The Main Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education Across The World
Education is one of the most valued investments in the world. Parents and governments prepare children and youth to begin their own lives and settle into good careers that can them high incomes by offering them quality education. Access of education is however influenced by many factors. Additionally, the quality of education can also be affected by the same factors. This paper examines the socio economic factors that affect education across the world.
Level of family incomes
The level of income disposable to a family is pertinent factor that affects both the access and quality of education. In fact, research shows that children from low income family backgrounds tend to face more obstacles in accessing quality education.
On the other hand, families with high incomes are able to afford quality educational opportunities for their children. These families can also invest in supplementary educational materials such as books and other gadgets as well as pay for tutors to help the children enhance their learning skills. Nevertheless there are children who have come out from poor backgrounds and used this to fuel their ambitions and get out of poverty.
The education level of parents
When parents are well educated they tend to desire the same for their children. This is because they can relate to the opportunities that high quality education brings. Such parents tend to invest heavily in the education of their children. They can go to great extents to ensure that these children get the best education.
In addition to providing learning opportunities, well educated parents are also stricter about educational activities. These parents are always keen to follow up on homework and guide their young ones on how to go about school work. In the long run, such parents keep their children focused on education and help them define appropriate educational and career goals.
Parents who are less educated may have a different perspective of education. Apart from being unable to provide their children with proper learning opportunities, these parents may also be less involved in their children’s educational activities. Despite these linkages, research has shown that parents who may have good education but struggled in academic activities may not offer much educational guidance to their children.
In most countries gender has had a major influence on both access and the quality of education. In the olden days, female learners were almost nonexistent and those who were there had a different curriculum from their male counterparts. The female learners were supposed to be home makers and were thus taught subjects that would mould them into fitting in these roles. On their part, males were supposed to embrace tougher subjects to match their high place in society. This has changed with time and many societies now provide equal opportunities for both boys and girls.
Gender prejudices still occur in the education sector and are more prevalent towards girls than boys. However, there have been cases of gender prejudices against males in certain rare cases. For instance in Lesotho the literacy rates of girls is much higher than that of boys because the males are forced to look after cattle while females go to school.
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Defining Important Socio Economic Factors Affecting Businesses Today
Socio economic factors are important characteristics which mostly influence consumers. These factors are associated with the quality of life and determine the behaviors, tastes, preferences, attitudes and lifestyles of people living within a society.
Socio economic factors have a high impact on businesses, whether big or small. This is because the consumers are often at the heart of businesses and tend to affect growth of all ventures. There are many socio economic factors that business persons need to look out for in order to excel and compete effectively in an ever changing market.
Income capacity of consumers determines how much they can spend on certain products. If citizens in a country have access to high incomes from employment and personal business ventures, then they are more likely to spend on luxurious products. This is because they can easily afford the products and also have a taste for good things. On the other hand, low income earners may not be able to afford basic commodities, let alone the luxurious products. The struggle to meet their basic needs may blind these consumers from purchasing luxurious products.
It is thus essential for a business person to consider the income capacities of the consumers before setting up the business. This factor should affect where the entrepreneur sets up shop and the target clients he chooses. For high end products, an entrepreneur should look for a shop in an up market area with access to high income earners. For basic commodities, an entrepreneur should look for cheap suppliers and set up shop near the low income earners.
The occupation of consumers is largely related to the income they earn. Low skilled laborers who work in menial jobs cannot earn the same as corporate managers. The differences in occupations more often than not determine the income gaps of the consumers.
As an entrepreneur you must carry out research on the occupations of your consumers. This should influence your decision to venture into certain businesses with a specific target at consumers who have good occupations or lowly jobs.
Education levels influence the type of occupation a person can get and ultimately their income level. Consumers with higher education tend to be skilled and also have better jobs and incomes as compared to those without education. Education is determined by the opportunities presented to the consumers and can influence how much a consumer can afford.
In addition to this, the educated consumers have different tastes for products as compared to the uneducated ones. The educated consumers are not only more conscious about the contents of products but may also come off as demanding as compared to the less educated ones. An entrepreneur may have to work harder to fulfill the demands of these consumers as compared to when dealing with less educated folk who are less demanding.
Economic growth and development of a country can also have an impact on the social status of its citizens. Emerging economies such as China and India have proved that if a country experiences high economic growth then the citizens may have better access to incomes and also the middle class and upper class may grow. This may also attract more investors into the country and increase employment rates. Inevitably positive economic growth rates will increase spending and help businesses to grow.
