U.S Civil War
The American Civil War took place between 1861 and 1865, which led to wide sectional differences and questions that were never addressed during the ratification of the U.S Constitution in 1798. The war had lasting effects especially with the defeat of the Southern Confederacy and the passage of the XIII, XIV and XV amendments, which followed. Some of the effects of the War was to abolish slavery across the nation and redefined the U.S as a single unitary and indivisible state and not a loose collection of independent states.
The U.S Civil war was one of its kind. It had several “firsts”. Some of these milestones included, the first income tax in America, the first extensive use of black soldiers, the first fight between ironclad ships, the first adoption of quinine in treating typhoid fever, among others. The U.S also made advances in the fields of medicine, the chaplain, and military. It was during the Civil war that American women assumed new roles in the society. For instance, they were in charge of plantations and spying. Others even disguised as men and joined the battlefield. Every ethnic group present in the U.S participated in the war, including Germans, Indians, Jews, Irish, Hispanics, and Chinese among others.
The American Civil War further saw military expansion and high number of casualties. Between 1861 and 1865, more than 1.5 million troops supported the Union in the war while about 1.2 joined the Confederate Service. According to estimates, 600,000 people died in the battlefield or suffered from various diseases at that time. Importantly, more than twice the fatalities survived. It is not possible to give exact figures of causalities of the U.S Civil war because of the absence of records. In addition, it is almost impossible to tell the number of troops who died of drug addition, wounds, and other war-related causes soon or later after leaving the service. Moreover, the number of civilians who died during the war remained unaccounted for, as some towns became hospitals.
The War Between the States is believed to have started on April 10, 1861 during the transportation of resupplies to the federal garrison at Fort Sumter. Following this leakage of information, South Carolina provisional Confederate forces ordered the fort to surrender. However, the commander of the fort, Major Robertson Anderson ignored the order. On April 12, Confederates launched lethal attacks, forcing Major Anderson to surrender the following day. On April 15, President Lincoln ordered 75,000 volunteers to end Southern rebellion, a move that prompted several States to vote for session. Some of these states included Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina and Arkansas. However, the western part of Virginia turned down the session and broke away, leading to the formation of the West Virginia.
It is important to note that U.S maintained a small professional army. Most of the founders feared having a huge army as they thought Napoleon could rise, use the army, and overthrow the government. Lincoln relied on volunteers because most of the military graduates resigned and joined forces to fight for the South.
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The Mughal or Mogul Empire was in control of India and Pakistan between 16th and17th centuries. It led to the consolidation of Islam in South Asia, contributing to the spread of the Islamic faith, culture and arts. The Mughals were mainly Muslims who ruled when Hindus were the majority. However, these Muslims allowed Hindus to rise in various ranks at work, including government and military positions. Importantly, the Mughals are remembered for the change they brought to India. For instance, they supported centralization of government and power. This brought together many smaller kingdoms, making the Mughal Empire more powerful and stable. Another change that the Mughals initiated was delegation of the government without undermining people’s rights. They also introduced Persian culture, language and ushered in a period of religious tolerance.
It is important to note that Muslims existed in India long before the arrival of Mughals. According to history, the first Muslims arrived in India during the 8th century. It was during the first half of the 10th century that a Muslim ruler attacked Punjab eleven times without success. However, during these attempts, the invaders made away with great loot. A successful invasion was in 12th century that resulted into the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate. The growth of the Mughal Empire was largely from the descendants of the Mongol State, who inhabited Turkestan in 15th century. These people Muslims by assimilation even though they kept elements of their Eastern origin.
Babur was the first Emperor of Mughal and was from the lineage of Genghis Khan and Tamerlaine. He succeeded his father as king at the age of twelve years, even though elder family relatives toppled him. He relocated to Afghanistan on 1504 before he received an invitation to India. The Indian princes who invited him hatched a plan to oust their ruler. Following the successful overthrow, Babur took over India, imposing most of authority in the northern region. He founded a sophisticated empire, which comprises of Indian, Mongol and Persian culture. It was during his reign that Hinduism was tolerated and allowed the building of new Hindu temples, something his predecessors had rejected.
Mughal Empire further established better economic ties with the rest of the Islamic world, including Persia. The leadership of Babur also abolished slavery in the kingdom and he initiated peace talks with southern India. Many analysts believe that Babur brought on board broad minded from central Asia. Even after conquering Delhi, he did not permit the killing of cows it was offensive to the Hindu community. Even though his ancestors were brutal, Babur was not barbaric. He had great ideas in administration, civilization and architecture.
Though he was a good king and won loyalty of many subjects, he was succeeded by Humayun, his son, who turned out to be a drug addict, poet and bad emperor. He was toppled and later recaptured the seat even though he later died after falling downstairs and sustaining a broken neck. Abu Akbar was the third emperor and lived to become one of the greatest rulers. He took over the mantle at the age of thirteen years. He recaptured territories that enemies took over during the reign of Babur. By the time he died, he was powerful in north, central and Western India. He toiled to win Hindus back for political mileage. He also married thousands of women for political and diplomatic gain.
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Mughal Empire was one of the famous kingdoms in India for many reasons. Several events that took place in the empire transformed it and became of its great history. In this paper, we shall explore on the major events that surrounded the empire and analyzing its timeline in details. The first battle for Mughal Empire was in 1526 when Babur when its king, Babur took over Delhi in a battle that occurred at Panipat. This capture led to the formation of the Empire. During that time, Mughal Empire was the only regional power.
After his death, Hamayun, his son took over the mantle of leadership but lost it for twenty-five years before regaining it. It was later united under Jalal-u-din Mohammad, being the first emperor, born in India. Because of his strategies, he annexed Rajputana and moved Mughal Empire’s border to Vindyas. He was later known as Akbar the Great. He introduced several reforms in the empire. Among other things, he abolished Jizya tax, which made Hindus pay for being non-Muslims. He increased treasury, making the empire economically stable that his successor, his son, Jahangir had easy time to carry out his military campaign.
One of the strategies of Akbar was to establish good diplomatic ties with European nations for trade purposes. As such, several diplomatic dignitaries visited the empire. They included Portuguese, English and French envoys who came looking for trade opportunities with the regional power. Because of his generosity, Akbar allowed the visitors from different parts of the world stay in India. It was during his time that the economy of the empire blossomed, because of huge taxes from European outposts. The king also allowed foreign traders to traverse India and conduct trade operations in the interior of the empire even though some were considered barbaric.
