Bussiness and technology
How Business Can Use New Technology to Increase Organization’s Profitability
Today, advancements in technology have increased the demand and role of information in every aspect of human life. Business has become dynamic and more vulnerable to technological changes and innovation. It is doubtless that technology continues to influence business in various ways and managers are taking this advantage to increase revenue (Agbolade 101). With incorporated information technology systems, companies gain competitive growth and success.
To achieve this competitive advantage, organizations re-evaluate their efficiency with the use of modern information systems. Businesses that embrace technological changes experience continuous growth and sustainable profits (Olugbode et al. 11). However, there are many unanswered questions as to how new technology adds value to a business. Thus, many researchers endeavor to debunk myths from facts on how organizations record high profits with this technology (Hitt and Brynjolfsson 121).
Importantly, research on the economic value of new technology in business gives opposing findings. In their research, Hitt and Brynjolfsson seek to find out the commercial value of new technologies on business organizations (122). This article is relevant to this analysis since it offers empirical evidence through analysis of firms, which embrace these technologies. It also gives hypothesis on using IT interventions to improve organizational profits.
In particular, new technology forms part of factors of production, and can be used for research and development. Through technology, an organization makes unique brands, which guarantee high profits. In cases where there are business barriers, technology can make an organization realize supernormal profits (Hitt and Brynjolfsson 123-124).
Olugbode et al. (11-16) also offers relevant findings on the issue at hand. The paper is a case study on Beale and Cole, which experienced profits because of utilization of ICT systems. However, the firm recorded declining profits even though it was applying technology. From an evaluation of the company’s performance, the need to integrate new technologies and face out old information systems was evident.
To this effect, the company adopted business IT interventions to streamline operations, increase profitability, and increase efficiency (Olugbode et al. 12). Thus, new technologies have the ability to make a company realize higher profits. For example, the company acquired an accounting system from Virtual Private Network to cut down on operation costs, which helped to make profits (Olugbode et al. 11-13).
Agbolade’s (101-107) further agrees with the fact that the use of IT concepts has helped many banks to make huge profits through increased efficiency. IT has widely altered operations in banking because of high speed and top quality in service delivery (Agbolade 102). A good example is how the use of biometric recognition systems controls fraud.
With mobile tech, consumers make transactions with a lot of ease, which leads to higher revenue for banks (Agbolade 103-104). IT reduces chances of making errors and the risk of fraud. Additionally, banks use computer software to improve speed and quality of services delivered to customers. Because of this, banks serve more clients leading to increased profits. Technology also allows flexibility at place of work, encourage teamwork and good customer relations (Agbolade 106).
Agbolade, Kehinde O. “Information and communication technology and banks profitability in
Nigeria.” Australian journal of business and management research 1.4 (2011): 102-107. Print.
Hit, Lorin M, and Brynjolfsson, Erik.“Productivity, Business Profitability and Consumer
Surplus: Three Measures on Information Technology Value.”MIS Quarterly 20.2 (1996): 121-142. Print.
Olugbode, Majosila, Elbeltagi Ibrahim, Simmons Mathew, and Biss Tom. “The effect of
information systems on firm performance and profitability using a case-study approach.” The electronic journal of information systems evaluation 11.1 (2008): 11-16. Print.
How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Outline
In order for you to deliver a good rhetorical analysis essay, it is important that you know how to write a rhetorical analysis outline. An outline is the plan that will guide you in writing the paper, therefore, crafting one is always the first step to take. Using a properly written rhetorical analysis outline, you will always find it easy working on the different sections of the paper.
Developing an outline will help you to think critically and choose the best points to use in the essay in order to come up with an outstanding piece. An outline is a simple draft indicating the sections of the rhetorical analysis essay and key points for the discussion.
A rhetorical analysis essay requires the writer to explore how the various elements of rhetoric have been used in the given piece, presentation and argument of ideas and give an analysis of how the strategy has been applied in order to attain the expected results. The best way to achieving all these is knowing how to write a rhetorical analysis outline.
A greater part of essays are always written similarly, and this implies the skills on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline can also be applied in crafting other academic papers. With an outline, you will be able to save quite a lot of time when it comes to writing the essay.
Tips on how write a rhetorical analysis outline
A rhetorical analysis essay can be written about films, other texts, collection of artwork among other pieces. Therefore, it is important that you first determine the material or piece of work that the essay will be based on. This will also assist you in establishing the direction to pursue when creating an outline.
Read on for more guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline
One of the key elements in writing a rhetorical analysis essay is understanding the intentions of the author. You should try to determine how the creator of the original work presented his or her argument in order to achieve the set target. This might play a significant role in your thesis, hence, should be carefully looked at.
Before writing the outline, it is also important that you decide the sections that will be included in your paper. Doing this will enable you to specifically focus on the important things, thereby saving time.
A rhetorical analysis paper basically has three main sections; introduction, body and conclusion. However, there are key aspects that must be highlighted in each of the sections to ensure that your paper is a rhetorical analysis essay. All these must be precisely and clearly indicated in the outline.
The SOAPs tone is one of the key aspects of a rhetorical analysis. This is a short abbreviation that is used to refer to Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Subject and tone of the original piece of work.
The speaker is the first and last name of the creator of that piece of work. Occasion on the other hand, refers to the type of text and context under which it was crafted. The audience is the reader (s) whom the text was addressed to. Purpose is the result that the author wanted to achieve with the work. The subject defines the topic which is discussed in the text.
