In etymological terms, the phrase catalyst is formed in English (1902), which was carved from a combination of two Greek words, ‘’Kata’’ and ‘’lysis’’ meaning ‘’down’’ and ‘’loosening’’ respectively. As an ambiguous noun, the misconception of catalyst is commonly through a definition that simply defines it as a substance that increases the rate of reaction. Somorjai & Li (2010) define a catalyst as a substance that is added in order to alter the rate of a chemical reaction without experiencing any significant change. This implies that a catalyst can increase the rate a chemical reaction, negative catalysts however, lower the process. For example, Zhou, Hermans & Somorjai (2003) argue that enzymes that are found in saliva speed up the rate at which food is digested. A catalyst can also refer to a person or group of people whose presence agitate a critical change or impact the occurrence of a significant event without necessarily suffering from the consequences. For instance, in the event that a person or a group causes critical government reforms to occur, he or she plays the role of a catalyst of the auspicious event through spearheading and mobilization of others to take an active step towards the success of the intended objective. Cline (2012) points out that a catalyst can also be defined from a negative aspect based on the result of the action triggered by it. For example, a decision for a bombing attack is considered as a catalyst for war.
This essay gives a comprehensive definition of a catalyst while also providing exhaustive and relevant information about a catalyst and its benefits in human life.
As a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing any alteration, a catalyst stays the same in both chemical and mass composition despite having a significant change in other substances. Zhou, Hermans & Somorjai (2003) argue that a catalyst ensures that processes run a required in order to achieve the desired products and the fact that they make processes more efficient and increase the speed of production of chemical substances, it remains a crucial substance in chemical reactions. Catalysts are usually used in small amounts despite the huge chemicals that are involved, and they still serve their functions best at optimum temperature after which their impact is slowed. Besides, catalysts play a critical role with regards to energy consumption in various industries since they ensure that chemical reactions occur at the minimum temperature than it would have required in the absence of a catalyst. In large industries where chemical reactions are inevitable, catalysts are relied upon to save on the consumption of energy by enabling chemical reactions to occur at a higher rate or lower rate at minimum temperatures. This helps the companies in saving up energy costs, thereby maximizing profits.
It should be noted that catalysts do not start a reaction and cannot make a reaction that is impossible to take place. They are designed for use in particular reactions and cannot be used to change a reaction which is recommended for their application since this will significantly affect the resultant products. Thus, industries that manufacture catalysts for use in various chemical reactions label each chemical and the reactants that can be used with them. As indicated by Zhou, Hermans & Somorjai (2003), catalysts can be in the form of solids, liquids or gases based on the nature of the reaction that they are designed to be applied. Catalysts are used in almost all chemical reactions where they either increase or lower the rate of reaction depending on the needs at the end of the every process. However, they are mainly used to speed up the efficiency or effectiveness of a process as well as reducing other potential effects in a chemical reaction.
For instance, the catalytic converter in a car is made up of platinum, which is used as a catalyst purposely for converting unburned compounds that are harmful if released into the environment, in an attempt to ensure that they are less harmful. The oxidation process takes place rapidly in the presence of salty water whereby the salty water acts as a catalyst to speed up the oxidation process. A catalyst in real life can be likened to an individual who incites or aggravates others into taking spontaneous actions for something to occur. Such a person is considered as a catalyst because of the fact that he or she causes an event to occur although the occurrence of the same situation will not affect him or her in any way. The similarities between a substance catalyst and a person who behaves in the same way depends on their nature since they both trigger something to occur faster or slow it down, based on the intended result. Cline (2012) says that if for instance a high school principal may be committed to encouraging his or her students to work hard in class work by giving them the relevant resources that will impact success even though the success will only benefit the students and not the teacher or principal is a catalyst. His or her actions enable the students to have the confidence and determination to study and perform well in their examinations.
According to Somorjai & Li (2010), a catalyst makes something to take place at the desired rate or speed. It may slow down or speed up a similar process based on the nature of the catalyst. For instance, if there was intense argument between two people or groups, there is a possibility of another person coming in to incite them to fight. In such a situation, the third party that incited the individuals to fight serves as a positive catalyst by provoking the fight. A provocative speech given by an individual bevy on a people in an attempt to act in accordance with their wish renders such an individual a catalyst. For example, if associations of people like a workers’ union want to protest over an issue, they may be reluctant in taking action. However, in the event that a single person who is not a member of the union but feel concerned takes the lead to provoke them to take action in a bid to make their voices heard, the person is called a catalyst because he or she mobilized the members towards protesting immediately.
However, if the third party intervenes and tries to calm down the protesters in order to avoid imminent fights, he or she is considered a negative catalyst. It a catalyst suddenly disappears; the expected results may not be achieved with the rate at which it was anticipated since the result may take long or short period of time. Catalysts are mostly preferred for correcting a situation by either slowing down or speeding up the same rate. This is always relative to the expected products upon the completion of the process. The term is commonly used in academic discipline, especially in chemistry and English. In chemistry, it mainly appears in chemical reaction processes. As pointed out by Zhou, Hermans & Somorjai (2003), in today’s commercially produced chemical products; catalysts play a critical role in one or two of the processes required in the production. The use of catalysts also helps in reducing the level of environmental pollution by reducing the harmful impacts of certain substances released into the air. Besides, many foodstuffs are manufactured using catalysts, which would otherwise not been achieved.
This essay has given an in-depth description of a catalyst through a relevant approach to bring out its etymological application. The essay emphasizes that the term catalyst was achieved through the combination of two Greek words, ‘kata’ and ‘lysis’ which mean ‘down’ and ‘loosening’ respectively in 1902. As illustrated, a catalyst is an ambiguous noun which simply implies an alteration on a process in order to obtain the anticipated results. The easy has also unveiled the negative definition of the word, which is always wrong while also giving an anecdote about it. The definition of the term revolves around its description, a narration involving the word, processes that are related to it, the causes and effects of a catalyst and examples in real life situations and also academic disciplines.
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Cline, M. (2012). Virtual Reality: a Catalyst for Social and Economic Change. New York:Mychilo Cline.
Somorjai, G. A., & Li, Y. (2010). Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis. London:John Wiley & Sons.
Zhou, B., Hermans, S., & Somorjai, G. A. (2003). Nanotechnology in Catalysis Volumes 1 and 2, Volume 1. New York: Springer.
Analysis of Kent Monkman’s Performance and Visual Art Interventions
As an artist who believes in retelling history as opposed to blaming the colonizers, Monkman is an artist who uses specific personas in his paintings in the attempt to retell the native’s own version of events. There has been a gross misrepresentation of the native culture and identity by certain popular artists, who could have used the pedestal or platform of their art to tell the actual story, but instead used their positions for self-grandeur. Christianity perceived the native cultural practices as either laughable of deviant hence suppressed them. Consequently, the natives themselves began to deny their own culture and suppress themselves.
Monkman’s arguments are mainly based on the sexuality of the Natives, and how the colonialists portrayed them as being ‘on the brink of extinction’, as well as the contributions of colonialism to the long-held perception of the native Indian by the white community. The artist attacks the works of two famous painters in which they portray Canada as being an uninhabited land, an element that grossly undermines the very existence of the Native Indians. According to him, even though Caitlin through his works might have sounded the death knell for the Native Indians race, a renaissance is possible if only the natives retell their stories.
The artist further argues that the native Indian was grossly misrepresented and he uses a rather surreal method, packaged in the form of a ‘two spirited’ character to clearly illustrate this notion. With works that combine humor and irony, Monkman challenges established artists like Catlin. The artist immerses himself in his art by inventing a character who has a conflicting gender in order to portray his mixed heritage and the revered ‘two spirited men’ of the native Indians’ culture. The essay further argues that the white colonialists dominated over the Native Indians.
As a concept, sexuality is given much weight in Monkman’s works and through his pieces of art, he addresses the sexuality of the natives. The ‘two spirited man’ can be perceived as a depiction of a suppressed side of the natives’ sexuality. Even though the majority of the native tribes commonly practiced homosexuality, they had to suppress this with the advent of Colonialism and Christianity, as these institutions considered non-heterosexual sexual relations as deviant. While he depicts the whites as simply dressed in the loin cloths, Monkman portrays Share as a sexually charged character.
The theme of misrepresentation is recurrent in Monkman’s arguments because it is central to his work and beliefs. Despite the fact that George Catlin and Albert Bierdstadt believe that they are the sole artists who have the opportunity to record the native people’s accounts and the verge of their extinction, they misuse their opportunity and portray the natives as “doomed savages” belonging to dying tribes.
Monkman must have intended to spearhead renaissance when he created the character of Share. Whilst her name is a depiction of the sexual undertones that she must carry with her everywhere she goes, her domination of the white man is apparent and her outfit boasts of the latest brands in the fashion industry. Share does not suppress her sexuality and a clear indication of the Renaissance in Monkman;s works are depicted through the physical incarnation of Share’s Testickles and the use of light.
Reflections on the contribution of the article to sexuality studies
Since Share uses both sides to dominate, s/he is the perfect blend of hyper-femininity and masculine authority. This is the portrayal of sexuality as an instrument that can be used in domination and Foucault states that sexuality can be used as atool that can offer a lot of maneuversas well as a launchpad for diverse strategies. Yet Monkman uses this tool is used to right the wrongs of imperial machinations and and the same time invent a new identity for the native Indians, ultimately creating a platform through which they can reinvent themselves. He does this by reinventing the status of Two-Spirited people (Swanson, 2005.Pp 9).
Studies on sexuality can use Monkman’s pieces of art as a tool to decolonize and demystify Native sexuality especially considering that the current perceptions of Native Indians and their sexuality are mere constructs of imperialists and a wrongful depiction of them.
The Two-Spirit, is an embodiment of the male and female spirit hosted in one body and advocates for the acknowledgement of sexual orientations besides heterosexuality.The Native gay community has embraced the term “Two Spirit” and popularized it because it has brought a level of acceptance of this group even among heterosexuals.
The works are evidence of the infusion of sexuality and identity. As such, by suppressing the sexuality of the natives and therefore resulted in the loss of identity of the Native Indian communities. Christian imperialists quickly suppressed the diverse sexual practices of the Native people the repercussions of such suppression are clear. Due to the denial of the existence of homosexuality existed amongst the diverse native tribes that interacted with the white Christian cultures, anthropologists were unable to record this diversity as they feared severe punishment (Swanson, 2005, pp 11).
Therefore, Monkman’s art also offer lessons on the Renaissance of native sexuality. In his art pieces, Monkman uses light to convey the message of re-emergence of the Natives identity through their sexuality.
Looking at Monkman’s works, it seems that he was fighting conflicting natures within himself, even as he tried to retell the story of the native Indian. This is depicted when he plays the role of the imperialist on one hand, while his alter-ego, which he controls, is the depiction of a strong and confident native who makes the white colonialists bid to her whims. Despite this, he displays the native as clad in Louis Vuitton and Hudson Bay accessories and therefore this can be perceived as a deliberate alteration, that executes exactly what Monkman intended to fight- the misrepresentation of the native Indian.
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Swanson,Kerry.The Noble Savage Was a Drag Queen: Hybridity and Transformation in Kent Monkman’s Performance and Visual Art Interventions. E-misferica 2.2 (2005) Available online at http://hemi.nyu.edu/journal/2_2/swanson.html
Major Urban Problems
Change has always been an inevitable factor and is always bound to happen. As such, it is very essential for us to shift our deliberation on averting and preventing change and instead focus on embracing it. Change usually creeps up on unprepared individuals because they live in denial. This is clearly exemplified when urban cities crept upon unprepared citizens and although urbanization has its own benefits, it was accompanied by a number of problems that both the public and the government were unprepared for.
The overwhelming power of mayors is among the first major problem that came with development of urban towns. Fresh Urbanization came with a strong mayoral system which possessed the authority to influence the livelihood of the population in a negative way if deemed fit by the mayor. A strong mayoral system will provide an avenue for corruption since the mayors have overwhelming powers.
The more upsetting issue is the fact that the mayor has powers to hire and fire any person if he wishes. This power can intimidate civil workers to bid the mayor’s will in order to remain in his good books. This can create loopholes for the mayor to request for unconstitutional favors and the civil servants will be forced to fulfill such requests. Furthermore, the mayor can also use his power and elect any person he wants into key positions in the public institution. Such elections can leave the elected persons indebted to the mayor and hence cause them to act unconstitutionally if asked to do so.
The staffing requirements within the new system are another problem that face the urban areas. In this system, lower employees are hired based on their professions hence making such professions too specialized such that employees cannot innovate or expand beyond their niche. This creates a work environment that inevitably breeds boredom and reduces efficiency and productivity among employees.
