performing even simple tasks (Kolbert 2012). Apart from being incapable of tying their own shoelaces, these kids also decline to act as per the instructions of their parents. The feeling of Kolbert (2012) is that American children may represent most indulged kids in history globally with few exceptions. The American children exhibit a behavior that does not provide them with any advantage in their life when it comes to reproduction and survival. This behavior can be a development’s regression. Without chaperons, young people cannot be responsible for themselves. These children cannot cook and they will starve when left alone in a place without food outlets.
Despite being useful in behavior explanation, evolutionary psychology makes some assumptions whose testing is difficult. For instance, if a person can establish how natural selection shaped the brain, then they can understand its functioning (Gottlieb 2012). Nevertheless, scientific studies have shown that knowing an organ’s evolution is not necessary in deducing the way it functions. For instance, biologists do not resort to organ’s evolution in order to deduce the way it functions. To understand the growth of our ancestors’ minds, we just need a notion of their mental equipment. This exercise risks being misinterpreted. Just like Gottlieb (2012) observes, one can have a plausible explanation regarding the way a specific behavior assisted hunter-gatherers in their reproduction and survival. However, this might have been established for various reasons and earlier.
Particular characteristics and behaviors observed in natural settings may lack satisfactory explanations. For instance, human infants have flexible skull bones at birth. These give elastic properties to the head. One can argue that flexible skull bones are an adaptation of the baby which enables it to navigate the narrow canal during birth. Nevertheless, even a chick has similar characteristics despite the fact that it hatches from an egg. As such, such an explanation is incredible. The same argument can be extended to human behavior. This makes identifying a specific reason for a certain behavior accurately difficult. For instance, a wide assumption is that step-children are likely to be abused by a step-parent physically and emotionally. However, a biological parent can also abuse a child of his/her own. An evolutionary reason as to why parents may abuse their own children might not exist.
There is a romanticized look of the past with an aim of establishing the appropriate behavior or lifestyle for the current “cavemen lifestyle” (Goldstein 2010). According to some cavemen lifestyle’s adherents, this can be interpreted to mean consuming large amounts of meat while fasting between the meals in order to estimate the lean periods that were faced by the ancestors between hunts (Goldstein 2010). The comprehension of the lifestyle of cave dwellers is not global. There are different notions that people have in regards to what comprises the routine of the life of cave dwellers on daily basis. There are modern cavemen who take raw meat since their belief is that it represents the diet of the original cavemen.
Caveman lifestyle has a positive aspect because it encourages people to engage in strenuous physical activities. This makes modern cavemen fit. They have fitness regimes that are designed specifically to mirror the caveman’s exercises. The intense activities of the cavemen enabled them to adapt a healthier lifestyle as compared to the lifestyle of the people in modern America. Cavemen have a Caveman (Paleo) diet (Zelman 2012). The claim of those who follow this diet is that there is a genetic programming for people to eat the way cavemen did prior the agricultural revolution (Zelman 2012). This diet comprises of lean meat that is reared genetically, organ meat, fruits, wild fish, nuts and vegetables. This diet discourages sugar, salt and synthetic foods.
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Downes, S. (2010). Evolutionary psychology. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Zalta, E. N. (ed) (Fall Ed). Retrieved on 12 January 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/evolutionary-psychology/
Goldstein, J. (2010). The new age caveman and the city. The New York Times. Retrieved on 15 January 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/10caveman.htm
Gottlieb, A. (2012, September 17). It ain’t necessarily so [Review of the book How much do evolutionary stories reveal about the mind?]. The New York Times.
Kolbert, E. (2012, July 2). Spoiled rotten [Review of the book Why do kids rule the roost]. The New York Times.
Zelman, K. (2012). Caveman diet.WebMD. Retrieved on 12 January 2012 from http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/diet-review-the-caveman-paleo-diet?