Jahangir was determined to invade and take over Deccan, after he succeeded his father in 1605. His intention was to capitalize on the stable state of the empire, as he had enough accumulation of money. He launched the attacks by invading Golconda Sultanate, allowing him to expand Mughal Empire’s border to India. Travancore was the only state that was left because it had vassal facilities, which allowed it to remain independent until the death of Maharaj. By the time of Jahangir’s death, he was yet to capture Portuguese ports of Bom Baia and Goa. Shah Jahan, his son, accomplished this after taking over leadership of Mughal Empire. After his relentless pressure, Portuguese left the empires, leaving behind British and French as the only European powers present in India at that time. With time, they were also eliminated, making Mughal Empire the only country on Indian subcontinent.
When Dara Shiko became king of Mughal Empire, Mughals shifted their attention to the northern side. They targeted Samarkand, which was the capital of Timurid Empire. The town was also famous because it was the birthplace of India’s emperor. He organized his armies and successfully took over the city, extending to Kazakh Khanate. This was revenge on how Shaybanids had attacked Timurids. With this expansion, future emperors were able to capture more territories.
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Decline of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire began to decline after attaining its highest point of success and stability. During this time, the empire was under the leadership of Shah Jahan and his son, after a successful rule of Aurangzeb. History records that the decline of Mughal Empire began towards the end of Aurangzeb’s rule. It is important to note that there were numerous reasons that led to the fall of such a great dynasty in the history of mankind. In this essay, we shall discuss major causes of the decline.
The first cause was Aurangzeb’s responsibility. He was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. This happened even though those kings, who ruled before him, did a great job in winning the loyalties of their subjects like the Hindus and the Rajputs. As a fanatic, Aurangzeb was unable to tolerate those who were non-Muslims in his empire. He introduced oppressive laws like the introduction of jazia and a total ban on celebration of Hindu festivals. Because of this animosity, he lost the trust and friendship with the Rajputs. He executed Sikh guru and created widespread enmity with the Marathas, forcing them to rebel against his leadership.
Additionally, Aurangzeb was also obsessed with the Deccan, which had detrimental effects on Mughal army. As a staunch Sunni Muslim, he did not have room for the Shias, who also turned against him. The nobles also developed rebellion against their king because he was mostly against their way of life, including dancing, singing and drinking. These were common habits among most Muslim nobles, who felt oppressed by the King. It is therefore evident that King Aurangzeb was responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
Besides the oppressive rule of Aurangzeb that, his successors also contributed to the fall of Mughal Empire. For example, his successors turned out to be weak and incompetent to take control of the entire empire. Most of them found pleasure in lavish lives without bothering the stability of the state. This created weaknesses that led to the decline of the once strong and stable empire. This weakness from successors took root because there was no law that defined the process of succession in the Mughal Empire. Oftentimes, the death of a king resulted into wars among their sons before a king would sit on the throne. They used nobles and royal family members to fight for power. Consequently, nobles were divided as they fought to safeguard their interests. This bred anarchy as nobles resorted to conspiracies, making Mughal Empire weak and vulnerable to external attacks.
Poor economy of Mughal Empire further weighed heavily on its stability. Importantly, the economy grew weak because of constant wars, which rocked the empire. In most cases, the wars had much loss that gain as no inch was added to the empire’s land. Moreover, Mughal Empire kings were less concerned with economic growth as they spent public resources on having fun and putting up monuments, which added no value in the state. This weak and crumbling economy was completely shattered by external invasions, as enemies saw loopholes to explore.
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It is needless to mention that the Byzantine Empire survived, centuries after the fall of Rome. It also grew to become the largest and most powerful European State at that time. During this time, it emerged that Byzantines found it hard to contain people from the West. This is because they found pleasure in fighting and were good in trade. Because of this, Byzantine Empire developed a diplomatic system, to allow signing of agreements with towns Venice, which was highly favored for allowing traders from different friendly cities in the region.
Following these arrangements, the Italians spread expansively, even though they hardly accepted that Byzantines belonged to a different religion. This was because at that time of Crusades, the Greek Orthodox Church would easily become a target for attacks. Since the separation of West and East and been initiated by the former, it had significant leadership influence. For example, monarchs from the west ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost half a century. While this was the case, it was never possible to gain total control of the region. There were local rulers who spread the Byzantine traditions, under the western rule. This largely contributed to the decline of Byzantine Empire. It continued to lose it territories until when Ottoman Empire overpowered Constantinople in 1453 CE and oust the government. Following these developments, Trapezus surrendered after eight years.
It is important to note the Byzantine Empire face a wide range of external enemies. Nonetheless, its poor internal organization largely contributed to its decline and collapse. Even though the empire registered political and economical stability by 1000AD, this was later to become Byzantine Empire’s downfall. The stability led to the emergence of joint feedback cycles, which destroyed the empire, taking away its success and glory. Firstly, the government of the day depended on free peasantry, for taxes and recruits.
During the days of constant battles and invasion, there was poor investment in farming, making land less productive. With the return of political stability during the eighth century, many nobles went for farmlands, which were under free peasantry. This led to endless battles between the nobles and peasants, who were not ready to part with their lands. Seeing that free peasantry was the pillar of the government, it did everything to protect it from greedy nobles. Basil II is remembered for steering this campaign, even though he could not overcome the powerful nobles, who were determined to end free peasantry.
Another factor that led to the decline of the Byzantine Empire is that not all leaders that rose to power were interested in protecting peasantry. This was much evident in 1025, after the death of Basil II who had the interests of farmers at heart. Because of the stability of the empire, many people did not see the essence of having a strong military. This saw weak rulers succeed Basil, some of whom had no military experience. Consequently, greedy nobles took the advantage and always attacked peasants during hard times like famine. Because of this, free peasantry declined, weighing heavily on the size of the army, since it was largely supported by peasant taxes. To remain strong and stable, Byzantine Empire resorted to employing the services of foreign mercenaries. The result was a weakened economy, which could not even support the military, resulting into its collapse.
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The Crimean War is commonly known as the Charge of the Light Brigade, during which Britain made a wrong attack. The war was fought between Britain and France, which were the allied nations against Russia, which was a common enemy. However, the war did not have massive significance in Europe as minimal changes took place. This war erupted because of religious conflict of people in the holy land. It has been argued that the war occurred because large European powers war to keep in other in check. Even though Crimean War is not remembered today for military success, it was the first modern war, offered first war photography, and portrayed acts of heroism to the rest of the world.