Additionally, the urban political system also enhance the collaboration between the public and private sectors. Despite the benefits of the collaboration between the two sectors, it also comes with various drawbacks. The risks involved in transactions in the public and private partnerships pose the biggest challenge. Such a risk is usually transferred to the government in that it increases the expenditure on the part of the government. The increase ultimately trickles down to the town’s budget, and prompts the mayor to raise the taxes.
Progress in Reforming City Government
As mentioned earlier, the inevitability of change is not questionable and this prompts the need to take note of the progress of changes. It is important to compare before and after change situations so as to accurately assess whether the change is good or bad. The second part of this article delves into the reformations undertaken by the city government in the past 100 years. The paper will give recommendations on the positive as well as negative impacts of change and assess whether change has actually bettered the situation of city government or deteriorated the way they are run.
After conducting an analysis of the steps city governments has undertaken during the past century, it is clear that there has been progress. The issue of voting rights is the first indication of progress whereby in the beginning of the 19th century only white people who owned property had the voting rights, a trend that has long been abolished the evolution of city governments. This trend had previously denied people of color as well as men who did not own property and all the women the right to vote irrespective of their ethnic backgrounds. The changes gave all citizens the power to appoint their political leaders and influence how their city is run.
The concept of voting with one’s feet was also brought about by the evolution of city governments . Through this system, individuals who are displeased with the way the city is operated were given the option of searching for greener pastures in other cities. Nevertheless, this might be considered as a drawback because of how cities are run today, and people can easily choose to leave their cities instead of sticking around and changing it. Many citizens participated in civil rights with the aim of changing their cities in the 1960s. Such fighting spirit is no longer witnessed in many cities because individuals can easily leave their city or just move away, and leave the rest to struggle with the political system. For citizens who have immovable assets, voting by feet can be used as an oppressive tool (Walker 11). This is because the city can decide to seize their property for its own purpose and use, if such individuals leave their property behind.
It is also imperative to assess the shortcomings of the city governments during this 100-year period, before making any analysis. A major shortcoming lies in the reluctance of the city government to allocate resources based on census results as it was case during the earlier days. This ensured appropriate resource allocation to sectors and areas that were most crucial. This is the opposite of what is happening today as resources are allocated based on the interests of diverse parties. As a result those who are most convincing parties that can push forward their interests tend to get what they want, while the weaker ones remain suffering.
Despite the drawbacks of voting by feet, it is necessary to note that it is much better than the flat denial or prohibition of certain members of the city from having the vote. This presupposes the essence of voting by feet as an improved method of running the city governments in the modern era. Regional preferences and national diversity has also been accommodated by the concept of voting by feet (Walker 15). This is attributed to the decentralization of authority that facilitates different economic and social improvements in the cities.
The concept of prioritizing the public interests above other things has been brought about by the evolution of mayors. Since the 1990, there have been several attempts by mayors to implement the best business practices in the cities. This portends their attempts at running the city based on public interest and not on political intention. Through doing this, the mayors have all their intentions set on advancing their economies and developing their cities and such progress is evident in the evolution of city governments.
The distribution of power to commissioners and councilors is yet another progress in the evolution of city government. There are frequent meetings between the commissioners and councilors to discuss the diverse policies based on the interest of the people they represent. This means that without the tampering with the system of city government, then the policies that reflect the wills and needs of the majority in society will be passed in the city.
After a thorough analysis of both the shortcomings and progress of the evolution of city governments, it is evident that there have been improvements in the governance of cities in the 100-year period. This is evident in the power given to the citizens during election of who lead their cities. In addition, the leaders into mayoral positions have also displayed progress by running the cities using good business policies and not political intuition.
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Beliefs and ideas before attendance
In both history and tradition, Christianity and Islam have come a long way and even though both religions share a common origin, Islam has some beliefs with regard to the attendance of Christian services. Contrary to our Islamic beliefs, Christians are of the opinion that God exists in eternity and is simultaneous a communion of three distinct persons. In Islam on the other hand, God cannot exist in multiple state and any such belief would be a denial of monotheism (Kataregga & Shenk, 1980). Given the strict rules and regulations within my religion, I found it difficult to attend the church services when I visited the Christian community. For example, in Islam, you cannot enter a praise of worship such as a church without having a specific purpose and this is mainly because it is considered an offense and even the angels of the prophet could not step into any house that had images (Kratzke & Bertolo, 2013). Christians have also claimed that Allah had a family with a son and wife which makes it sinful for any Muslin to enter the church and approve of their claims let alone loving and taking them as friends.
According to the Qur’an, Christian foundations are built on theological positions that are based on falsehood and are misled. The Qu’ran also tells us that Christians actually conceal the truth with their falsehood and this makes them our enemies because even Allah fights against them(Kataregga & Shenk, 1980). Ever since the time of Adam, Islam has been existent and hence will continue. However, as Muslims we believe that Christians will be judged by Allah for having upheld what we perceive to be grave doctrinal errors and will thus face the wrath of god. We also believe that our religion has superiority over others and the conduct of Christian nations as well as vices make Islam more ideal. The Qu’ran also sends this message because it notes that Muslims are the best in mankind because they condemn wrongs and command rights.
I first tried to visit a church in Evansville, Indiana, US and my first church to visit was the St. Anthony of Padua Catholic church. There were many traditions practiced among the community. First off, the Catholics had to take the Eucharist as a symbol of eating the body and drinking the blood of God. I found this intriguing because I could not understand how they could eat their God’s body but they explained that they had to eat consecrated bread and drink church wine in order to fulfill the teachings of Christ. This was meant to perpetuate and appreciate the sacrifice that Christ made on the cross.
Special attention was paid to this ceremony because of the silence and state of holiness that the congregation exhibited. Other rites that were practiced in this community were the Passover feast and the Palm Sunday. Palm Sunday was celebrated in remembrance of the triumphant entry into Jerusalem by Jesus and during this the congregation gathered and waved as well as scattered the palm trees to signify what the crowds did when Jesus rode into Jerusalem in a donkey. Apart from palm trees, there are people in the congregation who used native tree branches. On the other hand, the Passover feast was also called the last supper and during this festival, the Christians partook of the body and blood of Christ. This was in commemoration of the event that led to the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt after years of slavery, during which God passed over the Christians’ houses and slaughtered the first born males of the Egyptians hence leading to their escape which was led by Moses.
During the service, the Christians sang many hymns and said prayers. Their songs were also enjoyable to because they were accompanied by instruments. The prayers were difficult to understand because some of them were read from a book. The prayers were also repeated in similar manner on every Sunday. There were also different dress codes in the church and these included suits, kanzus, full dresses, short skirts, trousers, shorts among other clothes. Besides the nuns or sisters, other females in the congregation did not cover their hair (Kratzke & Bertolo, 2013).
Having experienced the difference in this community I was left in confusion, pleasure and amusement. I was confused because of the strict laws of Islam that forbade attendance of church masses. After attending these services I discovered that Christianity and Islam were very different. The religions also had many similarities that I had not been aware of before. For instance, Christians believe that God is the sole creator of the universe and He made prophets such as Moses, Noah, Jesus and Abraham. The Catholics also read from the Old Testament which Muslims refer to as the Torah and New Testament, which is popularly known as the Gospel or Holy Scripture. According to them Satan is evil and in the last days(Kataregga & Shenk, 1980).
Contrary to Islamic practices, nobody washed their body or wore full-length clothes that covered their entire body. In fact, women were not veiled or covered from head to toe. Another stark difference was that everyone entered the church with their shoes on. Because of all these, the St. Anthony of Padua Catholic church practices differed against all the Islamic practices and beliefs (Jackson & Samuels, 2011). Despite my confusion concerning the partaking of the body and blood of Christ, I must say that I was shocked that I was well welcomed in the church and nobody discriminated against me on the basis of my religion and other beliefs.
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Jackson, K. F., & Samuels, G. M. (2011). Multiracial Competence in Social Work: Recommendations for Culturally Attuned Work with Multiracial People. Social Work, 56(3), 235-245.
Kataregga, B., & Shenk, D. (1980). Islam and Christianity. Uzima Publishing House.
Kratzke, C., & Bertolo, M. (2013). Enhancing Students Cultural Competence Using Cross-Cultural Experiential Learning. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 20(3), 107-111.
Bleeding can have serious impacts on the victims and many paramedics, regard controlling bleeding as an important practice in their daily lives. There are diverse methods of controlling bleeding in patients within the pre-hospital settings. This is done to avoid endangering the lives of the patients. In Keeping it Under Control by Timothy Perkins (1), there are certain methods that have been in use for sometimes that are deemed more problematic and endangering hence can no longer be adopted. In his article, he advises against the use of methods such as tourniquets because of the adverse problems it causes to people. Instead, Timothy Perkins goes further offer alternative methods that are efficient in controlling excessive bleeding such as the use of hemostatic agent and compression bandages that have been used for many years now during military operations. This article is aimed at informing and convincing paramedics to adopt such bleeding control methods which do not cause serious problems to the victims. The article by Perkins provides an important analysis that evaluates varied methods and suggests the best modern methods that are safe.
To achieve his goal, Perkins employs a number of appeals in his article and one of the key aspects is ethos. In the article, the author introduces himself as a learned professional who is highly knowledgeable in the field, and he does this by writing his name exactly after the title of the article as Timothy J. Perkins BS, EMT-P. The initials at the end of his name can appeal to the readers hence preparing them psychologically for the academic article. His article is started in a professional and academic manner, and states some of the scientific facts about controlling of excessive bleeding. Throughout the article, he maintains a professional tone with an academic angle that entails citing certain sources of information which are used in the article. It is such aspects of the article that create credibility among the readers concerning the author.
The article also shows the aspect of appeal to pathos and this mostly appeals to the medical audience. For Timothy Perkins, doctors, nurses and other health care givers are the most suitable audience for his article. Nevertheless, paramedics would find the article extremely useful given that they deal with many bleeding cases before rushing victims to hospitals. The article points out certain techniques that are useful to help in stopping bleeding immediately after incidents or accidents, especially because of the dangers posed by excessive bleeding that can even lead to loss of lives.
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Perkins, Timothy. Keeping It Under Control. emsworld.com. 2007. Web. January 28, 2014
UBC Writing Centre.The University of British Columbia. 7 May 2007. Web. January 28, 2014
Accountable Care Organizations
An Accountable Care Organization is a system of doctors, hospitals as well as other health care providers who converge and share the obligation of offering exceptional healthcare to patients at reasonable prices. The objective of forming ACOs by the state is to gain more savings on Medicare costs. Majority of the baby boomers in the U.S are about to retire and are probable to obtain medical care as a result of age connected illness. This liability of offering medical care to aging people affects employed individuals as well as the state (Gold, 2011). Hence, ACOs concept was enacted to attempt to lessen the costs of offering medical care. This kind of medical care service is new and as a result the administrative framework that ought to be adopted is not reputable. The law is as well unclear on the leadership system for ACOs. A number of the groups anticipating to operate the ACOs incorporate insurers, doctors as well as health care centers (Gold, 2011). The rule is ambiguous on who ought to manage Accountable Care Organizations, because it was working on making its administration flexible.
Where Leadership Will Be Needed
The goal of ACOs is to adjust from payment mode that remunerates for huge sum to another one that rewards for worth (Spoerl, 2012). This is projected to meet the goals of an improved prevention of diseases, offering improved patient care experience as well as pulling down cost of health care in case of upsurges. All this is possible whilst ensuring that the corporation is economically stable and flourishing (Spoerl, 2012). In line with CMS, every Accountable Care Organization is anticipated to bear a legal framework that gets and allocates mutual funds impartially amongst all those involved in the Accountable Care Organization. The satisfactorily number of the customers to be served by the ACO need not to go past 5000 participants (AHA, 2010). The ACO need to hire ample number of healthcare experts to take care of all its customers. It needs to accept to be running for a minimum of three years. It need to grow as well as offer ample content on the health experts so as to aid in allocation of beneficiaries as well as in transfer of funds due to shared services (AHA, 2010). Each Accountable Care Organization is anticipated to describe the procedures to practice evidence- based health care, have undertakings to enhance the quality of services whereas the expenses are lessened and offer organized care. Information showing implementation of patient based care is necessary of the Accountable Care Organizations. The administration and guidance of the ACO ought to incorporate clinical and also administrative systems (AHA, 2010).
Clinical leadership and professional leadership will as a result be necessary for Accountable Care Organization to work successfully and meet the mutual funds in Medicare treasuries that makes it a fascinating enterprise. Creating Accountable Care Organizations which have been functioning since the start of January 2012, has not been smooth (AHA, 2010). The procedure has been designated as asset demanding and wastes a lot of time by those working in the sector. Clinical administration will include operation as well as directing of medical experts and healthcare centers as well as the area where medical concerns are demanded. The management part will incorporate the insurance corporations that are linked with Medicare as well as the administration of the assets of the ACO. The management guidance does not require any medical credentials, however they are probable to be successful if focused on business. They will hold the obligation to pursue the associates to be incorporated in the Accountable Care Organization as well as get the beneficiaries offered by ACO.