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Essential Economic Factors Affecting Growth and Development
Growth and development of an economy is always a matter of high importance. Every country works hard to ensure that its economy achieves growth and development. There are many factors that affect growth and development. These may range from social, political and economic amongst other things. This paper examines the main economic factors that may affect the growth and development in a country.
Interest rate is usually determined by market trends and governments. Banks cannot just change interest rates on their own intuit because they have to abide by a country’s policies and stick to the margins of interest rates given. This economic factor is very important when considering the aspect of growth and development.
When interest rates are high, the investors do not have access to easy capital. Those who own businesses may also hesitate to borrow money for expansion projects and also cut down on innovations and production. This ultimately affects business growth rate in the country and has a ripple effect on the economic growth and development.
Low interest rates tend to be more favorable to borrowers and they open a myriad of opportunities to citizens of a country. This often results in high business activity due to easy access to capital and also more cases of expansion. In the long run low interest rates may have a positive impact on employment rates in a country because more businesses will require more employees.
Foreign exchange rate
There are certain currencies which are held in high value and can greatly influence the economic growth and development of every country across the world. The major currency which is carefully monitored across the world is the United States Dollar. Other currencies that may have an impact on economic growth and development include:
- The European Euro
- The Japanese yen
- The British Pound
- The Chinese Yuan
These currencies are monitored because of their economic power and potential effect they may have in the world economic market. When the value of the dollar falls, exports from US to foreign economies become cheaper while imports from these economies into the US become more expensive. This may increase demand for the US products abroad.
The GDP growth rate of any country always impacts on its economic growth and development. A positive growth in GDP tends to have positive impact on the economy because it attracts investors into the country. This in turn increases employment rates in the country and also consumption rate of local citizens. A fall in the GDP levels of a country may not only impact on investment but also reduces spending capacity of the citizens.
The economic policies that a government undertakes can also affect the growth and development rates of a country. If a country chooses to implement sound macroeconomic policies it can experience rapid economic growth. Microeconomic policies have been known to create bureaucracies and create room for corruption and rent seeking. Ultimately, a country has to carry out research and tailor its policies to the economic needs it faces. There must be in place monitoring and evaluation institutions to ensure that the chosen policies are implemented successfully.
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Transition economies refer to economies which are changing from a centrally planned economy to one of market economy. Since communism collapse in the late 1980s countries of former Soviet Union as well as all satellite states such as Hungary, Bulgaria and Poland sought to embrace capitalism and they abandoned central planning.
Transition economies often undergo structural transformations which are intended to assist in the development of institutions that are market based. Some of these include economic liberation where market forces are used to set prices rather than by central planning organizations.
Trade barriers are also removed in transition economies as there is a push to:
- Privatize resources and enterprises that are privately owned
- Restructure collectively and state run enterprises as businesses
- Create a financial sector to facilitate macroeconomic stabilization as well as movement of private capital.
Transition economies have been applied in China, Eastern bloc countries of Europe, some Third World countries, and former Soviet Union. There is also detailed work which has been undertaken on the social and economic effects of such transition.
Transition is often characterized by change and creation of institutions especially private enterprises, change in state role which fundamentally create different government institutions and promote enterprises that are privately owned.
Main ingredients needed in transition economies include the following:
- Institutional and legal reforms-There should be a redefining of state role in such economies in order to establish rule of law and also introduce appropriate competition policies.
- Privatization and restructuring- Creation of a financial sector that is viable and reforming enterprises that already exist in the economies undergoing a transition in order to render them capable of production of goods that can be sold in free markets. This also aids in transferring ownership into private hands.
- Liberalization-Transition process allows most of the prices to be established in free markets and lowers trade barriers that shut off contacts
- Macroeconomic stabilization- Brings inflation under control and lowers it over certain duration especially after the initial burst of inflation which is followed by liberalization and pent up demand.
There are certain problems which arise as a result of transition economies and some of these include increasing unemployment, rising inflation, lack of infrastructure, corruption, lack of entrepreneurship, moral hazards, inequality and lack of sophisticated legal systems. It is ideal to note that most of the transition economies often face severe short term difficulties as well as long term constraints especially on development.
There are different transition processes that are characterized by creating and changing of institutions especially private enterprises. Because of the different initial conditions that need to be followed during the emerging transition process, it has to be planned and different countries use varying transition models.
