Factors Affecting Automotive Industry in Germany
The origin of the automotive industry in Germany can be traced back to 1886 when Karl Benz registered his first vehicle that was powered by gas. Germany is renowned to be the home of the first four-stroke internal combustion engine in the world and continues to enjoy a unique placement in the international automotive industry. Currently, it accounts for 17% of the total global passenger car production with its OEMs. Besides, it should be noted that Germany is the sole largest auto market in the entire Europe.
Over the years, the German automotive Industry has been doing well in the global automotive sector. However, a crisis hit the industry in 2009 when the global economic production fell. This was the first time that such an incident was taking place in six decades. The drop mainly hit the commercial vehicles production dropping the in international production by 9%. This did not go down well with the automotive industry in Germany as profits got held up and production also stalled.
Just like most industrialized nations across the globe, Germany’s automotive industry was also hit by the international financial crisis experienced in modern times. The crisis negatively affected the demand and supply trends in the market, impacting the industry negatively. Even though it did not stop the manufacture of automobiles in Germany, it stalled the progress.
Today, the automotive industry in Germany can be said to have successfully made its way out of the international recession. The sector has been able to recover and achieve solid growth in the aftermath of the crisis. In fact, this was clearly evident when the German automotive industry issued an affirmation of its position as the mainspring for the country’s national economy. Today, almost a fifth of the total sales derived from the overall manufacturing sector in Germany is from the automotive industry. In the 1990s, this share only lagged at about 13%.
Technological advancement is a factor that has enabled German automotive industry to experience significant growth over the years. Germany’s introduction of OEMs created a new trend in terms of demand of cars across the globe. In the recent years, the automotive industry has re-invented them to suit the needs of various car buyers around the world with much emphasis on brand management and market leadership. This has enabled the automotive industry in Germany to stay well ahead of the rest in a congested international market.
The automotive industry in Germany has also been able to steadily sail to the top because of its focus on manufacturing cars that meet the needs of various drivers in the market. When the demand for smaller and more energy efficient medium-range passenger cars began to take an upward trend, Germany had already began manufacturing them well in advance. This significantly propelled the industry to the top in the international automotive market. The ability of the industry to manufacture cars that meet the need of different drivers is an advantage that has enabled the industry to experience unmatched growth over the years.
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Factors Affecting the Automotive Industry in Japan
The automotive industry in Japan enjoyed spectacular success in the 1980s mainly as a result of the ‘lean production system’ applied in the sector. Lean production system can be simply defined as a combination of effective supply system, efficient production system and a product development system. The success of the industry was faced with a downturn in the 1990s due to the Japanese asset price bubble and the appreciation of the currency to the extremes. However, the industry has been able to survive through the hard times and is not currently doing so bad on the global grid. In fact, the Japanese automotive industry is now one of the largest in the world.
Over the years, Japanese automotive industry had been doing so well but a major tragedy that almost brought down the sector struck in the 1990s. The country’s economic bubble burst and became stagnant. This hampered operations in the industry owing to the fact that it had by that time become one of the main contributors. The trough of recession dragged back the automotive industry into a position that production had to be cut down.
The recession that hit Japan almost twenty years ago hit one of the largest car manufacturers in the world Toyota, that has its base in Japan. It made the management of automobile manufacturing operations difficult and the industry had to struggle getting back to its feet. In order to counter this, the industry best player; Toyota was forced to transfer its operations to overseas countries after entering into a joint venture with General Motors. Despite the country’s growing contraction in the automotive industry, the transfer of the corporation’s lean production system to overseas plants has enabled it to brace the hard economic times.
Internalization is a strategy that almost all Japanese car manufacturers adopted in order to counter the economic bubble. However, it has had great impacts on the country’s automotive industry considering that currently, the number of vehicles that are manufactured by Japanese assembles in overseas plants has exceeded that produced at home. Even though internalization has been widely viewed by many as killing the automotive industry in Japan, it has played a role in ensuring that Japanese car manufacturers do not run out of business. It has enabled the car manufacturers to stay afloat amidst the scorching heat of inflation that continues to hurt the country.
In 2011, the Japanese automotive industry was faced yet with another crisis that significantly cut the manufacturers’ profit margins to levels that had never been experienced before. This crisis resulted from the earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan thereby disrupting the operations of the country’s largest chip makers. Besides, the earthquake also destroyed some of the plants of car manufacturers. However, the impact on the chip maker hit the motor industry with a bang since every car manufacturer depends on the custom-made chips in assembling their automobiles. This kept the production levels at less than 50% for quite a long time, hurting the Japan automotive industry as a whole.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Disaster Recovery
Cloud computing have for the past years offered numerous disaster recovery solutions. It is a recovery option that does not require a lot of monetary investment. Additionally, it provides offsite management of crucial data in any location and automatically.
With cloud computing, business can keep their IT systems up and running. Whenever there is a downtime or data loss due to unexpected problems, quick recovery is essential. Therefore, cloud helps businesses to restore lost data within the shortest time possible. With cloud, there is no use of traditional back up options.
Cloud computing in disaster recovery also offers the ability for reliable backups in single or multiple locations nationally and internationally.
Cloud computing is a highly affordable disaster recovery solution. It offers low cost options for small and large businesses. It also allows for economies of scale and in the long run, lowers operational or recovery expenses.
With cloud, businesses can also restore data more quickly. This is one of the features that set cloud from other recovery solutions in the market. Cloud offers multiple copies of data that is usually kept in sync and at multiple locations. Data in cloud is stored and protected as it is being created.
Cloud also allows businesses to demonstrate more compliance in disaster recovery. This is based on the fact that it provides a highly functional and secure infrastructure. Therefore, businesses enjoy more control of their operations compared to an onsite data recovery solution.
Cloud is an automatic data recovery solution. Therefore, cases of constant checkups and regular babysitting of IT systems are greatly reduced or completely eliminated.
With cloud computing disaster recovery solution, businesses cut down on their monthly costs. Resources for their businesses can be reserved for use only in the event of an emergency. As a result, it enables business to function effectively and generate the desired revenue.
Cloud also allows business persons to set their metrics. It is easy to determine your recovery objective when using cloud. What’s more, you can easily set the time used in the recovery process. These are essential metrics and you have clearly set them, it also becomes easy to set IT systems and infrastructure to be used in recovery.
Cloud also allows businesses to prioritize IT systems and data. This is essential especially in determining how often a business may need backup and what should be restored first in the event of a disaster.
As a tiered system, cloud computing in disaster recovery can also be used for more strategic business initiatives including e-commerce. It can also be used as a point of sale application.
Cloud computing is additionally used in disaster recovery for all business sizes. Today, many organizations are considering reliable, flexible and recovery solutions that can be controlled to suit the needs of a business. It is this reason that makes cloud an ideal solution.
Businesses using cloud disaster recovery are also in a better position to get back up whenever and wherever, run more efficiently than before and enjoy smooth operations. With the solution, a company also enjoys huge profits.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Education
Cloud computing is a flexible internet application facility that enhances ICT services. It employs powerful networks and systems to allow for easy sharing of data and collaboration. In education sector, the benefits of cloud computing cannot be overlooked.
It is very clear that cloud offers flexibility and enhanced mobility in the education sector. Tablets and laptops allow for learning whenever and wherever. These gadgets increase engagement and allows for greater collaboration. Teachers can create and share programs with students efficiently.
Tablets and laptops also eliminate barriers to learning. They are easy to use and they transmit information much faster. Students are therefore able to continue with their school work on the go or at home. Cloud bridges the gap between home and school. It has also made learning more interesting because students are more interested in doing their assignments from different devices. Cloud therefore increases these benefits among others.