What led to the Crimean War? It is worthy noting that in early 19th century, Russia experienced massive military empowerment, becoming a major military power in the world. By around 1850, it was evident that Russia was determined to spread its military influence to the south. This became concern to British, as it felt that Russia would extend its influence to Mediterranean, when it was in control. Additionally, around the same time, Napoleon III had coerced Ottoman Empire to acknowledge France as a sovereign state in the Holy Land. Nevertheless, Russia rejected this and initiated its own diplomatic links as Russians claimed to protect the interest and freedom of Christians in the Holy Land.
These unclear diplomatic relations, led to hostilities, causing France and Britain to declare war against Russia in March 1854. Even though Russia appeared ready to avoid the war, it was unable to meet the conditions, which France and Britain put forward. This meant that the simmering war was inevitable. In September 1854, the two allies struck Crimea, a section of today’s Ukraine. They targeted Sevastopol, which was home to Russia’s naval base. Upon landing at Calamita Bay, the allied army of about 60,000 men marched southwards and encounters Russian troops at River Alma, where the battle ensured. Even though Lord Raglan had severe coordination challenges with French troops, the allied side managed to drive away their common enemy.
After fleeing, Russians regrouped at Sevastopol as British attacked Balaclava, bypassing this military bas. It is believed that the decision to attack the town was because it could be used by Russians as a supply zone. After considerable timing and evaluation, the allied forces attacked Sevastopol on October 17, 1854. On October 25, same year, Prince Aleksandr Menshikov, who was in charge of Russian troops, gave an order to attack allied forces. They implemented this by attacking the weak points of the allied military before they were turned back by Scottish Highlanders.
During this fighting, another Russian unit took advantage of British loopholes and got British guns, which were abandoned. Even though Lord Raglan ordered his troops to stop these actions, the information was not well interpreted, leading to the launch of the “Charge of the Light Brigade” on wrong Russian position. The first few minutes of the battle left about 100 men dead and the encounter ended with a great loss on British side though the standoff was still in place.
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According to history, the origins of the Byzantine Empire can be traced back to 330 A.D., during the reign of Constantine I of Rome. At that time, Constantine dedicated New Rome on Byzantium, which was an ancient Greek colony. The colony was founded by Byzas and was mainly located to serve as a transit point between Asia Minor and Europe. Before this decision, five years earlier, Constantine had introduced Christianity as the official religion in Rome. Even though most people spoke Greek and not Latin, they strongly identified themselves as Romans and Christians. One of the main aspects of the Byzantine Empire was its longevity as it survived without external interference up to the start of the modern age. This was a rare attribute as most states, West of China experienced a series of interruptions.
It is important to note that Constantine rule a unified Roman empire, unlike his successor, Valentinian I, who divided into western and Eastern. This happened in 337 after the death of Constantine I. following the division, Valentinian rule the Western section, and installed his brother Valens to rule the eastern side. However, this separation brought about differences in the years that followed. For example, Germans constantly attacked the Western region leading to its disintegration. This continued until Italy was the only territory under Roman control.
However, the Eastern section under Valens was less vulnerable to attacks. Some historians argue that this was partly because of its geographical location. It was almost impossible to break the capital’s defenses to realize a successful offensive. Additionally, the eastern side had a shorter common border with Europe, thus limiting the chances of an attack. Among other reasons, the region further benefited from its internal political stability and central administration, coupled with huge wealth compared to other states in the region. Emperors in the region also exerted power of economic resources, making it hard for invasion from external forces. As a result, the Eastern Roman Empire, famously known as the Byzantine Empire survived for several centuries even the Rome had already fallen.
It is worth noting that Byzantine Empire was under Roman law, together with Roman political institutions. As a result, Latin was its official language. However, Greek was also common as students were taught literature, history and culture through Greek. Christianity was the main religion in Byzantine Empire. Justinian I took over the mantle of power in 527 and ruled until his death in 565. He was considered as the first great ruler of the empire. During his reign, Byzantine Empire excelled in almost every sphere. For example, its land expanded and its army conquered several territories, including the former Western Roman Empire and part of North Africa. Many Justinian monuments were put up in his honor, which included the doomed church of Holy Wisdom. He was also remembered for reforming the Roman law by establishing a Byzantine code, which survived several centuries. These reforms played a major role in redefining the modern concept of the state. By the time Justinian died, Byzantine Empire was largest and most powerful state in entire Europe.
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Boer War Timeline
History is replete with documented wars, which took place decades and centuries ago. While some of these wars may have been forgotten, they played a major role in shaping some current political landscapes. Importantly, these wars were influential depending on the parties involved and the aftermath of the battles. In this essay, we are going to discuss Boar war timeline, including what led to the war and how warring sides agreed to end fighting.
The first Boar War took place between 1880 and 1881, which is commonly known as the Transvaal Rebellion. This is because the Boars from Transvaal resisted the annexation of Britain in 1877. Some historians refer to the war as the South African War because; most people who felt the effects of the war and participated were White and Black. The name “Boar” denotes farmers among Afrikaans and Dutch.
Before the war took place, several events happened. For instance, approximately 15000 of Dutch origin moved into South Africa from Cape Colony. The move was triggered by the unfair treatment by the British government and political marginalization they went through on the Eastern Cape frontier. Following these developments, they formed two independent republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. These republics were recognized by Great Britain in 1852 at Sand River and 1854 at Bloemfontein. Since they were farmers, the Boars enjoyed a pre-capitalist subsistence economy.
To expand neo-colonialism, Lord Carnarvon suggested a confederation in 1875, which was to bring together all South African States. Many pro British rule saw this as a move to enhance stability of the region for economic integration, especially after the discovery of diamonds in 1867. On the other hand, the Anglo Boar War took place between October 1899 and 1902 after the Boar Republics declared war. The war had three major phases, during the two years of fighting. In the first stage, it is worth noting that the Boars experienced three successful offensives. Firstly, they besieged the town of Ladysmith, before besieging British troops at Kimberly and Mafeking. Even though Britain realized some victories, they seriously lost key towns to the Boars.