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Irish Potato famine
The Irish potato famine started mysteriously in September 1845 with the leaves of the plant suddenly turning black and curled then rotting. It was seemingly as a result of a fog wafting across the Ireland fields. However, the actual cause was an airborne fungus (pytophthora infestans) transported in the hold of ships that were traveling from North America to England.
The virus was carried by winds from southern England to the Ireland countryside around Dublin. The spread of the blight was so fast and it rapidly spread through the entire fields in the form of fungal spores that settled on the leaves of potato plants that were healthy.
The spores multiplied then they were carried in millions by the cool breezes that surrounded the plants. Under moist ideal conditions, single infected potato plants infected thousands more within a couple of days. The plants attacked fermented while providing the fungus with the nourishment it needed in order to survive.
As the plants blackened, the emitted a nauseous stench then withered leaving the Irish farmers disbelieving. Note that previously, the farmers had experienced crop failures as a result of poor weather and other diseases.
However, the new failure was strange and unlike anything they had ever seen. Potatoes that were dug from the ground looked as if they were edible at first but then, they would shrivel and rot in a matter of days. By October 1845, the news of the blight had spread to London and the British Prime
Minister then, Sir Robert Peel established a scientific commission to look into the problem. After looking at the situation for a while, the commission issues a gloomy report which indicated that half of the potato crop in Ireland might go to waste as a result of ‘wet rot’
Famine fever, dysentery, typhus, dysentery, cholera and scurvy as well as infestations of lice spread throughout the entire Irish countryside. Observers made reports of children crying because of pain and resembling skeletons because their features were already sharpened as a result of hunger. Observers also reported that the limbs of such children were wasted with little left but their bones.
In the next 10 years after outbreak of the Irish potato famine over 750,000 Irish people die while another two million left their home for the United States, Canada and Great Britain. Within 5 years of the famine, the population reduced by a quarter.
The famine was not a simple natural disaster bit a result of social causes. The Irish Potato Famine left in its wake, a legacy of lasting and deep feelings of distrust and bitterness towards the British. The Irish were convinced the famine was as the direct result of British colonial policies outgrowth.
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Role of NGOs in Municipal Solid waste Management
Huge amounts of municipal solid waste create massive challenges for all Asian cities across the economic spectrum. The issues and characteristics of Municipal solid waste vary as such the techniques used to manage solid waste should vary in accordance to local conditions as this is the only way to maintain sustainability.
Most of the Asian cities are home to over 1 million billion people and by 2025, it is expected it will be inhabited by over 4 billion people. Half of this population is found in cities and is expected to produce over 180 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per day. Waste managed by municipalities includes waste from offices, small businesses, restaurants and households.
However, in other countries especially those that have limited waste legislation, it might include waste from some of the small industrial plants. NGOs play an important role in municipal solid waste management in these countries. Some of these include the following:
- They provide prominent support to waste workers in the informal sector and enterprises so they can organize themselves to improve working facilities and conditions, increase earnings and also extend access to some of the important social services like schooling for children and healthcare.
- When NGOs come into the picture, privatization means there will be transfer of ownership and management from the public to private sector. While this is the case, it has proven to be a reliable and powerful technique of improving waste management services like haulage, disposal and collection.
- By operating in different partnership forms with public sector, NGOs also provide management, organization capacity capital, technical skills and labor.
NGOs are also mainly involved with collection of waste from different sources of generation suc as hotels, houses, restaurants and markets. After collecting waste, they dispose it in the nearest SDSs. However, it is important to note that most of the NGOs don’t handle composting of the organic waste as well as medical waste. This is especially true in cities such as Khulna.
What is more, NGOs also set up collection systems. This means that waste collection from the generation sources is carried out by the NGOs and some even transfer the waste to compost plants. More importantly, some of the NGOs also collect waste from some of the households and they receive payment in small amounts from dwellers.
For NGOs to play their role in municipal solid waste efficiently, they need to collection facilities as well. As such, most of them have vans used for collection and manpower in order to increase efficiency. It is because of all these reasons and more that NGOs are an important part of municipal solid waste management.
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Role of NGOs in Development of Rural Entrepreneurship
Starting an entrepreneurship in the rural areas is not an easy task. There are several aspects that need to be factored in such as where to get capital, how to attract and retain customers as well as the practices to follow. Precisely for this reason, NGOs play an important role in development of rural entrepreneurship.
