The two major fossils man uses in production of energy for industrial and domestic purposes is natural gas and oil. These fossils availability is often restricted to specific areas and often occurs in the form of underground deposits. This leads to the necessity of directing them to the surface to ease production and processing of end products. While some natural gas and oil flows to the surface naturally due to underground pressure, such occurrences are extremely low and amounts extracted fail to meet the demands of consumers. A couple of extraction and mining techniques, top on the list hydraulic fracturing is embraced in order to response to the rising demands for energy. This paper closely focuses on Hydraulic fracturing as a technique for the extraction of natural gas and oil.
Hydraulic fracturing refers to a type of simulation where pressure gets transmitted through means of gas or fluid with the purpose of widening cracks in existence or creating cracks in underground rocks that contain hydrocarbons. Mainly, the technique is applied in the industry of gas and oil and is often referred to as ‘fracing’, ‘hydrofracking’ or ‘fracking’ (AASG). It often involves propelling a combination of chemical additions, sand and water with high pressure in order to create small intersection cracks that are aimed at increasing permeability in the underground formations targeted. Once cracks are formed, they get ‘propped’ open by the sand particles thus allowing under pressure oil or gas to flow to the surface wells for purposes of collection (Chesapeake Energy, 2012). It is worth noting that drilling of wells involved in this kind of fracturing is done in 2 distinct ways which include horizontal drilling, vertical drilling or a combination of these two (Hall, 2011). It is also worth noting that hydraulic fracturing is only carried out once to a well.
Natural gas and oil occurs in small pores within sedimentary rocks. The ability of the fossils to find its way to the surface is dependent on interconnectivity of the pores. In rocks that have low permeability, interconnection of the pores never permits natural flow of fossils to the surface making it necessary to use hydraulic fracturing in order to enlarge pores and increase interconnectivity for ease of flowing to the surface. Hydraulic fracturing is not new it was applied for the first time in 1947 in the oil industry in the US and from that time over a million wells have already been drilled through use of the technique. It is considered economical compared to the traditional applications since it uses water as its main solvent.
Since water is an important part of the process and a fundamental component of waste, there is a potential effect posed on the environment and drinking water (Office of Research and Development, 2010). Chemical additives used in the process usually are toxic since they have radioactive and heavy metals elements. The heavy metals and radioactive elements can sip into underground freshwater reservoirs due to the numerous cracks which are part of the process (Dachille, 2011). Seeping of such wastes into clean water sources causes contamination of drinking water. These chemicals are not only found in waste material but they are a hazard to the environment. During the process of fracking, toxic gases can be released into the atmosphere leading to pollution and contamination. Following environmental impacts of the process, there is urgent need for federal regulation in order to control the amount of chemicals used in the process of drilling by companies and to regulate the process of hydraulic fracturing (Burford, 2012).
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(AASG). Hydraulic FracturingTexas. Texas: The Association of American State Geologists (AASG).
Burford, E. (2012). The need for federal regulation of hydraulic fracturing. The Urban Lawyer, 44(3), 577-588. Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com/docview/1266035798?accountid=1611” http://search.proquest.com/docview/1266035798?accountid=1611
Chesapeake Energy. (2012). Marcellus Shale Hydraulic Fracturing . Oklahoma : Chesapeake Energy.
Dachille, K. (2011). Environmental Impacts Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing. The Network for Public Health Law.
Hall, K. B. (2011). Hydraulic fracturing–a primer. The Enterprise, 41(11) Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com/docview/903903264?accountid=1611” http://search.proquest.com/docview/903903264?accountid=1611
Office of Research and Development . (2010). Hydraulic Fracturing Research Study . U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Florida Forever Act
Funding by the state under Florida Forever Act ought to be used in obtaining isolated, small habitant remnants that lack connection to the larger conservation area land. The program is very important because it offers protection to the environment as well as the habitats. The aim of this program is to eliminate land fragmentation while protecting the endangered animal.
The wildlife is given refuge by the Florida Forever Act which allocates lands for them so that they can move more freely. This act aims at ensuring that biological diversity, integrity and refuge system of a healthy environment are maintained (Chapin et al. 34). The state should acquire small lands since the wildlife relies on such environments.
According to a study done in the peninsular state, Florida, where geographical connectivity was discretely limited, every increasing sprawling and population led to a high rate at which open space, wildlife territory and landscapes disappeared (Chapin et al. 38). The areas that naturally are undisturbed are increasingly becoming fragmented. More and more species are being endangered. In solving this problem, researchers in Florida use ecological Greenways.
Funding by the state under Florida Forever Act is important for the conservation of habitats and land. However, this task is not just challenging but costly as well. Other organizations must support it. How small lands are acquired is another problem. It cannot be proven that justice is administered in the acquisition of these lands. No assurance to show that the owners of these lands are paid when they offer to sell them.
In a nutshell, the small lands that are acquired promote land and habitats conservation. Their management eliminates the problem of land fragmentation. This has created recreational centers which are very attractive.
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Whitepaper Plastic Waste Recycling
Plastics’ recycling is a sophisticated approach designed to help in the reduction of environmental pollution in the campus (Ross and Evans 570). Additionally, there are improper ways demonstrated by students that they use to dispose polythene plastics and bags. This innovation entails the establishment of a small-size plant for recycling plastics in the campus. Among the activities of this plant will be melting plastic materials which will then be used in producing plastic poles and manila threads as the final products.
Additionally, there will also be bins for collecting waste in different locations around and within the campus. Such locations include busy paths, classrooms, and hostels. Several people will be responsible for collecting this waste on daily basis. Once the waste gets into the plant, separation of plastics from the other wastes will be done manually.