In the second phase, Britain responded to Boars’ offensives. With reinforcements from all over, British changed the situation. Imperial troops recaptured the towns, which had fallen to the blacks, including Ladysmith, Kimberly and Mafeking. Following British successful response, they captured the Orange Free State and renamed the Orange River Colony in May 1900. On 5th June, 1900, Britain took over Pretoria, leading to the annexation of the Transvaal on September 1, 1900. This appeared to be the end of the war, and Roberts made returned to England a happy man.
The last stage of the war was the Guerilla war, when leaders adopted small military units as opposed to the British style of leadership. This was important as it allowed capturing of supplies, interrupt communications and attack raids on the military. It also made it had for British soldiers to capture the fighters. A raft of measures was adopted by the British, including burning about 30,000 farms, development of blockhouses and erection of fences. These led to a consensus between the two sides, which ended the war.
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Water in the Human Body
What is the importance of water in the human body? This is a question that you might ask at some point. Scientists, doctors and nutritionists advise people to drink sufficient water on daily basis. However, some people do not know the importance of water in the body. Nevertheless, water has paramount significance in the human body.
Water plays different roles in the body and that is why it is highly important to drink sufficient water. Approximately ¾ of the human body mass is made of water. Water is an important part of the cell of the human body. In addition, water is crucial in the human body because it facilitate various biological processes.
Hydrolysis is one of the biological processes that require water. This is a process in which a phosphate group is separated from an adenosine triphosphate or guanosine triphosphate releasing energy. Energy from the consumed food is used in generating adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate before the energy is used by the body. This makes water a very important element of the human diet.
In addition, water is an essential electrolyte containing medium as well as other ions in the human body. Some ions help in the formation of electrical pathways for functioning of the nerve. Dehydration of the human body to about 2 percent can greatly degrade mental and physical functions. Dehydration of up to 15 percent can be lethal. Compared to vitamin deficiencies that take weeks to make an individual sick water deficiency can kill within hours or days.
Water is very important in the human body because it helps in the removal of toxins. Human body removes toxins in four different ways. These are toxins processing by the liver, perspiration, bowels, and urination. Perspiration, urination and bowels excrete toxins from the body in water.
When the body is dehydrated, it will minimize using these methods to save water. Instead, the body will force liver to perform most responsibilities of removing toxins. This might exert pressure on the liver that has other roles to play apart from detoxification. Thus, the liver might not perform the detoxification process efficiently which might cause toxins buildup in the body.
Water is also important for fat loss and fitness. When taken, water fills the body up without adding calories. Dehydration degrades the ability of an individual to burn calories through exercising and it can also reduce synthesis of protein that is needed to repair and build muscles.
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Potassium in the Human Body
Importance of potassium in the human body cannot be underrated. The National Academies’ Food and Nutrition Board note that the healthy potassium intake per day is 4.7 grams. However, many people in the world today consume about 3 grams of potassium with women consuming on average below 2.5 grams per day.
Nevertheless, studies reveal that there are many benefits that can be derived from consuming the recommended amount of potassium every day. Some of the foods that are rich in potassium include citrus juices, bananas, potatoes, tomatoes, salmon, chicken, cod, most meats and lima beans.
Potassium is among the crucial electrolytes in the body. An electrolyte is a substance that helps in conducting electricity in the body. With other electrolytes in the body such as phosphorous, calcium, sodium, and chloride, potassium play a significant role in conducting electricity in the body. As such, potassium is very important because it ensures healthy functioning of all cells, organs and tissues in the body.
Potassium also helps in regulating water levels in the body and maintaining a healthy pH level in the blood. As such, because the body loses high amount of electrolytes in the sweat, it is important to obtain potassium after or during an intense activity.
Another reason why potassium is important in the body is because it helps in maintaining healthy blood pressure. For electrolytes to function properly, potassium and sodium must be balanced properly. As the body struggle to maintain a balance of potassium and sodium, it is important that you reduce sodium impact by taking more sodium.
Sodium has significant impact on blood pressure. Boosting the daily intake of potassium will help in maintaining a healthy level of blood pressure in the body. Nevertheless, you cannot depend on sodium and potassium uptake to control your blood pressure and you need other measures such as exercising regularly and controlling your diet.
Another important role played by potassium in the body is ensuring proper muscular functioning. Potassium plays a vital role in ensuring that muscles and skeletal system functions properly. For muscles to contract properly, adequate potassium intake is required on daily basis. This helps not only in proper functioning of the muscles, but also regular digestion.
In addition, potassium helps in ensuring good health of the heart. This is because normal rhythm of the heart is caused by optimal functioning of the muscles. This is apparent especially for individuals with excessively low or high levels of potassium which can lead to irregular heartbeats. Since heart arrhythmias are life-threatening, it is important that you ensure that you are taking potassium adequately on daily basis.
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Mitosis in the Human Body
To understand the importance of mitosis in the human body it is important to know what it is first. Mitosis is a process via which sex cells, eggs and sperm are made in the bodies of sexually reproducing organisms. The life span of cells in a living organism is set. After this life span, the cells cannot function properly and they have to be replaced. Antibodies seek the exhausted cells in the human body and then absorb them. This process starts with mitosis where the dead cells are replaced with their exact clones.
Unlike meiosis which helps in the production of cells for sexual reproduction, mitosis reproduces the single cells. Mitosis occurs whenever the body needs a new cell. Different cells in the body have varying life spans and some cells can be damaged necessitating the need for new ones. In some cells, mitosis is a constant process that ensures that adequate quantities of cells are constantly available. In addition, there are cases when antibodies trigger destruction of some cells before their normal life span ends which triggers additional mitosis.
Generally, mitosis is important in the human body for two major reasons. One, mitosis is crucial for cell replacement through cell division. Lost, dying and damaged cells in the body have to be replaced. These include the cells that form different tissues of various organs in the body such as the skin.
For instance, human skin has millions of living cells that offer protection to the body against pathogens and damage. The cells that form the surface of the skin slough off over time. This happens for instance when a person scratches the skin or when the skin comes into contact with rough surface causing abrasion. The lost cells have to be replaced with new ones that are produced deeper in the skin through mitosis.
Second, for body to grow there must be production of new cells. Every human being started as a single cell when the egg cell of a mother and the sperm cell of the father fused forming a single cell. Through mitosis, this cell divided to produce millions of other cells in the body. The cells differentiated later to serve specific functions in the body and they work in tissues as well as organs.