Unemployment of underemployment in the rural areas leads to an influx of people in the cities as they look for new jobs. NGOs committed to rural development act as catalyst and offer then locals opportunities that increase or guarantee chances of growth.
Whenever someone thinks of starting a business, the first thing they have to think about is whether they will get the appropriate market. This is the only way to construct a business that is operational and functional while at the same time taking into account the financial requirements of the business.
In rural businesses, creating third party alliances is crucially important though most often, entrepreneurs are afraid of venturing into such opportunities because of the risks involved. NGOs however, serve as great opportunities for such individuals to create their own ideas.
Whenever a business idea is innovative or it involves adaptation of new technology, very few people are interested in it. This is regardless of the fact that your technology has already been tested. NGOs on the other hand don’t shy away from such investments. Rather, they are often ready to facilitate such technology.
As a matter of fact, many NGOs will manage relations with several potential entrepreneurs to set up educational chats. In addition to this, NGOs also help through instillation of confidence in technology through transfer of experience and knowledge which is enhanced extensions into other countries as well.
Also, through NGOs, entrepreneurs get background training on how they are supposed to handle their work and how they can make profits. They are taught some of the strategies to use in order to attract customers as well as some of the things they need to overlook or overcome.
In addition to this, NGOs make it easy for rural entrepreneurs to learn about sustenance management. Running an enterprise requires plans and goals that conform to the target of the business and entrepreneurs are taught how to get such aspects into harmony with their goals by the NGOs.
They are taught how to pay attention to all aspects of the business and how they can handle quality control in order to attract and keep clients interested in the services or products they have to follow. More importantly, NGOs assist in development of rural entrepreneurship by helping entrepreneurs learn some of the pitfalls they ought to avoid.
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Role of Agriculture in Indian Economy
Agriculture plays a crucial role in the Indian economy. More than two thirds of the employed class in India relies in agriculture as the sole source of living. Agriculture in India has a major, significant history and today, the country ranks as the 2nd worldwide nation in terms of farm output.
According to 2010 FAO global agriculture statistics, India was the largest producer of many fresh vegetables and fruits, major spices, select fibrous crops like jute, select fresh meats, staples like castor oil and millets. The country is also known as the 2nd largest producer of rice and wheat, the two major food staples in the world.
What is more, it is also known as the second or third largest global producer of dry fruits, agriculturally based textile raw materials such as tuber crops and roots, farmed fish, pulses, coconut, sugarcane, coconut, eggs and numerous types of vegetables. In 2010, India was also the largest producer of at least 80% of all agricultural produce including cash crops like cotton and coffee.
As stated by economic data of the financial year 2006-2007, agriculture acquired 18% of India’s Gross Domestic Product. Agricultural sector in the country has occupied at least 43% of its total geographical area. To date, agriculture is still the largest contributor to the country’s GDP even though there has been a decline in the agriculture share. In addition to this, agriculture also plays an important role in the socio-economic sector of the country.
During the earlier times, India was dependent on food imports but due to successive agriculture stories, Indian economy has become self sufficient in the production of grain. What is more, the country is also known to have sufficient reserves of the same. India is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector especially for production after the food crisis of 1960. The country has put a lot of effort in ensuring that it is self sufficient and to accomplish this it setup the Green Revolution.
The Indian economy has benefited greatly as a result of the Green Revolution by enhancing services as follows:
- Expanding its irrigation facilities
- Acquiring additional land for purposes of cultivation
- Water management
- Planning protection activities through use of pesticides, cropping applications and fertilizers
- Implementing better agricultural research techniques
- Planning protection activities though cautious use of pesticides, cropping applications and fertilizers.
The India government has set up Ministry of Food Processing industries mandated with the task of stimulating the agricultural sector of the economy in order to make it lucrative. With the improvements made in the agricultural sector, then the Indian economy will continue to benefit greatly from the agricultural sector.
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United States Bankruptcy Code Chapter 11
United States bankruptcy code chapter 11generally provides for reorganization for partnership or corporation. As provided for by this chapter, a debtor proposes a strategy or plan for the reorganization to keep business alive as well as pay creditors with time. Individuals and businesses undergoing financial crisis seek relief in chapter 11.
In case a business can no longer service debtors or even pay creditors, the business itself or creditors may file for bankruptcy with the federal court. This is provided for in the Chapter 11 and Chapter 7. In most cases, Chapter 11 allows debtors to maintain control of the operations of the business as the debtors in the possession. However, the business is subjected to court’s jurisdiction and oversight.