The Chosen Whitepaper Topic
Plastics’ recycling is viewed as an ideal topic in this paper since it entails an innovation whose aim is help in solving environmental problems that plastic wastes cause in the campus. Actually, plastics’ recycling ensures that the environment is free of waste materials while utilizing waste plastics in the production of new products. This creates additional space in the landfills (Ross and Evans 570).
Demand for the limited resources is reduced through recycling. This is because recycling materials reduces the cost of their production substantially (Dubey et al. 33). Recycling processes consume low energy when compared to the process of using raw materials to produce similar products. This means that recycling is a cheaper approach because melting plastics requires less energy or heat due to the fact that the melting points of plastics are low. This will be an eco-friendly innovation and it will promote low costs and a clean environment. Economically, students will be able to raise funds which can be used to finance tuition charges ad meet other financial needs.
Reason for the Selected Innovation
The selection of this innovation was aimed at countering the disadvantages that plastic wastes have when disposed inappropriately. Additionally, there are many plastic items lying all over the university as waste. These include packages of refreshment drinks and shopping bags. Poor disposal of plastics is harmful to human health and the environment. Naturally, plastic are non-biodegradable. Thus, poor plastics disposal leads to environmental pollutions. In addition, plastics stay in the environment in form of waste for a long period.
Consequently, this can be a great and long term risk to the environment and the health of the people (Mudgal et al 11). Plastics’ recycling has been chosen as the best option that will help in addressing this challenge. This is because other methods of disposing plastics effectively are very costly. As such, an innovative plastics’ recycling technique will help in dealing with the environmental problems caused by plastics at a reasonable rate. In most cases, students do not follow the proper guidelines for disposing plastics. This has always caused environmental pollution (Michael 1).
This proposal has presented a detailed analysis of a new innovative method that can be used to conserve the environment and to protect the health of the people in the university. Innovation here entails the setting up of the recycling plant in the campus. Plastics’ recycling will take place in this plant where new products will be produced. The ability of this idea to curb environmental pollution makes it an ideal choice. It is also affordable because it requires less energy as compared to the production of new products with raw materials. The development of this idea follows the wayward act of students who dispose plastic wastes in a wrong way.
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Dubey, Ashutosh, Tewari, Anurag and Chaturvedi, Marie. Plastic Waste and its Recycling. VSRD-TNTJ International Journal, 1.1(2010):30-34.
Michael. Mayor. “The City’s Dirty Recycling Secret” Crain’s New York.Com. The Insider, 25 Nov.2013. Web. 13 Feb.2014.
Mudgal, Shailendra, Lyons, Lorcan, Dias, Debora, Johansson, Linda and Faninger, Thibault. Plastic Waste in the Environment. European Commission Final Report 7.4(2011):1-171.
Ross, Stuart and Evans, David. The Environmental Effect of Re-using and Recycling a Plastic-Based Packaging System. Journal of Cleaner Production 11.1(2003):561-571.
‘’A More Perfect Union’’ Sample Speech by Barack Obama
In March 18th 2008, a dark man with an African father, President Barack Obama took to the stage at the Nationwide Structure Center in Chicago and gave a speech that would add more glamour to the national scenery of the old Obama administration. In the conversation, Obama uses three rhetorical techniques to strengthen his overarching statement that unity is necessary for the generation of equal rights in the country. Foremost, he begins with a personal and traditional requirement that involves highlighting the prevalent exigency and cerotic time. He further attracts pathos using several illustrations of national disfavor to elaborate the need for such modifications. At last, he uses his attracts ethos in recommending, instead of legislating models for white and black Americans. To many people, this was a rhetorical and governmental level conversation in the 2008 presidential strategy (Niven 11).
Obama begins his conversation with his personal national record of the United States to showcase the significance of oneness in the expectations of his election. He gives the revelation through the preamble to the United States structure, the points out that although this was the unique objective of the early dads, ‘’the papers they created was gradually developed into finality but gradually incomplete (Mieder 13).
While Obama shows his involvement in and interest towards the national US cosmetics, the main objective of this rhetorical conversation which is the exigency is not clearly brought out until he makes reference to his former preacher, Jeremiah Wright. In the weeks before the speech, Wright who is a frank Chicago pastor blamed the government of giving inferior responsibilities to the blacks in America. Conservatives criticized Wright as a militant dark extremist, and because he used to wish t his cathedral, Obama was also looked at from a similar perspective. In an effort to save his face, while giving a much wider discussion about completion in America, Obama had to show action. Thus, while the feedback from Wright provided the exigency for the discussion, the emergency to all the scenarios place him in the range of his former minister and contact for national unity in the US played the roles of the cerotic time. With that goal, Obama strongly quotes, ‘’we have no alternative but act if we were to make progress on the avenue of a more ideal leadership’’ (Obama, Maureen & Steve Gilbert 27).
With the recognition of the exigency and presentation of the cerotic time, the presenter attracts pathos through the introduction of illustrations of national disfavor that are prevalent in the United States. Through artwork as an example of national disparity- as well as its long term impacts, Obama is successful in attracting his viewer’s feelings, the entire American population to highlight the need for national unity in the country. This enables Obama to attract pathos as he acts the feelings of his viewer to enhance contact for oneness on the eve of his election (Mieder 13).
To conclude, the enticing ethos that is used by Obama brings in the fact that he has strategically positioned himself as a personality to reckon with in America. His origin is of a mixed-race and he grew up under a state of national inequality. Yet while he has the authority of creating these statements, his recommendations do not bear much support. Thus, he avoid going over his limitations, while still being sensible in his speech. This is a show of excellence in the rhetoric speech. Obama applies his entice ethos to portray the need for modification, and make the recommendation for greater changes without overstepping his power with special values (Sharpley-Whiting 18).
