Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
The Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation was signed on July 16th 1894. It is also referred to as Aoki- Kimberly Treaty or Nichi Ei Tsusho Kokai Joyaku in Japanese. It was signed between the Japanese and British. This treaty was championed by the Japanese and negotiations begun in the 1890s. The major negotiators of the treaty were Minister Hugh Fraser of Britain and Viscount Aoki Shuzo of Japan. However, following Minister Hugh Fraser’s sudden death in Tokyo, the treaty was actually signed in London by the Viscount and the 1st Earl of Kimberley, John Wodehouse.
What was the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation about?
The treaty was majorly negotiated with regard to the extra territorial issues between the two countries. The British who resided in Japan were governed by the British Law. This made it difficult for the foreigners to be judged through the local system. There were three areas of jurisdiction including the British Supreme Court for China, the British Court for Japan and the Court for Japan. There were also consular courts in every treaty port and these were used in addressing cases for the foreigners residing in Japan.
The Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation targeted these extra territorial issues because they created inequality amongst the different parties. It aimed at providing jurisdiction for all the foreigners residing in Japan and abolishing all the consular courts.
Why was the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation important?
It is regarded as one of the most important breakthroughs that ended the era of unequal treaties between the Japanese and the British. It was very important for both parties to conclude and sign this treaty because the British and the Japanese needed to form an alliance. The Anglo-Japan alliance could not be formed because the parties were considered unequal. The law stipulated that alliances could not be formed between unequal parties. The move to sign the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation lifted off this obstacle and hence paved way for Japan and Britain to sign the Anglo-Japan Alliance in 1902.
What was the impact of the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation?
Apart from the significant Anglo-Japan Alliance of 1902, the move by Japan and Britain to sign the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation had other impacts both at national and international levels.
The laws in Japan were changed and the British citizens residing in Japan would be subject to jurisdiction under the Japanese law rather than British law. However, this new law did not apply to the pending and ongoing cases. The old laws were abolished and so were the consular courts which were used in practicing them.
Additionally, other countries which had been practicing extra territorial laws also transformed their systems to ensure that foreigners were under the residing country laws. The separate laws that allowed foreigners to be tried in their original countries were thus abolished in most parts of the world.
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The Zulu war is widely remembered for the bloody attacks on Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift. This war took place in 1879, where over 15,000 British troop invaded Zululand, the modern day Republic of South Africa. However, the build up to the Zulu war began in 1877, when Sir Henry Frere landed in South Africa from Britain to unite the colony under the British Confederation. Upon arrival, Frere realized how hard it was to unite the Boars, independent blacks and other British colonies. He therefore embarked on how to defeat the Zulu Kingdom as the only pathway to success.
However, the move by Frere to assault Zulu proved to be a tough one as London did not approve of it. He therefore sought the support of Sir Theophilus Shepstone, with convincing reasons for the attack. Shepstone saw the sense in attacking Zulu. He argued that there had been increasing cases of incursions on the border with Zulus, which was affecting the stability of his territories. He also took issue with increasing firearms in the wrong hands of the Zulu, which was fueling cases of war. Following this development, Frere sent an ultimatum to the King of Zulu, Cetshwayo, requiring him to dissolve his army with immediate effect. However, Frere knew that Zulu would not bow to him. He organized an attack under the commander of Lord Chelmsford.
It is worthy noting that before the Zulu war, Tugela River was the border between the British colony of Natal and the Zululand. King Cetshwayo had an army of between 40000 and 60000, which was prepared to face external aggression by the British forces. Lord Chelmsford attacked Zulu in January 1879, after the ultimatum for Cetshwayo to disband his army expired. However, the tall grasses in Zululand weighed negatively on the British forces, causing them to advance into the land without taking recommended precautions. Following this blunder, the Zulu army triumphed over British at Isandhlwana, resulting into the death of about 800 British solders. The Zulus also took approximately 1000 riffles with ammunition.
However, upon the arrival of British reinforcement, Cetshwayo fled. In April of 1879, a French Prince, arrived in South Africa in search of adventure. This was a setback to the British fighters. Napoleon III’s son joined the British mission to conquer Zululand. He significantly undermined the enemy and was killed in May, following a surprise attack by the enemy. This was embarrassment to the British army in Zulu, which proved its inability to protect him. Nevertheless, British victory continued and in July, they overpowered Cetshwayo at Ulundi. This led to the annexation of Zululand to Natal in 1887, making it formally under British rule.
