The Ottoman Empire was a very powerful military and political entity of the Turks established in the middle ages and which lasted into the twentieth century. It all started with a small state comprised of a handful of Turks believed to be Seljuk Turks descendants. The timeline of the empire can be broken down as follows:
Growth, rise and fall
- 1299-The empire is founded and the reign of Osman I’s begins
- 1389-Battle of Kosovo results to the capture of a big portion of Serbia
- 1396-Bulgaria conquest in the Nicopolis battle
- 1444- Varna crusade comes to an end on Ottoman victory of the Varna battle
Subsequent Growth of the Empire
- 1453-Mehmed II captures Constantinople. During battle, Constantine (Christian emperor) dies and Mehmed II claims the title Caesar of Rome as Roman Byzantine Empire yields to Ottoman force finally.
- 1460-Mehmed II conquers Morea
- 1461Mehmed conquers Trabzon bringing to an end the Trebizond Empire.
- 1463-Bosnia is conquered
- 1473-Uzun Hassan of Akkoynlu Turkmens is defeated by Mehmed II in the battle of Otlukbeli.
- 1475- Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Caffa and Crimea is declared Ottoman Empire vassal state.
- 1478-Albania conquest
- 1480-Otranto, the southern part of Italy is conquered by Pasha as a strategic move for creating a base to orchestrate further conquest of Italy.
- 1481- Mehmed II dies and the Ottoman Throne goes to Bayezid II’s
- 1498-Montenegro conquest
- 1514-Safavid Persia’s Ismail I is defeated by Selim bringing East Anatolia under Turkish rule in Chaldiran Battle.
- 1566-The reign of Suleiman comes to an end
- 1590-Istanbul treaty
- 1610-Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppresses Jelali revolts with the Turkmens suffering the greatest loss
- 1612-Nasuh Pasha treaty
- 1615-Serav treaty
- 1683-At the Battle of Vienna, Ottomans are defeated
- 1686-Hungary evacuation
- 1687-Mehmed IV dies
- 1699-Karlowitz treaty
- 1718-Passarowitz treaty and beginning of Tulip Era
- 1730-The revolt of Patrona Halil brings to an end the Tulip Era resulting to dethronement of Ahmet III
- 1739-Belgrade treaty
- 1774-Kucuk Kaynarca treaty
- 1807-Kabakci rebellion results to Selim III’s dethronement
- 1821-Start of the Greek independence war
Fall of the Ottoman Empire
- 1830-Algeria surrenders to French rule gradually
- Greek sovereignty is established officially as a result of Greek War of Independence
- 1831 to 1833-Ottoman-Egyptian War
- 1853-Crimean war
- 1881-Tunisia gets converted into a French colony
- 1885-Eastern Rumelia is taken under the jurisdiction of Bulgaria
- 1913-The Ottoman Empire, save for Istanbul and a small surrounding region is erased completely from the political map of Europe.
- 1914-Ottoman Empire joins World War I and sides with Central Power. At about the same time, Britain annexes Cyprus.
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The Italian unification was as a result of sixty days of daring action, revolutionary ideas and events. The timeline of the unification is as indicated below:
- 1796-Italy is invaded by Napoleon
- 1815-At the Vienna congress, the powers that defeated Napoleon-Russia, Great Britain, Prussia and Austria draw a new geopolitical map of Europe with the objective of renegotiating spheres of balance and influence of all powers to ensure a season of peace and restoration of monarchial absolutism in order to protect themselves from revolutionary revolts.
- 1820-In some states, there are nationalist revolutions.
- 1830-More nationalist revolutions are reported
- 1831-Mazzini forms ‘Young Italy’ and meets Garibaldi who inspires him. A second revolutionary wave sentiment begins spreading from Modena to Perugia because of the liberal aristocracy support.
- 1833-Garibaldi gets sentenced to death for having played a part in the revolution in Piedmont and goes to exile.
- 1846-Pius IX becomes the pope and he is seen as a liberal
1848- Time for Revolutions
- In January, revolution breaks out in Sicily to break from Naples. On 13th March, Metternich falls from Austria power.
- March 17th to 22nd– 5 days revolutions breaks out in Milan
- March 22nd– Venetia declares its independence from Austria
- March 23rd-King Charles Albert of Piedmont declares car on Austria to assist Venetia and Lombardy.