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Obama, Barack, Maureen Harrison, and Steve Gilbert. The Great Speeches of Barack Obama. Mumbai?: Jaico Pub. House in arrangement with Excellent Books, 2009. Print.
Sharpley-Whiting, T D. The Speech: Race and Barack Obama’s “a More Perfect Union”. , 2010. Internet resource.
Mieder, Wolfgang. “Yes We Can”: Barack Obama’s Proverbial Rhetoric. New York: Peter Lang, 2009. Print.
Niven, Steven J. Barack Obama: A Pocket Biography of Our 44th President. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Ethical Standards in Research
Ethics is an important resource in research and is used in the definition of norms and moral responsibilities that a researcher should adhere to when performing both quantitative and qualitative research. These ethics determine the quality and credibility of the entire study and will offer guidance to the writer by developing his or her skills in producing the desirable results. There are various ethical standards that should be considered by a researcher in the process of conducting the study. First, the researcher should have respect for intellectual property like copyrighted materials (Orb, Eisenhauer, and Wynaden, 2000). This can be achieved by making sure that reports of research contain all previewed articles, publications, magazines, newspapers, blogs, books, journals, theses and referencing in the required way. For example, if a researcher obtains data from a government website or other credible and pertinent resources, it is important that the information is formatted since the contravention of this practice would impact plagiarism that would render the study as incredible.
Besides, the researcher should also have social responsibility during and after conducting the study. This could involve virtues like ethics, integrity, openness, confidentiality and respect for those taking part in the study. For instance, the researcher should not release the private information of the participant to the public since this would interfere with the integrity of the participant and present disrespect (Onwuegbuzie, Dickinson, Leech and Zoran, 2009). In surveys and interviews, the participants could be asked to respond to questions that are confidential and the researcher is expected to keep them discreet. Finally, the person doing the study should be transparent and autonomous while doing the study and after the entire process. This would hinder the inclination of the researcher towards certain opinions or ideologies that would end up undermining the quality of the study. For instance, if a researcher is carrying out a study on the views of women on abortions before or during marriage, the researcher should avoid expressing his own opinions and remain neutral in order to prevent biasness in the process.
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Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Dickinson, W. B., Leech, N. L. and Zoran, A. G. (2009). A Qualitative Framework for Collecting and Analyzing Data in Focus Group Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 (3): 1-21.
Orb, A., Eisenhauer, L. and Wynaden, D. (2000). Ethics in Qualitative Research. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33 (1): 93-96.
Integrity and Professionalism
Integrity and professionalism are the pillars of doctoral research. Integrity entails commitment even in bad times to ensure that the credibility of the study process is not messed up. Therefore, it is important and very critical since the researchers involved in the study can only innovate and flourish when the members of its group act as one in ensuring at atmosphere that enhances trust and confidence in their findings. It can also promote the free and fair exchange of ideas and materials for the study amongst the researchers. Besides, when integrity is applied in a study, it upholds both corporate and personal accountability. It will also help in facilitating respect and acknowledgment of intellectual involvement of other people in the community. Professionalism will enable the doctors to make informed decisions in complex issues in the specialist fields, especially when there is lack of sufficient data and also the ability to hold conversations and make conclusions certainly and effectively to both specialists and non-specialist audiences (Sadoff & Robert, 2012).
There are various avenues to be pursued in adherence to the standards of integrity and professionalism. One is that a person should have a unique set of expertise and skills in their area of specialization. The validity of such expertise should also be maintained through continuous training. Another avenue is having the commitment and ability to perform a variety of activities that are considered acceptable by other influential groups in that profession. Besides, a person should work and behave in a way that is ideal to an individual purporting to have the knowledge of the applicable profession. For example, in medicine, there traits will include personal hygiene and cleanliness, proper standards of dressing and appearance as well as speech and personal conduct. All this contribute to a respectable standard (Steneck, 2008).
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Sadoff, M. & Robert, L. (2012). On honesty and integrity in forensic science. Journal of psychiatry & law, 117-120.
Steneck, H. (2008). Fostering professionalism and integrity in research. University of St. Thomas Law Journal, 5 (2), 522-543. Retrieved from http://www.stthomas.edu/media/hollorancenter/pdf/Steneck.pdf
In 2009, Blackberry, then known as Research in Motion was a leading player in the Smartphone industry (Palenchar, 2013). The company had a 20% stake of the Smartphone market and had a near monopoly in the business service sector with its business solutions. At that time, the company was valued at over US$ 83 billion (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013). However, three years later in 2012, the stake of the company in the Smartphone market had reduced to only 5%. Besides, it was experiencing financial turmoil. This was a great decline for a company that had displayed dominant performance a few years ago.
This report will analyze the reasons behind the poor performance of Blackberry and the subsequent financial problems that the company faced.
According to Downes and Nunes (2014), the big bang disruption which refers to a new kind of innovation, can significantly interfere with stable business within a short span of time. Big bang disruption has a dramatic effect on technology companies because it is the result of better and cheaper disruptive technologies being introduced into the market (Downes and Nunes 2014). Owing to the availability of cheap internet, consumers are able to know about the big bang disruptors. If the disruptors prove popular, they can impact the growth of new organization at the expense of the operating technologies.
The touch screen phones were introduced in the market by the unveiling of Apple’s iPhone in 2007. However, the Blackberry executives still maintained that ‘they had such a dominant market position that was so profitable.’’ They did not want to be seen as undermining their monopolistic position by unveiling products that are radically different (Hessman, 2013). The touch screen had become a big bang disruptor. Blackberry did not release any innovative products or solutions, but stuck to doing what they considered to be working at that time, thereby losing a significant share of the market.