In understanding the Zulu war timeline, it is paramount to underscore that the ultimatum, which Britain gave Zulu carried thirteen points, to none of which the addressee responded to, prompting an assault that was later repulsed. Besides the disbandment of the military, king Cetshwayo was also required to surrender three sons of Sihayo and his brother for trial in the Natal Courts. Cetshwayo was also to pay 100 heads of cattle as fine for the ills committed by those to be tried and his delay to surrender the offenders to face justice.
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U.S. Revolutionary War
The U.S Revolutionary War took place between 1775 and 1783. It is also called the American War of Independence or Revolutionary War. This was a revolt against Great Britain by thirteen states, which joined in1776 to form the United States of America. It is important to note that initially, the war was limited to the colonies before it became world in 1778, pitting Britain against Spain, Netherlands, France and Mysore. This essay analyses the timeline of the war, by capturing the most significant events, which took place.
According to history, British taxes on Americans were the main cause of the war as the Americans resisted the levies. Americans held that the taxes they paid British masters were unlawful and needed to be dropped with speed. Open rebellion of the British taxation began in 17 74 after Patriot Suffolk Resolves annulled the ruling government of Massachusetts Bay. The tension arising from this move led to war breakout between the militias supporting Patriot and British troops at Lexington and Concord. This happened in April 1775. The Patriots carried on with the fight and by spring, 1776, they took over all the thirteen American colonies, before the Continental Congress announced independence on July 4, 1776.
During this time, the British were busy consolidating its forces to counter the revolt. They attacked the rebel army of George Washington, and managed to capture of New York City in 1776. Their continued saw them take over Philadelphia in 1777. British strategy was to use American loyalists whom they tried to enlist into the war. There was poor coordination within the British military, leading to its capture in 1777.
It is important to note that at the beginning of 1776, Spain, France and Netherlands began supporting the American revolutionaries by providing them with supplies, ammunition and weapons. The victory at Saratoga compelled Britain to consider self-governance for all the colonies. However, France, an interested party, joined the war to prevent the Americans from approving a compromise peace deal. Spain joined France in 1779, thwarting British efforts. France and Spain offered decisive support to Americans and diverted all British resources that came from North America.
In order to remain relevant, the British had to change tactics. For instance, 1778 saw it shift its attention to the Southern colonies. These colonies had played a major role in handing them victory when they repossessed Georgia and South Carolina in 1779 and 1780 respectively. In 1781, British forces failed to recapture Virginia after being neutralized by French naval forces, leading to the capture of about 7000 British solders. This was one of the greatest blows on Britain, as it could not continue fighting. 1782 witnessed minimal war as both sides resorted to peaceful negotiations. In 1783, the signing of the Treaty of Paris marked the end of the war, recognizing the sovereignty of the United States. This opened way for a more elaborate international peace agreement, which saw some territories exchanged. However, the involvement of France in the war had massive impact on its side, as it contributed to accumulation of huge debts that weakened her economy. This bred the French Revolution.
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U.S Civil War
The American Civil War took place between 1861 and 1865, which led to wide sectional differences and questions that were never addressed during the ratification of the U.S Constitution in 1798. The war had lasting effects especially with the defeat of the Southern Confederacy and the passage of the XIII, XIV and XV amendments, which followed. Some of the effects of the War was to abolish slavery across the nation and redefined the U.S as a single unitary and indivisible state and not a loose collection of independent states.
The U.S Civil war was one of its kind. It had several “firsts”. Some of these milestones included, the first income tax in America, the first extensive use of black soldiers, the first fight between ironclad ships, the first adoption of quinine in treating typhoid fever, among others. The U.S also made advances in the fields of medicine, the chaplain, and military. It was during the Civil war that American women assumed new roles in the society. For instance, they were in charge of plantations and spying. Others even disguised as men and joined the battlefield. Every ethnic group present in the U.S participated in the war, including Germans, Indians, Jews, Irish, Hispanics, and Chinese among others.
The American Civil War further saw military expansion and high number of casualties. Between 1861 and 1865, more than 1.5 million troops supported the Union in the war while about 1.2 joined the Confederate Service. According to estimates, 600,000 people died in the battlefield or suffered from various diseases at that time. Importantly, more than twice the fatalities survived. It is not possible to give exact figures of causalities of the U.S Civil war because of the absence of records. In addition, it is almost impossible to tell the number of troops who died of drug addition, wounds, and other war-related causes soon or later after leaving the service. Moreover, the number of civilians who died during the war remained unaccounted for, as some towns became hospitals.