It is also important that you examine the appeals or first classification of rhetorical strategy. These entail ethos, logos and pathos.
Also known as ethical appeals, ethos are reliant on the credibility of the writer and character in attaining approval. The mention of an author or writer’s qualification can be used to signify ethos.
Logos apply reasoning in making arguments, especially in academic rhetorical pieces. It refers to the use of evidence, facts and data to support an argument.
Pathos is the instance whereby the author of the original piece has used words or phrases that evoke emotions in order to drive his or her point home. Pathetic appeals can include the use of love, sympathy among others.
In your outline, you will also need to highlight the styles details in the original text, like the use of imagery, diction, syntax and tone. It is also important that you identify these for easy reference when it comes to writing.
In preparation for writing the outline for a rhetorical essay paper, all the above elements must be well defined. Remember the outline is the final plan that will be followed in writing the essay, therefore, always ensure that all the points listed in the outline are sufficient for supporting your argument.
Steps on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline
A good rhetorical essay outline should show the order which all your points will be addressed in the paper. The following procedures will guide you on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline with ease.
Always craft your outline in chronological order. This implies you should start from the beginning of the article or piece of work to be analyzed and work your way through to the end.
The outline should demonstrate how you will distinguish the paper from others. You can simply write a statement defining how you will tell the readers about your analysis in a logical and captivating manner.
You should also list the SOAPs tone of the given piece under section since they will be discussed in the opening sentences of the paper. Besides, also remember to state the work under analysis.
Write your thesis statement or chief argument that will be discussed in the essay. It is recommended that you write the thesis as it will appear in the final paper. The thesis should not be hard to create since it simply reflects your intentions in the essay.
The body is generally the longest and most detailed part of an essay. In order for you to deliver good body paragraphs with proper flow of information, you have to carefully pick the points to list in the outline.
In order to make the outline clearer, try to use bullets, numbers and point-form when listing different aspects to be included in the body paragraphs.
There are key aspects of a rhetorical analysis essay that you should know how to address in the right order when writing the outline. These include the logos, ethos and pathos respectively. The body paragraphs should be outlined by rhetorical appeals.
At least identify one key claim and an evaluation of the document’s use of objective evidence. For logos, pathos and ethos, choose evidence from the given piece to give while writing the analysis.
Under every main claim, it is also advisable that you include a statement indicating how you will wrap up the discussion in the paragraph. However, you can also just have one statement generalizing all the points addressed in the body paragraphs.
In the conclusion, you should simply indicate how the entire analysis will be tied up to form an objective discussion. A proper conclusion should re-state the thesis statement and main ideas, then further point out any future expectations on the subject or topic.
You do not have to write an entire paragraph in the outline, instead, simply list the key points to be addressed on the section.
You should also ensure that your references are well outlined since they will also be written in the essay.
After writing the outline, take a few moments to read through it just to make sure it portrays your intentions for the essay. Writing is an art whereby ideas may sometimes come up in the process of writing and this may lead to changes in the outline.
In case there are certain points that you think would ruin your discussion in the paper, it is advisable that you punch them out or find appropriate replacements. Avoid too much statements or exaggeration s in the outline, instead, only list what is necessary for writing the analysis.
Examples of rhetorical analysis outline
You can also easily find out how to write a rhetorical analysis outline by simply reading sample outlines. The following are professionally crafted examples to motivate you in writing.
Outline for rhetorical analysis
- Introduce your topic or subject
- Make evident your purpose
- Engage the reader
- Summary of the Rhetorical situation
- What is the issue?
- What is the context …
(Simply click here to read the detailed sample rhetorical analysis outline)
Rhetorical analysis essay outline
- Attention grabber sentence
- Brief summary of essay with author introduction
- Thesis statement
(Get the entire sample on this link)
Sample Rhetorical Analysis Outline
- Introduction: Background and Thesis
- Background Information, including details about the author, work, title and publication info. Statement of the author’s argument.
- Thesis: Evaluation and appeals
- Body: Analysis, interpretation and evaluation…
(To continue reading the rest of this sample outline, simply click here)
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Essential Amino Acids
Essential Amino Acids is also referred to as indispensable amino acids, essential amino acids refer to a class of amino acids that the body is unable to synthesize. These amino acids are thus, acquired from the diets that we eat. There are several kinds of essential amino acids including valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, tryptophan, lysine among others. It is important that these acids are included in the diet so that they can be received by the body for proper growth and development.
Even though they are much needed in the body, there are some types that do not necessarily have to be included in the diet like arginine, glycine, histidine, cysteine, proline, tyrosine, glutamine and serine. These types of essential amino acids are considered to be conditionally essential. The reason why they are not necessarily required to be in the diet is because they can have unpleasant impacts on some people. For instance, those who are suffering from PKU are required to only take low amounts of phenylalanine in order to avoid mental retardation.
Typically, the acids can be acquired from diets that contain meat, dairy products, cereal grains and legumes. Besides, there are also quite a number of indigenous foods that can be consumed for the essential amino acids like Mexican corn, Japanese rice, Cajun red beans, and soybeans among others. Deficiency in even just one of the nine essential amino acids can have serious health implications and also degrade the body’s protein levels. The body can be forced to dismantle protein structures and even the muscles in order to obtain the required nutrient.
The reason why humans are unable to internally produce essential amino acids is because we lack all the enzymes that are required for their biosynthesis. It should be noted that of all the essential amino acids, there is one that is only required by children. Arginine is the essential amino acid that is not needed by adults. It is obtained from proteins and works by producing creatine that is ideal for development and growth in children.