Cloud computing enables schools, colleges and higher institutions of higher learning to cut down on their expenses. Learning expenses especially with the need for 24hr internet connection can be huge if not managed. Cloud allows for a low cost computing system. Therefore, once a school has internet connection, it cuts down on its operational costs.
With cloud concept, teachers and schools can comfortably share work and assignments. It eliminates paper work by a great deal. Paperwork can be quite costly. However, with cloud, information can be sent via mail. In the long run, it cuts down on learning and environmental costs. With cloud, learning is viable.
With cloud computing, IT administration in different institutions has been made easier. Hardware and software updates are fully taken care of by cloud service provider. This also extends to security management. Consequently, it helps to eliminate administration burden and allows all educational facilities to concentrate more core issues. By doing so, the facilities also become more productive.
With cloud computing in the education sector, critical and confidential data can be stored in the central processing system safely. There is less exposure of important information and it helps to prevent threats including loss of laptops, tablets and other electronic systems. Content can also be stored safely in USB flash drives and in the event of a disaster, the data can be retrieved without any problem.
Schools can also monitor student data more efficiently with cloud. They do not have to worry about data mining. What’s more, teachers no longer have to worry about security threats or breaches because cloud computing is highly encrypted.
Cloud is highly beneficial to developing countries. It helps teachers to teach children who under normal circumstances would not have accessed quality education. There are laptops specially designed for use in remote areas. They do not require a lot of maintenance and teachers can comfortably impart knowledge to children in underdeveloped countries.
With cloud computing, schools have also been able to improve educational standards. This is based on the fact e-learning comes with a wide range of interactive features. Teachers can demonstrate what they are teaching using graphics and other related features instantly. In the long run, students understand better what is being taught.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Government
In today’s age and era, governments are looking for the best ways to manage challenges that affect their economies. Cloud computing has proven to be an ideal solution because it allows for e-governance. With cloud, governments are able to deliver core services to citizens across different parts of the globe. Even with dwelling city populations, a government is able to reach out to its citizens, manage aging infrastructure and address other challenges within a short span of time.
Through cloud computing, the government is able to manage rapid urbanization. This is based on the fact it is able to manage its IT systems and carry out specific functions efficiently from whenever and wherever. It moves to current IT in metering, procurement and issuing of loan sanctions among other government functions.
It is essential to note that IT resources can be hard to manage. However, with cloud, everything is automated and in an efficient way. The government is freed up of a lot of time it could spent monitoring different functions and on human resources. It therefore has more than enough time to focus on increasing its roster of services or mechanisms for quality service delivery.
With cloud computing, the government is able to manage financial pressures. The government is able to deliver quality services even with limited resources and a tight budget. It also offers a greater advantage in terms of short term and long term savings.
Cloud allows for pay-as-you-go option and pay-as-you-use. The government does not face upfront costs especially when buying IT equipment. The savings are later used by the government during harsh financial times.
With cloud computing, the government is able to reduce the risk of technological obsolescence. This is because of shortening IT upgrade cycles and constant launch of new products. With cloud, the government also does not have to rely on old IT systems for many years. It can easily explore timely upgrades and at a cheaper price.
Cloud computing provides a way for the government to deliver quality products and services. Government agencies are also able to cut down on upgrade costs. Any hardware and software upgrades can be utilized at any time, because they are included in the contract between the government and service provider.
The government is also able to manage other challenges relayed to massive delivery of services to citizens in different parts of the globe. It is now able to deliver time and efficient services in minutes through cloud.
Cloud computing also enables the government to provide a good platform for sharing. Citizens can air their complaints, share their concerns and seek redress through cloud computing. The government ensures that there is efficient and transparent citizen-consumer awareness.
Similarly, the government employs cloud computing when undertaking reforms processes. It has benefited the government a great deal when it comes to e-governance. Agencies are able to share information freely, pool of resources and collaborate with relevant stakeholders to achieve set goals. With cloud computing, these tasks are carried out with no delay.
Cloud computing has also provided a strong foundation for the government to create an ideal environment for good governance.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Large Business
Cloud computing is an internet based facility that offers long term benefits to a business. In this age and era, businesses are looking for ways to cut down on the cost of production and ways to enhance productivity. Cloud computing is also a solution that has enabled many large businesses to expand their brand visibility online and offline.
Large corporations including Coca Cola, Nike, Avon and Monster.com are some of the best examples of large businesses that have reaped from cloud computing. With the cloud based software, large businesses are in a better position to deliver quality products and services. Despite large workforce, big business can easily ensure that each employee delivers without close monitoring.
Cloud is safe and beneficial in many ways to large businesses including
It is green and allows for more profits
Cloud is considered green in terms of the profits it generates for large businesses. With cloud, large business does not have to use in-house storage system. Instead, it explores the cheaper monthly storage option from a service provider. With the storage option, business cut down on energy and production costs by a large margin.
Cloud also offers room for giant multi power server units or rooms. This means that large businesses get to save billions of dollars on their energy consumption.
With cloud, large businesses are also able to explore internal messaging. This is done via highly functional software that enables these corporations to pay less on workflow tools and email.
Large businesses also enjoy open communication and collaboration through cloud computing. Cloud allows for more scalability and sharing of messages and data can be done within the shortest time possible. Cloud enables employees to work from anywhere. Therefore, companies save a great deal on time.
Cloud computing also enables large business to concentrate on more urgent business issues as opposed to management of IT systems and related issues. Cloud service provider ensure smooth running of operations because it updates IT systems regularly. What’s more, whenever there are new upgrades that can benefit a business, a service provider will let you know of the updates for enhanced productivity.
As such, large business reduces a great deal on downtime. It gets time to capitalize on its resources and make huge profits. With continued use of cloud, large businesses are also able to achieve a competitive edge against relevant competitors.
Greener cloud storage
Cloud computing is also beneficial to large businesses because of green cloud storage. Businesses are known to produce carbon emissions due to their storage systems. These emissions are harmful to the environment. However, by using cloud, businesses are able to reduce the amount of carbon emissions. The bigger the business, the greener cloud computing storage unit it can explore.
Additionally, with greener cloud storage, large businesses are able to create a safe working environment for its employees.
Other benefits that cloud offers to large businesses include
- Enhanced security for its data
- More flexibility and scalability
- Reduced cost of operation and cost of production
- Reduced downtime
- More room for productivity and profitability
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Small Business
Cloud computing is one of the most beneficial internet based facilities for small and large businesses. With cloud, managing IT systems and sharing data is easier and cost effective. To a small business, cloud computing is beneficial because
It allows for enhanced accessibility
Cloud allows for more flexibility and accessibility. This is one of the biggest advantages that come with this internet based facility. With cloud, business persons can access, modify and save data files from any sources and in any location. You can access data from your computer, laptop, tablet or phone.
Cloud also offers more flexibility when sharing files and collaborating with other people. This is because storage of files in cloud system is done in one central location. Therefore, anyone can access data from wherever and at any time. It offers greater accessibility and flexibility for small business owners to run and manage their business remotely.
With easy accessibility of business files, a business will also enjoy increased productivity, competitiveness and quality time management.
Cloud allows small businesses to enhance security of their systems. Over the past years, many people could easily lose data on their mobile phones and laptops. When using cloud, even if your laptop is stolen, it is easy to retrieve data.
Cloud computing also cuts down on operational and production costs. This is based on the fact that a small business person has the opportunity to choose what to use and what to avoid. Nothing is fixed in cloud because it is a practical service for small businesses.