The War Between the States is believed to have started on April 10, 1861 during the transportation of resupplies to the federal garrison at Fort Sumter. Following this leakage of information, South Carolina provisional Confederate forces ordered the fort to surrender. However, the commander of the fort, Major Robertson Anderson ignored the order. On April 12, Confederates launched lethal attacks, forcing Major Anderson to surrender the following day. On April 15, President Lincoln ordered 75,000 volunteers to end Southern rebellion, a move that prompted several States to vote for session. Some of these states included Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina and Arkansas. However, the western part of Virginia turned down the session and broke away, leading to the formation of the West Virginia.
It is important to note that U.S maintained a small professional army. Most of the founders feared having a huge army as they thought Napoleon could rise, use the army, and overthrow the government. Lincoln relied on volunteers because most of the military graduates resigned and joined forces to fight for the South.
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The Mughal or Mogul Empire was in control of India and Pakistan between 16th and17th centuries. It led to the consolidation of Islam in South Asia, contributing to the spread of the Islamic faith, culture and arts. The Mughals were mainly Muslims who ruled when Hindus were the majority. However, these Muslims allowed Hindus to rise in various ranks at work, including government and military positions. Importantly, the Mughals are remembered for the change they brought to India. For instance, they supported centralization of government and power. This brought together many smaller kingdoms, making the Mughal Empire more powerful and stable. Another change that the Mughals initiated was delegation of the government without undermining people’s rights. They also introduced Persian culture, language and ushered in a period of religious tolerance.
It is important to note that Muslims existed in India long before the arrival of Mughals. According to history, the first Muslims arrived in India during the 8th century. It was during the first half of the 10th century that a Muslim ruler attacked Punjab eleven times without success. However, during these attempts, the invaders made away with great loot. A successful invasion was in 12th century that resulted into the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate. The growth of the Mughal Empire was largely from the descendants of the Mongol State, who inhabited Turkestan in 15th century. These people Muslims by assimilation even though they kept elements of their Eastern origin.
Babur was the first Emperor of Mughal and was from the lineage of Genghis Khan and Tamerlaine. He succeeded his father as king at the age of twelve years, even though elder family relatives toppled him. He relocated to Afghanistan on 1504 before he received an invitation to India. The Indian princes who invited him hatched a plan to oust their ruler. Following the successful overthrow, Babur took over India, imposing most of authority in the northern region. He founded a sophisticated empire, which comprises of Indian, Mongol and Persian culture. It was during his reign that Hinduism was tolerated and allowed the building of new Hindu temples, something his predecessors had rejected.
Mughal Empire further established better economic ties with the rest of the Islamic world, including Persia. The leadership of Babur also abolished slavery in the kingdom and he initiated peace talks with southern India. Many analysts believe that Babur brought on board broad minded from central Asia. Even after conquering Delhi, he did not permit the killing of cows it was offensive to the Hindu community. Even though his ancestors were brutal, Babur was not barbaric. He had great ideas in administration, civilization and architecture.
Though he was a good king and won loyalty of many subjects, he was succeeded by Humayun, his son, who turned out to be a drug addict, poet and bad emperor. He was toppled and later recaptured the seat even though he later died after falling downstairs and sustaining a broken neck. Abu Akbar was the third emperor and lived to become one of the greatest rulers. He took over the mantle at the age of thirteen years. He recaptured territories that enemies took over during the reign of Babur. By the time he died, he was powerful in north, central and Western India. He toiled to win Hindus back for political mileage. He also married thousands of women for political and diplomatic gain.
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Mughal Empire was one of the famous kingdoms in India for many reasons. Several events that took place in the empire transformed it and became of its great history. In this paper, we shall explore on the major events that surrounded the empire and analyzing its timeline in details. The first battle for Mughal Empire was in 1526 when Babur when its king, Babur took over Delhi in a battle that occurred at Panipat. This capture led to the formation of the Empire. During that time, Mughal Empire was the only regional power.