Through differentiation of the newly formed tissues and organs after mitosis, humans are able to perform different activities including eating, playing, learning and speaking among others.
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Chlorine in the Human Body
Importance of chlorine in the human body can be seen from the function that this element plays in the body. Chlorine exists in the human body in form of chloride ion. In the extracellular fluid, chlorine exists as sodium chloride and in the cells it exists as potassium chloride. Chloride ions are also found in red blood cells.
In the body, chlorine combines with sodium to form sodium chloride which keeps the body from getting dehydrated. Sodium chloride also keeps the muscles moving, attacks germs as well as enhancing transformation of meals into energy that the body needs to survive.
Body cells exist in a fluid sea. This body fluid is made of a high percentage of water and charged atoms of chloride and sodium. Chloride atoms play a very important role in ensuring balance in the body. They ensure electrical neutrality while maintaining the right pressure of the body fluids as well as keeping a balance of the acid and base in the body.
One of the results of the balancing act of chlorine in the body is a relatively constant amount of water retained and salt concentrations in the body over time. The body does not dry up or bloat uncontrollably. The balance is reasserted automatically whenever there is a change in the body. For instance, this balance occurs after engaging in a heavy physical activity that results in perspiration which requires salt. Balancing also occur after consuming excessively salty food.
Sodium ions are very important in enhancing communication of the body parts and organs through muscle movements. The nervous system is also important in communication because it helps in relaying of impulses. Sodium ions play a very important role in transmitting impulses to the muscles from the brain via nerve cells network. Chloride ions play important role in this communication because they help in balancing sodium levels in the body. They cause a balanced electrical charge in the nervous system.
Chlorine also helps in digestion because hydrochloric acid is formed from chloride ions. This acid is important for the digestion system because it helps in destroying germs that may be consumed with food and in the breakdown of proteins in the food ensuring that essential nutrients are availed to the body.
The immune system which fights germs and other disease causing organisms needs help of chlorine. Chlorine in hypochlorite that forms in the white blood cells helps the immune system in fighting germs.
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How Temperature Affects Volume
To understand how temperature affects volume, it is important to know how matter works. Mater comprises of tiny
particles that have energy. Temperature is energy in form of heat. This energy is what is used in cooking food, keeping the living spaces warm and even some machinery uses heat to function. Gas is used in different parts of the world to produce heat that increases temperature.
Temperature affects different things including human beings. When temperatures are low, people start shivering. When temperatures are high, human beings start sweating. Apart from human beings, temperatures affect other substances in the environment as well. Effects of temperature on these substances affect the volume that they occupy.
For instance, the connection between volume and temperature is the basis on what thermometers work. Airtight glass tubes are the most commonly used type of thermometers. These have reservoir bulb in one end. This reservoir contains colored liquid.
The volume of this liquid increases as the temperature increases. This forces the liquid to move upward in the narrow tube. Volume of the liquid in the reservoir increases with increasing temperature forcing the liquid in the reservoir to keep moving up the tube. The numbers on the tube translates to the increasing volume of the liquid with increasing temperature.
The effect of temperature on volume is seen by the effect that the temperature has on the space that is occupied by the liquid. When temperature is increased, most substances expand. On the other hand, decreasing temperature cause the liquid to contact.
The explanation of this reaction can be derived from the behavior of atoms and their size. Everything including liquid is made of tiny particles of matter known as atoms. Even when liquid of anything is not moving, atoms are always moving. Atom of anything are always wriggling around as well as bumping into each other. This is what happens to the atoms of the liquid.
As liquid gets hotter the atoms starts moving faster or jostling around more vigorously. As such, they occupy more space increasing the volume that is occupied by the substance. Nevertheless, effect of temperature on volume differs. Some substances will occupy more volume when exposed to high temperatures than others. Others will occupy less volume when exposed to extremely low temperature.
Variation on the effect of temperature on the volume occupied by different substances depends on various factors including their molecular mass and other structural properties of the substances.
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This report offers an analysis of training design I will use to train trainees on the how to use presentation skills effectively. It is a report that elucidates ways and methods I will use in my training to ensure that trainees get a clear view of these skills and use them in different occasions when delivering a presentation. Additionally, the report acknowledges the necessity of planning because it is a crucial step that helps to enhance efficacy of training.
Planning will enable me to employ effective methods to successfully complete the training. The report as a matter of fact offers a clear review of training design for quality and good presentation skills. It also endeavors to focus on the significance of availing regulations and rules that every trainee in the session should adhere to ensure that they behave in a responsible manner throughout the training period.
The report also highlights objectives of the training in regards to what is expected of trainees at the end of the program. Gathering apparently will not be successful if trainees fail to acknowledge and realize the significance of the training. The report also points out different presentation skills while offering an explaining of each and in intensely for proper understanding.
Additionally, the report offers a clear analysis of different training methods, their contents, when and how they can be best used in different presentation occasion. It also concludes with a restatement of subject matter as well as recap of main points captured in the discussion.
Training Design for Presentation Skills
In a quest to present information clearly to target audience, presentation skills are very important. Having good presentation skills enables an individual to communicate with other people effectively. The speaker needs to prepare effectively for a presentation because it will enable him or her to communicate a given message effectively without misinforming target audience.
Good public speakers also acknowledge the importance of good preparation in relevance to effective message delivery to the public. Therefore, it helps to eliminate fear while giving them determination and courage to address target audience with confidence. It also explains the importance of training and equipping people with essential presentation skills for them to become good public speakers.
Additionally, many people do not understand or know how to deliver a presentation best with a purpose of delivering a message. This is largely attributed to lack of good presentation skills to enable individuals to communicate effectively. Training therefore, contributes a great deal to education of people on ways and methods of good presentation. Any form of presentation skills training is additionally beneficial to trainees and related parties in a given field.
It is essential to note that training offers trainees an incredible opportunity to deliver an expected message efficiently. Other indirect beneficiaries also will be in a position to get the right information in regards to the subject matter. People who are trained on how to give a presentation effectively also tend to deliver good speeches in public. There are also other related benefits accrued from good presentations.
This report therefore, offers a strategic analysis and review of training design that is required to train people on effective presentation skills.
Establishment of ground rules and regulations
Saks and Haccoun (2010), emphasize that there is need for any training environment to set ground rules to provide instructions and procedures to ensure good behaviors amongst trainees in entire training session. Besides, trainers need good instructions and procedures with an aim of ensuring good management of limited resources and time. Rules therefore clearly state the best way to tackle misconduct amongst trainees as well as ways of encouraging good behaviors.