PESTEL Analysis for Retail Sector
The PESTEL Analysis is an analysis of six key macro level elements which impact business and the decisions that they make. The retail sector on the other hand entails the sale of goods and services from a fixed location like a departmental store, kiosk or boutique, or through mail in small quantities that are directly consumed by the buyers. Besides, it should be noted that retailing can also include subordinated services like delivery. The buyers can be individuals or businesses based on the product. The PESTEL Analysis looks into factors like political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal.
There are various kinds of political factors for the retail industry. Such factors can be impacting the sector currently and also have an impact in the future. Some of those macro level elements that players in the retail industry need to look into include rate of tax levied by the government, interest rates, political stability, consumer protection and foreign exchange rates for retail businesses that are operating on an international platform.
The economic environment is yet another aspect of PESTEL analysis that is very crucial for the retail sector. All those businesses that fall under the retail sector have to be up to date with the economic situation of the country in order to survive and make profits since when the economy is doing badly, spending habits shift. This in-turn impacts demand and supply.
Social and cultural changes that take place in a country are also of great importance to players in the retail industry. Such changes may have significant impacts on the performance of the sector. For instance, in a country whereby the population is culturally diverse like the UK, retailers have to be on the look out to supply products and services that can suit the various needs of buyers in order to perform well. The retail industry has to know how to manage diversity in order to benefit from the market.
In almost every sector today, technology is taking center stage. For instance, many consumers are today opting to shop online. Thus, it is very important that players in the retail industry are very keen to adapt to the technological changes in order to meet the various needs of buyers. Through technology, retail businesses can develop better relationships with the customers.
Since retailers operate on fixed locations, it is also important to consider the physical environment. Retailers have to be keen on selecting environment that is conducive for their target customers, the location is ideal in determining the number of customers that a business can attract. Besides, retailers should also be keen on the impact that their businesses have on the environment since that too can impact their performance.
For any business, there are always certain legal minimum standards that have to be met. Besides, there are also various pieces of legislations that are made from time to time in order to control the way in which retailers operate. These are important to look into so as to avoid getting on the wrong side of the law.
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PESTEL analysis is an analytical tool that is used for the strategic planning of a business. It is a means through which a business is able to review the political, economical, social, environmental and legal issues that impact its operations. It should be noted that these six factors can either affect a business positively or negatively. In conducting the PESTEL analysis, managers and owners of businesses can follow certain guidelines or answer some questions in order to come up with the results.
In the PESTEL analysis, political factors are mainly external to the operations of a company. They can include elements like government regulations or even the activities of individuals that can impact the performance of the company or business. Through conducting a review of the political factors, a company can determine how increase in revenue will impact its tax liability, the barriers to its entry into new markets based on the existing laws and also the results of its violation of political regulations and laws.
Economical factors are also classified as external in the PESTEL Analysis. When looking at these factors, it is important to note that there are certain economic trends that a company cannot manipulate like consumer income, spending habits, available credit, inflation, interest rates and current money supply levels. However, a company must keep these factors in check and operate within a given boundary in order to match the prevailing economic atmosphere. For instance, taking lots of debts when the interest rates are expected to hike in the future can have very bad consequences on a business.
Social factors of this analysis are related to the cultural trends and demographics in a local economy. It should be noted that demand for goods and services changes as the population ages. Thus, it can be argued that such a population has a higher demand for healthcare compared to electronics. Besides, a constantly growing population a result of higher birth rates or immigration impacts a change in preferences.
Environmental factors highlight the physical environment where a company or business operates. It comprises of natural resources like minerals, wildlife, waterways among others. Besides, companies have to also consider their impact on the environment and the opinion of the public regarding their practices.
Technological factors are of increasing concern in the PESTEL analysis. As the technology keeps changing, it is also expected that a company should adapt to them. A good company or business should always be aware of the emerging technologies in order to take advantage of them. Failure to keep with the changes can give your competitors an upper hand.
Legal factors in PESTEL analysis refer to the future changes in the existing laws and regulations. Governments often add or amend certain laws and regulations that can impact business activities to varying extents. It is very important for every company or business to stay up to date with information on government regulations in order to know how to frame their activities for profitability. For companies or businesses that operate internationally, it is important to consider the laws of other countries as well.