Primarily, they will take part in the allocation of mutual funds amongst the members. This disparity between clinical leadership and administrative leadership will make sure that the health care experts focus on offering exceptional care to the beneficiaries, who are assured of well cared funds. The interaction between the two bodies of running the Accountable Care Organization ought to be effective. This will aid in assuring productivity of the entire corporation as well as dealing with issues that any of members have. The managers picked to administrative posts ought to be qualified, versatile and creative so as to lead a company whose blueprint is a fresh idea in the market. There are restricted case studies that will provide a comprehension on how to operate Accountable Care Organizations (Spoerl, 2012).
Skills Needed for Leadership
The two divisions necessary in operation of Accountable Care Organizations need diverse collection of abilities so as to run successfully.
Clinical Leadership Skills
Clinical leaders will have the obligation of supervising daily operation of health organizations. They as well have to make sure that the quality of the medical services offered is of best standards. These managers are experienced medical experts as well can have trustworthy perceptions on medical exercises undertaken by the ACO (BMA, 2012). Abilities necessary for clinical experts incorporate political and communication skills as well as clinical trustworthiness.
The communication abilities essential for most of clinical leaders is ability to listen well. Majority of experts in the healthcare sector have uttered disappointments for not being listened by their bosses, in line with research (BMA, 2012). Thus, it is essential as a clinical leader to listen exceptionally well to the opinions and verdicts of corresponding medical experts. The capability to think about the guidance as well as the occasional condemnation is a great facet of a great clinical manager. This presents the idea that the manager is set to work with subordinates (BMA, 2012). Health care experts are indeed connected to managers who are prepared to confess in case of errors as well as improve their tactics as required.
Political skills include the capacity of the manager to agree on as well as develop harmony amongst medical associates. Arbitration, coaxing as well as swaying abilities are not incorporated in majority of health care education programs and this makes it challenging for experts to practice. Health experts go for an open consultative tactic (BMA, 2012). This is due to the fact that attempting to unite the opinions of vast self-governing experts mainly all over the areas of hospital medicine is quite challenging. A clinical manager ought to have the capacity to reinforce his trustworthiness by developing backing from associates. They ought to be capable of working in groups as well as be accountable for decisions settled on. Being responsible for the results experienced from the decisions made is a trait of an excellent clinical chief (BMA, 2012).
Clinical leaders ought to hold as well as sustain clinical trustworthiness among coworkers. They ought to have amassed massive know-how, exposure as well as study clinical abilities upon selection as bosses. They ought to uphold clinical duties and depict incomparable devotion to clients given that they hold their management posts (BMA, 2012). Being a supporter of patients’ wellbeing as well as always keeping in touch with patients is most probable to reinforce the status of a clinical leader among subordinates. A successful clinical manager ought to motivate his or her subordinates by displaying good personality. They have to be spirited and hold an emotional resolve when going through stress caused by coworkers (BMA, 2012). They ought to show exceptional passion from their job and the broad health care career. This optimism and zeal is the gateway to aid them deal with challenges. Majority of health experts have a distinctive aspiration to feel more confident in the obligations and this is anticipated from the leaders. Honesty, decency and responsibility for decision settled on by clinical chiefs are the core non-negotiable principles that define them (BMA, 2012).
Administration leadership skills
A good administration executive ought to be a good listener, ascertain the issues being experienced by the corporation as well as procure possible solutions. Listening makes it easy for employees and customers of a company to be heard as well as clear up their anticipations. Listening without coming up with verdicts makes it easy for the subordinates to trust and treasure their leader (Bairre, 2013). They should be excellent communicators capable of sharing opinions in a simple and neat manner whilst looking at the demands and wishes of the targeted audience. They ought to be candid, optimistic and considerate in their interaction (Bairre, 2013).
Good administrative leaders are exceptional managers who focus beyond the accessible opportunity and offer allowances for occasions that may not be predicted in a short time. They come up with the company’s objectives as well as outline its purposes. They go on and define how they can be accomplished, promising effectiveness of the corporation. It is their duty to motivate as well as inspire their subordinates in the company (Bairre, 2013). This is possible via acknowledging achievements, praising and appreciating their hard work. The leader ought to easily assign tasks to subordinate workers as well as offer them an opportunity to be the best. This presents the subordinate worker a sense of worth and being trusted with the administration whilst giving the leader time for other important obligations. They ought to be able to create a guiding relation with coworkers as well aid them in grasping and learning up-to-date skills (Bairre, 2013). Being advisors, they have the responsibility to infer advancements, guide as well act as role models. The skills and exposure they possess should aid grow other people.
Administrative leaders ought to be at ease with technology and fathom how to make use of diverse systems (Peacock, 2013). These leaders need to have fundamental monetary as well as budgeting abilities and pay attention to the client. In this situation, they ought to be focused on the requirements of beneficiaries as well as apply this in creation of policies in the company. These managers ought to be versatile but not loose. They as well have to display some firmness to avert making decisions carelessly for the company (Peacock, 2013). They ought to offer the corporation a feeling of direction, give an ear depicting humility, and however be brave and not to dread taking risks for development of the corporation.
Communication Style Required of ACO Leadership
The four communication techniques exercised by people include; passive, passive aggressive, aggressive and assertive communication styles. A passive communicator shuns articulating his or her emotions, ideas as well as perceptions. When communicating, they do so in a remorseful way and as a result others may not pay attention (Roher, n.d.). Other people may probably misuse them and make them feel worried, desperate and confused. They cannot control their lives. They are vulnerable to being stressed frequently. They as well try to hate other people as they hardly get their necessities fulfilled (Roher, n.d.).
Passive-aggressive individuals are deceitful people who do not succeed to handle openly their issues. They seem to have no problems towards other people, but they hold their anger against others. They regularly embrace cynicism, baffling body language as well as rejection. They chiefly attempt to interrupt or demoralize other people (Roher, n.d.). Because of these conducts, many people do not belief them. Aggressive communicators defend themselves, although in the wrong manner. They regularly tamper with the rights of other people and are rude when conversing (Roher, n.d.). This actions are caused by lack of enough authority. These individuals attempt to rule others via control and have an arrogant body language. They are also bad tempered and have sturdy and irritating feeling of authority. Aggressive individuals isolate other people via these conducts as well as feel powerless as they cannot not have their needs satisfied in a great way (Roher, n.d.).
Assertive communicators are capable of articulating their views in a flawless and decent way. They try to meet their needs without having to infringe or push away the rights of other people. These people are confident and embrace a cool body language as well as a good tone while interacting, they are excellent listeners and utilize strength of their mind (Roher, n.d.). They feel in-charge and others feel comfortable and related to them. These individuals get what they desire thus they have no time to control or overlook other people. These communicators defend themselves, as well as take blame for their mistakes. To successfully meet their obligations, the administration of ACOs is required to adjust with the firm technique of communication. For executives inclined to other techniques of interaction, they ought to improve on specific facets of communication with others to acquire a better style (Roher, n.d.). The passive communicators ought to turn into better communicators by articulating what is their mind regularly. Aggressive communicators ought to articulate themselves in a reliable manner and value other people. The passive aggressive communicator can easily enhance his or her efficiency in interaction by articulating on how to handle difficulties (Roher, n.d.).
Vision and Mission of ACOs
The mission of an organization is the reason for its existence and it aids in decision making undertaken by the leaders of the company (Goldsmith, 2011). As Accountable Care Organization is an association of medical care providers who focus on offering exceptional healthcare at affordable rates, the mission may be asserted as: “A partnership of health care facilities and physicians dedicated to providing comprehensive, affordable, high quality and sustainable medical care for the patients and community with emphasis in preventive health care”
The vision asserts that the reason for the success of the company and provides a roadmap on what the corporation hopes to achieve and what to be in future. By alerting clients on the values of the company as well as conveying to investors and associates on how the company will run, it presents a hope for a bright future (Goldsmith, 2011). A sample of a vision statement of ACO looks like: “to be a leader in the transformation of the existing health care system from volume-based system of value-based one by creating a replicable and affordable framework that results in the best possible health for the community at the lowest possible cost whilst strengthening and preserving the health safety net.”
The ethics of a company are the ideologies workers, shareholders and beneficiaries put up with. Together with the mission as well as the vision, they make the company stand out from its competitors. To certain scope, they determine the company’s organization conduct and culture (Goldsmith, 2011). These values that you will find in an ACO incorporate;
- Enhanced preventive healthcare for the community
- Patient-oriented care
- Incessant development
Companies have to express their goals so as to accomplish and fulfill their vision and mission. These goals are well-planned, and aid the medical care planner in focusing on those chores that bring changes to the firm (Goldsmith, 2011). Accountable Care Organizations set the following goals and they are the reason why they were communicated;
- Lessening the expense of offering medical care
- Improvement of communication and transparency
- Enhanced access to healthcare
- To boost quality of healthcare
- Enable coordination of healthcare
- Personality Skills Needed
The character traits of individuals chosen as executives of Accountable Care Organizations are most probable to affect how the firm runs. For instance, communicative executives will be able to share with many doctors as well as be able to sway many other to join hands and build a sturdier Accountable Care Organization. These individuals are also capable of engaging beneficiaries helping the ACO get the necessary least number faster than if not involved in the process. The characters of these individual in the management or leadership group of an ACO ought to be unique, because each has his or her own strong points and flaws (Denham, 2010). The moment the diverse individuals are brought together, they can build a successful management group.
The outgoing persons hold the best abilities and may be used to inspire employees as well as safeguard external undertakings of the firm (Denham, 2010). The shy people are exceptional at analytical abilities and would thus be quite ample to have them run the funds as well as the budget for the firm. They can as well be beneficial when it comes to forecasts and tactical planning. Other characteristics vital for running an ACO are determination, assertiveness, self-consciousness and much more (Denham, 2010).
As much as assertiveness is a core trait, those in the management group ought to be supportive as well as confident to inspire others. Zeal is essential, as it glows out from these individuals to motivate the rest of the team. These individuals ought to also be well-versed with their abilities, desires and charisma. On top of this, besides understanding their capabilities, they ought to have self-esteem in those skills (Denham, 2010). These personnel should be morally upright, goal-oriented as well as have self-control. At last, they ought to exhibit an ability to survive when they encounter devastating issues.
The above discussion makes it clear that Accountable Care Organizations need to be separated when it comes to management. This is due to the fact that ACOs will have both medical and corporate facets. Each will demand experts from particular areas so as to operate competently. Interaction between the two core groups is necessary for easy operation of the firm.
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AHA. (2010). “Accountable Care Organizations: AHA RESEARCH SYNTHESIS REPORT.” American Health Association Committee on Research.
Bairre, C. (2013). 7 must-have leadership skills for administrative professionals. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.iaap-hq.org/blog/administrative-professionals/chrysta-bairre/administrative-professionals-week-7-must-have-leade [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
BMA. (2012). “Doctors’ perspectives on clinical leadership.” British Medical Association: Health Policy & Economic Research Unit
Denham, D. (2010). The 10 most important personality traits for career success. [online] Retrieved from: http://blog.timesunion.com/careers/the-10-most-important-personality-traits-for-career-success/633/ [Accessed: 26 Jan 2014].
Gold, J. (2011). Accountable care organizations, explained. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2011/04/01/132937232/accountable-care-organizations-explained [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Goldsmith, T. (2011). Accountable care organizations: the key to transforming healthcare?. MHA. Sawyer Business School, Suffolk University.
Peacock, L. (2013). Leadership: the eight essential skills – telegraph. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/jobs/9920854/Leadership-The-eight-essential-skills.html [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Roher, T. (n.d.). The different types of communication styles | ehow. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/info_7956333_different-types-communication-styles.html [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Spoerl, B. (2012). Advancing accountable care: 5 hospital aco leaders share insight. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-physician-relationships/advancing-accountable-care-5-hospital-aco-leaders-share-insight.html [Accessed: 25 Jan 2014].
Hrafnkel: Guilty or not Guilty?
The main character, Hranfnkel, in the Scandinavian family story is vindicated for his killing actions. He slayed Einar, who was one of his workers. His vindictive deed was illegitimate, but, the verities that back his deed overshadow the conflicting facts. The Icelandic perception of civilization, rule, and the relevance of one’s word all provided an extremely sturdy backing for Hrafnkel actions (Coles 1).
In line with the account, Hrafnkel was a respectful and caring man. He was gentle to every person who worked for him and those who complied with his orders. Nevertheless, he was quite strict and coldblooded to his enemies as well as individuals who opposed his directives (Hermann 37). It was due to his strict and pitiless personality that pushed him into slaying many people. The other quite imperative trait of Hrafnkel’s character is that he was so committed to his God Fray. He depicted his loyalty to Fray via pledging to him “Large temples and a half-share in all his best treasures” (Hermann 36). Freyfaxi, one of his many horses, is amongst the dearest resources that he dedicated to god Fray. Consequently, Hrafnkel took “a solemn oath to kill anyone who rode the stallion without his permission” (Hermann 38). Freyfaxi was a holy asset to Hrafnkel as he had dedicated it to a god that he cherished so much.