Obtaining all of the essential amino acids that is needed in the daily diet requires that one meets their daily protein recommendation. Normally, a person is required to take an estimated 50 to 175 grams of protein every day. Even though essential amino acids can mostly be obtained from animal products, a combination of plant-based diets can also provide the nutrients. To those who may not be able to take certain animal and plant-based diets due to allergies or other reasons, it is advisable that you obtain over-the counter supplements of essential amino acids.
If you are buying essential amino acids supplements, you should always check the label to ensure that the product can provide all the nine. Besides, it is also advisable to talk to your nutritionist or doctor before starting on the supplementation program.
How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis of a Speech
Having the right guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech helps you to carry out your analysis efficiently. Note that a rhetorical analysis essay is a paper that deeply explores the goals of an author, tools or techniques used, give examples of those techniques and states their effectiveness.
Therefore, when writing your essay, you are not stating whether you agree or disagree with the argument. You are making an in-depth analysis and discussion of how the rhetorician makes that claim and whether the approach he or she employs is successful.
How to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech critically
There are a number of things you should focus on to help you understand how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. It includes the tasks you should carry out when writing your essay. The tasks include
- Determining how rhetoric operates in a speech or text
- To explore deeply how a specific analysis unit operates to achieve the purpose of the speech
- To take a close reading of one key statement or passage
- To answer an important research question about the function and nature of the rhetoric
Being a research question, your rhetorical analysis should therefore focus on finding out more about rhetoric by studying the speech. The research question will therefore, guide your text analysis. For this reason, you should write an essay that contributes to your understanding of how a rhetorical analysis processes work and your understanding of the speech itself.
Therefore, to carry out effective rhetorical analysis of a speech, it is wise that you choose one unit of analysis. It is always your responsibility to choose a unit that reveals the most about the rhetoric speech you are analyzing. The units include
- Logos- appeals to the audience’s logic and reason
- pathos –appeals to the emotions of target audience
- ethos-this includes techniques that make target audience believe that what is said is because of their trust towards the nature of the rhetor revealed in the speech
- metaphors and other comparison modes including similes and analogies
- Tone including sarcasm, academic, irony and sentimental tone and
- Types of evidence used by the speaker and their effect
Procedure on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
Writing a rhetorical analysis is a process and you have to focus on the research question to have a better understanding of what you are expected to do. As a result, it is essential that before you read the speech, go through the research question and have an idea of what to write about in mind
- Find anything that is rhetorical in the text or something that puzzles you
- Take a close look into all units of rhetorical analysis in mind
- Read the speech carefully, note the appeals and illustrate them clearly
- Go through the speech again and list down all metaphors used by the speaker
- Categorize the metaphors depending on what the speaker compares them to
With a list and categories of metaphors in mind, explain them to your readers because they will simply ask the question, so what?
The next rhetorical analysis step to carry out is to discover the effect that the unit of analysis you have chosen has on the meaning. Talk about the effect of the whole speech and how it helps you to address your research question.
Structure of how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
The structure of a rhetorical analysis of a speech should follow the right structure and use specific headings. Each section should be written in a coherent manner to unify the essay. Most importantly, write each section and state its purpose but do not evaluate the speech in the analysis sections. The sections or parts of your analysis should include an
Introduce the author and text or speech you are analyzing
Explain a rhetoric situation and focus on original audience, occasion, context and where the speech was delivered in the first place
State your rhetorical analysis question
Summary of speech
Write a brief summary of the text and explicitly state the purpose of the speaker
Write down the thesis and major points of the speech (always use the terms, thesis, texts purpose and major points in your writing.
The purpose of writing a summary is to help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech and give a sense of rhetor’s points. Your summary doesn’t give audience a complete list of all minor points and examples. In this case, it is imperative that you are specific in your writing.
For instance, instead of saying, he comments on the global situation, it is good to say, he denounces enemies of freedom and applauds new democracies.
This is a major part of a rhetorical analysis and it has two sub-sections
- Unit of analysis- choose and define the unit of analysis you will employ and briefly explain why you settled for it. Go an extra mile to demonstrate that you have a command of the concept to efficiently write your rhetorical analysis. It is also imperative to give quotations as evidence to support your thesis.
- Close reading- this is a skill that a person who knows how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech has mastered. You therefore need to choose one important or key passage in the speech and quote it in full. Re-read it and give it a proverbial fine tooth comb.
-remember to evaluate all appeals including pathos, ethos, logos, stylistic techniques and appeals to the needs of audience as well as values. It is essential to organize this part of your analysis based on the manner in which the speech sentences appear.
Insight into rhetoric
Give an explanation of the speech and explain what it reveals to you about the rhetoric. Here, you need to answer the research question efficiently. How did you analysis support or prove your argument? What is next diachronic or synchronic significance of the speech?
In this section, respond to the text and implications expression your point of view on issues that the speech raises. This enables you to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech that is thoroughly explains your argument. Explain your thoughts about the author’s argument, did it work, give reasons why or not. What is the significance of the text to your work and in your intellectual life?
Analytical techniques to use when writing a rhetorical analysis of a speech
There are different techniques that will help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. They include
Use of a rhetorical canon of invention to develop your ideas- this focuses on a rhetorical situation that a rhetor faced
Use tenor and vehicle rhetorical terms if you find similes and metaphors in the speech
Image analysis is also another technique that helps you to focus the elements of a vehicle and choose the best that matches your speech.