Startup cost when using cloud is also low. In addition, applications used in small business are fully customized. Therefore, there is no need of buying expensive hardware and software.
The applications are also web based are easy to maintain. Cloud computing service provider offers cheap and advanced technologies to programs that are out of date.
Cloud offers backup for small business. It is a disaster recovery system that allows for more resilience and at a cheaper price. If your computer or mobile phone breaks down, you will not lose your data. Data is saved remotely in cloud computing and recovery time is faster compared to systems that do not utilize cloud.
Cloud computing allows small businesses to achieve a competitive edge against relevant competitors. Service provider helps small establishments with all technical issues within the shortest time possible. Downtime is greatly reduced so that a business person can focus on more important aspects of the business.
What’s more, cloud allows for energy saving and produces less carbon emissions on on-site servers. This also helps a small business to save a great deal on cash. According to research, businesses using cloud computing can cut up to 90 percent carbon emissions.
With cloud computing, small business persons are in better positions to improve their operations. They can also easily cut on the cost of resources and traditional computer technologies. Cloud computing improves and benefits a business during high and low seasons.
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Causes and Effects of Battles of Lexington and Concord
Rising tensions between Great Britain and colonists from North America in mid Atlantic region led to formulation of British regulations and restrictions. The colonists felt that the British Empire was treating them as citizens of a lower class. Distance, arrogance and time made it impossible for both sides to come up with any peaceful solution and as a result, the colonists felt there was no recourse but fighting at Lexington and Concord in 1775.
There were different factors that contributed to the battle of Lexington and concord and some of these are as highlighted below:
England and American colonies experienced communication lag which made it difficult to discuss issues that were of concern to the colonists. The British government especially treated American colonists like they did not deserve full British citizenship and this became quite obvious during the Indian and French war when soldiers of American descent discovered the advise they offered did not carry the same level of credibility as that one offered by British soldiers.
Also, the American soldiers were paid far less than what their counterparts were receiving. The contempt the British had for the colonialists fermented with time and eventually became a desire for full fledged citizenship or freedom from mother country.
Acts of the British
Among colonists, there was growth of unrest which was fanned by patriots like James Otis, Samuel Adams and John Hancock. In response to this, England put into place laws that were more restrictive like the 1975 Stamp Act. This law taxed all newspapers and any other paper that was bought within the colonies. The colonists however did not abide b y the rule and it had to be repealed by England.
However the damage was already done and the colonists no longer had trust in the British government. England passed Townshend Acts in 1768 so it could collect tax on glass, paper, tea, silk and paint. The determination England had to force colonists to make payments for the expenses incurred by the British and its wars angered the colonists.
The British march to destroy supplies at concord and arrest Hancock and Adams also helped trigger t he battle and so did the Boston tea party in 1773.
The battles of Lexington and Concord had the effect of causing the American Revolution. During the battle, blood was spilled and Minutemen defended their weapons successfully though there was no possibility of coming up with a peaceful solution. The battles aided in uniting the colonies and eventually led to the Revolutionary War.
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Environmental Degradation on Cultural Heritage
Environmental degradation has impacted different aspects of life in major ways. It has not only impacted agricultural, industrial and pastoral purposes but cultural heritage as well. There are numerous and main risk factors that affect the cultural heritage of any country and these include numerous anthropogenic and natural environmental factors.
Others such as landslides, earthquakes, rising water levels, smog formation in cities, pollution of streams, soil degradation, poor drainage systems, pollution of basins, lakes and lack of or poor drainage systems lead to destruction of historical, archeological and cultural heritage. The impact that is most destructive is often caused by natural catastrophes like earthquakes. Armenia is one such country that has lost great cultural heritage as a result of environmental degradation.
There are several graphic images and bibliographic notes that prove this. For instance, part of Ani City fell in 1064 during the 1319 earthquake and the Ani dome cathedral also collapsed. The 1679 earthquake was one of the most destructive events as it lead to the destruction of the major cathedral in Garni, several churches in Kanaker, Yerevan, Gokhtan village, the Ararat valley and Nork as well as cathedral in Abbey of Gayane, churches of St Hripsime and the cathedral in Echniadzin.
Salinity also affects the cultural significance of the Aboriginal culture. It has also impacted their contemporary expression of culture. Salinity has also played a major role in contributing towards species decline that are valued such as medicines, totems and wild foods. Salinity has damaged and in other cases destroyed archeological sites like carved and scarred trees, some burial sites as well as historical sites.
There are several heritage monuments, gardens and buildings that are at salinity risk. This is because as the water rises and gets into contact with the buildings they are damaged. When water evaporates, salt crystallizes and this leaves the masonry under immense stress and causes it to ‘spall’ then collapse damaging buildings that are of great cultural significance.
Yet, most of these buildings, traditional places and infrastructure cannot be replaced or repaired thus, leaving cultural heritage of the people completely destroyed. Cultural heritage is an extremely important element of the identity and history of our societies as such, it is important to ensure they are not negatively impacted by environmental degradation.
Europe is also known to have a cultural heritage that is rich and extraordinary. This includes unique values that were left behind by ancient civilizations in the Mediterranean basin and other regions. With use of proper intelligence, creativity and knowledge, it is possible to reduce or eliminate the further damage to the cultural heritage.
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Environmental Degradation on Historical Monuments
Air pollution plays a major role in influencing weathering of monuments and deterioration of prehistoric museum objects and cave paintings. Therefore, pollution is not just confined to environmental degradation but historical monuments as well. The effects degradation has on such monuments vary in extent from one region to another and based on the contributing factors.
Historical monuments are impacted negatively by pollution throughout the globe and this includes the Acropolis in Greece to America’s Lincoln memorial. The threat this poses is loss of these irreplaceable structures. Most of the monuments have an aesthetic and cultural value that cannot be compared to any price. One of the areas that have been studied for a long time is the role played by atmospheric degradation in the destruction of historical buildings.
This is because it increases the decay of stone and also causes historic materials to lose their value. Preservation of historical monuments plays an important role in the integration of countries because of the social, cultural and economical implications they have.
Latin American countries for instance have an importance legacy from colonial, modern and pre-Hispanic modern periods as is the case with Mexico which has 15 sites which are included in the list of UNESCO cultural heritage. Most of these are situated in urban areas such as Morelia, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico City, Morelia, San Francisco de Campeche and Guanajuato etc.
The historical monuments that are worst affected included those in areas exposed to environmental agents which can induce deterioration. For the longest time, natural perimeters such as extended periods of rainfall, high humidity and marine aerosols effects were the major factors that contributed towards the degradation of buildings.
Acid rain is one of the factors that contribute to the destruction of monuments and it occurs when fossil fuel emissions that contain sulfur dioxide are combined with air to form acid precipitation. When the acid falls on these historical monuments whether or marble or limestone, chemical reactions take place causing a corrosive effect on the structures and this not only dissolves the material but causes permanent damage.
There are other factors that also contribute to the damage caused to historical monuments. For instance, increased humidity provides an ideal environment for corrosive chemical reaction if there is no rain. In the same manner, any changes in the radiation of the sun can also temporarily cause an increase in temperatures on the monuments surface causing damage.
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Effects of Environmental Degradation on Human Life
Environmental degradation is described as deterioration of environment through depletion of natural resources like soil, water and air. It also refers to eco system destruction as well as distinction of wildlife. Environmental degradation has serious effects on human life some of which often go unnoticed for years.
There are several factors which contribute to environmental degradation which in turn affects human life such as a noisy environment, temperature, atmosphere and air. Breathing air that is polluted for instance poses numerous health complications that affect the quality of life and leave individuals at a high risk of suffering from other kinds of illness.