Poor sales of products have led to the financial problems faced by Blackberry. The company released the Playbook tablet computer to rival the iPad introduced by Apple (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013). However, the sale of Blackberry’s Playbook was quite disappointing since it was unable to deliver good sales. The latest Smartphone product of the company is Z10 which has also faced low sales that were even much less than what was expected by the company (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013).
The enterprise market is among the main revenue drivers of Blackberry. However, it has been under serious pressure from competing companies. Many have chosen Blackberry for enterprise business solutions because of the security features that it is enhanced with. Companies that use the enterprise business solution had to acquire Blackberry phones for their employees, thereby enabling the company to command a larger market share in this area. However, a new movement has surfaced, the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) (Company Profile, 2013). The trend of organizations using Blackberry phones is swiftly coming to an end. Employees can now use the same Smartphone for work and also personal needs. This is an indication that Blackberry is losing its position as the business phone of choice in addition to also losing its consumer base. These loses have negatively impacted the revenues of Blackberry.
Blackberry is faced with serious cash flow problems. The company reported $965 million quarterly loss. The company’s revenue reduced by 45% in 2013, while its cash position at the end of the third quarter went down from $3.2 billion to $2.6 billion in 2013 (Connors, 2013). Besides, Blackberry also had to write down its inventory valued at $960 million (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013). This was influenced by poor sales of the Z10. Blackberry’s cash is therefore tied up in stock that it is unable to sell. As a result of the poor cash flow, the company introduced a rationalization program that saw the cutting of about 4,500 jobs that represented 40% of the workforce. The cash flow hitches came up as a result of the failure of the company to switch its stock of Z10 Smartphones.
The profits forecasts of the company were negatively impacted by flight delays in the launch of its flagship product. The launching of the Z10 smartphones came up after several delays (Hessman, 2013). The technology market is quite dynamic and under constant flux. The delay in the launch of the product significantly reduced the profitability of Blackberry (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013). The operating system for Blackberry also appears to be out of date compared to Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android. This has placed Blackberry at a very disadvantaged position in the market.
Blackberry lost track of the shifting user preferences in smartphones. It pioneered the use of keyboards on phones. People who wanted to type from their phones preferred using the phone because it made typing to be much easier. However, ‘’many Smartphone users have moved to touch screen models’’ in the recent past (Austen, 2013) Even though touch screen phones have their demerits when it comes to typing due to many typing mistakes, the enhanced screen size and better user experience account for this. The Smartphones manufactured by Blackberry, which maintained the physical keyboard were no longer attractive to customers. This resulted into the substantial loss of Blackberry’s market share to the touch screen smartphones.
The poor performance demonstrated by Blackberry was as a result of many reasons. The company had poor innovative skills and failed to deliver desirable solutions. Besides, it also had poor revenue streams owing to the competition in the enterprise market. Poor sales of the flagship product Z10 Smartphone had a multiplier impact of reducing the profitability of the company, thereby hampering cash flow. The connections between all these factors contributed to the poor performance of Blackberry.
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Austen, I. (27 September 2013). Blackberry’s future in doubt, keyboard lovers bemoans their own. NYT
Connors, W. (27 September 2013). Blackberry posts loss as phones go unsold. Inventory buildup prompts charge of about $1 billion. The Wall Street Journal
Downes, L & Nunes P. (2014). Big bang disruption: strategy in the age of devastating innovations. New York: Penguin
Hessman, T. (2013). A Long Fail from the Top. Retrieved from www.industryweek.com
Blackberry still in a jam. Going private will not solve the company’s problems. (28 September 2013). The Economist.
Company profile: Research In Motion Limited. (2013). MarketLine.
Palenchar, J. (11 February 2013). Analysts: BlackBerry Facing Tough Battle. Retrieved from www.twice.com
Accounting Coursework Questions
The cash flow statement indicates the actual amount of cash that is available in the company at the end of the financial year. This information cannot be shared in other financial statement, since they are prepared through the accrual accounting method.
Management would be more interested in the ‘cash flow from operating activities’ column of the cash flow statement. This column shows whether the daily trading activities of the business are generating positive cash flows, which is the main role of managers. The section can be used for instance, in the monitoring of trade debtors and creditors.
However, the investors would have an interest in the ‘Financing activities’ section that shows the amount of cash used in the payment of dividends or obtained from sale of stock.
The cash flows of Apple have significantly grown since 2011 when it had a negative cash flow of $1.446 billion to 2013 when it had a positive cash flow of $ 3.53 billion. Most of the company’s cash flow is acquired from its operational activities. Over the three past financial periods, investing and financial activities do not give any cash flows except in 2011 when it gave out stock. A greater percentage of the company’s money is used in paying for dividends and capital expenses.
Apple needs to find an avenue for generating cash from its investment activities since although it is using lots of money on investments, it does not generate any cash from them.
Callable preferred stocks are shared that are issued to their holders at preferential terms under circumstances that they shall be redeemed back by the company. They take the preference over common stock in the distribution of dividends and compensation at the time of the company’s liquidation (Miller & Jentz, 752). Corporations issue stock when they urgently need to raise capital but do not wish to increase the number of shareholders in the long term.
I would prefer cumulative preferred stock since dividend on their payment is guaranteed and the company is not able to redeem them.
Management accounting is focused on the generation of information for use within the company for instance, annual budgets. On the other hand, financial accounting is aimed at communication with external parties like potential investors about the financial position of the company for example, on the position of cash flow and operating profits.
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Miller, R., & Jentz, G. (2012). Business Law Today: Comprehensive: Text and Cases. Mason OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Web. 12 February 2014. Retrieved from
The top hierarchy of Apple leadership has tight-knit, small types of management that come from different divisions that are grouped close to Jobs and Tim Cook’s work places. This team has associates who take full liability of anything that may happen as they watch. After decisions are made and orders given by this structure, the expectation is that there will be no failure in their execution.