After his death, Hamayun, his son took over the mantle of leadership but lost it for twenty-five years before regaining it. It was later united under Jalal-u-din Mohammad, being the first emperor, born in India. Because of his strategies, he annexed Rajputana and moved Mughal Empire’s border to Vindyas. He was later known as Akbar the Great. He introduced several reforms in the empire. Among other things, he abolished Jizya tax, which made Hindus pay for being non-Muslims. He increased treasury, making the empire economically stable that his successor, his son, Jahangir had easy time to carry out his military campaign.
One of the strategies of Akbar was to establish good diplomatic ties with European nations for trade purposes. As such, several diplomatic dignitaries visited the empire. They included Portuguese, English and French envoys who came looking for trade opportunities with the regional power. Because of his generosity, Akbar allowed the visitors from different parts of the world stay in India. It was during his time that the economy of the empire blossomed, because of huge taxes from European outposts. The king also allowed foreign traders to traverse India and conduct trade operations in the interior of the empire even though some were considered barbaric.
Jahangir was determined to invade and take over Deccan, after he succeeded his father in 1605. His intention was to capitalize on the stable state of the empire, as he had enough accumulation of money. He launched the attacks by invading Golconda Sultanate, allowing him to expand Mughal Empire’s border to India. Travancore was the only state that was left because it had vassal facilities, which allowed it to remain independent until the death of Maharaj. By the time of Jahangir’s death, he was yet to capture Portuguese ports of Bom Baia and Goa. Shah Jahan, his son, accomplished this after taking over leadership of Mughal Empire. After his relentless pressure, Portuguese left the empires, leaving behind British and French as the only European powers present in India at that time. With time, they were also eliminated, making Mughal Empire the only country on Indian subcontinent.
When Dara Shiko became king of Mughal Empire, Mughals shifted their attention to the northern side. They targeted Samarkand, which was the capital of Timurid Empire. The town was also famous because it was the birthplace of India’s emperor. He organized his armies and successfully took over the city, extending to Kazakh Khanate. This was revenge on how Shaybanids had attacked Timurids. With this expansion, future emperors were able to capture more territories.
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Decline of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire began to decline after attaining its highest point of success and stability. During this time, the empire was under the leadership of Shah Jahan and his son, after a successful rule of Aurangzeb. History records that the decline of Mughal Empire began towards the end of Aurangzeb’s rule. It is important to note that there were numerous reasons that led to the fall of such a great dynasty in the history of mankind. In this essay, we shall discuss major causes of the decline.
The first cause was Aurangzeb’s responsibility. He was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. This happened even though those kings, who ruled before him, did a great job in winning the loyalties of their subjects like the Hindus and the Rajputs. As a fanatic, Aurangzeb was unable to tolerate those who were non-Muslims in his empire. He introduced oppressive laws like the introduction of jazia and a total ban on celebration of Hindu festivals. Because of this animosity, he lost the trust and friendship with the Rajputs. He executed Sikh guru and created widespread enmity with the Marathas, forcing them to rebel against his leadership.
Additionally, Aurangzeb was also obsessed with the Deccan, which had detrimental effects on Mughal army. As a staunch Sunni Muslim, he did not have room for the Shias, who also turned against him. The nobles also developed rebellion against their king because he was mostly against their way of life, including dancing, singing and drinking. These were common habits among most Muslim nobles, who felt oppressed by the King. It is therefore evident that King Aurangzeb was responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
Besides the oppressive rule of Aurangzeb that, his successors also contributed to the fall of Mughal Empire. For example, his successors turned out to be weak and incompetent to take control of the entire empire. Most of them found pleasure in lavish lives without bothering the stability of the state. This created weaknesses that led to the decline of the once strong and stable empire. This weakness from successors took root because there was no law that defined the process of succession in the Mughal Empire. Oftentimes, the death of a king resulted into wars among their sons before a king would sit on the throne. They used nobles and royal family members to fight for power. Consequently, nobles were divided as they fought to safeguard their interests. This bred anarchy as nobles resorted to conspiracies, making Mughal Empire weak and vulnerable to external attacks.
Poor economy of Mughal Empire further weighed heavily on its stability. Importantly, the economy grew weak because of constant wars, which rocked the empire. In most cases, the wars had much loss that gain as no inch was added to the empire’s land. Moreover, Mughal Empire kings were less concerned with economic growth as they spent public resources on having fun and putting up monuments, which added no value in the state. This weak and crumbling economy was completely shattered by external invasions, as enemies saw loopholes to explore.