The huge burden of disease that is been seen today is largely as a result of environmental degradation. At least ninety to twenty five percent of diseases reported in most developing nations are as a result of environmental degradation and it is estimated that child mortality in such regions is close to 43% due to poor conditions.
Precisely for this reason, degradation exerts immense pressure on human health when people get exposed to water, soil and air pollution as well as chemicals which are released into the environment and noise. Respiratory, cancer, communicable and cardiovascular diseases are some of the illnesses that are often caused by environmental degradation. Other diseases include neuro-psychiatric disorders and poisoning.
The most obvious environmental pollution risk to the health of millions of people across the globe is air pollution. It contributes to different types of illnesses like asthma and more often than cause, it causes premature deaths. Of great concern is the fact that children are placed at a great risk than adults leading to high infant mortality rate. Concerns about the effects of environmental degradation on human life has also led t o numerous measures been taken to mitigate emission of pollutant gases and other factors that contribute to environmental degradation.
The greenhouse effect is one that is still been investigated and studied. It is often as a result of fossil fuels which are burnt then they release greenhouse gases into the environment. The gases don’t have the capability to dissipate and as such, they remain trapped in the atmosphere and absorb heat from the sun and this in-adversely affects those people who store wood in their homes as they risk the possibility of starting a fire once it reaches flash point.
Also, environmental degradation leads to soil erosion and this poses a serious threat to food production. As such, people are unable to access the resources needed in order to ensure they live comfortable lives and enjoy health food.
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Effects of Environmental Degradation on Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal is known as one of the best monuments in India but reports from the Indian government reveal it is under great threat as a result of pollution. India’s National Environment Engineering Research Institute compiled the report and shows the measures taken after reports that the tomb, which dates back to the 17th century was irreparably been damaged due to pollution were failing.
The Taj Mahal is not only part of the 7 Wonders of the World but it is only seen as a major symbol of love across the globe. Its beauty is breathtaking though pollution of slowly taking its breath away. There are several steps which have been taken to protect it though most of them have failed to maintain the beauty of the monument.
Every year, Taj Mahal’s beauty is vanishing as a result of environmental degradation. The major threats it faces include excessive tourism, pollution, rising Yamuna threat and toxins that come from factories. The pollution which comes from industries and vehicles is steadily turning Taj Mahal yellow and this is regardless of the efforts made by the government to control pollution.
The largest effect is that of airborne particles which get deposited on the monuments white marble thus giving it a yellow touch. Annually, the Taj attracts two to four million people with over 2,000,000 people coming from abroad. Majority of the tourists prefer to visit the attraction during the cool months of February, October and November. Most of them thro trash in the surrounding area and this also serves to destroy the beauty and appeal of the Mahal.
The Mathura oil refinery which is located twenty five miles from the Mahal releases high levels of toxins which further place the attraction at great danger. The refinery is known to produce pollution emissions like nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide and the gases react with one another further adding fuel to fire by damaging the monument even further.
The white marble dome monument was built in 1632 to 1654 by the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan for Mumtaz Mahal, his favorite wife. It houses a mosque, their graves and other graves for Mogul Royalty of lower classes. There are several measures which have been taken to cut back the effects pollution has on the monument.
For instance, buses and cars are not allowed anywhere close to the monument but rather, they are parked 1 ½ miles from it. Visitors are only allowed to get close to the Taj by using horse driven carriages or buses that are battery run.
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A Three-Dimensional Public Management Approach in Kansas City
Public management is required by public institutions for success to be achieved. Nevertheless, when a wrong approach is taken, there can be serious system functions’ failures. Adapting theories of public management can assist in running public institutions efficiently. It is important to embrace these theories since it is known that there are many challenges that face public management and to overcome them a workable approach is required. In the education system, perennial failures have been experienced in Kansas City District Public Schools (KCDPS). This has led to persistent dismal performance as well as the transfer of many students to private and suburb institutions. The system that is used to manage these schools has failed in facilitating the revival of the existing schools so that they can attract more students. This system’s dysfunction happened during the 80s when many schools became half-filled with students’ performance declining gradually.
Measures taken to help this situation included spending more money in making the schools more appealing. Nevertheless, the overall enrollment was at 35,000 at that time in comparison to that of the 60s which was 70,000. Currently, the enrollment of Kansas City District Schools is about 17,000. Obviously, KCDPS public management does not suit the place. It is therefore important to adapt a different, new approach for this schools’ system to be more appealing and to improve performance.
Currently, the score of about 70% of the students in KCPS in English Language and Math is below average. Arts proficiency has also been deteriorating even with the operational and management systems of the schools being improved. The system’s failure can also be clearly seen from the fact that most high school graduates from KCPS are not ready to start college education. Science and social studies’ scores have improved in KCPS over the past years. Nevertheless, proficiency scores are still below 30%. This trend is indeed worrying to parties that are concerned in the region. When the achievement of a KCPS student is compared to that of other districts in the state, KCPS student ranks lower. Predictions indicate that the trend is likely to continue and these students will continue lagging behind those in the other districts.
Laurence Lynn and Caroline Hill outline the vital approach that should be adapted by KCDPS board in their Public Management: A Three-Dimensional Approach. They argue that this approach will enable learning in the region to regain its exciting experience. They propose a three dimensional approach which entails adapting cultural, craft and structural perspectives in analyzing and finding an ideal solution in the management of public schools. In this paper, the problems of the system of public education in Kansas City District Schools are explored extensively. The paper will employ these three approaches with more efforts being made to come up with a strategy for overcoming the challenges.
Laurence and Caroline Hill (2) argue that in public management, communication and command chain make the structural aspect of the public system. Efficient channel of communication and a clear command chain assist in the identification of problems as well as allocation of responsibilities to different people so that a solution can be realized. They note that when such structures break, confusion occurs when there is a problem. There are miscalculations that leadership in Kansas City District Schools System has made and these are causing several problems. The leadership does not focus on real issues and this has led to system failure in the district. It is apparent that problems in the system of education in this district have been there for decades. This ought to have enabled the leaders to identify steps that they should take.
The other structural failure aspect was seen from the prejudice of the stakeholders in the district. Politicians and educators were unable to agree on proper strategies to implement in order to revive the system for education in this district. More accountability was required from all stakeholders in the system for some ideas that were proposed to be implemented. Instead, these stakeholders chose to use excess funding in the system yet the approach was not successful.
Worth noting is that as of that time, most white students were no longer in the schools because they left for private and suburban schools that are located outside the district. They did this because this education system was unable to guarantee them future success. As such, joining the neighboring competitive and well-established schools was the most ideal option for them. Due to the failure of this system of education in the 80s, Russell Clark, the Federal District Judge was given the responsibility of bringing it back to its efficiency in order to enhance academic success by Judge Arthur Benson. Apparently, this was not a good approach to this problem. He noted that KCDPS had failed due to unconstitutional segregation whose dilapidated facilities were its characteristic. Ordering for increased funding was the most ideal option in order to build modern educational facilities and to refurbish old ones to enhance the provision of unique courses. This would help in attracting white students who had fled to other schools.