Additional tips to writing your rhetorical analysis of a speech
- Learn to advance your argument by stating your thesis clearly and supporting
- Always make an original argument and reflect on your unique perception of the speech
- Focus on what the speaker said and how he or she said it
- Always choose the most relevant and significant appeal that matches your reading of the speech. It helps you to write an effective rhetorical analysis, make an original argument and write a very compelling thesis
- Read, edit and proofread your paper to eliminate possible errors
Examples of rhetorical analysis of a speech
I Have a Dream- Martin Luther King
I have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, has a simple context. The author, Martin Luther King, is known for his great work in Civil Rights in the 1960’s. the purpose of his speech is to instill or inspire change in both black and white citizens of the United States of America during the Civil Rights era………………………………………………………………..
Borrow more ideas on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech from this essay analysis.
Fight them on the Beaches: Churchill
I myself have full confidence that if all carry out their duty, if nothing is neglected, and is the best preparations are made, as they are being made, we shall prove ourselves once again more than able to defend our island home, to ride out the storm of war and to outlive the menace of tyranny for years. If necessary, alone, at any rate, that is what we are going to try to do…………………………………………………………………
This is a sample of a rhetorical analysis of a speech. Visit the link and see how the author highlights different parts of the speech and use of appeals therein.
Bush 911 Bullhorn Speech
Thank you all. I want you all to know, it that bullhorn can’t go any louder. I want you to all to know that American today, America today is on bended knee, in prayer for the people whose lives were lost here, for the workers who work here and for the families who mourn. The nation stands with the good people of New York City, and New Jersey and Connecticut, as we mourn the loss of thousands of our citizens………………………..
This is a rhetoric analysis of the Bush Bullhorn speech. Read it and learn more on how to do write your analysis.
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Jewish Views on Cohabitation
Cohabitation is a practice that is significantly finding its way into the society today at a very fast rate. In fact, there are quite a number of couples who are today living together in the way that husband and wife should, but not married. The practice is on the rise and is committed by both the youth and older people. However, it should be noted that according to Jewish laws, cohabitation is not permitted since it is considered to be a sinful act.
The reason why cohabitation is highly regarded as a sin in Jewish law is because it violates the principles of marriage as detailed in the Torah. When a man and a woman decide to start living together before marriage, there are several acts reserved for married couples that they will be engaging in like sexual intercourse among others. The act of cohabitation exposes the two people who are involved to several other practices that are prohibited outside marriage. It denies marriage the kind of special treatment that it should be accorded since at the time that the couple may be thinking of getting married, they will have nothing new to experience in the holy matrimony.
Matrimony is a form of promiscuity or adultery since there is every reason to believe that when two people who are in love decide to start living together, they will engage in sex. This is an immorality that the Jewish traditions prohibit. In the Bible, it is detailed that for a man and a woman to be considered as married or begin to live as husband and wife, they require the Blessings of God that can only be cast upon them when they declare marriage vows. Among those who cohabitate, this does not take place because in most occasions, two people wimple decide to begin living together.
Jewish teachings point out that cohabitation or living together without marriage bypasses the soul since it is an act of disobedience to God. When a man and a woman begin living together before they are married, they do not honor the commitment to hard work that is crucial to every choice that we make in life. Jewish teachings point out that God does not like lazy people who do not want to work hard towards achieving the good things that they desire in life. Cohabitation bypasses commitments and accountability, the two pillars of an ideal relationship.
Cohabitation in all its forms advances the ‘use and discard,’’ ‘easy come, easy go’’ mentality that is prevalent in today’s society. From the perspective of Jewish traditions, living together before marriage reduces the relationship to a casual encounter, which is against the treatment that God requires us to accord to the union.
In conclusion, it should be noted that cohabitation is a gross violation of the requirement to be holy. It is a sinful act that Jews avoid as much as they can. In fact, Orthodox Jews even tend to marry much earlier in order to avoid falling into the trap of cohabitation.
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Jewish View on Marriage and Divorce
Torah is the fundamental source of all Jewish beliefs, and the point of reference that they always look up to in order to find answers with regards to maters touching on the aspects of life like marriage and divorce. However, it offers very little guidance regarding the procedures of marriage. Information on the method to be applied in finding a spouse, the form of the wedding ceremony, and the nature of the marital relationship are illustrated in the Talmund.
According to the traditional Jewish beliefs, marriage is regarded as a contractual bond that is commanded by God, whereby man and woman come together to form a relationship. God is directly involved in every marriage relationship. A Jewish marriage is expected to fulfill the commandment of child bearing through procreation. When a man and a woman come together in a union of marriage, they become one soul. In fact, man is considered to be ‘incomplete’ if he is not married, according to Jewish beliefs.
Jewish law requires that every marriage plan should begin with engagement (shidukhin). This refers to a contract between a man and a woman where the two mutually promise to marry each other sometime in future. Besides, the engagement also aims to set out the terms of the marriage. The promise may either be made by the intending parties or even their respective parents, or other relatives on their behalf. This promise is documented in a formal document known as the Shtar Tena’im (The Document of Conditions). It is then read, then the mothers of the bride and groom to-be break a plate.
The Jewish tradition and beliefs dictates that there are marriage rights and obligations that must be observed by both parties. These are clearly set out in the Holy Bible. Traditionally, the husband is obligated to provide for the wife and family. A detailed report of all the rights and obligations of the two are spelt out in the Ketubot in the Talmund.