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Political Factors Affecting Tesco
Tesco is arguably one of the largest supermarket chains in the United Kingdom. Thus, it is in the spotlight at almost all the times that decisions need to be made with regards to business activities and other players in the industry. Thus, it is expected that there are quite a number of factors, some political that can impact its operations or the way that it does business. Read through to find out about some of the political factors that impact Tesco.
It should be noted that politics play a great role when it comes to the regulation of business activities. This occurs through laws and legislations that are sanctioned by bodies like the European Union, the UK government and the World Trade Organization. There are several elements that politics can impact like fiscal policy, import and excise duty. Besides, it should be noted that through politics, it can also be easier to acquire infrastructure. For instance, the UK government has been very instrumental in the expansion of Tesco through the provision of good quality communications infrastructure. The UK government has provided broadband and landline phones. Besides, it has also made sure that waste and sewerage is removed from the streets. In this way, Tesco has been able to reduce the costs of its operations and enabled it to open up branches in various localities.
In the UK where Tesco does business, there are quite a number of trade unions that in one way or another can affect the way in which Tesco does business. Employees who are registered with trade unions usually have certain rights that may not be in line with the policies of Tesco. In most occasions, Tesco has not approved hiring employees who are affiliated to certain trade unions on grounds that they impose certain laws that are against the way in which their operations are scheduled to run. For instance, employees who are affiliated to trade unions often demand pay hikes, a move that has not gone down so well with Tesco considering that they are being pushed by trade unions to increase salaries for their employees even when they do not have such plans. In the event that the company fails to deliver the request, trade unions result to industrial action that ends up paralyzing the operations of Tesco.
Through policies formulated by the European Union, Tesco can now enjoy a viable trading platform and even expend its operations to an international scale. This is because the European Union allows the free movement of goods, services, people and capital across all its 27 member states.
When looking at the political factors affecting Tesco, it is also important to look into the aspect of import duty. This type of duty is levied on goods that are imported into a country and affects Tesco considering the fact that it imports some of its products from China and some East Asian nations.
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Technological Factors Affecting Tourism
Tourism is an industry that is considered to be quite volatile and unpredictable. Thus, it can be easily impacted by almost all kinds of factors including social, economic, political, environmental, legal as well as technological. However, this paper specifically examines some of the technological factors that impact the tourism sector. Going by the trends, technology is constantly changing. These changes can have different impacts on the tourism industry.
Technological factors in the tourism industry are quite many and can range from medical developments to the innovation of space tourism. Besides, it is also through technology that communication has been enhanced, an achievement that has been very helpful to the tourism industry. Through the development of better communication technologies, many people have been swayed to engage in tourist activities since it has enhanced safety. In fact, it has enabled tourists to now communicate easily with their families and others at their own convenience, thus, peace of mind. Besides, the development of enhanced communication has also made it much easier for people who are interested in tourism to make bookings and plan with travel agencies at their own convenience. Thanks to technology, tourists can now conduct bookings easily through the internet.
Another technological factor that continues to grow the tourism industry is innovation. It is as a result of technology that tourists can now have a choice of how to enjoy their vacations with regards to traveling vessels. Today, there are spacecrafts that can be used by those who are interested in touring the space and other bodies that people were unable to visit in the past. Technology has greatly enhanced the tourism sector since it has brought in a new life and meaning to the industry. There are even some kinds of equipment that tourists can now enjoy using while on vacation to make their experience more fulfilling.
Infrastructure is yet another technological factor that affects tourism. In the past, many people would not go on tours to certain places as a result of poor infrastructure like road and rail networks, lack of hotels and resorts among others. As a result of technology, better road and rail networks have been developed; resorts and hotels are being developed, thus enhancing tourism activities. However, it should be noted that not all the problems regarding infrastructure have been successfully solved since there are still quite a number of nations and regions lagging behind. This only hurts the tourism sector since it scares away potential tourists.