Their interest is not to see the advancement of 1,000 areas blossom in the entire organization. Their job is clearly described and they do it to their best levels. At the top level, there is a group of approximately 46,000 full-time workers of Apple organization. These are mostly in advertising and marketing fields. The workers have properly drilled routines as well as practices. Most of them come from colleges working in Apple’s shops, Professional Cafes.
There is also the authority style of Job. He has ten rules that include maintaining personal tricks, being callous, and not having concentration categories. Job has an amazing charm that makes him flexible with the workers. He is an unpredictable and psychological narcissist who has an all-commanding self-confidence. Job is an expert in psychological adjustment. He was able to handle difficult choices since the beginning. Apple organization and Microsoft Company had a long term action in court. He went to negotiate an argument directly in order to eliminate this court action. Jobs performed to the best level possible by assigning and pointing areas that are designed for individuals with strong points. He has a great eye for specific details.
Finally, Jobs knows the importance of clients’ encounters and connections. He prioritizes in ensuring that the products of Apple organization have a convenient and easy experience with clients. His main objective is eliminating misunderstandings while simplifying things for customers. This has led to a broad gap between Apple and its competitors.
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Amy Tan wrote the short story Two Kinds. This story tells the memories of Jing-mei, a child and Suyian Woo, her mother during their childhood. Amy Tan reveals Jing-mei struggles between the Chinese ancestry and success expectations. This story has an important setting since it depicts the Chinese immigrants’ high expectations when all people in America were hoping that they would be successful.
It is important to note that the setting of this story is the San Francisco of the 1950s. Like the other places in America, there were clear impacts of the World War II in San Francisco. Therefore, the setting of this story makes it easy for the reader to understand the Asian immigrants’ expectations. This was the first year for them to be in the U.S.
Jing-mei gets several advantages. A family piano is the major advantage. Jing-mei is given this piano as a gift by her mother in her 30th birthday. Her mother, Suyuan said silently that he saw the capacity of Jing-mei which would enable her to emerge as a skilled pianist. However, she had to try. Jing-mei decided to tune the piano after her mother’s death. She also gets the advantage of a caring mother. Suyuan wants her daughter to realize the best in her life.
This is demonstrated by the way she wants her daughter to take piano lessons. As such, Jing-mei will not endure hardships similar to those of her mother. However, she becomes disadvantaged when her mother dies. Her death is unexpected and it is only after she dies that the child realizes what she wanted for her. It is at this time that she discovers the perfectly contented song after the death of her mother. However, this was too late.
This story by Tan reveals a typical mother-daughter conflict. Children, more so girls have conflicts with mothers who guide them on the way to live in most cultures. Daughters have conflicts with mothers because they do not accept the dreams of their mothers or simple guidelines that they give them. Jing-mei is depicted as a girl that is cruel to her mother.
She strikes her with a strong weapon. This is a reminder of a central tragedy. Typically, this reveals conflict that exists between mothers and daughters. Whether parents are correct or misguided, daughters do not see the essence of cooperating with their mothers’ plans. This is not only the case in America but in others cultures across the world as well.
In the last paragraph, Jim-mei discovers what the songs that she had rejected are about. The left-hand side song is known as the “Pleading Child” and the right-hand side song is called “Perfectly Contented”. It is at this time that she discovers that both are halves that make one song when she plays them for some time. The meaning of this paragraph is that a “Pleading Child” could not or cannot be “Perfectly Contented”. This is due to the fact that she cannot explain the difficulties that her mother experienced with her.
While struggling with her mother, she also struggles with personal identity. For instance, it is impossible to understand Jing-mei’s identity whether American, Chinese or both. This story reveals the attempt by daughters to find a place within the world.
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Unauthorized Practice of Law
While evaluating the basic comprehension of the notion of law practice, it is possible to draw sense from aspects that fundamentally involve provision of legal advice and assisting clients in drafting legal documents, representing them during court proceedings as well as legal negotiations or legal intercessions which include lawsuits. This evaluation may also include expert services that are offered by barristers, lawyers, solicitors, notaries in civil law and law attorneys. Nevertheless, law practice concept and other occupations that involve representation of customers in various situations by agents overlap.
These professionals can include the agents in real estate firms, insurance agents, bankers and those in the accounting industry. Additionally, there exist several services that traditionally were provided by lawyers as well as worker paralegals. Some of these services are now offered by the legal document assistants (LDAs). However, every state is responsible for limiting or regulating the law practice concept in the US. Therefore, there are variations in the definitions of law practice (American Bar Association, 2003).
“Unauthorized practice of law” as a phrase is usually considered as a variable. In several instances, it is considered conclusive and tautological. Thus, it is a non-lawyer person doing a lawyer’s or a counselor’s work in order to get monetary compensation (Garner, 2004). It is agreeable to some levels that practicing law without authorization entails appearing in a court that has been constituted lawfully in the proceedings of a legal case while representing a client especially when one needs monetary compensation (Garner, 2004).
Nevertheless, there are relevant variations that can apply in this definition depending on conflicting regulation and interpretation especially when defining the breadth and extent of the prohibiting act of law practice. According to the definition of the Black’s Law Dictionary, practicing law without authorization is law practice by an individual who is typically not a lawyer, without licensing and admission which would allow them to practice law within a specific jurisdiction (Garner 2004, pp.1191-1192). Therefore, these variables may be used while determining whether a non-licensed person’s action comprises an illegal or legal law practice.
Application to a Case Study
Fact of the Case
Mr. Stan Smith makes a call to Polly Paralegal, his friend for whom he sends a message inquiring this, ‘is adultery one of the divorce grounds in North Carolina?’ Later in the day, Mrs. Stan Smith makes a call to Polly Paralegal leaving a message that inquires, ‘Are there divorce grounds in North Carolina? I have just realized that Stan has committed adultery.’