Although Judge Russell thought about such measures, the education system in the district lacked efficient structural aspect that is necessary for the identification of failures that happened within the system. The problems were past the dilapidated infrastructure of the schools as well as teachers who were paid poorly. The Kansas City District Education Board did not work efficiently because it did not discover ways that could be used so as to identify the channels that schools would have used in contributing to the achievement and moral of students. More than $2 billion was channeled into the KCDPS and it did not bear fruits because there was no increase in students’ enrollment as expected. Actually, there has been a continuation of increased cases of indiscipline among minority students within the schools. This further put the white students away from these schools. Several teachers note that administrative support lacks when dealing with cases of indiscipline in the schools. Clearly, the management system in the district schools does not have appropriate measures for guiding teachers on the best way to handle cases of indiscipline in schools.
Consequently, structural failure in the chain of leadership can be seen as the main reason why performance has been declining among the students in these schools. The education board failed because it did not identify the appropriate methods of dealing with the students in motivational ways in order to enhance their success. Instead, the high funding that has been channeled toward increasing the salaries of the teachers has not born fruits. Perhaps, structural failure has made devising methods that would enhance performance difficult. Apparently, there is a problem on the way teachers handle students. The contribution of all stakeholders towards success is required in public management.
The way people relate among themselves and with those outside the institution is defined by their culture. As such, effectiveness in public management as well as administration can largely be influenced by culture (Lynn and Hill 67). A clear fact is that the society of Kansas City is culturally diverse. It has the whites as well as the minority races. There are whites and minority Latinos and Blacks in these schools and they all learn in similar environments. Education stakeholders within this district have not considered culture as an aspect that can be causing system failure. Instead, they have previously been concerned about increasing funding in order to enhance infrastructure so as to attract more white students after they fled to schools in the other districts in search of quality education.
The Kansas City District Education Board should have been concerned about white students fleeing in the 80s. The desire of the parents of these students was to have a system for education that provides their children a competitive advantage over other districts. Nevertheless, financial constraints may have been the reason why minorities did not transfer their children to the other schools. It is worth mentioning that more than $2 billion funding channeled in the education system in the Kansas District did not bear fruits due to lack of comprehension of cultural factors that affected educational performance. There is a large minority students’ population in this district than that of white students. This might be contributing to the perennial decline in educational performance in the district.
Social disintegration is currently increasing in minority families within the US. This is also a factor that could be contributing to the problem of the education system in Kansas City. Majority of families in the district have a single parent. They also do not have appropriate social orientation which could guide students about the way they should conduct themselves. As such, most students are victims of indiscipline cases since they do not have role models back at home. Focused students are known to avoid activities that are likely to affect their dreams negatively. Instead, they work hard so that they can achieve their dreams in life. There are clear cultural variations between races and they should be considered while devising the right teaching methods to ensure that all students benefit. Failure to be sensitive to culture has made several students to transfer from this district to the schools in the other districts where performance is better. There has been a three-point variation in score of the black and white students for some time now. This shows that for the gap to be bridged there is something that stakeholders should do. It is also vital to point out that minority students drop-out has been increasing even with strategies for attracting more students being implemented.
Additionally, it appears like educators within the schools in Kansas City have been resigned to accept that there are students who are broken to a level where they cannot be assisted. Cultural shift is required for educators in the schools in order to enable them to handle indiscipline cases. The main problem is that in their attempt to assist these students, educators use punishment only. Leaders in public management are required to handle problems with an aim of helping the victims. Thus, punishment is not an ideal approach for enhancing academic standards in the district. The methods that were used earlier in an attempt to enhance education included building better facilities for schools and renovating old schools, funding the system, changing the system and increasing the salaries of teachers. These have not been effective in improving students’ performance and attracting more students.
It is apparent that a cultural perspective has not been considered in approaching poor performance. This indicates why the past strategies have failed to improve the situation. Instead, white students who the stakeholders expected to return to the schools never came back. This increased problems because minority students always consider this as racism. Cultural shift ought to include a mechanism for encouraging students to remain focused in their life regardless of their background culturally. There is prejudice among educators which led to inadequate measures that would assist minority students in setting goals that would enhance their achievement. As such, these schools require reformation so that they can be institutions that enable students to learn how to improve themselves every day.
Discipline is a virtue that is learnt and acquired progressively or gradually. As such, education stakeholders ought to ensure that cultural awareness as a vital aspect improves educational performance among the students. Learners vary in several aspects with some being able to handle situations better than others. Children who live with better parents who serve as their role models are able to learn morals easily at school. These are among the factors that have led to KCPS students’ failure over time. Cultural approach seems like the major aspect that can change the expectations and attitude of the students towards life forever.
Public managers have a responsibility of making decisions that can solve problems in their jurisdictions. For this to be realized, clear comprehension of what takes place within public arenas is required. Comprehension assists in setting goals and formulating plans for achieving them in a timely manner (Lynn and Hill 3). If public managers do not understand what they should do at the time of difficulties, they fail to provide appropriate leadership. Managers ought to work and lead against odds while making appropriate decisions in solving problems when they occur. In the past years, Kansas City District Schools’ leadership has tried to devise measures for helping the situation. Nevertheless, this has not helped in improving the situation. This is due to several factors with lack of comprehension being one of them. This is why the leadership has taken wrong approaches which have made achieving positive results difficult.
For certain goals to be achieved, the whole team should be coordinated properly so that it can have a direction regarding what to adapt and implement. The past leadership has recorded big failures in the administration of education system in Kansas City District. In 1985, Judge Clark became the management leader. He depended on State and Federal funding incentives in boosting education. He argued that channeling more money into the education system was an ideal solution that would help in attracting students back to the schools. This did not change the education system so that the white people can consider it relevant and modern. The existing infrastructures of the schools were renovated. To attract more students, the district built new schools. Eventually, this district had the finest facilities and its education system was funded the most as compared to those of other districts in the U.S. Salaries of the teachers were also increased by 40%. Majority of the teachers were ill-trained and paying them as per their performance became the most ideal option.
The excess spending in the public education was opposed by many critics. Nevertheless, the argument of proponents was that trying this was worth in order to find out the results. As such, the notion that emerges is that this was being done as an experiment whose aim was to establish whether increasing funding can enhance school performance. Clark also asked administrators in all schools in Kansas District to list things that their institutions needed. It is vital to note that the cost of these things was high and people had to be over taxed in order to fund these plans (Wilson 20). Despite all this, expected results were never realized. There was no improvement in the students’ score and drop out increased among the minority students than before.
Apparently, the approaches that education managers within the district have taken have not helped in improving the situation. Before the appointment of Judge Clark in 1985, a system that would pay teachers on the basis of results and qualifications was proposed by some stakeholders. Giving school administrators targets was another aspect. According to this aspect, the administrators would be penalized if they did not hit the targets. The aim of these proposals was to enhance accountability among education managers in the district so as to enhance students’ performance.
However, the proposals were rejected by Judge Clark and increased funding was chosen. This indicates that the craft approach as a factor is important in bringinmg outcomes within the public sector. Increased funding combined with incentives are wrong strategies that would not solve problems. In public management, accountability has to be an integral aspect. Judge Clark feared rubbing the others in a wrong way and therefore he did not do the necessary. He did not lay off incompetent teachers in order to hire qualified teachers for better results to be produced.
Strategy towards Addressing Problem
For the current situation of the education system in Kansas District to be changed, radical changes are required in order to ensure accountability among education stakeholders. This implies that the system for public management has to be restructured for an environment in which school communities have more authority in tackling problems to be established (Lynn and Hill 392). In addition, the education system should have the ability to serve various needs of the students without using ineffective rules. More importantly, schools’ operation should differ from those of non-profit organizations.