Technology has led to the development of various kinds of safety gadgets that can be used in the case of disasters. For instance, today it is much easier for tourists to even tell the weather conditions in various places that they plan to visit. This has played a major role in instilling confidence in tourists such that they can now visit various places without worries. This has enabled many people to embrace tourism as an activity. Without such gadgets, not so many people would be interested in tourism.
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Economic Factors Affecting Farming
It is doubtless that farming is one of the oldest professions in the world. Nonetheless, there are numerous economic factors, which affect this profession. Today, farmers all over the world confront a range of challenges in a complex economic environment. For example, customers have access to the global market and have a variety of farm products to choose. Oftentimes, farmers are at the mercy of the weather and economic factors. In this article, we discuss these economic factors, which largely affect farming in the world.
To start with, prices of commodities have far-reaching effects on farming. For instance, the price of some farm products is pegged on factors like the weather and future projections by investors in the market. The demand for these commodities for food and nonfood uses further complicate the situation. In most cases, farmers make profit or losses depending on the rates the buyers in the industry are willing to pay for the products. International factors equally have a hand in determining the price of commodities in the local market because of the existing market linkages globally. Consider the performance of a country’s currency! Under normal market conditions, the strength or weaknesses of the dollar will by far affect prices since farmers compete not only with American producers but also with others from all over the world.
Government policies on levies and subsidies also affect farming industry. For example, the American government gives financial support to corn and soy farmers since the federal policy assumes that mass production of such foodstuffs would keep food prices lower. Additionally, this policy ensures that farmers have a measure of stability and allows consumers to acquire a range of processed goods at affordable prices. This applies to products, which are manufactured from commodity crops under the government’s consideration. The basis of this policy is to encourage farmers to continue continue producing these regardless of market trends and conditions.
Another economic factor that affects farming is labor and immigration legislations. In most cases, most agricultural activities depend on labor that is informal and attracts low pay. Furthermore, migrant farmers living illegally in countries play pivotal role in promoting farming activities. However, their illegality affects their effectiveness in offering value addition services to the industry. Because of the poor pay of most jobs on the farm, most native are not willing to take up the jobs. The baseline of this is that most immigration laws affect farming since they have impact on the availability of labor in a country. In countries like India, famers prefer using the cheap and readily available labor as opposed to machinery. On the other hand, the United Kingdom and Japan utilize machines more because of expensive labor. Here, people on the farm could be skilled or not as long as they can use the available machinery. Common machines include tractors, milking machines and harvesters.
Technology also affects farming in different, with numerous advancements. A common area where technology is applied on the farm is through machines and irrigation. The two types of technology play a major role in increasing agricultural products.
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Economic Factors Affecting Tourism
Tourism plays a major role in most economies in the world. Even though this role varies from country to country, there are various factors, which affect the performance of the tourism industry. In this essay, we shall discuss in details different factors, which affect the performance of tourism.
Firstly, there are many hidden costs attached to tourism, which may in turn have unfavorable effects on the host country. Research however reveals that richer countries have a higher likelihood of benefiting from tourism as compared to those that are poorly developed. While this is the case, most poor nations are usually in need of income and creation of new jobs for their local people and hardly realize these benefits from the tourism industry. This is because most of the tourism revenues are always transferred to foreign countries, leaving host nations in poor economic states. Additionally, tourism leads to exclusion of domestic products and businesses. Thus, some people, or leaders may not embrace tourism activities that negatively affect the performance of their local commodities.
It is important to note that countries support tourism initiatives to get revenues for their economies, which is the expenditure that remains after eliminating taxes, wages and profits. In most countries around the world, about 80% of travelers’ expenditures are directed to airlines, international companies and hotels. When this happens, the local workers and companies hardly feel the fruits of tourism. This is called leakages.