Divorce is viewed as a spiritual amputation in Jewish culture. In the event that it takes place, the husband and wife are separated from the one soul that they became during their wedding. Based on how painful divorce is, it is considered as a last resort when issues between the two cannot be resolved. Even though it is not looked at favorably in Judaism, it is not prohibited and at times encouraged. Rabbis of the Talmund considered marriage to be a holy matrimony or contract, such that the decision to divorce would be an unholy act.
Regarding divorce, rabbis of the Talmund quote prophet Malachi, ‘’the Lord has been witness between you and your wife of your youth against whom you have dealt treacherously, though she is your companion, the wife of your covenant.’’ According to the Holy Bible, a husband has the right to divorce his wife, but a wife cannot begin the process of divorce. According to Jewish law, marriage is not dissolved until a bill of divorce; get is exchanged between the husband and wife.
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Hinduism Views on Marriage and Divorce
In Hinduism, marriage is viewed as a sacred and lasting bond that brings together two individuals for a lifetime. Hindus believe that it is through marriage that spouses are able to pursue dharma (duty), artha (possessions), kama (physical desires) and moksa (ultimate spiritual release). When a man and a woman come together in marriage, the two are joined into one entity to secure the above highlighted aims as one. Hindus are joined together through a ceremony called Vivar Samkar that marks the start of a new stage in life known as Grihistha Ashrama. The ceremony marks the commitment of man and wife to start up a new family.
According to Hinduism teachings, marriage is an important duty or both men and women to fulfill. The choice to stay alone or lead a celibate life is not encouraged in Hinduism. In most occasions, arranged marriages, have been very common with parents sourcing for brides and grooms for their children since marriage also brings together two extended families. Weddings in Hinduism are scheduled according to the horoscopes of the two partners.
For a man and woman to be marriage in Hindu tradition, the ceremony has to be presided over by a priest. To show that the two are joined in holy matrimony, the priest lights a fire in honor of the god Agni and recites mantras in Sanskirt (a holy language of the Hindu scriptures). The groom then presents offers to the fire and asks for blessings to descend upon the marriage in the form of children. Besides, the two also perform other rituals while offering prayers asking for blessings of food, strength, wealth, good health, friendship, wisdom and happiness.
One thing that should be noted about marriage in Hinduism is that there are strict guidelines over status and class regarding who can marry whom. Only members of the same caste system are allowed to get married. However, women of a lower caste system can marry men in the upper castes.
Based on the seriousness with which marriage is taken in Hinduism, divorce is not considered to be an ideal option in the event that the couple has issues. According to Hindu traditions, there is no concept of divorce. Hindus consider marriage not as a choice but destiny. The two are regarded to have deep a deep connection, in this life as well as the past and future, hence divorce is almost viewed as a taboo. Divorce in Hinduism comes with stigma that can be very difficult to escape. However, democratic principles of religion allow a man and a woman who are married to pursue divorce in the event that they can never live as one.
Just like it is in other religious communities, Hinduism encourages spouses that are considering divorce to first sit down and find a way of solving their issues to avoid breaking the holy matrimony, marriage. If the two are unable to reach a consensus, divorce should be the last option. However, just like at the time of marriage, both parties must formalize the separation in writing.
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Hindu Views on Cohabitation
The traditional teachings in Hinduism recognized and acknowledged that the most basic instinct of all was the need for companionship, thus, founded an honorable institution called marriage. The early Hindus set out certain guidelines to ensure that the union is a permanent one capable of bringing happiness to the man and woman, and also provide them with a balance such that the family could enjoy the fullness of life within the framework of Dharma, the Hindu code of right conduct.
Self-control is a crucial aspect of Hindu teachings and tradition. At the time stage of Brahmacharya stage in life that is generally form birth to around 25 years of age, young people are expect to concentrate on their education. Sexual relationships at this stage would be a great distraction; they are encouraged to avoid them. Today quite a number of young people are engaging in cohabitation including even Hindus and even from other religious communities. Despite the teachings, it has been very difficult for young Hindus to steer clear of such sexually exploitative relationships.
A live-in relation is currently a major form of lifestyle that is slowly creeping into Hinduism. In the ancient Hindu traditions, though marriage was a general norm, the scriptures give a description and admit that premarital relationships existed as well. Manu details that premarital relationships existed in the Vedic period and even in the times that followed. However, it occurred rarely.
The concept of cohabitation is not new among Hindus, in the ancient times it was referred to as maiti-karar whereby a written agreement was to be prepared between the man and woman so that they would be joined in holy matrimony, marriage. Only if that was done were the two opposite sex expected to live together as friends and take care of each other as husband and wife.
In Gandhavara marriage, one of the Hindu marriages, there are incidences that resemble those that are found in cohabitation. This concept is not defined in the dictionary or in law. Cohabitation refers to a man living with a woman as husband and wife for a reasonable period, without marrying her. These relationships are considered not holy as required by the Hindu traditions.
Despite the plenty of information regarding cohabitation among Hindus, the concept of the institution of the marriage is inherent in every man. The fact is evident from the fact that marriage is a concept that has evolved and exists in every religion and civilized nation. The need for marriage is deeply rooted in the man’s urge for certainty and for achieving stability in life. Such kind of stability and certainty can only be achieved through marriage even if it means cohabitation.