There should be smaller entities called the Community Schools Office (CSO) in the administration. These will be responsible for coordinating activities like transportation, school facilities’ maintenance and admission. The District Administration is responsible for such tasks currently. In addition to these, setting individual schools’ targets is the most vital task. Non-profit entities with the capability to achieve the targets that the school administration sets should run the schools (Wilson 23). Nevertheless, this is not to imply privatization of public schools in Kansas District. It simply means that they will be run by appointed operators so as to raise education standards. Several private operators such as Lincoln Prep and Academia Lafayette have succeeded in several schools in Kansas City. Success implies elevation of status in order to increase students’ enrollment. Otherwise, the schools that record continued failure have to close down or be used for other purposes. Students in Kansas District ought to be allowed to choose their preferred school.
In a nutshell, it is clear that establishing a system for public management for addressing real issues ought to be left to lower level hierarchy in leadership (Lynn and Hill 393). This way, accountability will be made integral to public management of the education system in Kansas City District. This matter has never been addressed by the previous strategies and this has caused the failure of the entire system. Nevertheless, the craft, cultural and structural approaches by Lynn and Hill can help in solving problems of the education system in Kansas City District. There are different ways that will be used by the system to motivate students by addressing their needs while enabling them to work on their future.
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Lynn, Laurence & Hill, Caroline. Public Management: A Three-Dimensional Approach, New
York: CQ Press, 2009. Print.
Wilson, James. Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It, New York:
Basic Books, 1989. Print.
Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
The responsibilities and workloads of nursing are intensified by the worldwide healthcare systems’ transformations. Today, nurses are responsible for handling emergent challenges and complexities of the healthcare situations. Despite these problems, nurses have to continually preserve and exercise caring practices so as to sustain and enhance quality performance. Watson’s theory has principles about human caring and these provide vital insights regarding the way desirable performance can be upheld by nurses.
In practical application, the important elements of Watson’s theory facilitate professional performance enhancement and values’ application. Watson (2009) in a review shows that caring as a concept is important while practicing nursing. The theoretical guidelines of Watson allow nurses to provide care and compassion to the patients while eliminating suffering and pain, attaining dignified and sustained healing as well as fostering individual actualization among the nurses. Simply put, these principles help in defining nursing profession as well as giving it a unique or distinctive meaning.
The Caring Moment Conception
Watson (2009) in a review gives the definition of caring moment. He defines it as the specific occasion both in time and space that allows nurses as well as other individuals to come together or to interact in a way that enables them to achieve a state of desirable human caring. The belief of this conception is that although the parties come from varying fields with varied and unique characteristics, they can interact successfully in human-to-human manner. In such a case, the individuals ideally exhibit different feelings, bodily sensations, thoughts, expectations, spiritual beliefs, environmental considerations and individual meanings. The characteristics that precede the situation are complex. The previous history of a person in life, present moment and imagined future influence these characteristics. For a nursing experience that is more satisfying to be achieved on the basis of caring, inherent differences should be reconciled. Nurses are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that all differences that can undermine provision of quality healthcare are properly and effectively handled or addressed.
Caring moment provides a chance for practitioners to practice their competencies and skills with maximum efficiency. It also ensures that nursing practice benefits the patients optimally. As such, Watson (2006) gives an explanation for a caring moment to be ideal both parties have to contribute incredibly towards its creation and sustenance. The choices and actions made by individuals during this moment influence the shape and outcome of the whole process. Both parties are enabled to protect this initiative as well as to take measures that are practical in relation to realizing optimal benefits by intrinsic ownership of actions and ideas. On the basis of the critical openness principle, this goes across individual boundaries while encouraging human capabilities’ expansion (Nelson, 2011).
The Human Caring Model
Watson (2009) note that the model for human caring has carative factors, relations for transpersonal caring and caring occasion. Carative factors play an important role of enabling the nurses to respect and honor human dimensions while performing their duties. They provide vital guidelines which professionals use in exploring the patients’ inner lives and subjective experiences and also to attain the desirable results. Principally, the need to offer special attention as well as love guides them while practicing nursing. These comprises of ten elements which are hope and faith, a system for humanistic and altruistic value, transpersonal education, sensitivity to self and others, creative resolution of a problem, feelings expression, needs assistance of human, protective, supportive and corrective environment, trustworthy and helpful relationship as well as the divine forces for existential-phenomenology (Carusa, Cisar & Pipe, 2008).
Watson (2006) observes that the relation for transpersonal caring as a component is also important in nursing. This expresses nurses’ commitment to protecting and enhancing human wellbeing as well as deeper self dignity. Nurses via this relationship communicate caring consciousness in relation to respecting or honoring the embodied spirit. Nurses are prohibited by this principle from reducing themselves or patients to mere moral objects.
Additionally, this connection motivates nurses so that they can be conscious while offering care that heals their patients. Exercising nursing, perception and intentional connection makes this attainable. It is apparent at this juncture that this relationship allows nursing professionals to do more than clinical evaluation so that they can explore subjective as well as deeper meanings that any healthcare situation gives. Despite both parties being distinctive, they accept mutuality in order to get meaning as well as wholeness and also to eliminate suffering. According to Sitzman and Watson (2013), transpersonal relationship facilitates the enhancement, preservation and protection of the dignity, wholeness, inner harmony and humanity of a person.
Improving the Caring Occasion
Both the nursing practitioner and the patient consider a caring moment as a very important moment. As such, nurses should take appropriate measures in order to improve it. They can achieve this goal in different ways. Improving practitioner and patient education can help in improving this moment. This can specifically be attained through engagement in different teaching and learning experiences that are aimed at promoting harmony within the boundary limits. Apart from knowledge enhancement for the nurse and patient, both parties are empowered by this practice and it hastens the personal healing process.
Nelson (2011) observes that several activities can lead to the attainment of this objective by nurses. These include listening to the experiences of the patients actively to help them understand their illnesses better. Additionally, learning from patients first would be important in order to understand their viewpoints before sharing experiences as well as providing important alternatives and tools that can be used to assist them. As such, speaking calmly and respecting the patients’ views as well as paying attention to this moment gives the desirable results (Nelson, 2011).
The Caring Occasion in Nursing
According to Adeline (2000), caring takes place each time a nurse interacts with patients. Nurses are able to enter into the world of the patient literarily and to understand it due to these relationships. Although healing or curing can occur, caring makes it easier for nurses to perform their duties. It provides a chance for appreciating the dignity and worth of their patients. In different terms, it enables nurses to acknowledge patients’ humanistic attributes and to be committed to assisting them achieve healing. It can be argued that the belief that patients have that nurses will always care for them provides the healing hope. Watson (2009) in his study shows that hope and commitment are vital elements of caring. Patients think positively due to hope and they also believe in a living possibility. They are optimistic throughout the painful moment with the hope of recovering even when facing the risk of death. Through respect for the optimism of patients and caring, nurses support patients until they get healed. To nurses, patients are complete and whole humans. Within their soul, body and mind, patients are at peace.
Application of Watson’s Carative Factors
The carative factors of Watson were useful in different ways during caring moment. To keep the patient hopeful, the nurse paid attention and listened to the stories and narrations of the patient. This was achieved by honoring or respecting the patient’s belief system which enabled the patient to have faith and hope. This created several self-reflection opportunities and an opportunity that the practitioner used to encourage his patient to continue living. The nurse called the patient by his name during this moment. This enabled him to perceive the patient as human rather than an object.
Responding to individual feelings and needs of a patient made it possible for the nurse to establish a caring, trustworthy and helpful environment (Watson, 2009). In this regard, specific activities such as practicing self-reflection, encouraging self and others forgiveness, showing interest in the condition of the patient and establishing meaningful rituals for encouraging practicing gratitude, surrender and compassion. This led to sensitivity cultivation in both the patient and practitioner.