Additionally, local businesses hardly support tourism since the industry affects their businesses. In most cases, tourists go for all-inclusive packages, denying local business people chance to make money from visiting guests. For example, when tourists choose to operate from a resort or cruise ship, they deprive the locals the market for their products. Research shows that all-inclusive accommodation hotels make a lot of money even though they usually have a limited economic impact to the host country.
Additionally, the infrastructure of a country can affect the performance of the industry in different ways. For tourism to thrive in any economy, a country requires good transport and communication networks. For instance, there should be easy international connectivity through airports to facilitate entry and exist of tourists from different parts of the world. No tourist would enjoy visiting a country that lacks connection to leading international cities. This applies to the local transport system, which has to be in good state to attract guests from all over the world. In the event a country ventures into the tourism industry with poor infrastructure, it is likely to incur huge expenses in order to attain standards.
Unlike other industries, tourism offers seasonal opportunities. For example, people prefer travelling during the winter season to other destinations like Africa, which do not experience these seasons. This situation leads to economic challenges for countries, which largely depend on the sector. For workers in this sector, they lack job security, as they can be rendered jobless once the peak season is over. Because of this, some entrepreneurs and governments do not invest heavily in the industry because of its unreliability.
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External Influences on Tesco
Tesco is a leading supermarket chain operating in six countries, mainly in Europe. These countries include the United Kingdom, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Poland, Turkey, Czech Republic and Slovakia. Tesco also has stores in Asian countries like Japan, Malaysia, and South Korea among others. Like many multinational companies in the world, there are various external factors, which affect the performance of Tesco, as you will notice in this essay. These external facilities are mainly political and legislative, even though economic, social, environmental and technological factors come into play too.
Regarding employment laws, the government requires retailers to offer a range of jobs, including high-skilled, lower-paid, locally based, and centrally located jobs among others. This legislation is in place to ensure that organization meet the diverse needs of the population, ranging from students, senior citizens in the society and parents. Tesco understands the fact that retailers have a bigger role in creating jobs in any economy. It hires more students, aged and disabled workers who earn lower salaries. This category stands for desirable employees because of the high staff turnover of the industry.
Secondly, Tesco has a concern for economic factor since they influence costs, demand, profits, and prices. In most economies, unemployment is a major factor because it affects effective demand negatively. Normally, employment serves as a source of income, which gives people the power to purchase. When unemployment hit high levels, this power reduces, affecting the performance of Tesco. Even though most of these economic factors are usually out of the company’s control, they have significant impact on the performance of business organizations.
Socio-cultural factors also affect Tesco. Because of social changes in the United Kingdom, shopping trends among people have drastically changed. Today, most people prefer one-stop and bulk shopping. To keep pace with these changing trends, Tesco has increased its stock of non-food items on the shelves to ensure that its customers enjoy shopping at one point for their convenience. UK retailers are also shifting to value added services because of demographic changes in the country. Some of these factors include the aging UK population, decline home meal preparation and increased number of female workers in the country. Consumers are also more informed and concerned about health issues, which has direct impact on demand. This is also affecting their attitude towards certain foods in the market. To adapt to this changing mix, Tesco is increasing its organic products on shelves because of consumers’ beliefs.
Though it is a micro-environmental factor, technology has influenced Tesco’s development of most of its products. Importantly, new technology in the market benefits customers and the company simultaneously. Tesco has achieved high customer satisfaction because of convenient shopping, presence of personalized goods and services and availability of products. Tesco stores employ a wide range of technologies, including wireless devices, electronic shelve labeling, radio frequency identification, intelligent scale and self-checkout machine. Most of these technologies have improved Tesco’s efficiency in meeting the changing needs of customers and keeping pace with the stiff competition among retailers.
Environmentally, Tesco has to align its operations with government laws, which requires firms to beware of their responsibility in the society through environmental protection. Through regulation and governance, Tesco focuses at greater corporate social responsibility and ensuring that it gives back to the people in different ways. Government regulations like Food Retailing Commission (FRC) equally affect Tesco’s activities as the law dictates how firms interact with suppliers and controls alteration of prices without prior notice to concerned parties.