- April 29th– Pope issues Allocution says he is not in support of the revolutions
- May-An Austrian army is defeated by king Charles Albert
- June General Radetsky arrives from Austria with reinforcements
- July 24th– Charles Albert is defeated by Austria during the Custoza battle and he abdicates.
- Sept-Troops from Naples manage to crush the Sicily revolution
French troops retreat from Papal States as Italian government renounces its wish to take over Rome as its capital. Agreement between France and Italy results to transfer o the capital city from Turin to Florence.
Austrian Prussian war gives Italy the opportunity to become partners with Prussia in a bid to liberate Venetia under Austrian rule. The third independence war breaks out and despite the defeats of Italian army in Custoza and Lissa, Prussia won the war annexing Venetia to Italy. Though Garibaldi defeats Austrians in Bezzecca in Trentino, he is forced to withdraw following orders from the King because the war had come to an end.
Garibaldi cannot do away with the idea of making Rome the capital and he makes the attempt to conquer it with a group of volunteers. The French protect the pope and stop the expedition in Mentana at the Rome gates. Garibaldi is forced to return to Caprera.
France declares war on Prussia and withdraws the last of its troops from Rome. Napoleon III gets defeated in Sedan and Italian government capitalizes on this to send military expeditions to fight Papal States.
Rome becomes the capital of Italy and parliament approves a law that declares the pope as the spiritual leader in the nation.
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The Boxer rebellion took place in the 1900’s in China. It has some interesting parallels to 21st century events. The rebellion was an uprising in non-western country against what was viewed as the corrupt influence of western ideologies and practices.
Grass root organizations at the time were fighting against what they saw as a war and they waged it against a collection of technologically foreign powers in a bid to preserve their beliefs and values. The events that lead to the Boxer rebellion timeline are as highlighted below:
- 1807-The first protestant Christian missionary from London Missionary school arrives in China.
- 1835 to 36- Missionaries are expelled by Daoguang Emperor for distributing Christian books.
- 1839 to 42- The First Opium War takes place and Britain imposes the right to equal treaty on China thereby taking over Hong Kong.
- 1842- Extraterritorial rights are provided to all foreigners in China as a result of the Nanjing treaty and foreigners are not longer subjected to Chinese laws.
- 1840s- A high number of Western Christian missionaries continue flooding China.
- 1850-64- Hong Xiuquan, a Christian convert leads the bloody Taiping Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty.
- 1856 to 60-The Second Opium War takes place Britain and France manage to defeat China and they impose some harsh Tientsin treaties
- 1894 to 95- The first Sino-Japanese War takes place and the former Japan tributary defeats China and Korea is taken over.
- November 1, 1897-Juye Incident takes place-two Germans are killed by armed men at a missionary home in Shandong province, Northern China.
- November 14, 1897- Fleets are sent to Shandong by German Kaiser Wilhelm II and he urges them not to take any prisoners like the Huns and the Attila.
- 1878-98-Drought which is followed by floods strikes Shandong causing in its wake spread of misery.
- 1898-Young men from the Righteous Fist groups in Shandong practice martial arts and traditional spiritualism.
- June 11 September-21st 1898-100 Days Reform as Emperor Guangxu attempts to modernize China quickly.
- September 21, 1898-Guangxu is on the verge of handing sovereignty over to Japan but is stopped forcing him to go to internal exile Empress Dowager Cixi takes over the rule in his name.
- June 5, 1900-Boxers cut the railroad line at Tianjin and isolates Beijing
- June 13, 1900-First Boxer appears in the Legation Quarter in Beijing
- August 15, 1900- Empress Dowager Cixi and Guangxu go back to Beijing from Xi’an and they resume control of government.
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Austro Prussian Seven Weeks War
The Austro Prussian seven weeks war, also known as the Unification war, German Civil War, Prussian German War was a 1866 war fought between the German Confederation which was under the leadership of Austrian Empire and German allies on one side and Prussia Kingdom with Italy and German allies on the other hand. The war resulted to the Prussian dominance over German states. In Italian Unification process, it is known as the Third Independence War.
The major result arising from the war was the shift of power among German states from Austrian towards Prussian hegemony and the impetus towards unification of all northern German states in what was known as Kleindeutschland that excluded Austria.