Among modern Hindus who engage in cohabitation, whenever a new relationship between a man and woman is kindled, it is bound to acquire the form and characteristics of a marriage. This is the similar case in live-in relationship. In the early times, it began as something different from marriage, but has gradually evolved into a scenario with the traits of marriage.
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Church of England Views on Homosexuality
The Church of England has so far been a major player in the development of the debate on homosexuality in the Anglican Communion as well as the English society. While being clear that homosexual acts were not morally upright, the Church of England in the 1950s led the call to decriminalize male homosexual acts. Until 1967, all homosexual acts were considered as criminal offences. Despite the legalization of gay marriage in the UK in March 2014, the Church of England that account for the largest population in the area maintains that homosexuality is a sinful act.
In a document declared by the House of Bishops in February 2014 entitled; Pastoral Guidance on Same Sex Marriage, the Church of England asserts that any form of homosexual behavior is a sin. However, the bishops of the church point out that the Church of England is of the belief that those who are experiencing same-sex attractions are beloved by God and are not to be dismissed out of hand as sinners who are despised by God. The Church of England reminds the church of the virtue of chastity and the need for regulation of sexual appetites in accordance with right reason, which is God’s design for mankind.
According to the traditional teachings of the Church of England, it is not morally upright for people of the same sex to develop attractions towards each other. However, the latest utterances from some of the bishops points out to a contradiction. Some bishops have noted that they would not issue any sanctions on clergy who are entering into same sex relationships. On the other hand, the Church of England allows for the ordination of gay priests provided that they are celibate.
The issue of Church of England views on homosexuality has elicited heated arguments among the followers and even bishops. In fact, it is still a bone of contention between the bishops with some for it and others against it. In 2003, Canon Jeffrey John was appointed as Bishop of Reading despite his pro-gay views. This is a move that has led to continuous criticism of the Church of England with many saying that the church is secretly advocating for homosexuality since it cannot say that the act is a sin when a number of its bishops are gay. Despite Cannon Jeffrey standing down as Bishop-elect of Reading, he was subsequently installed as Dean of St. Albans, meaning that he still serves the Church of England.
Archbishops of the Church of England seek to distinguish between the teaching authority on moral issues that surround same-sex marriage and the pastoral needs of Christians who posses attractions to the same sex. Despite stating that homosexuality is sinful, the Church of England clearly states that it doors are open to same sex couples who have the need to worship. Besides, the church will not hinder the baptism of their children. Homosexuals are welcome to participate in the activities of the Church of England as full members.
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Church of England Views on Divorce
According to the Church of England, marriage is a blessing that should never be broken. However, it is also cognizant of the fact that there are situations whereby divorce can be allowed. The Church of England teaches that if at all there is a problem between married couples, it is important that an amicable solution is found to avoid breaking the holy matrimony that is joined by God. Despite the wishes of the church that two married couples should live a lifetime of love that grows within the protection of God, it is not blind to the fact that there are situations when certain marriages do fail.
The decision for divorce according to the Church of England can be arrived at due to a variety of reasons. Some of the reasons why divorce can be pursued between two people who are married can be adultery, unreasonable behavior, the parties have lived apart for at least two years and both consent to the divorce among others. Despite the reason for misunderstanding between spouses, it is always recommended that the two need to first engage each other and settle the differences.
The Church of England was formed or rather started by Henry VIII who broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. The reason why Henry VIII broke away to form the Church of England is because the Catholic Church would not allow him to divorce his wife; Catherine of Aragon in order to marry Anne Boleyn. In this regard, he was paving way for anyone who felt dissatisfied in matrimonial union to seek divorce without any restrictions.
The Church of England teaches that marriage should be for life. In fact, this has been its long standing position until very recently. In 2002, the synod of the church passed a motion stating that in exceptional circumstances, a divorced person may again marry in church during the lifetime of a former spouse. For any act to be termed as divorce, both parties have to be present and sign a document confirming that they have officially separated. In the event that one of the spouses is reluctant, the church may come in to compel him or her if the alleged reasons for divorce are genuine.
Just like it happens during marriage, the two parties that are getting divorced need to sign a document confirming that they are legally separated. The Church of England provides a way through which people who have divorced can be married again in the church. However, there is no automatic right to do so since it views marriage to be a lifelong commitment. It is left to the discretion of the Priest to decide if a person who has been divorced can remarry in church.
Before one who has divorced can be able to marry again in the Church of England, they must talk to their Vicar concerning their past and hopes for the future. It is then that a decision can be made for re-marriage.
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Church of England Views on Cohabitation
The Church of England affirms the centrality of marriage to the stability and health of society and for procreation to bring up children. While doing so, it also recognizes that there are certain issues of hardship and vulnerability for those people who are in relationships that are not based on marriage, and that such cases need to be addressed through the creation of new legal rights.
According to the Christianity sthat the Church of England is also party to, human relationships proceed from the knowledge that God is love and one who is recognized in relationships. This is detailed in the doctrine of the Trinity and the biblical idea of the covenant which exemplifies love, respect and mutual self giving. Besides, it also applies in particular to our understanding of intimate relationships like marriage. However, the Church of England is concerned that the society in England is changing. The church point out that civilization has brought with it several changes in the society such that it is of great value if certain teachings are re-evaluated.
According to the latest arguments by the Church of England, marriage has never been permanent since divorce has been in existence since the biblical times, although it was specifically condemned by Jesus. Besides, it has never been even part of the English civil law and ecclesiastical law that marriage is indissoluble. The Church of England further argues that until recently, fidelity in marriage was only required of the woman. Before 1923, no woman could be allowed to obtain divorce as a result of the adultery of her husband unless she proved beyond reasonable doubt desertion and cruelty in addition to the allegation.