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Social Economic Factors Affecting Tourism
Tourism remains the backbone of most economies in the world in terms providing jobs to people and earning revenues to governments across the globe. While this is the case, it is important to note that there are various factors, which affect Tourism in the world. These factors vary from country to country depending on other prevailing conditions in the market. In this essay, we shall discuss socio-economic factors that effect tourism industry.
The leading factor affecting tourism development is accessibility. Experts argue that this is the most important because of its impact. For instance, a city or nation can only thrive in tourism if it is accessible. In other words, it must have effective transport and communication networks to attract tourists. This infrastructure includes good road, modern airports, railway line and well-developed water transport systems. Accessibility allows tourists to visit all attraction sites with ease, devoid of inconveniences and extra costs. If a tourist wishes to visit far attraction sites in remote areas, within a short time, then the best alternative is flying. However, this can only happen if the government has tourism industry at heart and has invested heavily in the sector. In most cases, tourists hardly prefer waterways unless one wants to enjoy luxurious experience to visit isolated areas like attractive islands.
The second socio-economic factor that affects tourism is accommodation. Tourists prefer visiting places, which offer good accommodation and catering services. However, tourists have varying tastes and preferences for these facilities. For example, their lifestyles, expected services, standard of living and financial ability largely determine their choices. Accommodation centers ought to be classified i.e. star hotels for proper planning.
A wide range of classes gives tourists easy time selecting the most convenient and affordable package. Prices for these services have to be reasonable, as no one would wish to spend his or her whole fortunes on trip to an island or a visit to a national park somewhere. It is up to the government to carry out baseline surveys and establish the accommodation needs of its tourism sector in order to offer viable solutions. Besides standard accommodation facilities, security also plays a major role as tourism sectors in terror-free countries thrive more than in areas prone to war and attacks.
Thirdly, existing amenities largely affect the growth of tourism in the market. Besides a country developing tourist attraction sites, these have to be well maintained to earn reasonable and sustainable revenue to the people. Other facilities should be present to make the site a complete haven of fun. Among these amenities, include surfing, skiing, fishing, safari adventure, rowing, and roping among others. Besides these, emergency services should be present. For example, tourists need evacuation in case of an emergency like accident or security alert. Such services include the availability of ambulance services, emergency call lines and standby choppers to airlift victims whenever need arises. Where tourist attraction sites are privately owned, it would be the responsibility of shareholders to provide these services. Otherwise, the government has to invest in tourism amenities to make it a lucrative source of revenue. Other ancillary services like banking, hospitals, internet and insurance are also important in attracting and holding tourists. All these factors work toward economic development whenever the industry thrives.
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Factors Affecting Tea Production in Kenya
Although tea is a major cash crop in Kenya, there are several factors affecting tea production in this country. Tea is a third major earner of foreign exchange in Kenya after horticulture and tourism. GWL Caine introduced tea in 1903 in Limuru. Commercial production of tea in Kenya began in 1924. Black tea is the major tea produced in Kenya with major producers of tea producing white, yellow and green tea.
Today, tea supports many livelihoods of Kenya both indirectly and directly. It also impact on the Kenyan economy. However, there are many factors that affect tea production in Kenya and this implies that these factors affect the livelihoods that depend on tea.
One of the major factors affecting tea production in Kenya is climate change. Just like in other countries, climate change is causing unpredictable harvests. This is because climate change is causing unpredictable amount of rainy and dry seasons. Tea farmers can no longer plan on production activities effectively such as when to apply fertilizers or prune their tea bushes. It is also becoming difficult to plan their future which in turn impact on their productivity.
Usually, yields from tea bushes are high with quality tea at temperature ranging from 18 to 32 degree Celsius. Global warming is causing increase in temperatures by up to 2 degree Celsius making some tea production regions in Kenya unsuitable for this agricultural activity.