Germany was shifting from what the British thought of as a land of tinkering forests and clockmakers and becoming more middleclass and urban. It was heading on a course that would by the end of the century make it a third power in the manufacturing industry globally with a 13.2% share behind the US which had a 23.6% share and Britain with 18.5% share.
Austria has been isolated during the war with Sardinia-Piedmont and France. It had interests of reviving partnership with Prussia’s monarchy against nationalism and liberalism and wished to lure Prussia to assist in reversing the settlement at Villafranca in order to recover Lombardy-Austria’s monarch.
The German states confederation was made up of thirty nine states. Out of these thirty five were monarchies while four were free city states. The confederation was a security arrangement for mutual defense with representatives at Frankfurt parliament which was one among the Free states.
Compared to the Austrians representing Emperor Franz Joseph, Bismarck was less opposed to the question of nationalism. He favored expansion of Prussian influence with Germany’s small states and removed Austria’s influence within the German States Confederation. After the death of King Fredrick of Denmark in 1963, the question of whether to go to war came up.
Christian of Glucksburg ascended to the Danish throne giving the duchy Holstein its independence. The war came to an end successfully in 1864 for Austria and Prussia with the Vienna treaty making Prussia the administrator of Schleswig while Austria was made the administrator of Holstein.
Austria continued with its support of the Duke of Augustenburg’s claim for 2 duchies but Bismarck was interested in taking control over both duchies and both to be integrated economically with Prussia. The war lasted for seven weeks. The good organization of Prussia and its railroads enabled it to get its troops to the battle quickly and Italy sent troops against Austrian troops in Venetia and Austria’s troops stopped that advance.
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After the general election of 1948, apartheid begins. The National Party in order to get votes from White Africans promises to make laws that prohibit the rights of black people once they win the election. The National Party wins after defeating the United Party marking the start of apartheid. The apartheid system is officially launched thus restricting the freedom enjoyed by Black Africans.
African National Congress begins the defiance campaign with volunteers beginning a peaceful resistance to the system b y breaking those laws they consider wrong. The protests include black people being out in the city after curfew hours and others sitting on benches clearly marked for whites. The first legal firm for blacks in SA is opened by Tambo and Nelson Mandela.
Bantu education act, which was a law separating the education system for the whites and blacks is created. Blacks get trained to prepare to become part of the working class as they are not expected or allowed to do anything beyond this.
December 1956-Nelson Mandela, an anti-apartheid activist gets arrested along side others for fighting against apartheid. He gets charged with treason but after a 4 year trial, he is not found guilty of any crime.
Separate homelands get created for major black groups. At the time, the government also passes some new laws to create separate homelands known as Bantustans for major black groups within the country. The government carries this out in order to keep blacks from being South African citizens.
21 March, 1960
60 people are killed in Sharpeville massacre. Apartheid requires blacks to carry passbooks that contain personal information like date of birth, photos and name. Protestors show up at Sharpeville police station without passbooks and a riot ensues with the police killing sixty nine people.
5, August 1962
Mandela, the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, part of African National Congress gets arrested for treason. He is charged with bombing government targets and sentenced to life imprisonment.
11 November 1962
Rhodesia gains independence illegally from Great Britain. Prime Minister Ian Smith announced Rhodesia has broken from Britain and whites will be in control of the government. Great Britain as prepared to grant independence if blacks would be given some of the power in government.
SA gets expelled from UN and it is not allowed back till apartheid comes to an end.
16 June, 1976
Over 600 high school students are killed in Soweto Massacre. This is because they were protesting to get better education for the blacks. The protest is broken by police with bullets and tear gas.
12, September 1977
Steve Biiko, one of the Soweto protest organizers is arrested and dies on 12th while in police custody. The cause of death is brain injury likely from beatings by the police.
11, February 1990
Nelson Mandela is freed after twenty seven years in prison and thanks President de Klerk for assisting in setting him free though he says much needs to be done to put apartheid to an end.
10 May, 1994
The first election that allows blacks and whites alike to vote is carried out and Mandela gets elected as president making him the first black president in the South African history.