Questions that need answers
- If the question of Mr. Smith is answered by Polly Paralegal, does that amount to unauthorized practice of law?
- If the question of Mrs. Smith is answered by Polly Paralegal, will that amount to unauthorized practice of law
Evaluating these scenarios, it ought to be noted that Mrs. and Mr. Smith reside in North Carolina. This state is situated in the United States of America. The questions aim at determining the situations under which advice of Polly Paralegal to Mrs. or Mr. Smith may amount to unauthorized practice of law. Therefore, it is important to give a clear and precise definition of “Unauthorized Practice of Law” or the meaning of law practice in North Carolina (American Bar Association 2013). Essentially, this will determine the scope within which this action constitutes a contravention of the established law or practicing law illegally in North Carolina which is a state in the United States rather than in other states since the definition of law practice differs between states.
Just like in other states in the US, North Carolina has its own statute which defines unauthorized practice of law. The provision of the North Carolina’s law statute is that:
“It shall be unlawful for any person or association of persons, except active members of the Bar of the State of North Carolina admitted and licensed to practice as attorneys-at-law, to appear as attorney or counselor at law in any action or proceeding before any judicial body, including the North Carolina Industrial Commission, or the Utilities Commission; … to maintain, conduct or defend the same,… or, by word, sign, letter or advertisement, to hold out himself, or themselves, as competent or qualified to give legal advice or counsel, or to prepare legal documents, or as being engaged in advising or counseling in law or acting as attorney or counselor-at-law, or in furnishing the services of a lawyer or lawyers and it shall be unlawful [for any such unlicensed person] to give legal advice or counsel, perform for or furnish to another legal services, or to prepare directly or through another person, firm or corporation any will or testamentary disposition, or instrument of trust, or to organize any corporations or prepare for another person, firm or corporation, any other legal document (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 84-4 (2005)).”
The definition of “practice of law” by the General Statutes of North Carolina includes:
- Aiding in the preparation or preparation of mortgages, deeds, trust instruments, wills, contracts and legal documents which secure legal rights (N.C.G.S 84-2.2),
- Helping in the preparation or preparation of orders or petitions in a court proceeding or probate (N.C.G.S 84-2.1),
- Passing or abstracting on titles (N.C.G.S 84-2.1),
- Filing and preparation of petitions to be used in the court which include administrative tribunals as well as other quasi-judicial and judicial bodies (N.C.G.S 84-2.1),
- Helping with counsel, advice or otherwise with legal work (N.C.G.S 84-2.1).
This excerpt clearly indicates that advice that qualifies to be an act of unauthorized practice of law or UPL would recommend or explain the action that needs legal judgment as well as one that affects legal obligation or right of one of the involved parties. Mr. Smith wants Polly Paralegal to offer a more general advice. The aim of Mr. Smith is to know what the legal document states and this does not need legal interpretation. Essentially, the question requires a reference to the governing laws of North Carolina. These are statutes that already exist in the state. Therefore, the advice does not have legal impact on Mr. or Ms. Smith’s rights. Actually, what Mr. Smith wants to know may be categorized as general knowledge.
In contrast, Mrs. Smith needs advice that needs legal interpretation. This has the potential of affecting the legal obligations or rights of Mr. Smith who is her husband. In reference to the question, her interest is to file a divorce against Mr. Smith on the basis of committing adultery if Polly Paralegal confirms the quest. Thus, this indicates that there is a possibility of filing a case which is likely to affect Mr. Smith negatively. Therefore, if Mrs. Smith gets advice from Polly Paralegal, he will have participated in unauthorized practice of law since it involves conveyancing. This is illegal according to the definition of the Supreme Court of North Carolina in In re Duncan Case (In re Duncan, 83 S.C. 186, 65 S.E. 2010).
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Garner, B. A. (2004). Black’s law dictionary. Texas: West Publishing Co.
American Bar Association. (2013, January 7). “State Definitions of the Practice of Law.” Retrieved February 02, 2014 from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/cpr/model-def/model_def_statutes.authcheckdam.pdf
In re Duncan, 83 S.C. 186, 65 S.E. 2010.
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 84-4 (2005).
Miranda v Arizona
Miranda v Arizona is a landmark case in which the United States of America gave a ruling in regards to the arrested individuals. The ruling declared that all arrested individuals should be informed about their right to a counsel and to maintain silence before they start being interrogated by the police.
Miranda v Arizona is still a landmark case and one of the most important cases heard by the Supreme case in the 1960s (Salseda, et al. 2010). This case played a very important role in the establishment of justice reliability in the procedures of the case against a defendant in a criminal circumstance (Rogers, et al. 2010). The Supreme Court in the United States decided on this landmark case largely from two different guiding lines specifically from the 14th amendment.
The Miranda v Arizona’s case guides was the defendant’s right to a counsel which is majorly from Powell v. Alabama (1932). The decision of the court was that all needy perpetrators ought to get a counsel if they are facing capital cases. In the Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), the court further fuelled this provision. The court decided that individuals should be given a counsel if they are charged with felony. In the Escobedo v. Illinois case of 1964, the decision of the court was that confession that is obtained after a perpetrator requests for an opportunity to speak to his/her attorney and he is denied is inadmissible (Salseda, et al. 2010).
The second guiding line was drawn from Malloy v. Hogan (1964). The decision of the court in this case was that the self-incrimination contradiction right is pragmatic for the state. Nevertheless, even prior the Miranda v Arizona case there were initial instances where the court made a decision inferring that the police should not use coercion of any nature while trying to extract information from a suspect. As such, before the court made a ruling on Miranda v Arizona case, using information that is extracted from individuals via any form of coercion whether physical or any type of psychological pressure was not allowed by the constitutional rules. This was especially the case if perpetrators had requested to be allowed consultations with their attorneys.