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It is needless to mention that the Byzantine Empire survived, centuries after the fall of Rome. It also grew to become the largest and most powerful European State at that time. During this time, it emerged that Byzantines found it hard to contain people from the West. This is because they found pleasure in fighting and were good in trade. Because of this, Byzantine Empire developed a diplomatic system, to allow signing of agreements with towns Venice, which was highly favored for allowing traders from different friendly cities in the region.
Following these arrangements, the Italians spread expansively, even though they hardly accepted that Byzantines belonged to a different religion. This was because at that time of Crusades, the Greek Orthodox Church would easily become a target for attacks. Since the separation of West and East and been initiated by the former, it had significant leadership influence. For example, monarchs from the west ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost half a century. While this was the case, it was never possible to gain total control of the region. There were local rulers who spread the Byzantine traditions, under the western rule. This largely contributed to the decline of Byzantine Empire. It continued to lose it territories until when Ottoman Empire overpowered Constantinople in 1453 CE and oust the government. Following these developments, Trapezus surrendered after eight years.
It is important to note the Byzantine Empire face a wide range of external enemies. Nonetheless, its poor internal organization largely contributed to its decline and collapse. Even though the empire registered political and economical stability by 1000AD, this was later to become Byzantine Empire’s downfall. The stability led to the emergence of joint feedback cycles, which destroyed the empire, taking away its success and glory. Firstly, the government of the day depended on free peasantry, for taxes and recruits.
During the days of constant battles and invasion, there was poor investment in farming, making land less productive. With the return of political stability during the eighth century, many nobles went for farmlands, which were under free peasantry. This led to endless battles between the nobles and peasants, who were not ready to part with their lands. Seeing that free peasantry was the pillar of the government, it did everything to protect it from greedy nobles. Basil II is remembered for steering this campaign, even though he could not overcome the powerful nobles, who were determined to end free peasantry.
Another factor that led to the decline of the Byzantine Empire is that not all leaders that rose to power were interested in protecting peasantry. This was much evident in 1025, after the death of Basil II who had the interests of farmers at heart. Because of the stability of the empire, many people did not see the essence of having a strong military. This saw weak rulers succeed Basil, some of whom had no military experience. Consequently, greedy nobles took the advantage and always attacked peasants during hard times like famine. Because of this, free peasantry declined, weighing heavily on the size of the army, since it was largely supported by peasant taxes. To remain strong and stable, Byzantine Empire resorted to employing the services of foreign mercenaries. The result was a weakened economy, which could not even support the military, resulting into its collapse.
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The Crimean War is commonly known as the Charge of the Light Brigade, during which Britain made a wrong attack. The war was fought between Britain and France, which were the allied nations against Russia, which was a common enemy. However, the war did not have massive significance in Europe as minimal changes took place. This war erupted because of religious conflict of people in the holy land. It has been argued that the war occurred because large European powers war to keep in other in check. Even though Crimean War is not remembered today for military success, it was the first modern war, offered first war photography, and portrayed acts of heroism to the rest of the world.
What led to the Crimean War? It is worthy noting that in early 19th century, Russia experienced massive military empowerment, becoming a major military power in the world. By around 1850, it was evident that Russia was determined to spread its military influence to the south. This became concern to British, as it felt that Russia would extend its influence to Mediterranean, when it was in control. Additionally, around the same time, Napoleon III had coerced Ottoman Empire to acknowledge France as a sovereign state in the Holy Land. Nevertheless, Russia rejected this and initiated its own diplomatic links as Russians claimed to protect the interest and freedom of Christians in the Holy Land.
These unclear diplomatic relations, led to hostilities, causing France and Britain to declare war against Russia in March 1854. Even though Russia appeared ready to avoid the war, it was unable to meet the conditions, which France and Britain put forward. This meant that the simmering war was inevitable. In September 1854, the two allies struck Crimea, a section of today’s Ukraine. They targeted Sevastopol, which was home to Russia’s naval base. Upon landing at Calamita Bay, the allied army of about 60,000 men marched southwards and encounters Russian troops at River Alma, where the battle ensured. Even though Lord Raglan had severe coordination challenges with French troops, the allied side managed to drive away their common enemy.
After fleeing, Russians regrouped at Sevastopol as British attacked Balaclava, bypassing this military bas. It is believed that the decision to attack the town was because it could be used by Russians as a supply zone. After considerable timing and evaluation, the allied forces attacked Sevastopol on October 17, 1854. On October 25, same year, Prince Aleksandr Menshikov, who was in charge of Russian troops, gave an order to attack allied forces. They implemented this by attacking the weak points of the allied military before they were turned back by Scottish Highlanders.