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Anglo Zulu War
Anglo Zulu war was between the Zulu Kingdom and British Empire fought in 1879. Following the successful introduction of federation in Canada by Lord Carnarvon, it was assumed that a similar political effort together with military campaigns might work for the tribal areas, Boer republics in SA and African Kingdoms. Sir Henry Bartle Frere was therefore sent to SA as the High Commissioner in 1874 for the British Empire in order to see to it that such plans were implemented.
However, things did not work out as expected as there were numerous obstacles some of which included presence of independent state of the Kingdom of Zululand, South African Republic and its army. Without consent from the British government, Frere presented an ultimatum on 11 December 1878 with intent of instigating a war with the Zulu. Zulu king, Cetshwayo did not comply with the ultimatum causing Frere to send Lord Chelmsford to invade Zululand.
Under the common of Lord Chelmsford, British forces (many of them whites/colonials or Natal Native Contingent/blacks members started carrying out the general plan which was out into place to invade Zululand. The objective was to occupy Zulu royal kraal at Ulundi by advancing on it from 3 directions. The attack plan was similar to the tactic used by the Zulu of attacking from 3 sides by means of a central chest or main force, an extended left and right horn on either side.
The first attack took place on 12th January 1879 when the Sihayo’s kraal position which was located at the Batshe Valley threatened successful advancement of British column. Under orders from Chelmsford, the attacking force moved across Batshe and attacked a rocky gorge into which Sihayo’s men had retreated while driving their cattle before them.
The Native Natal Contingent showed reluctance facing the Zulus as some were armed with rifles. In a bid to thwart the attack, stones were rolled down into the attackers and after this action, the Zulus retreated with thirty dead, four wounded and 10 captured. The British however did not have a high casualty number as there were only 2 casualties and 15 wounded.
The battle of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift followed thereafter. A depot at Rorke’s Drift was attacked without orders from Cetshwayo who preferred a defensive strategy. After an overwhelming victory over the British at Isandlwana, reserve forces of the Zulu who were not in the battle field the previous day attacked a hastily erected fort at the Rorke’s Drift garrison. While the Zulu kingdom was not destroyed by the war, the subsequent events divided the Sulu and undermined their social and economic cohesion.
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Anglo Zulu War
Anglo Zulu War is known for the bloody Rorke’s Drift and Isandlwana battles of 1879 that saw the invasion of independent Zululand (present day SA) by more than 15,000 British troops. The buildup to the war began in 1877 when British colonial administrator, Sir Henry Frere was sent to Cape Town to unite South Africa under one British Confederation.
Frère soon realized the independent black states, British colonies and the Boer republics could not be united till the Zulu Kingdom on the borders was defeated. Knowing London was not interested in going to war with the Zulus, Frere sought the help of the new British governor of Natal and Transvaal, Sir Theophilus Shepstone to invade the Zulus.
- December, 11 1878-An ultimatum is send to the Zulu King Cetshwayo by the British
- December 31, 1878-Sir Henry Frere grants an ultimatum extension
- January 9, 1879-The ultimatum expires and 3 British columns cross Buffalo River and enter into Zulu land.
- January 12, 1879-Sihayo’s camp is destroyed by the central column
- January 22nd 1879-Led by Colonel Charles Pearson, the right column engages six thousand Zulu troops close to Inyzane River.
- January 22, 1879-Zulu force of twenty five thousand make surprise attack on the central column camped at Isandlwana. Chelmford’s column is defeated and they retreat from the Zulu territory.
- January 22/23, 1879-A set of Zulu reservists numbering 4,000 attack British outpost of Rorke’s Drift. With only one hundred and fifty colonial and British troops to defend the outpost, the engagement lasts eleven hours before Zulus retreat.
- January 23 1879-Right column is besieged within their fort mission close to Eshow. The siege lasts for 2 months.
- January 24, 1879- The left column which was led by Colonel Evelyn Wood receives news about the Isandlwana massacre and he withdraws his troops to safer ground in the Kraal. At that point, only the left column was military effective with Chelmsford’s central column already destroyed and Pearson’s right column under siege at Eshow.
- February 11 1879- News about the Isandlwana defeat reaches London and reinforcements are requested. Meanwhile, Chelmsford begins rebuilding his forces for the second offensive against the Zulus.
- March 7, 1879-The first reinforcements from Britain arrive at Durban and London agrees to send 7 regiments and 2 artillery batteries in order to support Chelmsford’s campaign.