As such, it can be noted that the Supreme Court of the United States was to use the clauses of the 5th Amendment in the 14th Amendment. The Miranda v Arizona case majorly depended on the 14th Amendment. This amendment states that the ruling of the court on the cases that relate to criminals should be fair. In the Ernest Miranda case, he confessed that he kidnapped and raped the victim. The police initiated this confession by interrogating him after arresting him. Apart from the confession that he made before two policemen, he also wrote the same confession in a document and appended his signature on it (Rogers, et al. 2010). No form of coercion whether psychological or physical was employed by both policemen since this type of coercion had been defined by the previous cases (Rogers, et al 2010).
More interviews of this case showed that it was possible for the victim to answer the questions asked in manner that was relatively free. However, the information acquired from Miranda after denying the actions further confessed that he had committed the offense. The whole process used to obtain this information was relatively fast taking approximately two hours.
The main effect of Miranda v Arizona tussle in the US was the importance of the policemen in different states to get ‘Miranda cards’. These cards led to the embodied caution as per the requirement of the Supreme Court. After suspecting that someone has committed a crime and arresting him/her, the court decided that he/she should not be questioned or interrogated unless if a warning had been issued to that person and the suspect waived the right to maintain silence while obtaining guidance from a counsel prior answering questions. Interrogation must be stopped immediately if the arrested individual wants to consult an attorney. The interrogation would continue after the consultations.
Major changes in the way suspects are treated were observed after Miranda v Arizona tussle (Rogers, et al. 2010). This is because the liability of indicating knowledge and volunteering a waiver of one’s right to remain silent was enforced by the court. Additionally, it showed that the perpetrators or the suspects had to be persuaded by the police in order to agree to write a statement. The decision of the court was able to change situations and atmospheres that suspects usually found themselves in before they were arrested (Rogers, et al. 2010).
However, it has been noted that the important ruling on Miranda v Arizona tussle has affected the way cases are handled. This is because confessions of the perpetrators were the main compositions of cases that were presented in the court against the suspect. On the other hand, people fear that the ruling of the case would jeopardize police efforts. The arguments of some people are that this ruling makes it difficult for the police to acquire important information that would be necessary for the determination of the situation of the suspect being guilty.
However, they fear that suspects may not make further confessions after consulting a counsel and the suspect may be waivered by the silent urge. Additionally, this case was credited for the protection the arrested persons’ rights as well as protecting them from the abusive and brutal language that police used in retrieving information from the suspects. The case eliminated coercion of the suspects by police officers (Friedman, 2010).
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Friedman, B. (2010). Wages of Stealth Overruling (with Particular Attention to Miranda v. Arizona), The. Geo. LJ, 99, 1.
Salseda, L. M., Dixon, D. R., Fass, T., Miora, D., &Leark, R. A. (2011). An evaluation of< i> Miranda</i> rights and interrogation in autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 79-85.
Rogers, R., Rogstad, J. E., Gillard, N. D., Drogin, E. Y., Blackwood, H. L., & Shuman, D. W. (2010). “Everyone knows their Miranda rights”: Implicit assumptions and countervailing evidence. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(3), 300.
The editorial ‘‘Gun Control’’ highlights major advancements in the debate on gun control in the United States and opinions on how the two debating cliques base their arguments. It tracks back the footsteps of gun ownership debate since the Second Amendment of the US constitution in 1791, to the present Obama administration.
Early gun control opponents argued that the Second Amendment allowed every individual a right to own a gun for self-defense against federal government. The argument was Second Amendment interpretation that allowed State militia to own guns to protect State freedom. Gun control, however stated in this clause, interprets otherwise.
They also argued that Second Amendment precisely specified ‘A well-regulated Militia, being essential to security of a Free State, the right of the people to bear and keep Arms, shall not be infringed’’. Therefore, the right to own guns in their own opinions was reserved, to a ‘‘regulated state militia’’ and not members of the public. The clarification of the phrase ‘regulated state militia’ appeared to be the source of contention.
While pro-gun parties considered it as referring to military force selected members, anti-gun control individuals thought it out that all citizens of the state had a duty to defend the freedom of their state and the public in general fall under the category of regulated militia as long as they observed regulations.
Laws on gun control were also put in place to solve the constitutional uncertainty. The first law was created in 1934 and it restricted the sale as well as possession of lethal guns for instance the sawed-off short-gun. In the upsurge of assassinations in 1960, more stringent law was created prohibiting the sale of guns to minors, the mentally sick and to those with criminal records.
Legal purchase of guns required a declaration that a person was eligible to own a gun. Even so, criminals would offer false information and possess the weapons without detection. Such a loophole was also filed by Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act in 1994. It also expected gun applicants to wait for at least five days for proper screening of their criminal records.
The screening was automated in 1998, because of the use of computers and the waiting period was therefore eliminated. Gun related violence as a result, reduced between 1992 and 2000 by 35 percent. Such efforts were also enhanced by President George H. W. Bush’s move in 1989 to ban importation of assault rifles.
The courts additionally played a significant role in modelling the direction of gun control debate. In many landmark rulings, the verdict of the Supreme Court also favored pro-gun control activists. In the United States vs. Miller (1939) for example ruled out that the transferal of sawed-off short-gun from one state to the other should be outlawed because there is no supporting fact that it can be utilized as a military equipment for the common state defense.
It was later in 1969 and 1980 that the other two rules were made favoring strict legislations on gun control. The rulings later influenced lower courts verdict until late 20th century.