There are also other significant benefits of ensuring good ground rules and regulations, which encourage creating an ideal learning environment. Rules and regulations enable me to provide pertinent, edifying and effective training to my target audience. I shall always endeavor to familiarize trainers with different rules and regulation applications with an aim of ensuring they behave well and make the training exercise manageable and easier.
Guidelines and rules are also essential because they prevent friction among all participants. They also have a great impact on realization of set goals and objectives of the training by ensuring that learners are well familiar with different presentation skills.
Training objectives state what trainees should achieve at the end of the training. The training is directed at ensuring learners grasp presentation skills to make them good public speakers and good communicators. It also helps to ensure that learners learn how to pass the right message effectively to different audiences.
I do acknowledge the fact that understanding, confidence and early preparation as well as control are essential requirements for successful presentation. My training therefore seeks to provide good knowledge on good presentation and aims at building confidence, courage and control in learners they needs at any given time for the purpose of making a great presentation.
As a matter of fact, a speaker who is not prepared cannot deliver a good presentation. Training is essential as it prepares a person to have confidence and to be ready to give an excellent presentation. There is need to understand how to become a good speaker and a person should seek to give excellent presentation and it is all about passing the right message while entertaining the audience
Preparation also enables the presenter to be face his or her audiences confidently and pass a message as expected. It also makes desiccated subjects and different scenarios enjoyable and vivid because the presenter is specialized and has the right knowledge to address target audience in an interesting way.
Therefore, training prepares learners adequately and enables them to familiarize themselves with essential presentation skills for addressing target audience on a given subject successfully. Training also ensures that the right standards are set for trainees will be judged based on their presentation skills. It is expected that at the end of the training session, all trainees will have comprehended what a good presentation entails as well as necessary skills that are needed to make an excellent presentation.
This training aims at ensuring clear understanding of essential presentation skills and at equipping learners with the same despite the fact that it can be difficult to give an exceptional presentation. It is therefore highly advisable to prepare systematically before making a presentation in an effort to gain confidence of passing a message effectively to target audience.
It is additionally good to note that there are no short cuts to making a good presentation besides preparation. According to Atwood (2007), a presenter should, independent of the occasion aim at offering a logical and clear presentation at all times. This calls for proper organization of needed presentation skills which, demands that the presenter realizes how best and exactly how a message should be passed to target audience.
Before giving a presentation, it is also essential for one to write down the presentation, develop, select ideas and arrange main points for effective delivery of the message. Atwood (2007) also states that a person needs to understand an occasion and type of audience he or she will be addressing before giving a presentation as it helps to pass a given message effectively.
Control, besides confidence is very essential as they allow a presenter to manage his or her nerves as well as target audience thus, enabling them to respond to any question with assurance and confidence. Personal grooming and appearance is also crucial when it comes to presentations. As they say, a person’s look speaks volumes about him or her. Understanding target audience and occasion is also essential because public speakers or a presenter is judged based on looks.
Good appearance anytime for any occasion is essential as it offers confidence needed for a speaker to face his or her target audience and present information without reservations.
I intend to use different training methods in the training session to ensure that the objective and purpose of the training is achieved. These methods will enable me to train learners effectively for great results. I shall also blend techniques that combine different approaches for proper knowledge to learners. This is essential and appropriate because of its capability to cut down on costs as well as its flexible features. Blended training as such, uses classroom and computer technology for effective learning experience and greater result.
It is at this point where experimental learning is highly emphasized with an effort to encourage trainees to engage in an intermittent form of practice of learnt skills amongst themselves. According to Saks and Haccoun (2010), practice strategy is very essential dispenser tool for knowledge and I shall consider it because it enables trainees to rehearse acquired skills amongst themselves and ensure that they are acquainted with desired effective presentation skills.
This will also enable trainees to reach greater heights in regards to application of essential skills in real life situations and to enable them engage in the right presentation practices as the right approach to achieving set objectives at the end of training period. Saks and Haccoun (2010), also explain why active approach is significant based on the fact that it enables trainees to showcase mastery of the skills and in providing an exclusive presentation opportunity as far as learnt skills are concerned.
The method is also considered essential because it offers more inherent benefits compared to incur costs. I shall additionally use productive responses training approaches in an effort to achieve effective learning, allowing trainees to apply training materials efficiently as training progresses. The technique notably offers opportunities to help learners realize set goals and at an affordable cost.
Attentional advice is also very essential during training and a method I will use to give trainees relevant application details and strategies needed to successfully and effectively provide the program at a minimum cost. As a goal oriented trainer, I will therefore, give my trainees factual information to create an ideal learning environment for adequate training through the entire period.
Presentation is also sensitive as the information itself. For this reason, it will be essential to engage use of an important strategy as attention management to ensure training objectives are achieved per se. metacognitive strategies including self-direct, self-monitor and self-evaluation is also an incredible approach I will use in my training to enable each trainee to regulate his or her learning strategies for enhanced understanding of the presentation skills.
Active learning and understanding of the subject is also something I would highly encourage. This is because it enables trainees to be in charge of their learning endeavors. As such, it will enable them master acquired skills and become acquainted with each for ease of application of the skills during and after training.
To achieve set objectives for the program, it will also be essential to engage learners and arouse their inner desires to understand what I will be teaching them. According to Saks and Haccoun (2010), it is essential to employ error avoidance form of training in entire training. In effect, I shall employ this approach to ensure all details in regards to training period are availed to each and every trainee.
I shall therefore provide relevant training materials to each learner with proper skills while avoiding errors. This is a technique that shall serve as a way of reducing and eliminating errors during training that would otherwise make it futile and not in a position to achieve set goals.
I would also use audio visual strategy that is equally essential in relevance to points that are needed for good understanding of necessary skills. Besides his, I will help learners to familiarize with the strategy to ensure efficacy in speech and to motivate speakers to use presentation skills effectively in their training.
Application of these skills indeed will help trainers to enhance their presentations for ease of communication of the desired message. Consequently, this will make each presentation easy and possible for good understanding by those whom the message is intended for. I will therefore try to encourage learners to appreciate the fact that they need to realize they should always capture the attention of their audience by all possible means in any form pf presentation.
What’s more, they should ensure that the intended message is delivered and understood more efficiently.