- March 12, 1879-Sulu force comprised of five hundred men attack a British supply convoy at the Intombe battle. With only one hundred troops protecting the convoy they are defeated.
- July 8, 1879- Lord Chelmsford resigns
- July 15, 1879-Lord Chelmsford’s position is taken over by Sir Garnet Wolsey
- August 8th 1879- Cetshwayo is captured then sent to exile first in Cape Town and later to London.
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Boer War Timeline
History is replete with documented wars, which took place decades and centuries ago. While some of these wars may have been forgotten, they played a major role in shaping some current political landscapes. Importantly, these wars were influential depending on the parties involved and the aftermath of the battles. In this essay, we are going to discuss Boar war timeline, including what led to the war and how warring sides agreed to end fighting.
The first Boar War took place between 1880 and 1881, which is commonly known as the Transvaal Rebellion. This is because the Boars from Transvaal resisted the annexation of Britain in 1877. Some historians refer to the war as the South African War because; most people who felt the effects of the war and participated were White and Black. The name “Boar” denotes farmers among Afrikaans and Dutch.
Before the war took place, several events happened. For instance, approximately 15000 of Dutch origin moved into South Africa from Cape Colony. The move was triggered by the unfair treatment by the British government and political marginalization they went through on the Eastern Cape frontier. Following these developments, they formed two independent republics, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. These republics were recognized by Great Britain in 1852 at Sand River and 1854 at Bloemfontein. Since they were farmers, the Boars enjoyed a pre-capitalist subsistence economy.
To expand neo-colonialism, Lord Carnarvon suggested a confederation in 1875, which was to bring together all South African States. Many pro British rule saw this as a move to enhance stability of the region for economic integration, especially after the discovery of diamonds in 1867. On the other hand, the Anglo Boar War took place between October 1899 and 1902 after the Boar Republics declared war. The war had three major phases, during the two years of fighting. In the first stage, it is worth noting that the Boars experienced three successful offensives. Firstly, they besieged the town of Ladysmith, before besieging British troops at Kimberly and Mafeking. Even though Britain realized some victories, they seriously lost key towns to the Boars.
In the second phase, Britain responded to Boars’ offensives. With reinforcements from all over, British changed the situation. Imperial troops recaptured the towns, which had fallen to the blacks, including Ladysmith, Kimberly and Mafeking. Following British successful response, they captured the Orange Free State and renamed the Orange River Colony in May 1900. On 5th June, 1900, Britain took over Pretoria, leading to the annexation of the Transvaal on September 1, 1900. This appeared to be the end of the war, and Roberts made returned to England a happy man. The last stage of the war was the Guerilla war, when leaders adopted small military units as opposed to the British style of leadership. This was important as it allowed capturing of supplies, interrupt communications and attack raids on the military. It also made it had for British soldiers to capture the fighters. A raft of measures was adopted by the British, including burning about 30,000 farms, development of blockhouses and erection of fences. These led to a consensus between the two sides, which ended the war.
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The fall of the Soviet Union can be attributed to the Cold War. However, the collapse of Soviet Union was a gradual process that took almost half of the century. In around 1945 when the Second World War ended, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a war that entailed fear and threats.
At that time, Cold War was a major concern in the international affairs. From the opponents of communism perspective, the purpose of Cold War was to ensure that communism was contained and that nuclear conflict was avoided. However, Soviet Union was determined to spread communism across the world including in the United States.
Both the United States and the Soviet Union disagreed over economic, cultural and political differences. In the United States, construction of retaliatory weapons started in preparation of the possibility of the need to use weapons. These weapons were known as the Strategic Triad. They included submarines, land based missiles and long-range bombers. This marked the start of nuclear arms race.
The governments of the two sides stockpiled more nuclear weapons to ensure that their governments are in line. Fortunately, nuclear was did not take place. This can be attributed largely to scare tactics embraced in the cold war. However, both the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in space race in the 1950s.
Both the Soviet Union and the United States wanted to beat the other in the space race for various reasons. The major reason was that their military and defense capabilities were to benefit from the establishment of a successful program of the space. The rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States was every intensifying which fueled the space race further.
However, 4 October 1957 marked a win for the Soviet Union because it launched a satellite Sputnik in the orbit. Nevertheless, the United States became the first country to land successfully on the moon.