Einar, who was a victim of homicide, and had been a servant of Hrafnkel in his farm for many years. Nevertheless, he contemplated of looking for job in Hrafnkel’s settlements, when things were not in his favor. On agreeing to serve Hrafnkel, Einar settled never to ride on Freyfaxi; the sacred horse that he had warned him about (Coles 2). Einar promised “never to be so wicked to ride the one horse which was forbidden to him” (Hermann 40). He was as well sentimental of the penalties of disagreeing with Hrafnkel commands. The supreme directive being never to ride on the blessed horse without approval (Coles 2).
The indisputable verity in this entire account is that murder actually occurred, but, the most imperative question is whether Hrafnkel was responsible of taking life of another person or he was right to slay this individual as a form of sentence. In relation to the saga, Einar, was a devoted worker for a short period that he “never lost a single sheep” (Hermann 40). Nevertheless, after being a servant for Hrafnkel for a number of months, things went astray, and he lost 30 of his employer’s sheep at last. He searched for the lost sheep everywhere without any trace. He panicked and so opted to take a horse in his endeavors. He could not ride any of the available horses, except for Freyfaxi the sacred horse. He had no other option that to contradict his employer’s directives. As a result, he opted to ride his boss’s horse without authorization, as he was determined to find the lost sheep (Coles 3).
Exploring this instance, it can be summed up that Hrafnkel’s life taking acts were vindicated in several means. When he employed Einar as his sheepherder, he cautioned him from riding his sacred horse, Freyfaxi. Einar could ride the rest of the horse except Freyfaxi. Hrafnkel had made it apparent that he would slay him if he rode his sacred horse. The core motive for Hrafnkel act was defending his horse that he had already presented to god Frey. He had made it clear to those around him that it was him or god Frey who had the right to ride Freyfaxi (Hermann 38). In the course of this old times account, a man’s expression was quite imperative. People who kept their talk were highly respected. Hrafnkel affirmed to Einar that “Warning wards off all blame”, which meant that “I will kill you if you ride Freyfaxi, and it will be your fault” (Hermann 40). It was apparent that he could ride Freyfaxi when permitted. The most vital question is why did Einar had to ride his boss’s horse without his approval? The instance was not an emergency, because he had been looking for the lost sheep for a while, and the option to ride Freyfaxi was made beforehand. From the time when he started serving Hrafnkel, he was conscious that demise was the punishment for any person who rode the sanctified horse (Tracy 117).
The other motive that vindicates Hrafnkel murderous act is that his actions set an exceptional example to all surrounding people as well as the rest of his workers. It unmistakably depicted what would befall in case one went against his directives. For Einar, he had the choice of alerting him of the lost sheep and save his life instead of opting to go break his firm promise. Despite the fact that Hrafnkel had slayed a number of people, his deeds were defensible murder as not all wrongdoings avowed in his book carried a punishment of manslaughter. Even though homicide was illegal under the common law of the Vikings, it is likely that reasonable killing was pardonable (Yeo 262). Even states castigate wrongdoers by execution if found guilty of certain misconducts. The Scandinavian family story occurred when the federal states were not present. Therefore, Hrafnkel had no other option but to do it himself (Hermann 8).
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Hermann, Pálsson. Hrafnkel’s Saga and Other Icelandic Stories. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971. Print.
The Story of Hrafnkell, Frey’s Priest. [translated by J. Coles.] Eng. , 1882. Print.
Tracy, Larissa. Torture and Brutality in Medieval Literature: Negotiations of National Identity. Cambridge [England: D.S. Brewer, 2012. Print.
Yeo, Stanley M. H. Partial Excuses to Murder. Sydney: Federation Press, with the assistance of the Law Foundation of New South Wales, 1990. Print.
Days of Glory
The director and screenwriter of this film are Rachid Bouchareb and Oliver Morello respectively. They produced a film that showed the contribution the North American Soldiers made by fighting in France against the Nazis in the World War II. The Arabs fought for France, their native nation which set the emotionally-charging drama seen in the rest of the film. Starring in the movie are Jamel Debbouze, Bernard Blancan, Sami Bouajila and Samy Naceri. In the bid to break the powerful 1943 grip by Hitler that lasted three long years, France recruited African armies, comprised of 130,000 North Americans, who were committed to place their life at risk in order to because the downfall of the death machine that was Nazi into a bottomless pit.
However, regardless of their remarkable sacrifices, the French dubbed themselves contemptuously as natives. They dreamt that one day, they would visit their country which they had fought for from afar. However, in the end, their selfless efforts were transcended by their superior contemptuous disregard for the services offered by these soldiers. Their soldiers provided invaluable aid in the darkest hours of the world. The historical context of the movie dates back to 1944-45. During the liberation of the Alps, Italy, the Rhone Valley, the Vosges and the Province marked the deadliest stages in the allied triumph.
France was in the position to take allies following the Armistice. The first French Army they recruited from Africa executed the bloody and triumphant demonstration on the German Nazis and helped circumvent the German officials and occupiers of the Vichly regime. Approximately 130,000 African soldiers were part of the French troops with the remainder of the troops was made up of young French soldiers who fled from the profession. Often, this film reminds views of the story that is forgotten of “native” French soldiers. The North Africans, Arabs especially believed they were natives of France and they were fighting the Germans for France they believed to be fighting for their country. The French superiors however, betrayed them in their hour of need. This is the message passed all through the film (Jeffries 1).
The director of the film is Rachid Bouchareb. He was born in Paris, France to Algerian parents. He is well known for producing art that is thought provoking, by challenging multiculturalism and philosophies of immigration. The ways through which ethnic differences and culture play out in different societies in historical periods comes out clearly in his art pieces. For example, in the film, Days of Glory, he depicts the kind of discrimination that goes on in the Free French Forces to the North African Soldiers. The soldiers from North America received 2nd class citizenship despite sacrifices they made in the fight for their “native” county. The film also fits the philosophy through the manner in which discrimination continues through the setting.
There is a distress portrayal of discriminations and injustices that were enforced against African soldiers from Tunisia and Algeria in one of their exploits. In one of these episodes, it is clear that the North African soldiers but nothing more than cannon fodders used by commanding officers to be on the battlefront. Rachid Bouchareb presents suffering of the soldiers go through an the kind of deep discriminatory military institution, which offers a prism through which we can look at discrimination immigrants in modern France have to go through. As such, his films, especially The Days of Glory, had public discourse in the French forums, which helped in bringing about changes to the manner the French natives looked upon the North African veterans (Jeffries 1).
Rachid Bouchareb uses cinematographic techniques in order to portray the message he wants viewers to perceive in the best manner possible. He uses powerful drama, which shines a light into the North African soldiers, fighting for the Free France after D-Day. The piece of art in itself is not a masterpiece, it entertains and the characters are well established from the start to the end of the film. Thought it can be predictable at times, the most important and notable thing about the film is ripples it creates as well as the impacted created in minds of French people who saw the film. It is worth noting that immediately after release of the film, the French government made an agreement for the first time to begin paying compensation to remnant widows that North African fighters left behind. Hollywood film style, though, is different in some aspects. For instance, it failed to merge French, English and Arabic at the same time and in the same film. However, the film shows Arabs speaking in Arabic while slapping or fighting someone (Todd 1).
African films do not follow similar formulas as those by Hollywood film maker style. They are stories telling of something valuable, informative and not products that are for selling only. They are part of informative entertainment teaching the society about their value. African directors produce films challenging conventional ideas of cinemas by drawing global themes, cosmopolitan scripts and local legends. Products of African films are issues affecting local and ordinary people on a daily basis. Rachid Bouchareb produced a similar theme regarding an issue affecting international and local immigrants to France on a daily basis. The film is about discrimination African soldier went through as they offer their services to the military France. He produced a film that was thoughtful that moved the France government to start paying compensation to remnant widows the African soldiers left behind.
The major question that made me interested in research of the movie is the relationship France had to Muslims. Majority of the Arabs in North African countries are Muslims an anytime Muslims are fighting, it is never a simple war. Possibly, this was part of the reason France recruited the Muslims so they could fight with all they had. What is more, the rest of the European countries did not have as many Muslims as France, yet they were closer to them. As a matter of fact, majority of Arabs in North African countries claimed they were French notices. Additionally, Muslims believed in Liberty, Equity and Fraternity which, are aspects lacking in the film. The question therefore remains on the kind of relationship French had with the Muslims from North Africa.
The film Days of Glory is a depiction of some realities that are happening to humanity throughout the globe which tend to be forgotten by people too soon. An example is the role played by African-Americans in the making of the nation that is now the United States of America. During Second World War, African-Americans were at the forefront of the military battle, an advantage they did not have initially, to the point they redeemed the nation. The country has been in a state where Whites do not favor the Black man as the president despite the role the Blacks made in making it the nation it currently is.
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Todd, Andrew. “Sotigui Koyaté Obituary.” The Guardian, 2 May 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2010.
Jeffries, Stuart. “Rachid Bouchareb: My Film about the 7/7 London Bombings.” The Guardian, 6 July 2010. Web. 13 Oct. 2010.
Doing the best I can: Fatherhood in the Inner City
Synopsis of the Book
“Doing the Best I can” is a book that looks into the truth regarding inner-city fatherhood. There is no doubt that whenever one becomes a parent, so much is expected from them. Clearly, it is expected that they should provide clothing, food as well as other basic needs for the child, to make sure they have shelter, happy, comfortable and encouraged life. Additionally, the society expects when one becomes a parent, they should teach the child compassion, religion, good morals, respect and other moral living aspects like sending them to school. What is so amazing is that even the president of the state expects fathers to stick around the baby.
This poses a major question, which is, just how easy is parenting? What aspects make a good father? Such questions are answered in the book written by Kathryn Edin working with Timothy Nelson, Doing the best I Can.
Newscasts, commencement speeches as well as other kinds of speeches overflow with the recommendation: youthful Black men must make improved “choices”, specifically, they are expected to accept responsibilities as well as bring children they parent. Any reluctance to do so as stated by Timothy and Kathryn is “denounced as one of the leading social problems of our day”.
Nevertheless, the reality on inner-city fatherhood is a reality. Kathryn and timothy, in seeking the answer actually went to Camden, N.J in order to observe the behavior of one hundred and ten men in Philadelphia and Camden. Their main objective was to have an understanding of the experiences of White men, Latino and Black men, all of whom comprised unwed fathers. To the surprise of the authors, they made the discovery formation of a couple was, for majority of men, an informal incident, almost like an accident. Affairs “just happened” and so did pregnancies, which in majority of cases, “happened” comparatively at a similar speed. Despite the fact, authors also noted there were pregnancies that appeared to be “semi-planned”.
Experts could point to the opposite, though fathers indicated a “surprising desire to parent their kids”. For the largest part, individuals interviewed were happy regarding their “own” children. As a matter of fact, Kathryn and Timothy came to the establishment that, it was the child the father was actually attached to. The mother, was an afterthought. Yet, in the end, decisions that pertained to financial help, daily provision for the child and child bearing were responsibilities assumed by the mum, regardless the fact fathers did what they could by using their limited resources either financially or physically. Additionally, every man was quite precise regarding whom a “good father” is citing deeds and actions that were contradictory to that which they expected from their own dad…
Without doubt, doing the Best I Can is a captivating solitary book. From the start to the end of the research, Kathryn and Nelson wind up some readers while they bring others down. It is however evident that it has encouragement as well as a strong call to responsible fatherhood within pages that are contained in the book. The book, doing the Best I Can, does not in any way substantiate most of the aged beliefs; on the contrary, it turns them into the region of knowledge with compassionate and hopeful sympathy in opposition to “unintelligent” behavior. What is more, the book includes an advice and warning to inner-city white, black and Latino women which is quite a revelation.
The book’s main new contributions to the literature
Doing the Best I Can is a book that makes remarkable contribution to the existing research and literatures in the field of unwed fatherhood and parenting and single motherhood. More importantly, it addresses the concern of development and growth among children that is based on cultural, economic, environmental and social factors. The behavior of a child as well as his or her ability to navigate through different stages in life is viewed as one of the most crucial indicators for socioeconomic wellness, though factors influencing it still remain unresolved. There are suggestions that determine the behavior of a child and these are reliant on whether the parent is poor or rich. The impact on development of the child, in case of poor parents, could also be affected by economic and social challenges. Doing the Best I Can focuses on the manner in which social and economic factors influence the healthy development of a child. Using data from 110 men, who are White, Black and Latino, with income groups, the authors discerned financial constraints, unplanned pregnancies, unwed fatherhood and relationships that came to an end are the major child development contributors.