The United States bankruptcy code chapter 11retains most features that are present in most or all bankruptcy proceedings. It also provides additional tools that debtors can use as well. The most important aspect of this chapter is that it empowers trustees so that they can operate business of the debtors. According to this chapter, unless a trustee is selected or appointed for the cause, debtor acts as the business trustee as a debtor in the possession.
The debtor in the possession is afforded several mechanisms that they can use in restructuring the business. For instance, the debtor may acquire loans or financing on terms that are favorable to them by offering first priority of the earnings of the business to new lenders.
The court can also allow debtor in the possession to cancer or reject contracts. This chapter also protects debtors from litigation against their business via automatic stay imposition. As long as the automatic stay remains in place, the creditors are not allowed to make collection attempts. They are also deterred from engaging in activities that are against debtor in the possession. Majority of the litigations that are against the business debtor are stayed or simply kept on hold till the bankruptcy case is resolved in court or original revenue of the business is resumed.
A business is considered insolvent when it has debts that exceed assets and at the same time the business cannot debts. Bankruptcy restructuring can result in a situation where the owners of the company will lose everything. Ownership of the company after reorganization is left with the creditors. Owners of the company lose interests and rights to the creditors of the company. The court determines whether the reorganization plan being proposed abides by bankruptcy law as provided for by the United States bankruptcy code chapter 11.
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Challenges Facing Irish Tourism
There are several challenges facing Irish tourism. Tourism is among the biggest economic contributors to the Irish republic. In 2011, Ireland received more than 6.2 million visitors. Most visitors in this country come from France, Germany, United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, despite receiving a high number of tourists Ireland tourism industry has its challenges as well.
Persistence of difficult economic situations is among the challenges that have been affecting tourism in Ireland recently. Global recession that affected almost every nation had impact on Irish tourism as well. Tourism and travel industry of Ireland faced challenges as a result of the recession from international and domestic fronts.
Over the recent past, Irish tourism has experienced a reduction in the consumer demand as well as restricted spending among the tourists. This has affected the tourism industry negatively especially retail and travel accommodation areas. Both outgoing and incoming tourism suffered more losses especially from 2012.
Retention of the reduced rate of VAT is now welcome and it has helped in improving the situation. Before June 2012, the VAT rate was at 13.5 percent which had a negative effect on the tourism industry especially the hotel operators. High VAT rate made the operating cost high for the hotel operators. This made potential investors run away from the tourism industry making its expansion or growth slow.
Another challenge that is facing Irish tourism industry is the unwillingness of the local investors to invest in the industry. Following the impact of the 2012 economic recession in Ireland, investors are still not confident in the potential of the tourism industry.
Analysts observe that instead of investing in Ireland, most investors in this country especially the big companies are chasing investment opportunities in other countries. This has denied Irish tourism industry funding from local investors.
There is also an uncoordinated competition among the players in the Irish tourism industry. For instance, hotels are competing with guesthouses. In 2012, guesthouses had the worst performance ever. This is because they were facing competition from hotels which had room rates also decline. This combined with extensive promotion made by hotels impacted on the guesthouses negatively making some guesthouse operators close their businesses.
Separation of the Shannon Airport from the Dublin Airport Authority also caused some confusion at first. However, this move has later boosted the tourism industry with more people using the airport to enter and leave Ireland.
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Challenges Facing Irish Agriculture
There are many challenges facing Irish agriculture today. Agriculture has always been the mainstay of Ireland. However, the number of farmers in the fields in Ireland has been decreasing each year. This has a bearing in the overall production and output from agriculture. Statistics by the Irish government indicate that one out of five farmers in this country is poor. This implies that the farmer earns an annual income that is not more than £7,000.
This is not enough and things appear even worse when challenges facing Irish agriculture are considered closely. Decline in agriculture in Ireland has happened at a time when huge investments have been made in this sector. 1.25 billion pounds were invested under the Structural Funding program of the European Union. This has made many people to wonder what would happen to the Irish agriculture if there were no such funding.
This fact has increased the challenges facing Irish agriculture because investors are running away from the sector. Thus, the agriculture sector is lacking investors to pump the necessary resources for reviving it. This bad outlook of agriculture coupled with low returns for farmers is making it difficult for the sector to capture the attention of capable investors.
Another challenge that the Irish farming is facing is the pressure from other states to abolish support of the agriculture sector by the European Union. For instance, the WTO has been very vocal on this issue. The aim of this organization is to ensure that Europe is opened up to Australia and America as well as other producers of food products.