Developing a trusting and helping relationship on the basis of human caring principles is very important (Watson, 2006). This was attained by the nurse through the establishment of a trustworthy environment for the patient, family members and the team that was providing healthcare. Unconditional love for others was particularly practiced by the nurse. The nurse was open and sensitive while addressing different concerns. The nurse also avoided judging others while promoting direct, respectful and constructive communication. He also sought clarification when necessary. These activities helped in the cultivation of objectivity and confidence more so in making decisions.
Finally, the nurse was able to accept and promote expressions of positive and negative feelings by establishing caring environments which supported spiritual growth. The nurse achieved this by letting the patient narrate individual stories as well as reflect on their feelings and experiences. By praying constantly with patients, the practitioner was able to appreciate spirituality role as well as its influence on the process of healing. The nurse also encouraged patients through advice so that they can consider their illness from its positive aspects rather than the negative aspects. Essentially, the nurse assisted patients in devising viable approaches for handling negative feelings whose effects were far reaching on their healing process and health.
The patient’s illness may not be cured by the caring occasion directly. However, it contributes to the inner healing as well as the reconciliation of the mind, soul and body of a patient. It also encourages the improvement of nursing practice and this makes it more satisfying. The model for human caring encompasses three important elements. These are caring occasion, carative factors and transpersonal caring. Caring interactions enable nurses to exercise values as well as to go past the main objective which is to assess the disease of the patient. They enter the worlds of the patients. The carative factors’ underlying principles enable the nurses to engage in rewarding and sustainable healthcare practices. The preceding review has indicated that carative factors’ specific application in nursing practice improves efficiency while enabling the practitioners to address different challenges with maximum effectiveness.
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Adeline, R. (2000). Watson’s philosophy, science, and theory of human caring as a conceptual framework for guiding community health nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 23 (2), 34-49.
In his research, Adeline (2000) provides an in depth exploration of Watson’s theory of human caring. He begins by explaining all the constituents clearly. He believes that relative principles are imperative in community based nursing as they enable practitioners to execute their duties with ease. Besides the conceptual framework, the author details the theorist’s philosophy and explains how it relates to the field of nursing.
Caruso, E., Cisar, N. & Pipe, T. (2008). Creating a healing environment: An innovative educational approach for adopting Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 32 (2), 126.
Curaso, Cisar and Pipe (2008) assert that patient’s recovery depends directly on the conditions that the practitioners provide. According to them, the principles of Watson’s theory present important fundamentals of nursing. They insist that nursing education should be based on these principles because they are consistent with the relative objectives.
Nelson, J. (2011). Measuring caring: The next frontier in understanding workforce performance and patient outcomes. Nursing Economics, 29 (4), 215-219.
Based on empirical research, Nelson (2011) found that caring is an important benchmark for measuring work force performance in the field of nursing. The author indicates that the values and principles that caring advocates for are in line with the nursing practice. This reading was considered for this study because of the credible contributions that it makes to this field of specification. The statistical evidence played a leading role in decision making with respect to the importance of the caring conception.
Sitzman K. & Watson, J. (2013). Caring science, mindful practice: Implementing Watson’s human caring theory. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
In their research, Sitzman and Watson (2013) detail the application of Watson’s model in clinical practice. They present practical ways through which nursing professionals can apply the concepts during the execution of their duties. This reading is informative with regard to how nurses can utilize theoretical knowledge.
Watson, J. (2006). Caring as an ethical guide to administrative and clinical practices. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 30 (1), 48-55.
In this consultative review, Watson (2006) maintains that caring is an important aspect of nursing. Besides explaining the key concepts, he explores the principles, values and behaviors that constitute caring. In addition, he explains how these can be applied in professional ethics. It is for this reason that the study was considered vital for this research.
Watson, J. (2009).Caring science and human caring theory: transforming personal and professional practices of nursing and health care. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 31 (4), 466-482.
Watson (2009) indicates that caring is a humanistic science in the field of nursing. In this particular study, he demonstrates how nurses can utilize the human caring theory to enhance their output and attain high level efficiency. He believes that the caring concept is essential for realization of important nursing goals. Most importantly, he recommends that relative principles can transform the entire healthcare sector positively
Messaging While Driving
Messing or texting behaviors behind the wheel have become increasingly common amongst drivers in modern society. This has consequently contributed a great deal to texting related to accidents. Additionally, the number of subscribers using different mobile phones has increased in the past years, for instance in the US, there were almost 302.9 million wireless subscribers by December 2010, which is an increase from 100 million subscriptions within four years.
Therefore, it doesn’t come as a surprise that the gadgets are quite ambiguous in the country hence, corresponding messaging behaviors. Such habits are also known to be leading causes of distractions amongst drivers thus leading to car crash deaths. When distracted, the lives of people in the cars are endangered, lives are also destroyed and injuries are caused to the driver, passenger and other road users.
Distraction is a broad aspect including diversion of the attention of the driver from the significant role of driving to other things temporarily thus affecting his or her decision making, awareness as well as performance. Such issues have also raised a lot of concern on road user’s safety both in government, general public and other stakeholders.
For this reason, many states are implementing new laws designed to curb such risky habits amongst drivers and enhancing safety on the road.
Texting while driving is increasingly becoming an issue of concern amongst different stakeholders including the general public and the government. This is primarily based on the fact that such behaviors are known to cause distractions amongst drivers especially when it comes to their decision making and their attention on the road. The distractions indeed are highly associated with high number of road accidents meaning the issue is also threatening the safety of our roads.
Given such conditions, injuries and death rates as a result of road carnages have been increasing by the day. Therefore, this research will help to analyze issues linked to increased road accidents as a result of texting behind the wheel.
This research aims at investigating messaging issue while driving to offer solid and essential details to the people in regards to the dangers involved. Creating awareness will be the most ideal way of finding a solution to the menace since with proper awareness; the people will be able to make informed decisions when driving.
This research will additionally help to offer a clear response to the research question on texting while driving related risks. The paper will additionally demonstrate how messaging while driving increases accident risks by stating facts based on existing information showing how such behaviors on the road have been fatal and quite destructive. The information will offer substantial details that will benefit road users and transport industry stakeholders for them to generate new measures and strategies for curbing the menace.
Central Research Question
This paper will be based on research question
Does texting behind the wheel endanger the lives of road users via road accidents?
This question will act as a guide to the researcher on the major features that this research will focus. The research question in other words helps to define the scope of the research by analyzing reasons behind such behaviors. Different approaches will be utilized in generating an answer to the question including a comprehensive literature review demonstrating the present state of research issue.
Additionally, the researcher will employ a qualitative approach in generating useful data to be used in answering the question and offering proper understanding on to what level or extent such behaviors are considered detrimental to safety of road users. This research question will further guide the study in determining the relationship between texting behind the wheel and road accidents.
This study will be based on the following hypotheses
- All kinds of distractions amongst drivers pose a lot of risk to all road users including pedestrians, passengers, the driver and bystanders. The hypotheses are also based on the fact that the behavior distracts the attention of the driver both in the brain and hand such that the person will not be able to act swiftly in the event of emergency or dangerous situations.
- The use of gadgets that do not permit texting behind the wheel amongst drivers can help reduce road carnage risks. Such gadgets can take a design that doesn’t permit the use of mobile phones for instance texting or calling when the car is in motion.
- Effective and ideal channels should be employed in communicating messaging while driving related risks. For example, the media can use campaigns aimed at warning drivers among other related parties on the dangers of such habits using video clips and banners among such tools.