There are more studies that attribute child development to environmental influences and they take it to be responsive to socioeconomic factors (Fan & Chen, 2001). The negative relationship between infant development and economic development has been given a lot of weight in literature. Ford et al (2010) makes the argument that income inequality leads to health risks. This is contrary to absolute hypothesis, which postulates that income is the only thing that affects health and not how it is distributed. The study additionally provides analysis of various connections between health and income, in which case, the argument is that income has great impact on health, income affects health following epistemological transition.
The book also contributes to literature on motherhood and poverty. It is common to find poor women giving birth early in their lives when they are not financially prepared to offer support to their children (Edin & Nelson, 2013). Early motherhood, positively relates to the financial stability of females and labor participation rate, which means women with financial challenges and low labor participation give birth often to unplanned babies on the desire or promise to be married. However, coefficient for female labor participation is close to zero, with possible explanation that women who take part in labor are breadwinners and hence, they have enough income to spend in maintaining the health of the babies, though at the same time, they lack time to care for the babies hence have a net off-effect.
Based on findings in the book, social work professionals have an understanding of challenges faced by unwed fathers, single mothers and reasons contributing to unplanned pregnancies. Social workers entrusted with the mandate of helping people make decisions, understand life, and avoid future problems and other numerous responsibilities. As such, understanding the reason men or women participate in an affair they are not ready to face the consequences is crucial for them to be effective. Such knowledge is outlined in the book Doing the Best I Can and can be of great assistance to women in inner city.
How the premise presented in the book relates to life-course development
Drawing from the book, Doing the best I can indicates how cultural and economic challenges change the meaning of fatherhood for the urban poor people. Because of hardship, parents often leave responsibilities of child raising to mothers. This leads to hardships in the early years of a child’s development. Such issues relate to the growth and development of children since they are often affected by the social and economic state of their father.
Overall, the book exposes a notable trend in process of child developmental psychology. The author’s findings are linked with theories of human development and other theories explaining that unconscious happenings affect a child’s growth. Many psychonauts have worked as individuals helping others solve their behavior problems and well develop them. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are 2 scholars and psychonauts who have made some great impact in the field. Freud believed have to be caused (Mac Brayer, Milich, & Hundley, 2003).
Freud also believed a person goes through some psychosexual stages from childhood through to adulthood and whenever they miss one pint in these states, they can remain stuck for the remainder of their lives. They included 5 stages that include anal, phallic, oral, and genital and latency stages. The first stage is oral which is evidenced in the child’s first year. Everything in this stage is cantered in the mouth as that is where they put everything. The second is anal stage which covers the age bracket of one and 3 years, it focuses on the anus and its products. In this stage, children endeavor to gain control of their excretory functions. Phallic stage starts at the age of three to five years and focuses on sexual activity, as the boys desire to spend time with their mother while the girls with their fathers. This happens for boys to learn what it takes to be a father and the girls, a mother. Failure of this taken place results in individuals admiring men and women who are the replica of their parents (Georgiou, 1996).
The third stage is known as latency stage and covers the age bracket of 6 to 12 years, children in this stage are more social and they also develop the urge of making cross sex friendships. Genital stage occurs during adolescence and above and its where attraction between individuals of the opposite sex is clearly evident. At this stage, people have the urge of practicing sexuality; sexual libidinal, hedonistic desire is also part of the stage (Baumrind, 1996).
Erikson’s theory presents social development aspects that are different. His primary stages are the same to Freud’s, though the last ones talk more about development in adults. Each stage is characterized by the development of ego strength or virtue. The developed virtue is what forms part of the person’s or child’s ego skills. As such, a negative form of ego strength arises if it is developed poorly at any of the stages. Every stage has a crisis with conflict that is centered on a given issue. Conversely, the early development stages give way to later stages though rehabilitation occurs later in healthy relationships that one engages in life. Other relationships are vital in every stage; as such intergenerational interactions are very crucial in assisting children, young people as well as the elderly develop life skills that are important. The development, whether in an adult or child, can as well affect their cultural and social development.
From these developmental theories, it is evident that the findings in Doing the Best I Can indicate children of unwed fathers encounter numerous challenges in the course of infancy that affect their growth (Edin & Nelson, 2013). These include identity issues, anxieties, ego, failed dreams, unmet needs and poverty as well as other problems. Precisely because of this, they might not be in the position to develop desirable behavior when they are grown. For example, because of anxieties, ego creates a defense mechanism to avoid them; all the mechanisms may be unhealthy and immoral but still capable of helping one cope with harsh realities. Some of these mechanisms include; denial which is most common, people are afraid of admitting the obvious truth which appears to put them down before others, it endeavors to protect ego from aspects it cannot cope with though the process is energy consuming. The most common form of denial is addiction, which many people view as problematic and they fail to admit that they are under the influence of alcohol or substance. Repression is another defense mechanism, striving to maintain information from mindful consciousness. While the memories might be kept under cover, they might not disappear fully and in some cases, might influence future behaviors. Displacement is another defense mechanism people use in order to relieve their stresses on others. When people become frustrated by situations, they become harder on their family and friends and they are said to have displaced them (Baumrind, 1966).
Role of Social Work for Professionals in Human Development
Children who are fatherless or those from poor families always remain marginalized in society and they experience “considerably high rates of poverty than those who come from rich backgrounds in the UK” due to exploitation and discrimination by other groups that have vested interests (McCarthy, 2007). However, over the years, the need for a foundation that is strong to make their rights known and as such, find ways to improve their status in society has focused on the work of social activists and professionals (Fan & Chen, 2001). Additionally, other parties involved offer their support to the poor children come together and they decide to undertake initiatives that offer them equal opportunities as others within the society.
In the same manner, the UK government is focused on “greater emphasis on improving employment outcomes for the ethnic minorities” to enhance their economic status (McCarthy, 2007). Additionally, some of the organizations in the UK, like Oxfam, created events that involve policy makers, policy papers and published articles as well as linked with media in order to give the poor families a platform where they can articulate ideas in society. According to Robl et al. (2012), the concerted efforts made by the agencies as well as support of poor people has helped them to immensely improve and develop their economic position in order to enable political mobilization.
As children coming from poor families continue to fight for a place in the community, social work experts are managing their lives across the world. These professionals as well play a critical role in fighting for a society that is just and improving the status of marginalized people and enhancing services efficiency for all. In the UK, such experts fight for the minority rights and they make sure their suggestions and views reach policy-makers (McCarthy, 2007). They also work with ethnic minority women in order to provide a basis for them to air their views. The political mobilization, on the other hand of ethnic minority people has played a central role in making it possible for them to achieve their goals.
While doing an assessment of the financial needs of children coming from poor backgrounds, it is also critical to develop communication with not just family members and primary educators of these children but a need to communicate with the children. Communication is critical in the emergence of the need for both school and residential settings. It contributed to effective development of the child. Skills that are related to effective and clear communication plays a crucial role in helping the child since often, fatherless or children from poor background suffer the common inferiority problem, anxiety, aggression and others, as such, communicating with peers is difficult (Henderson, 2006). According to Santamaria (2005), even though they have socializing problems because of their deprivation state or poverty, they can still learn the skills and get along with others well. They might not complain but they can feel and this contributed to their intellectual, physical and emotional state.
Improving quality of life and evolution of attitudes to improve the social and economic well-being of the population, the major objective of social work professionals is developing an individual centered on development plan. Advice is offered to people so they can maintain respect, dignity, promote safety, health and comfort. The standard of services social workers provide is also maintained to satisfaction level of the individual and their primary caregivers (McCarthy, 2007). This is due to the fact people providing social workers services must be aware of their duties and responsibilities and they should also have good skills and knowledge that is needed to create services that are of high quality (Brooker, 2007). Social work professionals, in summary play a crucial role in development of human life through the provision of advisory services to policy makers, educators and the family members of children who come from poor or fatherless backgrounds. Also, there is need for social workers to carry on with learning more about social development of children in modern world with partial involved of the fathers.
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Baumrind, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child development, 887-907.
Brooker D., 2007, person centered dementia care: making service better, London Jessica
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Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational psychology review, 13(1), 1-22.
Ford, J. D., Fraleigh, L. A., & Connor, D. F. (2010). Child Abuse and Aggression Among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 39(1), 25-34.doi:10.1080/15374410903401104
Henderson, J. (2006). Palliative care in dementia caring at home to the end, Journal of Dementia
Care, pp 56-94.
Georgiou, S. N. (1996). Parental involvement: Definition and outcomes. Social Psychology of
Education, 1(3), 189-209.
Mac Brayer, E. K., Milich, R., & Hundley, M. (2003). Attributional biases in aggressive children and their mothers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(4), 698.
McCarthy, M. (2007). The experience of dying with dementia: a retrospective study,
International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 12: pp. 404-9.
Robl, J., Jewell, T., &Kanotra, S. (2012).The Effect of Parental Involvement on Problematic
Social Behaviors Among School-Age Children in Kentucky.Maternal & Child Health Journal, 16287-297.doi:10.1007/s10995-012-1187-4
Santamaria, N. (2005). Palliative care and dementia, Discussion paper 7, Alzheimer’s Australia,
The merging of different cultures in the process of integration of traditional features of native culture with unique or new features of the introduced culture to create new beliefs and traditions is known as cultural syncretism. The process often occurs when different countries seek to explore other countries, which ensures the integration of native and foreign cultures (Balme, 1999).
The concept mainly denotes the integration of contesting political and religious doctrines often attribute to specific rituals that ultimately get accepted as the common aspects of local practices. Therefore, it acts as a process and a hinges definition presenting inappropriately intertwined cultural and religious categories that tend to be alienated to each other.
The idea therefore defines the extensive imposition of a foreign culture to an existing one via the introduction of foreign beliefs and practices. This attributes to the development of politicized cultural approach or topography only describing a prevailing cultural condition without explaining the processes under which the condition occurred (Serge, 1998).
Cultural syncretism in Africa and America versus China and India
It is clear that significant similarities and differences in the way the idea of concept of cultural syncretism occurred in the west and in Asian nations. It is also clear that India and China were faced by same aspects that enhanced syncretism in America and Africa as similar episodes included integration different cultural orientation growing from different races that resided within cultures already existed.
According to Balme (1999), diverse communities particularly from the African origin that had clear social and cultural practices in resided in the culture of America. Conversely India and America had been invaded by foreign communities and had clear cultural practices that could be in diluted nature practices to create new ones (Stewart, 1994).
The growth of Shang dynasty led to the creation of creating different cities in Chinese territory that allowed foreign
societies with defined religious and cultural practices to reside within the country. The communities had also been particularly retained cohesive relationship that enabled them to share various wide range cultural practices that helped them to fight barbarians that existed in the region (Serge, 1998).
India was also invaded by foreign societies leading to the growth of distinct cultural orientation that could impact native Indian culture. The growth of Aryans in the Indian Territory also led to the introduction of unique dialects that were closely related to European languages and new religious beliefs that led to the introduction of books relating to the new religion (Stewart, 1994).
The West and Asian countries territory invasion also touched the political field leading to the modification of leadership systems that had discriminatory authorities. The political system of the USA for instance included the incorporation of various African races that were largely segregated in the political arena.
The African Americans on the same note were also not permitted to vote or engage in political activities on an equal footing as the Americans. China and India conversely were characterized by divided authorities that included high class communities on top of their bureaucratic systems as well as poor populations including outcasts in the society who occupied the bottom hierarchy (Yacob, 1995).
It is also evident that the effect of invasions was clear because cultural influences in the American territory were accepted easily compared to that of Asian countries. The availability of different societies with unique cultural practices also offered room for the introduction of unique music styles that signified the new American society. The religious culture additionally included new practices from various communities living in the region and it created a cohesive society that preached same beliefs.
However, such developments were non-achievable within Asian nations because they resisted any cultural and religious practices that could be accepted in the society. Different factors also generated the differences including religious beliefs as well as societal structures. Amongst unique features that can be connected to the differences were spiritual orientations that some cultures had because they could determine the level at which foreign practices would be incorporated into the existing culture.
For example, Indians believed in preaching enlightenment spirit via the use of main native scriptures making it hard to incorporate spiritual teachings that originated from other cultures (Serge, 1998).
China also had a unique religious system that had been held for a long time. All religions within the region strongly believed in peaceful coexistence making it hard for other religious cultures that were bound to disintegrate the people to be accepted in the country. Christianity which included the main religion in American society also had formal structures that could pave way for integration of new cultural settings.
Existing religions within the Indian and Chinese territories even so did not have any formal structure and as a result, they could not allow for any changes in their cultural setup to take place within their religious systems (Yacob, 1995). The unique nature and level at which different cultures were incorporated in the west and the two Asian countries also left a significant affect that is still common in modern day societies.