Tension between the two sides continued with nuclear arms race and the space race being the major fields of competition. Over the years, crisis related to the cold war emerged including the Vietnam and the Korean wars as well as the Cuban Missile crisis. The economy of the Soviet Union became stagnant due to continued support of arms race.
However, Mikhail Gorbachev became a change advocate when he was appointed as the president of Communist Party. He started working with the United States’ president Ronald Reagan improving the relations between the two countries.
In 1989, the U.S president George W. Bush and Gorbachev declared the end of Cold War which marked the end of Berlin Wall and Communism end in the East Germany. In December 1989, communist governments in Romania, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia fell and the Soviet Union ended in 1991 when it split into different republics.
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Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban missile crisis refers to a dangerous and direct confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States during the era of the Cold War. This crisis marked the closes moment during which the two countries were almost engaging in a nuclear conflict. This crisis has been considered unique by most analysts for various reasons.
It featured miscommunications, secret and direct communications between the two countries. Its main characteristic was that it was played out primarily in the Kremlin and White House level with little input from respective bureaucracies’ involvement in the foreign policies of the two countries.
After a failed attempt by the United States to overthrow the Cuba regime of Fidel Castro through the invasion of the Bay of Pigs as well as the planned Operation Mongoose by the Kennedy administration in July 1962, the premier of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev reached an agreement secretly with Fidel Castro, the premier of Cuba to place nuclear missiles of the Soviet Union in Cuba. The missiles were aimed at deterring any possible invasion attempt in the future.
Late in the summer, construction of missile sites started in Cuba but the intelligence of the United States discovered that there was evidence of the Soviet Union arms being built in Cuba. These included the IL-28 Soviet Union bombers. The discovery was made during the regular surveillance flights.
On 4th September 1962, the U.S president Kennedy warned against the public that offensive weapons are being introduced in Cuba. On 4th October, the U-2 aircraft of the United States took pictures that clearly shown the sites of intermediate range and medium range ballistic nuclear weapons or missiles as well as IRBMs that were being constructed in Cuba. The images were presented to White House after processing in the following day. This precipitated the start of the Cuban missile crisis.
President Kennedy called his advisers so that they consider the right action to take and the available options. The aim of summoning the advisers was to resolve this crisis. Among the advisers involved were the Joint Chiefs of Staff who argued that an air strike would destroy these missiles and then followed by Cuba invasion by the U.S. however, there were advisers who suggested issuance of a stern warning to the Soviet Union and Cuba.
The president ordered a naval quarantine in Cuba on 22nd October. This quarantine distinguished the move from blockade legally. It also enabled the U.S to get support from the American states organization. Kennedy also sent Khrushchev a letter in the same day declaring that the U.S would not allow delivery of offensive weapons in Cuba. He demanded that the missile bases under construction or already constructed in Cuba to be dismantled. Nevertheless the crisis continued with the response from the Soviet Union and at some point it reached virtual stalemate.
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Neolithic revolution is also called the Neolithic Demographic Transition. There are also people who called it the Agricultural Revolution. It refers to the first verifiable revolution in history of Agriculture. The revolution was wide scale involving different human cultures from the hunting and gathering lifestyle to settlement and agriculture which supported the increasing population.
There is archaeological data that shows that domestication of different animals and plants evolved at different locations across the world. The starting point of these domestications is indicated by the data to have been the geological epoch in Holocene at around 12,000 years ago.
Nevertheless, Neolithic Revolution entailed more than adoption of limited techniques in producing food. In the following millennia, the revolution transformed the mobile and small groups of people who were initially hunters and gathers who had until that time dominated the human history into the sedentary societies that were based in the built-up towns and villages.
The sedentary societies modified the natural environment that they were used to radically through specialized cultivation of food crops. They engaged in activities like deforestation and irrigation in the production of food. Different technologies that included food storage were employed by these societies which enhanced food production while making surplus food available.
Developments brought about by Neolithic revolution provided a basis for increased population and more settlements. Specialization as well as trading economies and divisions of labor all started with the Neolithic revolution. Non-portable art development and architecture, political structures, centralized administrations, depersonalized knowledge systems such as writing and hierarchical ideologies as well as private ownership of property all have their basis on Neolithic revolution.