Evolution and future of training
When it comes to current training approaches, the future of training entrenches itself in an experience that is lifelong to prepare individuals for more challenging experiences in their professional fields. According to Saks and Haccoun (2010), there are competent training models that can be used efficiently to enhance learning experiences amongst trainees and they have necessary considerations for training ethics.
As world changes and poses complex new challenges by the day, training will serve as a very ideal purpose to developing a positive attitude amongst individuals as they prepare for such situations. Trainers will additionally be kept on their toes to have employ the best practices in an effort to educate others people various fields. Competitive evaluation strategies will also be dependent upon in an effort to evaluate and gauge trainees as well as their abilities to deliver as they have been trained.
For example, using reliable evaluation strategies will be designed to give essential and crucial data that define trainees at the end of training session. In collaboration with other training strategies, this will play a crucial role in training programs for reliability and effectiveness of undertaking training in any given field.
In relevance to presentation skills, technology is imperative and it will keep on offering new challenges that are needed and require persistent training of individuals as a way of equipping and familiarizing them with future needs.
A training design is no doubt a very crucial tool that offers guidelines for successful completion of presentation skills training programs. Training design for effective skills in presentation is essential for the purpose of equipping learners with the right presentation skills. This report has therefore, expounded on a strategic analysis and review of training design that is required to train individuals on effective skills for presentation with a clear presentation of various techniques and methods I will employ to train learners on the skills.
The report notably has given me critical scrutiny of methods and techniques as well as contents of each technique as far as objectives of the research study is concerned. One also needs to comprehend the subject matter as a trainer because it enables him or her to have clear knowledge on the most ideal way to deliver quality training.
Before beginning a training session, it is equally important to table rules and regulations applicable in a training session and to ensure each learner is familiar with the rules. The purpose of the rules and regulations as earlier explained in the report is to normalize the behavior of learners during the training period.
Presentation skills are equally important techniques that enable speakers to pass information to target audience more clearly. Without proper understanding of presentation skills, a presenter will not apply them efficiently and successfully for effective communication.
In summary, this report offers the guiding principles I will employ to deliver quality training on presentation skills for effective communication of a given message to the intended target audience or a large group of people.
Atwood, C. G. (2007). Presentation skills training. New York: American Society for Training and Development.
Saks, A. M., & Haccoun, R. R. (2010). Managing performance through training and development. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Gender and Management
For many companies today, gender in management has been of great concern. Men have been seen individuals who hold top managerial positions for many years while women keep missing in executive tables. This has generated management disparities, calling for the need to include labor force principles that are gender balanced in order to benefit from information, pool of ideologies as well as expertise by creating leadership diversity.
Managers should utilize decisive capabilities and interpersonal skills to behave in a dignified manner and to show interest in realizing the goals of an organization. Some of gender disparities displayed in management positions and roles include efficiency, planning, courtesy, flexibility, skillfulness and courtesy alongside motivational aspects. Even so, this has lately changed because women have to a great extent taken up managerial positions.
Gender and Management
For any organization, management is a very crucial activity because it covers different motivation degrees, riles and resources. For examples, human resource management calls for job designs, compensation, exceptional motivation standards and equity. Gender has indeed become an issue in management of organizations where many people have been fighting unfair treatment in their places of work (Ibarra, Carter & Silva, 2010).
The requirement for equity conception has also resulted in the need to enhance balance in the workplace by improving impartiality feeling. The significance to reduce discrimination is therefore gaining attention via policy measures in a given labor market. Modern management theory has also transformed the workplace environment making it safe for everyone.
It is for this reason that employees are considered the most importance resources hence, the need to treat them with concern and respect. Even so, labor force diversity is a crucial issue based on benefits promised to international establishments. This is because of rising concern over gender discrimination that is continually eating away the progress of many companies.
Organizations therefore have to resolve many surrounding issues including ethnicity, age and gender discrimination. The issue of concern also involves predomination of males in organizational management. Gender sensitivity calls for crucial decisions and analysis to ensure equality and success in role tasks (Helfat, Harris & Wolfson, 2006). Additionally, top management should set to accommodate both genders in labor for sound judgments in decision making process.
Management challenges are as result of the need to involve workers, convince and maintain command over them. Both male and female managers are therefore very essential in the administrative process aimed at ensuring justice for all.
Management is a very crucial practice as it involves bring and manipulating minds with an aim of achieving objective action. In this regard managers control resources in an organization based on set goals and targets. Management concept therefore calls for high competency, alertness and professionalism. Managerial competencies also involve having systematic and continuous training along education programs that enhance skills.
Even so, effectiveness of programs that enhance skills depends largely on personalities displayed by individual managers (Ibarra, Carter & Silva, 2010). Communication, principles, intelligence, equity and emotional constancy among other personality features affect knowledge adequacy for managerial selection and position. Therefore, in the event where women fail in management test, inequity occurs. This is based on the fact that women executives are unwelcome to server in top management positions compared to men.
Even so, the situation can be attributed to belief that traditional management is best done by a man. Additionally, this is enhanced by the fact that women do not support other women in leadership. Many women will settle for a man claiming that a woman is characterized with hysteria, pettiness and gossip.
Management has also advanced a great deal to enhance organizational behavior. It is a process that involves different activities that also need cooperation, coordination and supervision. Decision making in this area is a common activity even though it is faced with many coordination challenge. Therefore, rules should be applied at all times because they are guiding principles in the implementation of techniques desired as per work, results and control.
In the above case, management involves these activities effectively and efficiently to achieve the desired results (Vuksanovic, 2012). The process is also faced with many problems including situational conditions, threats and risks. A high number of male managers in different organizations can be attributed to the conception that many men are willing to take risks and deal with the result as opposed to women.
Management process additionally involves different activities such as marketing, production, planning and distribution which carry significant risk level. The overcome such risks, managers need to exercise skill, strong leadership and workmanship (O, Neil, Hopkins & Bilimoria, 2008). All in all, men are still considered more superior than women.
Governance means responsibility that is bestowed to managers to deal with changing nature of work on different organizations as far as processes and tasks are concerned. The world is constantly changing at a high rate thus introducing new processing models. This has created the need to beat tight deadlines in assigning team work (O’Neil, Hopkins & Billimoria 2008).