The modern day American Christian legacy according to Stewart, relates to the way in which they invaded foreign nations thus influencing the communities that strongly believed in idolatry. The other important legacy that has since remained by orientations differences towards cultural change is that which appears to be common faith betrayal in one culture appearing to be some form of appropriation in another culture. This further explains why modern day society religions appear to object what others consider to be comfortable to them (Balme, 1999).
However, it is obvious that modern day American society would be completely different in the process of Cultural syncretism that takes place in the region. According to Steward (1994), the political culture of the US would be very discriminative as the government would be divided into Black Americans, having a separate governance system and White Americans with their unique system on the other hand.
Unlike the government system that is prevailing in Modern day American society, the political culture of the US would be characterized by conflicting racial politics that would also be sidelined discriminatively by each group of individual on racial grounds (Yacob, 1995). It is also notable that the music system in America could not be the way it is in the event of cultural syncretism if it did not occur.
While various cultures integrate their orientations to create a clear and advanced music system, each society would be struggling for dominance in the music arena while challenging music styles would also exist (Stewart, 1994). This kind of disintegration would in the end affect the advancement level of each style because they would have a small part of the audience challenging and supporting its advancement or growth.
While it is also clear that a specific resistance level to cultural change displayed syncretism to take root in early encounters that existed in China and India, cultural orientations would be quite different from the way they are in modern day of syncretism did not impact at the time.
The two nations according to Serge (1998) would have a structured religious unit if their sacred texts would be given a chance to undergo interpretations as well as translations characterized with clear religious traditions. However, this was not the case in different religious orientations that existed thus, explaining the reason as to why they have been quite tenacious and resilient to be in a position to expand and grow.
Religious orientations in India and China also focus on work as part of their religious orientation in that dedication to work defines the deeds of each and every individual and needs to be rewarded positively.
The effect of including syncretism at an early stage would also be clear as smaller communities that do not belief in cultural work emerge in the end. This would also reduce the productivity of a person as he or she would be resistant to work and led to trade commercialization (Balme¸1999).
It is clear that the effect of cultural syncretism was rampant in China, India and America as foreign cultures incorporated part of their practices into their already existing cultures. Even though the syncretism effect occurred within the American territory at an early age in history, this was not the case in China and India as many factors included religious beliefs, social structures, economic orientations and political systems that could not enhance assimilation effect of different cultural practices.
This further explains the reason as to why cultural practices could be incorporated easily within the American territory yet it could not be realized in the two Asian nations.
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Balme, C. (1999). Decolonizing the Stage: Theatrical Syncretism and Post-Colonial Drama, Oxford, Clarend on Press.
Serge, M. (1998). Cultural Diversity, Pedagogy, Assessment Strategies, The Journal of Negro Education, 67(3): 65-80.
Stewart, C. (1994). Syncretism/Anti-Syncretism: The Politics of Religious Synthesis, London, Routledge.
Yacob, T. (1995). Ecumenism, Culture and Syncretism, International Review of Mission, 84(3): 78-99.
Boutique Hotels in Thailand
The idea of boutique hotel has been widely embraced across North America and the United Kingdom to mean hotels that have more than ten rooms characterized with luxurious amenities founded in intimate locations and with full service lodgings. They are often tailor made to offer high quality services and in an intimate, luxurious, unique and comfortable setting that is not likely to be found in any normal setting which regular hotels homogeneity are found (Balekjian, 2011).
Background of the Study
The importance of creating boutique hotels has been an essential evolution that has continued to be part of the vast developments experienced in cultural tourism. While the concept can be traced back to the 1980s, its evolution is imperative and is highly related to the growing interests that individuals have employed in history, art and cultural heritage.
According to Berger& Chiofaro (2007), international hotel chains rapid growth led to the creation of a more standardized idea that would be utilized to define the facilities in the vast majority. This led to the initiation of the idea of box hotel, which is characterized by homogeneity in facilities and products offered in the hotel industry.
Lack of differentiation between majority of products and services offered in the hospitality industry eventually saw to the growth of McDonaldization of the industry where many hotels would be characterized with products and services available across the globe among other features.
However, this kind of development aggravated the introduction of a counter movement that was enhanced by clients who sought hotels with unique sophistications to match their unique lifestyles (Aliukeviciute, 2010). The need to integrate a high sophistication level as well as innovativeness additionally led to the growth of new lifestyle hotels characterized with exceptional designs and hotel niches.
The term boutique was therefore introduced to provide a generic definition of niches that were characterized by unique designs tailor made for expression of classic lifestyle. Some of the unique features of such hotels were first witnessed in Las Vegas in 1981 where unique features were tailor made to replicate cities among other unique features.
The Hotel Vintage Court, a hotel with an exceptional theme was established in 1983 in San Francisco (Tidti, 2009). This marked the turning point of rapid development of interior trends that also marked the boutique hotels’ unique features. The initiation of boutique hotel concept also generated new public recognition of such hotels in 1994 and it led to development of lifestyle hotels across many parts of the globe including New Zealand, United Kingdom and North America.
Such developments can be closely linked to a wide range of choices that the hotels offer and have continually made while offering hospitality products as they seek to ensure their guests are served with an exceptional cultural experience (Nagovisyna, 2012).
Statement of the Problem
Companies operating in the hospitality industry have continued to look for ways to expand their business as the rate of losing clients has continued to threaten their existence. This has led to rapid implementation of marketing strategies in the industry that has witnessed growth in boutique hotels.
Even though business owners have continued to employ a wide range of management strategies designed to ensure boutique settings are distinct from the traditional hotel set up, no study has been carried out to investigate how the rapid development of the hotels has affected regular hotel operations in Thailand.
There are also different studies that have been carried out to try and investigate how the entities designed new strategies to acquire and retain a high number of clients operating in the region. The studies have been however considered inadequate based on the fact that they do not indicate how the development of the hotels has affected normal operations of regular hotels in the region (Klumbis, 2003).
This study will therefore be quite essential in filling different gaps that have been identified as a way of establishing means by which rapid boutique hotels in Thailand has influenced the operations of normal hotels.
Justification for the study
Rapid tourism industry growth in Thailand is expected to continue as the economy of the country has continued to register positive growth with a solid GDP. According to Lang (2013), tourism in the country’s market is indicating a significant recovery from global instability state as a result of severe financial crisis and political turmoil. As the number of tourists visiting the country is expected to grow, developing different factors that may impact performance quality and productivity in the industry is subsequently imperative.
This is attributed to the fact that tourists visiting the region are mainly attracted by unique features of boutique hotels, which are rarely found in regular hotels. According to Lo (2012), superb attention is also given to specific boutique hotels details that make them stunningly attractive and unique.
Managers in the institutions maintain an incredible ambience attracting visitors from across the globe. The hotels also employ a unique collection of styles offering a unique experience that tends to be quite rare in regular hotels.
Research to topic
This paper aims at investigating unique features of boutique hotels that influence the decisions of tourism choices as a way of determining the reasons behind rapid expansion of the hotels in Thailand and how they affect regular hotels performance. The specific questions that will be utilized to guide the study include
- Which unique features attract tourists into the boutique as opposed to regular hotels in Thailand?
- What effect has the tremendous growth in boutique hotels had on regular hotels?
- How does clients taste and preference of the people of Thai compare to the type of hotel from which they seek for hospitality products and services
- How does quality of services of boutique hotel compare with the regular hotel?
Participants in any given market in most cases go after recognition of unique features which can be distinguished in the purchasing behaviors of certain consumer groups via creation of market niches. According to Tidti (2009), marketers can as a result enhance segmentation factors in the market to ensure the business niches narrow down in terms of target population to a given sub group that is quite distinct in lifestyle decisions.
Market segregation via creation of market niches has also been well employed in the hotel and travel industry as participants aim at enhancing their competitiveness level via increased productivity.
Distinct and unique qualities of boutique hotels have continued to attracted distinguished tourists whose tastes and preferences have been impacted by the exceptional characteristics. A study carried out by Chan (2012) revealed that user features are among the most essential factors affecting decisions made by tourists seeking hospitality services from boutique hotel. Chan also found out that unique and cleanliness of location is some of the most significant features that tend to attract more tourists and in the end, impact their ultimate choice for boutique hotels.
According to Mattila (2010), the hotels are additionally characterized with well-maintained chambers, attractive locations and secure environments and courteous staff offering quality services. This affected the decisions made by repeat clients who will always seek unique experiences offered by the hotels.
Affordability is also an essential feature that impacts the decisions made by tourists who seek hospitality services in boutique hotels. A study that was carried out by Naqshbandi & Munir (2011), revealed that tourists are in most cases attracted by exceptional characteristics evident in the interior of boutique hotels as they offer luxurious experience that cannot be found in traditional hotels.
Naqshbandi & Munir also found out that many luxurious tourists considered the decision of having interior features in traditional hotels as not appealing and non-arousing thus, the dire need to seek luxurious experiences in boutique hotels. Additionally, experiential relationships are essential features that can be utilized to explain the decisions made by tourists to consider the products and services offered in the hospitality industry, more specifically boutique hotels.
A study that was carried out by Nixon (20110, revealed that many tourists seek unique hospitality avenues where they can experience unique cultural attributes among other features that they may have not experienced in the past. This paper reveals that tourists are mainly attracted by sensory and experimental unique features found in boutique hotels.
Some theories can be used equally to explicate unique trends that tourists display in relevance to their search for hospitality services, which, tends to focus more on the boutique establishments more than regular hotels. According to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this can be explained depending on various client needs and expectations affecting their decisions to consider boutique hotels products and services.
Individuals according to the theory often have basic needs as well as expectations that trigger their decisions to consider more favorable avenues where their needs can be fully addressed. This can also help to provide a clear understanding as to why tourists seek high quality hospitality services in boutique setups where their expectations and needs to feel higher or dignified level of luxury can be met (Chan, 2012).
The service quality model can also explain the reasons behind the decisions of tourists to consider hospitality services in boutique hotels. The theory explains that quality of services often impact perceptions of past experiences originating from analysis of general performance. Clients also make decisions on the need to look for repeated services if their experiences in the past revealed a high satisfaction level exceeding their expectations.
The theory is therefore essential in explaining how clients continually settle for hospitality services in boutique setups where the services surpass their expectations and is not usually the case in regular hotels (Tidti, 2009).
Summary and Conclusion
It is clear that extensive scholarly work has been carried out to evaluate different aspects related to the choices of tourists to settle for boutique hotels as opposed to regular hotels. Evidence from scholarly research indicate different features affecting their choices thus contributing to the growth of trends where tourists relate to in the search for hospitality services in boutique hotel setups.
Even so, the research failed to describe the different effects of the developments on regular hotel operations and how they impact the preferences of clients in regard to their products and services. The study as a result aims at filling this gap by carrying out an extensive investigation in relevance to the growing boutique hotels trend in Thailand as a way of determining their impact on regular hotels.
This research seeks to explore unique features attracting tourists into the boutique hotels as a way of determining their effect on the growth trend of the hotels as it is bound to have on regular hotels. The study will also employ a qualitative approach to data collection to ascertain that questions used in the research are responded to sufficiently.
According to Marshall S (1996), qualitative approach to research is essential as it creates room for flexibility when examining significant issues while dropping unproductive areas as well as those that may not be answered in the study.
The main data collection tools will include interviews and questionnaires that will have same information. According to Akbayrak (2000), these tools are essential because they pave way for collection of in-depth information relating to a given field of study. The population used in the study will also be selected from five boutique hotel establishments in Thailand as well as 3 General Managers, 5 Departmental Managers and 3 Senior Managers from each of the hotel.
Additionally, ten guests from each hotel will included in the study to generate more information in relevance to client experiences and their views on the setups. The collected information will then be analyzed using the SPPS program and the findings will be presented in histograms, graphs, frequency tables and pie charts.
The final result will also be used to reach conclusions relating to different characteristics attracting tourists to the hotels, their impact on regular hotels and how this impact influence the preferences of clients on the type of hotel they consider for hospitality services.
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Akbayrak, B. (2000). A Comparison of Tow Data Collecting Methods: Interviews and Questionnaires, Journal of Education, 18(1):1-10.
Aliukeviciute, M. (2010). Boutique Hotels’ Evolution, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality management, 22(3):1-6.
Balekjian, C. (2011). Boutique Hotels Segment: The Challenge of Standing out from the Crowd, London: HVS, London Office.