There is also oversupply in some agricultural products. For instance, in Ireland beef production is always at 100,000 tons in the stores as surplus. This beef does not have market. Thus, there is a challenge of overproduction of some agricultural produce that does not have a ready market.
There is also the challenge of old farmers. About 25 percent of farmers in Ireland are over 65 years old. About 50 percent farmers are aged 55 years and above. Young people are not involved in farmer. At old age, farmers cannot innovate or even adapt new farming techniques.
There is also the problem of part time farming. There are many farmers in Ireland who are part time farmers. This implies that they are not devoted in farming. They have lands but they engage in farming activities that do not require much attention such as dairy farming. This has led to under-utilization of farm land which in turn reduces the overall agricultural output.
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Benefits of Natural Pest Control
There are many benefits of natural pest control. Natural pest control is used as one of the means of managing pests. It employs biological materials in managing and reducing pest infestations. Many people use this pest control method as an alternative to the commonly used chemical pest control method due to its benefits.
Natural pest control method is based on the notion that nature has a way of maintaining a healthy balance except when human activities interfere with this balance. Naturally, there are good insects and other living organisms that can help in controlling pests. These organisms act as natural predators and they control population of what are considered as harmful insects or pests in the environment.
The major benefit of natural pest control is that it is eco-friendly. It is a natural way of controlling pests. This is because it uses organisms in controlling organisms. One organism that acts as a predator of the pest is raised in large numbers and then released in the garden where a pest has infested. The predator of the pest fights it biologically.
Thus, natural pest control method controls pest without posing any harm to agriculture. The predator kills the target pest only. This implies that friendly insects are not affected by natural pest control method.
In addition, natural pest control has few and in some cases no effects on humans and livestock as well as the environment. This makes it useful in places where there are livestock and pests. In most instances, this method has proven safe and effective in controlling pests.
It works more effectively than other methods such as chemical pest control method that can harm even the beneficial insects and affect the environment negatively. Natural pest control method is an organic method. It continues being effective for a long time after its introduction.
The extended lifespan of the natural pest control method makes it cost-effective because no reintroduction is needed. Thus, unlike chemical pest control method where a farmer has to keep administering the chemical, natural pest control method requires a single introduction in the crop.
In addition, natural pest control method saves the farmer time. This is because the farmer needs to just introduce the predator to the field that the pests have invaded. The rest will happen naturally. As long as the environment is naturally suitable for the survival of organism, it will reproduce and continue controlling the pest without the farmer applying any effort.
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There are several advantages and disadvantages of pesticide use by farmers. Pesticides are chemicals that kill pests. To most farmers, pesticide use is an unavoidable aspect of farming or gardening. This is because pesticides help in keeping the plants free from pest infestation. Pests are harmful insects whose effects on the crop can be devastating if they are not controlled.
Pesticides help farmers in preventing crop damage by these harmful insects. Although pesticides are important to farmers, using them can pose a risk to the farmer, his family and animals. However, when used properly pesticides may not have significant side effect on humans and animals. Nevertheless, it is important to consider the advantages and disadvantages of pesticide use before a farmer start using them.
One of the major advantages of pesticide use is that they kill pests faster than other pest control methods. This is because pesticides are specifically formulated chemicals that target certain pests. Once administered in a crop that has been invaded by the pest, pesticides start working immediately by affecting the normal biological functions of the organs of the insect.
Pesticides are also easy to use. With most pesticides, a farmer is just required to mix the pesticide with a specified amount of water and then spray the crop. There are powder pesticides that a farmer applies to the crop that is infested with pests directly. Thus, it takes a few minutes or hours to apply the pesticide and control the pest.
There is also a wide range of pesticides from which a farmer or gardener can choose from. This implies that a farmer can easily find the pesticide that they need to control a particular pest in their farm. Additionally, if a pest has developed resistance to a specific pesticide, a farmer can use another.
Nevertheless, there are also disadvantages of pesticide use as well. For instance, when a pesticide is overused in controlling a particular pest it can develop resistance. If the traits for the resistance are genetic-based, then the pesticide will no longer be effective in controlling that pest.
Some pesticides also kill beneficial insects. Insects such as bees which are agents of pollination can be killed by some pesticides. In addition, some pesticides have residual effects that can be passed on to humans who consume the crops on which they are applied. When used in the field, pesticides are carried by rain water and deposited in water bodies such as rivers and lakes where they interfere with aquatic life.