Clarification of Terminologies
This means the diversification of a driver’s attention from driving since he or she is concentrating temporarily on another thing for example an event, object, a person or other tasks that are not related to driving. This consequently reduces the decision making ability of the driver, performance and awareness on the road thus increasing chances of road accidents.
Assumptions that may Bias the Research
This research will be based on the notion that many drivers are more likely to text than any other kind of distraction behind the wheel. The notion will be useful in emphasizing the most common type of distraction on the road and in this case, messaging. Additionally there are other distractors that drivers are prone including hand free calls but in this case, it is presumed that drivers often text while driving.
The notion is additionally based on the fact that the paper will focus on determining the extent to which messaging interrupts the attention of a driver and its subsequent effects. The assumption will additionally be instrumental since the impact of messaging behind the wheel cannot be solely based on the growing number of road accidents.
Additionally, many are accidents are caused by other things including lack of proper experience, drinking, carelessness and lack of driving skills. The assumption is therefore very crucial when ensuring the researcher needs ideal research findings.
The increasing concerns on interruptions on drivers have occurred as a result of increasing road accidents caused by such things. There are various factors that have been closely associated with driver’s interruptions while on the road even though not quite prevalent compared to messaging. Such distractions have been noted to cause many accidents since they lead to lack of concentration or focus by the drivers.
Messaging while behind the wheel is additionally known to be unsafe habit since it is a considerable source of interruption for many drivers (Robertson et al, 2013). It is therefore essential in this case to determine the reason as to why drivers are interrupted by such texting habits. Generally, humans are serial processors of information. This means that such people cannot multitask. This assumption as a result rules out the idea of multitasking since people quickly change their attention from one part to the other across other roles on the belief that they can multitask.
However in real sense, this is not the case and any efforts to multitask often leads to minimal attention to other tasks. Robertson et al (2013) therefore noted that processing of information is quite significant in driving since it is an act that involves ‘divided attention’, a task that also includes a lot of interruptions with the manual, cognitive and visual components.
The attention moreover that the driver must accord to driving is often based on driving experience, the complexity of driving as well as driving experience.
Robertson et al (2013) stated that:
…inexperienced drivers must consciously focus more on remaining within their
Lane, whereas for experienced drivers this is very reflexive. An inexperienced driver, particularly one who is driving a technologically complex car, has to focus far more on controls and systems than someone who is familiar with the vehicle. (p.2)
Texting while driving, therefore, is a great distraction that can lead to fatal consequences.
For instance in 2010, interruption of drivers was found to be the leading cause of up to 18percent of fatal cases killing approximately 3092 people and causing up to 416000 injuries. When using mobile phones to text behind the wheel is additionally quite dangerous since they cause cognitive, visual and manual interruptions. Messaging causes diverted attention on the side of the driver from the driving itself as well as hands from the wheel.
Such interruptions are particularly common amongst young drivers or people (Farris, 2011). In real sense, many teenagers also die on the road because of texting related behaviors since they are drunk while driving. Research also reveals that up to 40 percent of American teens say that they have travelled in vehicles where the driver uses a mobile device in an inappropriate manner thus exposing them to a lot of danger.
An average teenager texting in the US sends and receives more than 3000 texts on monthly basis. Adult drivers also face distractions and dangers from such habits when on the wheel. Even so, the interruption may not be quite dominant as it is the case amongst young drivers (Farris, 2011). Teenagers in addition have a habit of engaging in activities on their devices that expose them to a lot of risks compared to adult drivers.
Trends noted amongst teenagers as a result show clearly that they are exposed to a lot of danger compared to adults. With growing numbers of teenagers using mobile phones, this also raises alarm on their safety on the road as well as that of other road users.
It is therefore essential to note that texting behind the wheel causes 23percent more times worse compared to uninterrupted form of driving. Similarly, about 11 percent of drivers are teenagers between the ages of 18 and 20 years and the get involved in road accidents but lucky to survive in the event of sending or receiving messages during the accident.
The driver’s diverted attention from the road when using mobile phones often takes about 5 seconds. For example, if the driver is travelling at 55 miles per hour, they would cover the same distance without interruption for 5 seconds, perhaps, the distance of a football field (Codey, 2013). This consequently means that the interruption time is often compromised.
Past research studies further reveal that messaging while driving subjects a driver to more cases of swerving the car in the wrong direction, into other lanes and other cases, the driver can move close to other cars compared to drivers who are driving under the influence of marijuana or alcohol. The driver, passengers, motorists and other road users therefore are exposed to a lot of danger by a driver who is distracted (Codey, 2013).
Therefore, distracted kind of driving has been an issue of great concern despite having licensed drivers who understand and admit that it is extremely risky to use mobile gadgets behind the wheel since they pose a lot of danger to the safety of a person. The risk is additionally becoming worse as time goes by following the ever growing technological advancements that allow people to utilize their smart phones and other devices to text, make social media updates and to chat.
What’s more, a large number of licensed and authorized drivers have admitted engaging in risky acts such as texting. According to Codey (2013), despite the global disapproval of mailing or messaging when behind the wheel, many drivers are still known to have read, sent or typed a message or an email while driving.
This study will utilize qualitative method in carrying out the research as its most ideal case study methodology. The approach will be efficient in offering more understanding to the issue in question within the area of study (texting while driving), thus, playing a crucial role in enhancing the already existing literature or study.
The case study is additionally a qualitative research approach that helps researchers to evaluate modern real life situations while offering an ideal platform for ideas application. In this case, application of the case study methodology will focus more on evaluating the situation of messaging while behind the wheel in a given region. The study in our case will also focus on assessing and evaluation the research issue, which in our case; the study is being carried out in New York, US. The geographical region selection will also be useful in determining the situation at hand thus getting the most ideal picture of the research issue.
Even so, the study will utilize secondary and primary data in seeking the ideal answer to the research question. The primary data will also be collected via interviews with chosen sample from New York drivers while secondary details will also be collected from books, articles and journals among other secondary sources. Such secondary sources will also be achieved online while others from the libraries.
Secondary sources have been partly used in generating literature review in the study proposal. The gathered information also demonstrates dangers of road users as a result of messaging behaviors that have become quite rampant. Primary data will also be gathered via in-depth interviews. The information plays a crucial role in enhancing secondary information. Therefore, the interviews will be the most significant data collection tools for primary information.
The data collection tool will also be efficient in getting the real scenario on the ground since it will help the interviewer to focus deep into the subject of interest while exploring more into real research issue. The researcher will additionally use 100 participants as sample including drivers selected randomly between the ages of 15 to 50 years.
The process of data collection will also take up to a month and to enhance data collection comprehensively in make general the results across the entire population. Interviews will also employ an open ended approach for flexibility purposes. The design will also enable the researcher to develop more sub questions as a way of getting more elaborate details from research respondents. The interview question will further focus on use of mobile phones while driving.
|1Month||Developing & presenting the research proposal for approval|
|2Month||Visiting the field of study and gathering data|
|1Month||Analyzing the data|
|1Week||Presenting the report|
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Codey, R. (2013). The Fata Dangers of Texting while Driving. Retrieved from http://www.njspotlight.com/stories/13/12/26/the-fatal-dangers-of-texting-while-driving/
Farris, A. (2011). LOL? Texting while Driving is no Laughing Matter: Proposing a Coordinated Response to Curb this Dangerous Activity. Journal of Law & Policy, 36(233):233-259.
Robertson, R., Mayhew, D., Brown, S., & Valaar, W. (2013). Driver Distraction and Hands-Free Texting while Driving. Traffic Injury Research Foundation, 1(1):1-10.