Berger, B. and Chiofaro, D. (2007). Select-Service Hotels A Guide to Understanding the Lodging Industry and One of its Most Attractive Segments, Retrieved on 17th January From http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/42012/226316535.pdf
Chan, C. (2012). International Tourism Marketing and Development, Retrieved on 17th January, 2014 from https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/3587/Lodging_subsector_report_boutique_hotels.pdf?sequence=7
Holverson, S. et al. (2010). The Strategic Importance of Affiliation with Lifestyle Consortia for Small and Medium-Sized Independent, Retrieved on 17th January, 2014 from https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&ved=0CGkQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fpublications.ehl.edu%2Ffre%2Fcontent%2Fdownload%2F1096%2F6966%2Ffile%2FFinal%2520Report%2520.pdf&ei=rVfZUu6cFOSS7QbG-IAo&usg=AFQjCNEhPjJMbn1WXrbLtAFn4bbAHz7NEA&sig2=rWNm6HswipbcuCK8IvzMuQ&bvm=bv.59568121,d.ZGU
Klumbis, D.F. (2003). Seeking the Ultimate Hotel Experience, retrieved on 17th January, 2014 from http://www.esade.edu/cedit2003/pdfs/danielafreund.pdf
Lang, J. (2013). Spotlight on Thailand: Hotel Investment Market, Retrieved on 17th January, 2014 from http://www.joneslanglasalle.com/ResearchLevel1/Spotlight%20on%20Thailand%20Investment%20Jan2013.pdf
Lo, Y.H. (2012). Back to Hotel Strategic Management 101: An Examination of Hotels’ Implementation of Porter’s Generic Strategy in China, Journal of International Management Studies, 7(1): 56-69.
Marshall, M.N. (1996). Sampling for Qualitative Research, International Journal of Family Practice, 13(6):522-525.
Mattila, J. (2010). Hotel Brand Strategy, Journal of Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(1):27-34.
Nagovitsyna, M. (2012). Boutique Hotel, Retrieved on 17th January 2014, from http://www.gttp.org/content/listings/118/files/12/russia-2012.pdf
Naqshbandi, M.M. and Munir, R.S. (2011). Atmospheric Elements and Personality: Impact on Hotel Lobby Impressions, Journal World Applied Sciences, 15(6):785-792.
Nixon, N.W. (2011). A Study of the Experiential Service Design Process at a Luxury Hotel, Retrieved on 17thJanuary,2014from http://faculty.philau.edu/nixonn/documents/Dissertation_NWN_WileyISPIM.pdf
Tidti, T. (2009). Lifestyle Segmentation for Boutique Accommodation in Relation to the Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction, Thailand: Payap University Press.
Tort of Negligence
Crippling of large companies is quite common in Australia. Such ruins, leads to many losses to relevant stockholders, more specifically, third parties. Under such incidences, blame game is also a common scenario and none of the auditors face the wrath of third parties with professional negligence claims. The claims are costly to auditors because of indemnity insurance therefore, the implementation of law on negligence of auditors in the country.
The negligence tort also helps the court to offer prove on breach and existence of duty of care when handling such cases. Consideration of policy also plays a crucial role in the decisions. This means normative thinking where the court employs logic to the rights of individuals and more specifically on any new development. Since the tort of negligence is still new, many policies are still considered when it is applied.
This is based on the fact that the negligence duty of care is a broad concept without a meaning that is clear cut. Many tests are also needed to determine the presence of real elements and the ability to foresee by the defendant. The defendant’s proximity and plaintiff is additionally an issue in such cases. Policies therefore enable the court to acknowledge a reasonable duty care and in discretion. This in the end helps to determine the defendant’s legal obligations.
Negligence tort cases are broad ranging from government, education, business and medical institutions. Many cases have been in the past handled by the Australian High Court. The cases can enable one to comprehend the employment of this kind of tort. For example, the Cattanch v Melchior (2003) HCA 38 involves negligence in a medical environment.
In the case, Doctor Cattanach had been asked to carry out tubal ligation by the plaintiff because she did not want another kid due to financial factors. The defendant did not operate on the second fallopian tube of the plaintiff as a result of assumptions. She conceived and therefore sued the doctor for negligence. The doctor was found guilty and paid for consortium, pregnancy, and child maintenance and birth charges.
The decision was based on the negligence of the doctor in his duty to explain to the parent that there is still a probability for conception. Even though the child born was healthy, there were legal expectations in terms of taking care of the kid by parents and it was carried on by the medic because the patient had indicated financial constraints when seeking the service.
Therefore, the award for the damages was approximated and the medic paid more than $210,000 and it was a case of a positive wrongful life claim. In another tort of negligence, Harriton v Stephens (2006), the plaintiff did not make a fruitful wrongful life claim. The appellant, Harriton, sued her mum’s doctor for wrong pregnancy advice when she was paged with her.
Her mother had been infected with rubella virus and at the time, this made her give birth to a disabled child, Harriton. Harriton therefore felt that the medic was responsible for negligence of duty of care because her mum would have had the pregnancy terminated if she was well advised.
However, the case was dismissed by Justice Tim Studdert but later on Harriton made an appeal at the New South Wales Supreme Court. The court dismissed the case because termination of the pregnancy is not a moral value and Harriton’s conception was not the responsibility of the medic.
These two cases represent clear examples of negligence of tort application in Australia. They depict the significance of proving duty of care existence as well as breach of duty and responsibility of damages before a judgement is passed. This creates a basis for the case in relevance to negligence tort where auditors are involved.
Auditors are presently responsible to the tort of negligence. The purpose of this law is to offer protection to the auditing profession by ensuring that there are sufficient auditing companies to enhance competition in Australia. The liability of the auditor can be classified under the law of contract depending on the plaintiff. The common tort of negligence law in Australia is only liable if there is a breach of an existing duty of care leading to damages.
This guideline of negligence is however different from that, evident in the Donoghue v Stevenson’s case. In Donoghue v Stevenson (1932) AC 562, the plaintiff may not sue the defendant because there was no existing contract between them. In this case, the plaintiff had purchased a bottle of ginger beer only to discover that there was a decomposing snail in the bottle after drinking the contents.
In this case therefore, the plaintiff should have sued beer manufactures. This case therefore used the locality principle whereby, there is no contract between people and each person is responsible for actions taken with reasonably foreseeable negative effects on the other person. According to the principle therefore, a duty of care can exist even in the absence of the contract.
I therefore agree with the present negligence of auditor’s law as it offers room to the defendant to defend his or her case. Auditors are responsible to several standards and laws especially in Australia from both the governing units and the government. As a result, their obligations and duties are broad thus; there is a greater liability risk in this kind of profession.
Many theories for instance the ‘’deep pockets’’ theory assumes that auditors are in a position to pay for indemnity cover without any problem yet this is not always the case. This further threatens the existence of the profession and the common law requirement calling for proof of an existing duty care, damages from the breach of duty and the breach of duty itself to ensure fair justice.
If the plaintiff is confident that violation of duty care has occurred, then it will not be difficult to provide essential evidence. Lack of evidence will mean that the auditor is innocent. Corporate crippling is as a result of different factors and it is not fair for any auditor to unduly bear the blame. The neighborhood principle is also to general to be used in this case because it would mean that auditors are not responsible for commercial collapses.
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Doepel, Mark. and Downie, Chad. “A comprehensive guide to tort law reform throughout Australia.” Kennedys. 2006. Web. http://www.kennedys-law.com/files/Uploads/Documents/AusGuidetoTortLaw_November2006.pdf
Wal-Mart Strategic Competitiveness
Wal-Mart is one of the amazing success stories in the history of the world. The company found by Sam Walton in 1962 started as a mini discount shop in Arkansas. Since its inception, it has grown to be the global largest corporation. It appears almost unbelievable that the organization has grown to be the second largest organization in less than sixty years.
Almost one third of the country’s population shops at Wal-Mart on weekly basis (William, 2010). Additionally, up to 93 percent of households in the US visit the store at least once a year. In the financial year ending 31st 2006, the slogan for the company ‘’every day low prices’’ made about $354billion in more than 500 hundred facilities in more than 15 nations and with more than 1.4 million staff members.
Wal Mart stores in the USA generate about 8.8 percent of all retail sales (William, 2010). It was also profitable and in 2009, it earned 14.7 percent of invested capital return (Hitt & Hoskinson, 2013). It was as a result ranked top of its competitors Target and Costro with 10 percent and 9.4 percent respectively. Currently, the company has more than 3900 stores in the US alone and has since been considered the national commons.
This paper will therefore evaluate the role of technology and globalization changes in competitiveness in regards to Wal-Mart, and how the company’s vision and mission statements have affected its overall growth.
Vision and Mission Statements
The most significant feature of the strategic management process according to Hitt and Hoskisson (2013) is to design a company’s mission statement. This should provide a background within which the formulation of objectives will take place. A mission statement defines the organization’s reason for existence clearly where the company hopes to be in the future is known as vision and the major goals are the key values of an organization’s statements.
In the USA, the success strategy for the company is based on the sale of branded products at an affordable price. The store grew rapidly by reducing its prices compared to local retailers and as a result, keeping them off business easily (William, 2010). This is why the company has managed to do exceptionally well in a retail industry characterized with cut throat competition.
“If a company’s strategy results in superior performance, it is said to have a competitive advantage”. Wal-Mart has rapidly enhanced competition based on establishing new knowledge while creating the first, mover benefit, price and quality positioning as well as competition to help protect and invade markets that are geographically established. This has enabled the company to enjoy superior performance from 1994 to the present despite growth of new rivals.
The store has additionally achieved a cutting edge over its competitors (Hitt & Hoskisson, 2013). Its higher profitability replicates an economic advantage that depends on successful implementation of different strategies. The company was also among the top first movers to employ the self-service strategy created by grocery stores to common merchandise.
The company is also focused on suburban locations and southern towns that are often ignored by its competitors including Target and Kmart. Even so, the industry in which a company competes has a major influence on its performance compared to internal forces of management. The components of the industry may include various factors such as economies of scale, diversification and differentiation of production among others.
The external environment in which Wal-Mart operates imposes constraints and pressures that govern strategies leading in average returns above. Therefore, a company will create and develop internal skills needed by external environment to point out what a company can make of existing opportunities.
Technology is one of the most crucial elements of competitive advantage. The ability to effectively and efficiently access and utilize IT has been considered an essential resource of economic advantage (Tsui, 2012). IT includes virtual reality, PCs, massive databases, electronic network, artificial intelligence, online business and cellular phones.
The success story of the Wal-Mart is therefore not restricted to its location strategy. The company is an innovator driver in information systems and logistics. It paved way for retailers in the US in the creation and application of high quality goods tracking system that utilized a bar code technology as well as checkout scanners. The company through the technology was in a position to keep track of sales and make necessary adjustments to its stores accordingly to match the found in store products with the demand of locals.
This made it possible to prevent any unnecessary stoking and as a result, not holding any periodic sales to shift unsold inventory. Later on, the company connected the information system to a state distribution network facility where the inventory was kept before shipping other products within a radius of 300 miles.
The inclusion of information and distribution centers also led to a reduced number of inventories that the company held in stores thus, devoting more time to selling of space, which also reduces the capital it held in its inventory over time. the company also influenced its suppliers to have an electronic network in its stores to cut down on geographical distance between them, store information on daily sales, expenses, profits and loses gathered, evaluated and processed electronically on real time basis.
On the other hand, IT development has been a major driving force behind globalization and that it has since been considered the focal constituent of a company’s global business strategy. It has also been embedded in almost every field including economic government, business or social fields.
Globalization has also affected the way in which the world operates. According to Hitt and Hoskisson (2013), it is “the intensification of global interconnectedness, suggesting a world full of movement and mixture, contact and linkage, and persistent cultural interaction and exchange”. Today, different markets have gone global thus evaluating the environmental situations in the industry would also mean evaluation the effect of globalization on completion in a given industry.
Even so, according to Tsui (2012), globalization is a process of enhancing flow of capital, humans, products, images and idea across the globe. Wal Mart- has transformed from small scale retail business to a global company at an impressively increasing rate. It has more than 4000 operational stores in the US and more than 1, 6000 facilities in Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Puerto Rico, Germany, China, Korea, Argentina and the UK.
Additionally, the company has embraced the global supply chain integration that is monitored by multinational producers as well as distributors. Even so, globalization has led to growth of competition amongst companies. Trade is taking place across nation’s leading to importation of products from all global corners. This has also forced the store to keep up with new trends and changes to maintain an edge in the market.
Its growth has also been seen by others to have long term benefits. The company is too be and could experience profitable growth limits (William, 2010). Wal-Mart is also a target of law suit constantly and many staff members across the globe have various lawsuits claiming that the company’s culture segregates against them.
Globalization is a strategy of spreading out the political, social, cultural and economic practices across frontiers. It has brought about time-space compression. The change between different moments and space between localities are reduced and shortened. The company recognized this opportunity and planned on global markets. Additionally, it has firsthand facts on information systems, logistics and human resource practices. These strategies when combined together had led to enhanced productivity and reduced costs compared to any other competitor.
This also helped the company to generate high levels of profit while trading at low prices. This analysis further reveals that a company can move from production facilities to another country to expand into developing markets aggressively.