During this fighting, another Russian unit took advantage of British loopholes and got British guns, which were abandoned. Even though Lord Raglan ordered his troops to stop these actions, the information was not well interpreted, leading to the launch of the “Charge of the Light Brigade” on wrong Russian position. The first few minutes of the battle left about 100 men dead and the encounter ended with a great loss on British side though the standoff was still in place.
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According to history, the origins of the Byzantine Empire can be traced back to 330 A.D., during the reign of Constantine I of Rome. At that time, Constantine dedicated New Rome on Byzantium, which was an ancient Greek colony. The colony was founded by Byzas and was mainly located to serve as a transit point between Asia Minor and Europe. Before this decision, five years earlier, Constantine had introduced Christianity as the official religion in Rome. Even though most people spoke Greek and not Latin, they strongly identified themselves as Romans and Christians. One of the main aspects of the Byzantine Empire was its longevity as it survived without external interference up to the start of the modern age. This was a rare attribute as most states, West of China experienced a series of interruptions.
It is important to note that Constantine rule a unified Roman empire, unlike his successor, Valentinian I, who divided into western and Eastern. This happened in 337 after the death of Constantine I. following the division, Valentinian rule the Western section, and installed his brother Valens to rule the eastern side. However, this separation brought about differences in the years that followed. For example, Germans constantly attacked the Western region leading to its disintegration. This continued until Italy was the only territory under Roman control.
However, the Eastern section under Valens was less vulnerable to attacks. Some historians argue that this was partly because of its geographical location. It was almost impossible to break the capital’s defenses to realize a successful offensive. Additionally, the eastern side had a shorter common border with Europe, thus limiting the chances of an attack. Among other reasons, the region further benefited from its internal political stability and central administration, coupled with huge wealth compared to other states in the region. Emperors in the region also exerted power of economic resources, making it hard for invasion from external forces. As a result, the Eastern Roman Empire, famously known as the Byzantine Empire survived for several centuries even the Rome had already fallen.
It is worth noting that Byzantine Empire was under Roman law, together with Roman political institutions. As a result, Latin was its official language. However, Greek was also common as students were taught literature, history and culture through Greek. Christianity was the main religion in Byzantine Empire. Justinian I took over the mantle of power in 527 and ruled until his death in 565. He was considered as the first great ruler of the empire. During his reign, Byzantine Empire excelled in almost every sphere. For example, its land expanded and its army conquered several territories, including the former Western Roman Empire and part of North Africa. Many Justinian monuments were put up in his honor, which included the doomed church of Holy Wisdom. He was also remembered for reforming the Roman law by establishing a Byzantine code, which survived several centuries. These reforms played a major role in redefining the modern concept of the state. By the time Justinian died, Byzantine Empire was largest and most powerful state in entire Europe.
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Boer War Timeline
History is replete with documented wars, which took place decades and centuries ago. While some of these wars may have been forgotten, they played a major role in shaping some current political landscapes. Importantly, these wars were influential depending on the parties involved and the aftermath of the battles. In this essay, we are going to discuss Boar war timeline, including what led to the war and how warring sides agreed to end fighting.
The first Boar War took place between 1880 and 1881, which is commonly known as the Transvaal Rebellion. This is because the Boars from Transvaal resisted the annexation of Britain in 1877. Some historians refer to the war as the South African War because; most people who felt the effects of the war and participated were White and Black. The name “Boar” denotes farmers among Afrikaans and Dutch.
Before the war took place, several events happened. For instance, approximately 15000 of Dutch origin moved into South Africa from Cape Colony. The move was triggered by the unfair treatment by the British government and political marginalization they went through on the Eastern Cape frontier. Following these developments, they formed two independent republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. These republics were recognized by Great Britain in 1852 at Sand River and 1854 at Bloemfontein. Since they were farmers, the Boars enjoyed a pre-capitalist subsistence economy.
To expand neo-colonialism, Lord Carnarvon suggested a confederation in 1875, which was to bring together all South African States. Many pro British rule saw this as a move to enhance stability of the region for economic integration, especially after the discovery of diamonds in 1867. On the other hand, the Anglo Boar War took place between October 1899 and 1902 after the Boar Republics declared war. The war had three major phases, during the two years of fighting. In the first stage, it is worth noting that the Boars experienced three successful offensives. Firstly, they besieged the town of Ladysmith, before besieging British troops at Kimberly and Mafeking. Even though Britain realized some victories, they seriously lost key towns to the Boars.