Economic Partnership Agreement signed between the ACP and the European Union ended preferential access to trade to EU market for the ACP products with tea included. Creation of the regional markets via regional trade agreements including the East Africa Community is a major element of EPA. The effects of these regional trade agreements on the tea production industry in Kenya are still unknown. For instance, Ugandan businesses have complained about the domination of the market by the competitive Kenyan manufacturing sector.
Globalization is also affecting tea production in Kenya. Globalization causes differences in the economic outcomes for downstream and upstream actors. That is, increased power and profits for the retailers in global-north which affect global-south producers negatively.
For instance, in 2009 Omen which is a research firm indicated that power in the worldwide tea industry is concentrated in four Trans-National companies only. These are Van Rees, Tata Tetley, James Finley and Unilever. These companies influence setting of prices at the tea auctions in Sri-Lanka, India, and Kenya which are the main markets where approximately 70 percent of the worldwide tea is traded.
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Factors Affecting Automobile Industry in India
Facts about the automobile industry in India
The automobile industry in India is one of the most important industries and it contributes at least 22 % towards the country’s GDP. This industry has grown over the years leading to India being ranked at 7th place in the world for production of automobiles. It is estimated that India produces a total of 17.5 million vehicles every year, 2.3 million of which are exported to other markets. This figure is expected to double with certain government interventions.
Five factors affecting the automobile industry in India
There are several factors that have affected the automobile industry in India. These include:
- Market size. India’s automobile industry has grown largely because of its large market size. The industry has had its fair share of both local and foreign consumers leading to higher production levels. The domestic market has experienced huge sales in two-wheeler vehicles with an estimated 11.3% growth recorded between April 2013 and 2014. There is also a huge market for passenger car sales within the domestic market. The sales for utility vehicles during this period were higher amongst the foreign consumers with a 298% increase in exports of these vehicles. The growing domestic income is expected to make motor vehicles more affordable for local consumers and thus increase the domestic market size for India’s automobile industry.
- Government regulations. The automobile industry in India has received extensive government support and this has encouraged a lot of foreign direct investment in the industry. The government permits 100% foreign direct investment in this industry and it is fully delicensed making it easy for investors to penetrate it and set up shop in India. Additionally, there are also tax incentives and investors can actually export the automobiles for free.
- Research and Development. There have been many research and development initiatives, both private and governmental. These are aimed at improving the automobile industry in India. The government started the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA) which is an apex body that deals with the automobile industry in India. This body looks into matters such as upgrading of technology in the industry, collecting information on industrial events and trends as well as disseminating this information to relevant stakeholders. The body does this through research and also promotes trade in both domestic and foreign circles. On their part, private investors have also set up research and development initiatives within their companies. For instance the Mahindra and Mahindra research centre for electric vehicles in order to enhance their services in India.
- There are many investors from all over the world who are part of the automobile industry in India. This has created competition amongst several renowned brands of automobiles. The competition has in turn led to economies of scale with most companies working hard to meet the demands of both domestic and foreign consumers.
- Stable economy. Many experts predict that the future of the automobile industry in India is bright. However this is subject to the economic stability of the country and currency inflation rates. Economic stability and low inflation will increase incomes for majority of Indians and raise the domestic consumption of automobiles in the country.
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Factors Affecting Indian Economic Growth
India is one of the fastest growing economies. Since introducing the concept of free market in 1991, the Asian country has experienced rapid growth and is predicted to grow even further. As at 2011, India was ranked 11th in terms of nominal GDP and fourth in terms of GDP purchasing power parity (PPP). India has one of the highest populations in the world and a bustling manufacturing sector. In addition to this the country has changed its economic policies since independence in order to propel economic growth further. It is also known to save a lot and this has helped it to stabilize and grow.
All in all there are several factors that currently affect the Indian economic growth and these include:
- Capital flows and Stock Exchange Market. India has had a very steady flow of capital from both foreign and local investors. In addition to this, the country also has a thriving stock market and this has helped it gain capital. With this amount of capital, India has less to worry about in case the GDP rates fall. This is because its currency can still get overvalued given its steady flow of capital.