The Church of England asserts that even though marriage is, without doubt, a legally sanctioned union between a man and a woman, it is not the only possible relationship of that kind. It is concerned that the response of the church seems to be against other forms of legally sanctioned relationships like cohabitation. From these arguments, you can clearly see the avenue that the Church of England is pursuing with regards to cohabitation. It tries to stress that just like marriage; cohabitation is a form of relationship that should not be ignored even in the construction of legislations that govern marriage and divorce.
According to the Church of England, denouncing cohabitation is like denying minorities their rights of association and enjoyment. It is of the opinion that men and women who are cohabiting should be given the right to exercise their relationships as they wish since some end up in marriage. This stance by the Church of England has in the recent past elicited heated debate from various Christian religious groups especially the Catholic Church that have condemned it for approving cohabitation rights.
In 2006, the Catholic Church expressed its opposition to the Church of England’s support of the government’s proposal to offer unmarried cohabiting couples legal rights that are similar to those of married people.
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Cohabitation is defined as two unmarried individuals of the opposite sex sharing a household and a bed. According to the teachings of Christianity, it is sinful to engage in cohabitation. In the Roman Catholic Church, engaging in premarital sex, that is part of the cohabitation is a sin and those who are involved are not allowed to take communion. Other Christian religious groups do not specifically prohibit cohabitation but view it as a sin and will often, exert pressure on the couple to pursue the commitment of marriage.
Judaism, which is part of the Christian faith, also disapproves of cohabitation. According to Jews, cohabitation can take several forms that even extends to a Jewish man marrying into a different faith without a traditional Jewish wedding. According to the Bible, the main point of reference for Christian beliefs, one of the Ten Commandments is that one should not commit adultery. Adultery is defined in the Bible as having sex with someone who you are not married to. Thus, it is in order to state that cohabitation is a sin in Christianity considering that it is a major cause of premarital sex.
Cohabitation contributes to living together between a man and a woman outside the spheres of marriage which is sinful in the eyes of God. In the New Testament of the Holy Bible, there is evidence of God’s plan for marriage and a consistent witness against the sexual immorality that occurs with the engagement in sexual relations outside marriage. In Hebrews 13: 4, the Bible states that, ‘’Marriage should be honored by all, and the marriage bed kept pure, for God will judge the adulterer and all the sexually immoral.’’
In Ephesians 5:3, the Apostle Paul says, ‘’But among you there must not be even a hint of sexual immorality, or of any kind of impurity, or of greed, because these are improper for God’s holy people.’’ The Apostle further writes the story of a man in Corinth who was having sexual relations with his father’s wife in 1st Corinthians 5:1-3. He describes such an act as sinful because there was no marital union, an example of the kind of sexual immorality that takes place with cohabitation. In 1st Corinthians 7:2 Paul encourages church members to marry in order to stay clear of sexual immorality.
Christianity outlines harsh judgment on those who engage in sexual immorality that is the main sinful act resulting from cohabitation. In 1st Corinthians 6:9-10, the Bible states, ‘’Do you not know that the wicked will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: Neither the sexually immoral nor idolaters nor male prostitutes nor homosexual offenders nor thieves nor the greedy nor drunkards nor slanderers nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God.’’
Today, some Christian religious societies or churches permit cohabitation in the hope that the two will soon get conviction to get into holy matrimony, that is marriage. However, in most cases, the expected results are never achieved since a good number of such relationships last just for short periods of time.
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Cohabitation is defined as the act of living together between a man and a woman before marriage. It describes the relationship of a man and woman who are sexually active and share a household despite not being married to each other. According to the Christian faith which the Catholic Church follows, sexual relationship is only reserved for men and women who have been married. Any involvement in sexual intercourse before marriage is thus, regarded as sinful and against the Christian teachings. Cohabitation is a sign of disrespect for the sacrament of marriage, the sacredness of sexual intercourse and human dignity.
The Catholic Church, just like other Christian societies cares for its members the way a parent cares for his or her beloved son or daughter. Having the knowledge that cohabitation increases the chances of failure in marriage; the church is interested in offering protection and preservation of happiness. Besides, there are quite a number of men and women today who simply start cohabitating based on physical attraction. They do not evaluate the reasons they give for justification of their decisions.
According to the teachings of the Catholic Church, every sexual act is intended by God to express love, commitment and openness to life in the gift of marriage. Engaging in sex outside marriage is an immoral practice that does not express the intentions of the Creator. Cohabitation passes a false message that the couple is committed yet they are not because that can only be shown through marriage. Cohabitation is more like pretence that is highly disregarded by God; it is an act of cowardice. Two people who are choosing to cohabit are afraid of making life commitments to live with each other as husband and wife even though they convince themselves that they are one.
According to the catechism of the Catholic Church, some couples claim that they have a right to live together if they intend to get married later on. Even though the couple may be sincere in their decision, the Catechism stresses that human love is incompatible with trial marriages. Cohabitation is more like standing in the middle in order to first weigh out options so that if things fail to go according to your expectations, you can easily jump ship. God does not require people who test the waters since in the process; we break a lot of laws that include engaging in sexual intercourse among others.