In the second phase, Britain responded to Boars’ offensives. With reinforcements from all over, British changed the situation. Imperial troops recaptured the towns, which had fallen to the blacks, including Ladysmith, Kimberly and Mafeking. Following British successful response, they captured the Orange Free State and renamed the Orange River Colony in May 1900. On 5th June, 1900, Britain took over Pretoria, leading to the annexation of the Transvaal on September 1, 1900. This appeared to be the end of the war, and Roberts made returned to England a happy man.
The last stage of the war was the Guerilla war, when leaders adopted small military units as opposed to the British style of leadership. This was important as it allowed capturing of supplies, interrupt communications and attack raids on the military. It also made it had for British soldiers to capture the fighters. A raft of measures was adopted by the British, including burning about 30,000 farms, development of blockhouses and erection of fences. These led to a consensus between the two sides, which ended the war.
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Water in the Human Body
What is the importance of water in the human body? This is a question that you might ask at some point. Scientists, doctors and nutritionists advise people to drink sufficient water on daily basis. However, some people do not know the importance of water in the body. Nevertheless, water has paramount significance in the human body.
Water plays different roles in the body and that is why it is highly important to drink sufficient water. Approximately ¾ of the human body mass is made of water. Water is an important part of the cell of the human body. In addition, water is crucial in the human body because it facilitate various biological processes.
Hydrolysis is one of the biological processes that require water. This is a process in which a phosphate group is separated from an adenosine triphosphate or guanosine triphosphate releasing energy. Energy from the consumed food is used in generating adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate before the energy is used by the body. This makes water a very important element of the human diet.
In addition, water is an essential electrolyte containing medium as well as other ions in the human body. Some ions help in the formation of electrical pathways for functioning of the nerve. Dehydration of the human body to about 2 percent can greatly degrade mental and physical functions. Dehydration of up to 15 percent can be lethal. Compared to vitamin deficiencies that take weeks to make an individual sick water deficiency can kill within hours or days.
Water is very important in the human body because it helps in the removal of toxins. Human body removes toxins in four different ways. These are toxins processing by the liver, perspiration, bowels, and urination. Perspiration, urination and bowels excrete toxins from the body in water.
When the body is dehydrated, it will minimize using these methods to save water. Instead, the body will force liver to perform most responsibilities of removing toxins. This might exert pressure on the liver that has other roles to play apart from detoxification. Thus, the liver might not perform the detoxification process efficiently which might cause toxins buildup in the body.
Water is also important for fat loss and fitness. When taken, water fills the body up without adding calories. Dehydration degrades the ability of an individual to burn calories through exercising and it can also reduce synthesis of protein that is needed to repair and build muscles.
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Potassium in the Human Body
Importance of potassium in the human body cannot be underrated. The National Academies’ Food and Nutrition Board note that the healthy potassium intake per day is 4.7 grams. However, many people in the world today consume about 3 grams of potassium with women consuming on average below 2.5 grams per day.
Nevertheless, studies reveal that there are many benefits that can be derived from consuming the recommended amount of potassium every day. Some of the foods that are rich in potassium include citrus juices, bananas, potatoes, tomatoes, salmon, chicken, cod, most meats and lima beans.
Potassium is among the crucial electrolytes in the body. An electrolyte is a substance that helps in conducting electricity in the body. With other electrolytes in the body such as phosphorous, calcium, sodium, and chloride, potassium play a significant role in conducting electricity in the body. As such, potassium is very important because it ensures healthy functioning of all cells, organs and tissues in the body.
Potassium also helps in regulating water levels in the body and maintaining a healthy pH level in the blood. As such, because the body loses high amount of electrolytes in the sweat, it is important to obtain potassium after or during an intense activity.
Another reason why potassium is important in the body is because it helps in maintaining healthy blood pressure. For electrolytes to function properly, potassium and sodium must be balanced properly. As the body struggle to maintain a balance of potassium and sodium, it is important that you reduce sodium impact by taking more sodium.
Sodium has significant impact on blood pressure. Boosting the daily intake of potassium will help in maintaining a healthy level of blood pressure in the body. Nevertheless, you cannot depend on sodium and potassium uptake to control your blood pressure and you need other measures such as exercising regularly and controlling your diet.