The first and full-blown Neolithic complex manifestation is seen in the cities of the Middle Eastern Sumerian. The emergence of these cities marks the end of prehistoric Neolithic era. Relationship of the Neolithic characteristics and the onset of agricultural activities, sequence of their emergence and the empirical relations in different Neolithic sites is still a subject of research and academic debates. The characteristics also seem to differ in different places instead of being the result of the universal social evolution laws.
Before Neolithic revolution, people lived with their extended families in a nomad life without staying at one place for more than few months. People always lived in temporary shelters and searching for food through hunting and gathering. Before Neolithic revolution people never owned anything because they could easily pack and leave where they were living any time. Neolithic revolution marked the end of this and the start of a settled way of life.
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Manhattan Project refers to a research project by the government of the United States that led to the production of atomic bombs for the first time. The United States’ government engaged in this project between 1942 and 1945. Scientists in America, most of who were refugees from the fascist regimes of Europe initiated the project in 1939 with an aim of organizing a project that would lead to the exploitation of the fission process that had just been recognized.
The project was to benefit the military operations. G.B Pegram from Columbia University made the first contact to the government by arranging a conference between the Navy Department and the Enrico Fermi in March 1939.
Fellow scientists of Albert Einstein persuaded him to present the potential that chain reaction of uncontrolled fission had on military operations to Franklin D. Roosevelt, the president of the U.S. In February of 1940, the government availed $6,000 to the project that was to be supervised by a committee led by L.J Briggs who was the National Bureau of Standards director.
The Manhattan Project was later on 6th December 1941 put under Vennevar Bush who was the Office of Research and Development’s director. Following the entry of the U.S into the war, the project was put under the War Department since mid-1942.
It is obvious that a wide range of laboratories, pilot plants and other manufacturing facilities were constructed by the United States at this time. Engineers of Army Corps Manhattan District were at first assigned the task of managing construction work in 1942. In September 1942, Leslie R. Groves, who was a Brigadier General, was put in charge of Army activities that related to Manhattan Project. The project was known for a wide range of research work that took place in different parts of the United States.
In 1940, it was established that scientists in Germany were also working on a project similar to Manhattan Project. The British also explored the problem. Towards the end of 1941, Pegram and Harold C. Urely visited England trying to establish cooperative efforts. By 1943, Canada and Great Britain established a policy for combined committee.
Several scientists from Britain moved to United States in the same year joining the Manhattan Project. Several materials were availed to the project including Uranium-235. Different methods and materials were explored and used by the scientists in an effort to produce atomic bombs. The first atomic bomb was tested on 16th July 1945 at the Trinity Site near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
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Magna Carta is a Latin word for Great Charter. It is also known as the Magna Carta Libertatum. It refers to an Angevin charter that was issued in Latin originally. King John sealed the charter under oath at Runnymede on River Thames’ bank near Windsor on 15th June 1215 in England.
Magna Carta was a first document that a group of the subjects of King of England imposed upon him. This group was made of the feudal barons and they imposed the document upon their king as an attempt to reduce his powers using a law and to protect their rights.
This charter is popularly known across the English speaking countries as one of the most important aspects of protracted process in history that led to the introduction of constitutional law ruling in England and other parts of the world. According to Magna Carta, King John was to proclaim some liberties as well as accept his will as the king was not always arbitrary.
For instance, through explicit acceptance that freemen could not be punished but only via the law of the land, which is a right existing even today in the English law, King John accepted that his will as the king was not always arbitrary. The council of Anglo-Saxon Kings was also held at Runnymede on several occasions in between 7th century and 11th century. This was during Alfred the Great reign. This council often met in open air.
The succeeding council versions influenced creation of the 13th century parliament of England. The most likely location and time when King John sealed Magna Carta are Water-meadow at Runnymede and 15th June 1215 respectively. This location remains the site of Magna Carta Memorial. There is also a possibility that the opposite bank if River Thames, the Magna Carta Island was the location where the charter was sealed. Nevertheless, the charter indicates that Runnymede is the site.
The common constitutional law was influenced by Magna Carta. The charter also influenced political representation as well as establishment of the England’s parliament. The association of the charter with democracy ideals, freedom and equality as well as power limitation under law has drawn attraction and placement of commemorative symbols and monuments at Runnymede.