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Winners and Losers of Globalization
Globalization brought in a lot of changes, some negative and others positive. This is the reason why it is said that there are winners and losers of globalization; there are those that it changed for the better and others that it drove towards the path of poverty and desperation. It is generally believed that there are only two groups that emerged as the winners of globalization. These are the countries that were very rich or occupied the top spot in terms of the distribution of national and global income and those that were at the middle-level of emerging market economies like Indonesia, Brazil and China.
To date, it is still challenging to either confirm or reject these insights. However, a database of surveys conducted by the World Bank and other organization on households offer a clear picture on the winners and losers of globalization. From the statistics, we are able to get the clear view of the impacts of globalization in the past two decades, stretching from 1988 to 2008.
Based on the report by the World Bank, it is indicated that the top of the global income distribution are the ones that registered highly significant increases in per capita income. Closely following suit at are the emerging global middle class economies that comprise of more than one third of the population of the world. Within the period of the past two decades, the top 1% has seen their real income shoot upwards by more than 60%.
When trying to unearth the real winners and losers of globalization, it should be noted that there was an even greater increase by those sections of the global income distribution that occupied the median. These experienced a real increase of around 70% to 80% at the median.
Around the 50th and 60th percentile of global income distribution, is where we find some 40 million Indians, 270 million Chinese, 35 million Indonesians and 20 million Brazilians. Besides, there are also some Egyptians and Mexicans. These parts are occupied by people who in 2008 had annual per capita incomes ranging between 1,100 to 1,600 international dollars after tax. Even at the bottom third of the global income distribution table, we also find that significant improvements have been made with the incomes rising above 40% to about 60%.
The poorest 5% of the world’s population whose real incomes have only managed to move up by 16% can be termed as the losers. These are people whose real incomes within the two decades period only improved by single digits. In other words, they can be referred to as the global upper-middle class and include Communist nations, Latin America and the citizens of rich countries with immobile real incomes.
The winners of globalization are basically the elite transnational capitalist class who are mainly from the developed countries. Their economic interests are usually globally focused. The losers are the low qualified or unqualified who mainly operate in markets with little competition. It should be noted that even capitalists in developing nations are losers.
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Impact of Trade Liberalization on Food Security
The issue of food security can either be discussed in terms of food self reliance or self sufficiency. Self sufficiency requires that a country or region is able to produce food that is enough to cater for its consumption while self reliance refers to domestic availability of food in enough quantities. It should be noted that self sufficiency in food leaves out the concept of imports as a source of food supply while self reliance does not emphasize on such a restriction.
As much as food security may be viewed by many as a concern for most countries across the world, it is an issue that is mostly felt by developing countries. It is mainly in the emerging economies that food security is often an issue. Based on trade theory, developing countries are usually endowed with labor, land and natural resources instead of technology and capital, thus, should have a comparative advantage in agriculture (food security).
Trade liberalization has created a scenario whereby manufacturing is more protected while agriculture is heavily taxed. Policies of trade liberalization have led to bias in the development of better agricultural practices in emerging economies. As a result of trade liberalization, farmers are now able to break away from the traditional restrictive practices that offer lower domestic prices for their produce in developing countries. You find that in most of the developing countries, the prices offered for agricultural products is relatively lower compared to when the produce is sold on international markets. As result of this, farmers are always very quick to export their produce abroad.
Developed countries create policies that offer better returns for farmers when they sell their produce on world markets, thus, quite a number shun domestic markets. This means that most of the agricultural produce that is obtained locally is pushed abroad to the developed countries, leaving the locals with just a small percentage that is mostly low quality. Acquiring sufficient food to fill in the gap that is created by farmers selling their produce on international markets is quite expensive. On the other hand, spend most of the earnings from the sale of their produce on manufactured products that are also mainly from foreign industries, meaning that the money is ploughed back to the economies of developing nations.
The above chain continues to a point whereby local farmers are left with very little and low quality food that is not able to sustain the domestic population. With this, it can be said that trade liberalization to an extent, hinders food security in developing nations while enhancing it in developed economies. In developed nations, they have the technology that can be used in proper preservation of food compared to emerging economies. They can decide to store the food until such a time that there is a crisis, upon which they can then sell it at very high prices. As a result of this, poor nations will be forced to spend more of their income on food in order to attain security that will be so hard to come by.