Gender in this type of leadership has been a matter of concern to women as they are termed less advanced technologically. Even so, research reveals that women in executive positions are in a better position to fulfill their managerial duties more efficiently in the changing world owing to their flexibility (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). This has also seen many companies’ record high returns over previous periods when man was in top management.
This is also enhanced by increased career openings for women offered by different organizations to get rid of unjust treatment in management. Effectiveness is also another issue in regards to decision making in top management teams because of diversity (Helfat, Harris & Wolfson, 2006). Gender diversity in top leadership enables members to look for data, enhance point of views and to generative the best alternatives to getting the most ideal solutions.
Additionally, this reduces conflict levels and it negates primary team roles by creating communication challenges among top management. Gender diversity should therefore be considered when valuing an organization’s top management (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). Even so, this can contradicted by the need to employ the best managers who may not be diverse.
Talents also vary from one individual to the other where some people are disadvantaged when it comes to management positions based on lack of competencies and skills for such positions. Women in the modern day have taken up professional and managerial duties compared to men. Therefore, there is need to outsource for talents from large diversities for good decision making especially on including women in top managerial or executive duties (Vuksanovic, 2012). This should also transform the view held by women who are considered to be incompetent in top management positions in different corporations.
This is a situation being witnessed in the way organizations promote gender sensitivity in the place of work. Women in the end will be encouraged to go for top managerial positions based on earned skills and exceptional management values. The situation is going to change the misconception that management can be efficient when men are in control, a notion that has made it easier for men to dominate workforce for a long time now.
According to research, almost half of many organizations have never had women executives in top management. Even so, there are companies that have had up to three women in top management representing only 30 percent or less average of management team (Cheung & Halpern, 2010). This is an indication that even in modern times; the ratio of men to women in executive positions is still unfair.
In certain organizations however, there are women organizations hired from outside to top management level with the intention of pooling in expertise. Organizations with no women in top leaderships have also had recruitment issues for top jobs based on the fact that the process is costly and tasking.
Nonetheless, the number of women in executive jobs has increased gradually with time. This has been enhanced by the desire to test competencies of individuals by skills as opposed to gender. Women, as a result, have taken much of managerial positions compared to men due to high competency levels and the need to increase governance competency. The result of such is quality decision making process and great outcomes in relevance to profitability and productivity.
A labor force that is gender balanced has also led to good management policies and practices aimed at ensuring long term efficacy (Eagly & Carli, 2007). The problem however comes in when ladies are about to get better appointments but reservations emerge terming such tasks as risky. Many women have had to go through mentorship programs because they enjoy support from many sources.
This is a fact that led to increased number of women in top management jobs (Powell, 2010). Even so, more men are still reported to enjoy promotions despite mentorship programs that are designed for women. Such unreasonable moves are attributed to differences in job allocations where certain tasks are considered to have high potential exposure. Therefore, even though women are highly mentored, there is still no promotion going their way.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Management is a tasking duty and a process that calls for critical decision making. Even so, management of humans has been designed for complex and by the need to influence functioning, ideology and contributions towards set objectives. Gender diversity however is a crucial aspect in the current world of business because of its role in enhancing decision making process.
Experiences in business organizational management looks at males from a different point of view compared to women. Top executive positions are dominated by males while females secure jobs that are less demanding (Powell, 2010). It is however notable that women and men accomplish same tasks but under different point of views.
Diversity in point of views also enables an organization to enjoy implementation of quality products and services. In this case, all managers should work towards eliminating gender disparities and eliminating conflicts that arise from inequality. It is hard to change personalities but managerial characteristics should be highly fundamental in ensuring good management or governance.
Management styles used in organizations should also be in line with skills and personalities to enhance profitability and productivity (O’Neil, Hopkins & Bilimoria, 2008). If the personality of an individual does not match that of a given group, the manager should then be replaced.
It is also worth noting that management abilities vary from one individual to the other. A good manager should without prejudice develop perception. Even so, this ability is subject to learning through intellectual or experience (Eagly & Carli, 2007). It is also highly recommendable that managers should acknowledge the system of value in regard to morality, fairness and integrity values.
Another trait that determines level of confidence in managers is risk tendency. Men are seen as individuals who are more willing to take up risks compared to women, a notion that has enabled men to hold on to top managerial positions. Therefore, if women would develop competencies in critical decision making and risk taking in vital aspects of organizations, it would easily lead to their promotion in top management positions.
This has been lately achieved where women have taken advantage of mentorship programs proving their exceptional capabilities and enhanced management outcomes. However, even though women go back to gain more knowledge, they are yet to be accepted in terms of promotion based on merit (Vuksanovic, 2012). This is based on research that men still enjoy promotions more than women despite women mentorship programs.
Management is a process that involves directing of an organization’s resources to accomplish set goals. It calls for managers regardless of gender to participate through decision making, idea generation and analysis. Having a labor force that is balanced enables an organization to enjoy the possibilities of sharing expertise and information thus, enhancing profitability and productivity.
Managers have to understand the importance of equal but different to give males and females the respect they deserve. By doing so, companies will be able to appreciate similarities and dissimilarities between men and women in labor force thus, creating an incredible work environment. Managerial positions at times are characterized by neutrality, accuracy needed, power and wisdom ( Cheung & Halpern, 2010).
Such characteristics are linked to men and because of such; managerial positions were based on masculinity therefore, creating more opportunities for men than women. All in all, gender labor force that is balanced in management has transformed the perception encouraging women executive leadership and power. The result has proven that women executives are proficient to lead groups of people thus, enhanced productivity.
Cheung, F. M., & Halpern, D. F. (2010). Women at the top: Powerful leaders define success as work+ family in a culture of gender. American Psychologist,65(3), 182.
Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. L. (2007). Women and the labyrinth of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(9), 62.
Helfat, C. E., Harris, D., & Wolfson, P. J. (2006). The pipeline to the top: Women and men in the top executive ranks of US corporations. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 20(4), 42-64.
Ibarra, H., Carter, N., & Silva, C. (2010). Why men still get more promotions than women. Harvard Business Review, 88(9), 80-85.
O’Neil, D. A., Hopkins, M. M., & Bilimoria, D. (2008). Women’s careers at the start of the 21st century: Patterns and paradoxes. Journal of Business Ethics,80(4), 727-743.
Powell, G. N. (2010). Women and men in management. New York: Sage.
Vuksanović, M. (2012). Is manager’s gender an important factor in selection to a position? Megatrend revija, 9(1), 265-277.