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Hitt, M. A., &Hoskisson, R. E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness &
Globalization. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Tsui, E. (2012). Technology in Knowledge Management. Bradford, England: Emerald Group
William, F. A. (2010). Center of Global Leadership: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Norwood, N.J: Ablex
Organizational Politics and Leadership
It is the desire of every organization to grow from one level to the other. This kind of movement is however possible when members of the organization embrace team work and are motivated to work towards a common goal, without necessarily compromising any stakeholder within which the company operates (Hubbard, 2006, p.1).
Enhancement of performance is therefore a gateway through which a company can achieve greater heights in terms of success and performance. it involves (performance enhancement) ensuring that those within a company realize their full potential through transition from good to great and by doing, it enables the company to move upwards even in the event of troubling moments.
However, different issues in a company can prevent as well as enhance performance. They include leadership personality, organizational culture, organizational politics and trust. Depending on their state and handling, these issues can determine the success of the organization and whether it will realize its objectives or not.
Organizational politics often impact company performance a great deal especially in the pursuit of personal interest and company agenda. Through it, people can interact freely on different scales thus, affecting the performance of employees negatively or positively and in the end, the performance of the entire organization (Bedi & Schat, 2013).
In a company that encourages productivity via the leeway in which staff members can make personal decisions and enjoy rewards following exceptional performance for example appointment of exceptional performers as supervisors that greatly enhance company performance. In this case, staff members have confidence in their work and respect for the organization and its management. In essence, it helps to boost their attitude towards the company thus leading to excellent performance, promotion at work and pay rise.
Literatures on company politics recommend that it is an epidemic tendency in organizations with ability to interfere with normal processes in a company (Vigoda, 2000;Bedi & Schat 2013). Employees have as a result registered negative results in their attitude and performance in the company due to politics. According to Bedi & Schat ( 2013), perceived company politics amongst staff members generates negative results both to the staff and the organization including high level of stress related to work, low job commitment levels as well as lower job satisfaction rate.
Therefore, any form of company politics can greatly affect its performance amongst staff and in the end, the entire organization. The effects of organizational politics are even more severe in public settings compared to the private sector. Company politics according to Vigoda (2000), leads to negligence at place of work and in some cases, exit from work.
Employees in the public sector as a result neglect their duties as a response to organizational politics. This has generated negative results on their remunerations and their jobs. For instance, employees in the public sector are not compensated for their efforts and performance (Vigoda, 2000).
The effect of such politics in an organization is negligent staff behaviors and negative attitudes towards work which can “yield low-quality work outcomes and poor and ineffective public services, Low efficiency of public systems threatens large populations and thus carries high potential damage for the society” (Vigoda, 2000, p. 342).
While it can be quite hard for low income staff to exit the public industry because of limited job opportunities and options, many highly educated employees can easily exit their jobs positions in the private and public sector when overwhelmed by company politics (Vigoda, 2000). In the event of such exits in the public and private sector especially by competent staff, low level of performance is registered in the organization.
Besides organizational politics that affect a company profoundly, there are still other factors that affect company performance. Leadership is one of the issues which, according to some studies, have underplayed as insignificant in the performance of a company while others reveal that it plays a crucial role in performance with close to 50 percent performance disparity (Peterson et al, 2003).
Research on influence leadership to the performance of an organization however did not stop at leadership alone. It also focuses on other issues of a leader that impact his or her relationship with staff members and in the end, affecting the performance of the organization (Peterson et al, 2003).
Additionally, leadership styles studies reveal the benefits of a leader who is focused compared to a competitive leader. While competition is a very crucial factor as it drives a company towards realization of its goals, it can take place at the expense of other organizational factors in some cases for example staff members. (Chen-Mei et al (2011) offers an important insight into leadership effect on realization of company goals, indicating transformational style of leadership which has more potential in initiating changes amongst followers compared to transactional leadership.
Followers using charisma, intellectual stimulation, personal consideration, transactional leaders can influence their followers towards acting for the benefit of the organization and themselves thus realization enhanced performance in the organization (Chen-Mei et al, 2011).
The overall view of leadership personality focuses on personal traits of leaders as well as their influence on staff members and performance of the management. Therefore, a leader with predisposition is on cooperation is more likely to influence the creation of cooperative groups or teams. As a result, the teams would work efficiently towards creation of solutions by sharing information.
What’s more, the cohesive dynamics in such groups “should ultimately lead to the smooth implementation of intended goals because all team members are cooperatively focused on decisions” (Peterson et al, 2003, p. 797). However on the reciprocal, leaders who are extremely competitive push their teams as well as followers towards team and personal competition.
Each of the teams and individual will therefore work towards convincing the leader of their solutions viability (Peterson et al, 2003). Additionally, having such a competitive dynamic is an ideal program application issue as members of the teams and groups have little or no motivation of work across different functions.
With such competitiveness and misunderstandings amongst members and personal employees, it becomes quite difficult for an organization to realize its goals. It is even worse as such companies tend to create staff members who are less motivated with their jobs especially those on specific competition. Organizational performance in the end will be affected under such kind of leadership.
Another factor that affects company performance is organizational culture. This is defined as the intricate link of standards and values that affect the attitude of a person (Al-bahussin & El-garaihy, 2013). The realm of culture in an organization includes values, experiences, expectations and thoughts gained via socialization, participation and education within the company.
Therefore, the culture of an organization settles for ideal features which are considered desirable for the realization of company goals and are accepted widely within the boundaries within which, the company operates (Al-bahussin & El-garaihy, 2013). The significance of culture can therefore not be underplayed and its effect on the performance of an organization.
A significant consideration is the fact that “A top level of organizational performance is generally linked to an organization, possessing an effective culture with appropriately merged and productive set of values, opinions and attitudes” (Al-bahussin & El-garaihy, 2013, p. 6).
While the culture of an organization reflects a uniformed way of doing things in an organization and ensuring equality amongst staff members, which may in some cases lead to good performance in general, it is also known to have its limitations. According to Al-bahussin & El-garaihy (2013), a solid organizational culture limits individual performance, creativity as well as innovation via provision of stringent guidelines within which staff members operate.
Staff members do not as a result, work to their full potential since such cultures demoralize them from exploring anything new that can enhance their performance and overall performance of the organization. However, company performance relies more on trust in the organization. The perception of fairness by staff members is a determinant of their trust in their leadership and in the company at large.
It therefore, affects their performance based on the fact that trust in the leadership has been found to enhance commitment of staff to the organization and to enhance their identity in the company (Paliszkiewicz, 2012). In the end, many staff members would double their performance, focus more on their tasks and spend more time at work, thus enhancing their overall performance in the company. Trust is also indicated to help enhance employee productivity and reduce absenteeism.
High levels of trust in groups and individuals are known to reduce organizational performance. According to Paliszkiewicz (2012), this is attributed to the fact that it reduces monitoring and in the end performance. Absence of trust between the leadership and staff members calls for collective measures amongst staff members thus, having a detrimental effect on the company Paliszkiewicz (2012).
It is therefore imperative that companies strike a balance between the mentioned factors above because they affect the performance of the company a great deal. While it may lead to competition amongst staff members, politics in an organization can be quite detrimental as opposed to being beneficial hence, the need to minimize it.
Leadership is also an important factor when it comes to performance and leaders should lead by example and inspire staff members and not act as deity.
On the other hand culture defines the company representing its values. However, in keeping up with organizational culture, companies should create a leeway for implementation of new connections in the dynamic world of company practices.
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Al-bahussin, S. A. & El-garaihy, W. H. (2013). The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices, Organizational Culture, Organizational Innovation and Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance in Large Saudi Organizations: Structural Equation Modeling With Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(22): 1-17
Bedi, A. & Schat, A. C. H. (2013). Perception of Organizational Politics: A Meta-Analysis of Its Attitudinal, Health and Behavior Consequences. Canadian Psychology, 54(4):246-259
Chen-Mei, H. et al. (2011). Perceptions of the Impact of Chief Executive Leadership Style on Organizational Performance through Successful Enterprise Resource Planning. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 39(7)
Hubbard, G. (2006). Sustainable organization performance: Towards a practical measurement system. Monash Business Review, 2(3): 1-17
Paliszkiewicz, J. (2012). Orientation on Trust and Organizational Performance. Management, Knowledge and Learning
Peterson, R. S. et al (2003). The Impact of Chief Executive Officer Personality on Top Management Team Dynamics: One Mechanism by Which Leadership Affects Organizational Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 795– 808
Vigoda, E. (2000). Organizational Politics, Job Attitudes, and Work Outcomes: Exploration and Implications for the Public Sector. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57:326 –34
Manager’s Decision Making Model
There are many challenges that are faced by organizations that originate from both external and internal factors. The management or leadership of an organization is responsible for addressing such challenges in an appropriate way in order to enhance or to restore organizational performance in the current times and in the future. Solving the problems of any organization involves making properly informed decisions. The structure of the organization and the position that a person holds in the hierarchy of the organization influences such decisions. Managers can use models that demonstrate organizational authority, structure, responsibilities’ distribution in the organization and relations in solving daily problems as they manage their organization. Using conceptual framework, this paper discuses and identifies vital concepts that managers can use in making the decisions that will address different challenges that they face while managing the daily work of the organization.
All organizational and personal decisions ought to have an ethical ground. Managers’ decisions ought not to compromise the organization, individual or society’s ethical values. This means that all decisions that a manager makes in solving the encountered problems ought to have an ethical nature. The conceptual framework that will be indicated in this paper shows this. It shows that all decisions should lie within the ethical boundaries. Strategic change in the organization as well as strategic decisions should address the long term problems or challenges. The organizational executives formulate such strategies.
However, their implementation is largely dependent on managers’ competency in the formulation as well as implementation of tactical decisions for addressing the experienced short-term challenges while running the organization. The tactical decisions of the manager can have their efficacy enhanced via a participative process of management in which they learn the relationship of the mission of the organization and strategic decisions. The undertaking of daily operations of the organization is guided by its mission. Such operations may include formulating and implementing the policies of the human resource in order to enable the organization to retain highly performing and experienced workforce as well as to continue to attract more talented persons to join the organization.
Managers can also make tactical decisions that include partners and customers’ engagement in the initiatives of improving products, implementing programs for social responsibility activities as well as accelerating the ability of the organization to react to the market dynamics and conditions. Apart from being critical in improving the relations of an organization with its public, tactical decisions are also important in enhancing relations of the organization with vital stakeholders, shareholders and the employees. In addressing problems that relate to business cycle as well as the duration that is taken in accomplishing tasks, it is important that managers make informed tactical decisions such as redesigning tasks to improve efficiency in production processes while minimizing the required time for completing tasks (Hansen & Mowen, 2007, p. 517-518).
Problems that relate to the operations of an organization can also be solved by managers via the improvement of social aspects that relate to the tasks that employees perform. This may include establishment of mechanisms for resolving conflict in which the management and employees conflicts are solved in an amicable manner without the organizational performance being compromised. The processes of making operational decisions by managers ought to be aligned to the strategic planning as well as the tactical decisions in order to enable the organization to realize the set objectives. It is important that managers engage employees in operational decision making because they are involved in the operation tasks directly (Gilmore, 2003, p. 143). Allocating responsibilities and tasks to employees can be involved in the operational decisions.
Managers are given authority to ensure the enhancement and maintenance of the culture of the organization in order to enhance the attainment of the organizational goal. This is the management’s control function and it is achievable if the conduct code and rules of the organization are followed by the employees. Therefore, managers are required to make various decisions that relate to the discipline of the employees in order to ensure maintenance of the culture of the organization during the operations. Making decisions that address misconduct of the employees is one-way. However, decisions for enhancing relations between the employees and management are two-way. As such, the management should involve employees when making such decisions in order to make them effective. This is because even if the decisions will not affect the employees directly, they will influence their satisfaction and attitudes towards the job.
It ought to be noted that in the decision-making process, feedback plays a very important role. This is because the process entails participative management in order to address the challenges that managers as well as well as the other employees are facing while running the organization. In order for the rising challenges to be addressed, new managers should be familiar with the culture, relations and structure of the organization and the way the hierarchy of the organization influences them. There are problems that can be solved with one process of making decision. However, there are problems that require decisions to be combined in order to address them effectively. Evidently, this model is important in dealing with different problems that organizations face daily because it provides insights on how proper decisions should be made (Ragsdale, 2012, p. 4-5). Managers get an opportunity for exploring different essential options while addressing the challenges in different organizational levels. Nevertheless, new managers ought to choose the models that are most appropriate in addressing the problems encountered while performing daily tasks.
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Gilmore, A. (2003). Services, marketing and management. London: Sage.
Hansen, D. R., & Mowen, M. M.(2006). Managerial accounting. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.
Ragsdale, C. T. (2012). Spreadsheet modeling & decision analysis: A practical introduction to management science. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.