Unlike the marriage covenant, cohabitation is a temporary arrangement that is compared to a business deal that can either succeed or fail. In fact, studies that have recently been conducted on cohabitation show that most of those who are involved end up in heartaches. As much as the Catholic Church teaches that people who are interested in getting married need to take some time to know each other well through courtship, it does not advocate for cohabitation. However, cohabiting couples cannot be denied the chance to marry in the Catholic Church.
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Buddhist Views on Marriage and Divorce
In Buddhism, marriage is regarded as a personal and secular affair, and not a religious duty as it is in other religions. Buddhist teachings reveal that marriage is a social convention and personal concern that is instituted by man for his own happiness and wellbeing. Besides, it further points out that man institutes marriage to distinguish the human society from animal life and also maintain order and harmony in the procreation process. Despite this, Buddha still gave several teachings on marriage and even declared in the Blessing Sutra that, ‘’to care for one’s wife…This is the highest blessing.’’
Even after a man and a woman come together in marriage, Buddha outlines the proper way in which the two are required to relate to each other as husband and wife. In the Sigalovada Sutra, Buddha declares that, ‘’in five ways should a wife… be ministered to her by her husband: by respect, by courtesy, by faithfulness, by handing over authority to her (in the home), by providing her with adornment. In five ways does the wife act in sympathy with him: her duties are well performed, she knows hospitality to kin of both, is faithful, watches over the gods he brings, and shows skill and artistry in discharging all her business.’’
Since marriage is not viewed as sacred duty in Buddhism, monks do not preside over wedding ceremonies. However, the can bless the couple during or after the ceremony has been conducted. In certain instances, they can even perform the blessing without any ceremony. There are no religious laws in Buddhism that compels a person to be married, to remain a bachelor or to lead a life of total chastity. Neither are there any laid down rules that Buddhists must produce children. The religion gives each individual the freedom to choose for himself the avenue to pursue with regards to marriage.
Buddhism does not prohibit divorce; however, the necessity would barely arise if the Buddha’s injunctions were followed strictly. Men and women are at liberty to separate in case they are unable to agree after marriage. Divorce is preferable in order to avoid living miserable family life for a long period of time. Buddha urges old men to avoid having young women as their spouses since the two are most likely incompatible.
According to most Buddhists, divorce can be viewed as an integral step towards self-knowledge. Just in the same way that the religion views marriage as an individual choice, divorce is also regarded as a choice that one can make if they feel that they are unhappy in the married life. Buddhism points out that man and woman who have been living as wife and husband are free to divorce on grounds that the first, third or fourth precepts (killing, lying and sexual misconduct) are broken and also where the amount of suffering arising from the marriage becomes disproportionate. If the husband and wife are content that divorce would alleviate that suffering, they are free to pursue the course.
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Islam is a religion that holds its values and teachings on all junctures. Many of the things that Muslims do on daily basis are governed or based on the writings of the Quran and the prophet Mohammad’s Sunnah. Islam and homosexuality is an issue that has been raising eyebrows now and then. Debates on whether homosexuality should be legalized have been making headlines on daily basis. Fortunately, Islamic views on homosexuality clarify everything. Sexual behavior towards a partner of same sex or gender is not only a sin, but a crime under the Islamic law.
The Islamic Sharia law is extracted from both the Quran and the Muhammad’s Sunnah [found in the Hadith and Sira]. Islamic study of laws and principles on which laws are based is an expansion of the laws contained within them by Islamic jurist. Thus, Muslims see them as laws of the Allah. Homosexuality under the same laws is a sin and crime against God. Views on homosexuality vary within the four leading schools of Sunni jurisprudence these days. Nevertheless, they all agree that homosexuality is worthy severe consequences.
In the common Hanafi doctrine, homosexual is first punished through harsh beating and if the involved individuals repeat the act, death penalty is worthy. When it comes to the Shafii philosophy, the homosexual receives the same punishment as adultery, if married or fornication, if not married. This means that, if the homosexuals are married, they will be stoned to death or be wiped 100 times if not married.
Another school of thought based on the Quran and various Hadith, hold the opinion that the homosexual should be stoned to death or be thrown from a high building as the best punishment for the act. Scholars maintain the belief that, these individuals should also be imprisoned until death. Another view on homosexuality is that between the two males, the active member should be lashed 100 times if unmarried and killed if married, while the passive partner should be killed regardless of his marital status.
Many champions of the rights of homosexual shift the blame on the harsh treatment of the involved persons onto “the adoption of European Victorian attitudes towards new westernized elite”. However, all the support for the act falls in deaf ears. Within the Islamic school of thought, this attitude was instigated by Prophet Muhammad and it is here to stay as all mainstream Muslims find it to be a perfect example [Uswa Hasana]. Hence, many Muslims find this harsh treatment against homosexuality as justified.
Many Islamic leaders have also condemned homosexuality in history. For instance, Shaykh Muhammad Salih-Al-Munajid claimed that homosexuality is the key cause of diseases such as AIDS and related conditions that affected mankind. Even for the small percentage of Muslims living in more-developed countries see homosexuality as abominable and unacceptable in the society. A Gallup survey carried in 2009 showed that British Muslims have zero tolerance to homosexuality. In accord to the Zogby International survey taken from American Muslims on 2001 shows that, a massive 71% was against the idea of allowing gays and lesbians to marry legally.
The ongoing harassment of homosexuals by Muslims globally rarely makes it to the mainstream newsrooms. The free world has been silenced by the fear of offending Islamic sensibility and the population opposing this act. Many apologists have come out and aired their views on the issue, but it remains a crime and vile in many Islamic countries.
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