Another important role played by potassium in the body is ensuring proper muscular functioning. Potassium plays a vital role in ensuring that muscles and skeletal system functions properly. For muscles to contract properly, adequate potassium intake is required on daily basis. This helps not only in proper functioning of the muscles, but also regular digestion.
In addition, potassium helps in ensuring good health of the heart. This is because normal rhythm of the heart is caused by optimal functioning of the muscles. This is apparent especially for individuals with excessively low or high levels of potassium which can lead to irregular heartbeats. Since heart arrhythmias are life-threatening, it is important that you ensure that you are taking potassium adequately on daily basis.
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Mitosis in the Human Body
To understand the importance of mitosis in the human body it is important to know what it is first. Mitosis is a process via which sex cells, eggs and sperm are made in the bodies of sexually reproducing organisms. The life span of cells in a living organism is set. After this life span, the cells cannot function properly and they have to be replaced. Antibodies seek the exhausted cells in the human body and then absorb them. This process starts with mitosis where the dead cells are replaced with their exact clones.
Unlike meiosis which helps in the production of cells for sexual reproduction, mitosis reproduces the single cells. Mitosis occurs whenever the body needs a new cell. Different cells in the body have varying life spans and some cells can be damaged necessitating the need for new ones. In some cells, mitosis is a constant process that ensures that adequate quantities of cells are constantly available. In addition, there are cases when antibodies trigger destruction of some cells before their normal life span ends which triggers additional mitosis.
Generally, mitosis is important in the human body for two major reasons. One, mitosis is crucial for cell replacement through cell division. Lost, dying and damaged cells in the body have to be replaced. These include the cells that form different tissues of various organs in the body such as the skin.
For instance, human skin has millions of living cells that offer protection to the body against pathogens and damage. The cells that form the surface of the skin slough off over time. This happens for instance when a person scratches the skin or when the skin comes into contact with rough surface causing abrasion. The lost cells have to be replaced with new ones that are produced deeper in the skin through mitosis.
Second, for body to grow there must be production of new cells. Every human being started as a single cell when the egg cell of a mother and the sperm cell of the father fused forming a single cell. Through mitosis, this cell divided to produce millions of other cells in the body. The cells differentiated later to serve specific functions in the body and they work in tissues as well as organs.
Through differentiation of the newly formed tissues and organs after mitosis, humans are able to perform different activities including eating, playing, learning and speaking among others.
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Chlorine in the Human Body
Importance of chlorine in the human body can be seen from the function that this element plays in the body. Chlorine exists in the human body in form of chloride ion. In the extracellular fluid, chlorine exists as sodium chloride and in the cells it exists as potassium chloride. Chloride ions are also found in red blood cells.
In the body, chlorine combines with sodium to form sodium chloride which keeps the body from getting dehydrated. Sodium chloride also keeps the muscles moving, attacks germs as well as enhancing transformation of meals into energy that the body needs to survive.
Body cells exist in a fluid sea. This body fluid is made of a high percentage of water and charged atoms of chloride and sodium. Chloride atoms play a very important role in ensuring balance in the body. They ensure electrical neutrality while maintaining the right pressure of the body fluids as well as keeping a balance of the acid and base in the body.
One of the results of the balancing act of chlorine in the body is a relatively constant amount of water retained and salt concentrations in the body over time. The body does not dry up or bloat uncontrollably. The balance is reasserted automatically whenever there is a change in the body. For instance, this balance occurs after engaging in a heavy physical activity that results in perspiration which requires salt. Balancing also occur after consuming excessively salty food.
Sodium ions are very important in enhancing communication of the body parts and organs through muscle movements. The nervous system is also important in communication because it helps in relaying of impulses. Sodium ions play a very important role in transmitting impulses to the muscles from the brain via nerve cells network. Chloride ions play important role in this communication because they help in balancing sodium levels in the body. They cause a balanced electrical charge in the nervous system.
Chlorine also helps in digestion because hydrochloric acid is formed from chloride ions. This acid is important for the digestion system because it helps in destroying germs that may be consumed with food and in the breakdown of proteins in the food ensuring that essential nutrients are availed to the body.
The immune system which fights germs and other disease causing organisms needs help of chlorine. Chlorine in hypochlorite that forms in the white blood cells helps the immune system in fighting germs.
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