- The RBI ranks. The currency of India largely depends on the rankings by RBI. The RBI is in charge of managing the balance of payments for India. Slight changes in the RBI assessments can have a huge impact on the currency of India and lead to either over assessment or under rankings of the country’s economy.
- Global currency trends of economically powerful countries. India like many other countries has economic and currency links with powerful countries such as US, UK, Japan, Canada and others. When the currencies of these countries are undervalued, India’s currency is also likely to depreciate. On the other hand an appreciation of these currencies has similar effects on India’s currency. These global currency trends therefore influence India’s economic growth.
- Political changes. Political setup in India also influences its economic growth. A change in the country governance often leads to changes in economic policies especially with regard to importation and exportation of goods and services. Political changes also impact on the tax rates and may affect the investment climate which ultimately influences the economic growth rate of the country.
- Energy and oil. India imports oil in large quantities. This is an essential commodity and it affects India’s economic growth rate. When crude oil prices in the world market fluctuate, India’s currency cannot remain stable. High oil prices result in high inflation rates hence overvaluing of India’s currency.
- Demographics and poverty rates. India is one of the most populous countries in the world and economists predict that its population will rise by over 300 million by 2030. In as much as this population growth may be good in terms of larger markets, it is costly to maintain and can only be fruitful if India puts in place measures to provide its citizens with social, educational and economic needs. Otherwise poverty rates which are already high will increase with this population and drag the economic growth rate of the country.
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Factors Affecting the Leather Industry in India
Background facts on India’s leather industry
India is the second largest producer of leather garments and footwear in the world and its leather industry has grown substantially in the past decades. Between 2011 and 2014, the estimated growth rate of this industry was 8.5% and analysts predict better figures in the near future.
The main factors affecting India’s leather industry
As one of the top ten contributors to India’s GDP, the leather industry rakes in 7.5 billion dollars annually and the country has thus invested heavily in it. There are many factors that have affected the growth of the leather industry in India.
- Availability of raw materials. According to experts, 11% of sheep and goats in the world are found in India. This number almost double for buffalos and cattle with an estimated 21% of this population thriving in India. There is therefore a huge supply of hides and skins which are necessary raw materials in the leather industry. India has a comparative advantage in this industry because of the ready supply of these raw materials hence the growth of the industry.
- Presence of human capital. The leather industry is highly capital intensive. In India it employs more than 2.5 million people with an estimated 30% of the female population being absorbed in the industry. India’s high population and readily available cheap human resource has been instrumental in propelling forward the leather industry. It has encouraged both local and foreign investors to put their stakes in this industry.
- Support industries. There are several support industries which have helped the leather industry to grow. Industries such as chemical, machinery and tool industries have played a major role in the growth of the leather industry. Since chemicals, machinery and tools have been readily available, the leather industry is able to run more efficiently. There are also other support services such as transport, telecommunications and distribution services which have also enhanced the growth of the leather industry.
- Research and development investment. There have been major changes in the leather industry in India over the past decade. The quality of shoes has improved because of these design and manufacturing changes. This is due to varied investments in the research and development areas. These have resulted in new developments and more efficient methods of production. There are also many up and coming designers who have invented better designs for shoes that are more cost effective to make. Additionally, the industry is embracing new trends and this has increased its European market.
- Huge market. India’s leather industry accounts for 3% in the global market. This industry has a huge market is comprised of both domestic and foreign consumers. It is estimated that around 95% of all the shoes manufactured in India are purchased locally. Besides China, India is the second largest supplier of shoes in the world. There are also several leather articles that cater for both the local and foreign markets. India thus supplies articles such as saddles, gloves, jackets and bags to both foreign and local consumers. According to statistics, the major foreign destinations for India’s leather products include European Union (64%), USA (9%), Hong Kong (7%), UAE (2% and Africa (1%). Ultimately the leather industry in India has grown steadily due to this market.
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