The charter was directly influenced and preceded by Charter of Liberties of 1100. In this charter, King Henry I specified certain areas in which his powers could be limited. Additionally, Magna Carta played a significant role in America’s colonization because the legal system of England was used in developing legal systems of most colonies.
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Battle of the Bulge
Battle of the bulge was fought during the winter of 1944 and 1945. It marked the last major attempt by the Nazi Germany to attack and defeat the Allies during the Second World War. It is considered by many historians as the last ditch attempt that Hitler made to split the Allied forces into two as they move towards Germany. Hitler wanted to destroy the ability of the Allies to be self-supplied.
This battle started on 16th December 1944. While starting the battle, Hitler convinced himself that America, France and Britain did not have a strong alliance in the Western part of Europe. He convinced himself that by launching a major attack that would lead to the defeat of the allies he would break this alliance.
As such, as he ordered his army to pursue a massive attack he focused primarily on the American forces. This attack was called the Ardennes Offensive. However, since the initial attack made by the German led to a bulge in the frontline of the Allied forces, it came to be known as the Battle of the Bulge.
The plan of Hitler was to start a massive attack against the allies via three armies so as to destabilize the accord and take the Antwerp port through which the allies were getting great supplies.
Hitler planned that Sepp Dietrich would lead the Sixth Panzer Army in attacking and capturing Antwerp. Manteuffel would lead the Fifth Panzer Army in attacking the American forces’ center and capture their strategic rail center of the St Vith and strategic roads and drive them towards the Brussels. Brandenberger was to lead the Seventh Army in attacking the Southern Flank and create buffer zone that would prevent attack of the Fifth Panzer Army by the American reinforcements. Hitler wanted the Fifth Army to remain in reserve so that it can counter any attck by the allied forces.
According to Hitler, his armies could surround the First Army of Canada, Ninth and First Army of America and the Second Army of Britain and cut off Canada. This seemed as an absurd plan on paper considering that since D-Day Germany was in retreat. Germany Army had been depleted of sufficient supplies while facing the mighty Allies. However, as the commander in chief of the Army, Hitler decreed that this attack had to take place.
The battle began with Allies lines’ bombardment that took two hours and later followed by heavy armored attack in which the German experienced a great success at first that lasted for two days only.
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Battle of Stalingrad
Many historians consider the battle of Stalingrad as the turning point of the Second World War in Europe. This was a major battle in which the Nazi Germany and the allies fought to take control of the Stalingrad city with the Soviet Union. City of Stalingrad is now the Volgograd city located in the South-western side of the Soviet Union.
Battle of Stalingrad was marked by the close combat of close quarters and the disregard for civilian and military casualties. It is considered among the bloodiest battles of the entire warfare history. Wehrmacht inflicted heavy losses that make the battle of Stalingrad arguably a major strategically decisive conflict of the entire war.
Among the ironies of this battle is that the sixth army of Germany needed not to have been entangled in the Stalingrad city. Groups A and B of the army were on their way to Caucasus in the south-west Russia. This was when Hitler ordered them to attack Stalingrad.
Strategically, it would have not been a wise move to advance while leaving a major city unconquered in the rear. Nevertheless, there are historians who believe that the orders from Hitler were aimed at taking Stalingrad just because of its name. Hitler hated Joseph Stalin who the name was named after. On the other hand, Stalin ordered his army to save the city.
Battle of Stalingrad took place between 1942 and 1943. The commander of the Sixth Army of Germany, General Paulus helped by the army of Fourth Panzer advanced towards the city of Stalingrad in September 1942. The primary task of the general was to ensure that Caucasus oilfields are secure.
To achieve this, Paulus was required to take Stalingrad by Hitler. The final target of the German was to be Baku. In addition, Stalingrad was an important target because it was the communications center for Russia in the southern and a manufacturing center.
In the beginning of September in 1942, Germany army moved to Stalingrad. At the same time, the Russians had already been devastated by operations Barbarossa by Blitzkrieg. As such, they had to establish a stand because this city was given its name after their leader, Joseph Stalin.
As a result, their high morale could not allow the city of Stalingrad to be taken by the German army. In addition, the Russians could never allow the Germans to take over their oil fields in Caucasus. Stalin issued an order that required them never to make even a single step backwards.
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