Efforts to manage gun ownership have since been successful in reducing gun related crimes or violence more specifically in the 1990’s. Even the efforts seem inadequate bearing in mind rampant mass shooting reports in the last decade. This is based on the fact that legal system still has loopholes that let guns into ownership of wrong individuals including the mentally sick and minors.
Guns for example are still traded in places with no screening in private shows and if there is a screening process, it still lacks sufficient data to ensure legal purchases. More effective and strict legislations however are still needed to control gun ownership. The Obama administration has also proposed amendments to the legislation to help control gun ownership more effectively, for instance, that which, aims at expanding background checks on those interested in gun purchases.
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Drug Testing at Work Place
Testing drugs at the place of work is always controversial. According to the human rights activists, the move violates civil liberties. However, drug testing is necessary for most employers who see it as a means that control drug abuse at work places. The position of this paper is that testing drugs at the place of work violates privacy. The paper also supports this position with two reasons.
Normally, drug testing entails taking samples of the blood and urine as well as other excretions of the employees. In itself, the practice invades the body of a person even when actual testing is not done. The body of an individual is a private possession. Urine collection is particularly highly intrusive. According to Nash (2010), the ruling of the Supreme Court stated that some activities in the society are private such as passing urine.
This is why people do it privately and when done in public, social norms and the law often prohibits it. Generally, passing urine is a topic that embarrasses people. This is why euphemisms are mostly used in reference to this act. In that kind of a setup, asking people for urine for observation purposes as well as other excrements for purposes of chemical analysis violates not only their privacy, but it also humiliate them.
Once collected, the samples are then submitted for the purpose of testing. The entire idea is about testing people for drug and to determine if they are using prohibited drugs. Nevertheless, Eisaguire (2008) notes that, samples’ analysis provides more than evidence of drug abuse. For instance, the chemist can trace the HIV, reproductive illnesses, depression and other medications that are taken for various conditions using urine samples. Such information should be kept private for most average employees. Thus, accessing such information about the health conditions of the employees implies a violation of their most private lives.
According to the above stated reasons, workplace drug testing can be considered a violation of the employees’ privacy in two stages. These are the sample collection stage and the sample analysis stage.
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Eisaguirre L. (2008) “We Need To Talk” – Tough Conversations With Your Employee: From
Performance, Massachusetts MA: Adams Media. Retrieved on February 8, 2014 from; http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=ItHHluLyutAC&pg=PT113&dq=DRUG+testing+invades+employees+private+life&hl=en&sa=X&ei=J0f2UqyQLY3Q7Aal2ID4Cg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=DRUG%20testing%20invades%20employees%20private%20life&f=true
Nash J.R. (2010) Workplace Privacy: Proceedings of the New York University 58th Annual
Conference on Labor, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International. Retrieved on February 8, 2014 from;
The American Airline Report
The Business Model Canvas
The canvas of the American Airlines’ business model offers a rationale that the company uses in creating, delivering and enhancing values in its services and products. There are nine blocks of the American Airlines which indicate its interest in improving service delivery. This company focuses on four major areas that include customers, infrastructure, offer and viability. The canvas of this business model serves as the strategy that is implemented through the frameworks, systems and processes of this company.
As such, the canvas of the American Airlines’ business model is reliable and it guides its strategies and operations towards the achievement of the set targets. This company aims at expanding its share of its target market within five years as well as to enhance service delivery (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2013). This canvas offers a detailed direction and approach that will enable the company to achieve its targets.
Fig 1. The Business Model Canvas of the American Airline
|Key Partners||Key Activities||Value Proposition||Customer Relationship||Customer Segments|
|Joint ventures||Production||Easy traveling||Personal assistance||Mass markets|
|strategic alliances||Problem solving||Frequent and reliable departures||Self-service||Diversified|
|Buyer-supplier||Networks||Low prices of tickets||Communities||Segmented|
|Cooperation||Refundable and ticketless flights||Co-creation|
|Physical assets||In house sales|
|Cost Structure||Revenue Streams|
|Fixed costs||Asset sales|
|Variable costs||Ticket fees|
|Economies of scale||leasing/renting|
In the canvas of the American Airline’s business model, there is a customer segment that is made of the individuals who serve the organizations’ aim. The survival of American Airline is dependent on its customers. For customers to be satisfied, their needs should be grouped in this segment by the company. In the canvases of other businesses, models have customer segments that have several small and large customer segments. Nevertheless, the canvas of the business model of this company has a common segment that identifies different customers that the organization serves.
American Airlines require customer segments to make relating customers to various distribution challenges, promotion of different products and justifying offers as well as understanding various aspects of relationships and offers possible. The focus of the American Airlines is on mass markets. As such, the company does not distinguish distinct segments of its customers. The focus is on distribution channels, value progressions as well as customer relationships. The company focuses on mass markets so that it can promote its products and services to different profitable and potential customers.
This aspect of the canvas of the business model of the American Airlines is aimed at understanding different services and products during the promotion of value to specific customer segments. Value proposition helps in enabling the company to compete with other airline firms in satisfying the needs of customers. The company considers running a cheap airline in order to accommodate different business travelers. This aspect includes frequent and reliable departures, easy traveling, refundable and ticketless flights as well as low prices of tickets.
The needs of specific customers are identified by the company through value propositions. This can be innovative and therefore, it represents offers. However, value proposition is used in identifying the existing offers in the markets. Value is created for different customer segments using value proposition via differentiation of distinct needs of customers. In value proposition, performance is an important and relevant aspect (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2012). It helps in the creation of the value of services and products. The canvas of the business model of this company has enhanced graphics that produce a corresponding growth as a way of meeting the needs of the customers.
Communication of this organization is explained by the channels that help in reaching the target customers in order to deliver the company’s value proposition. Sales and communication strategies as well as the distribution channels enable this company to link itself with potential customers. These channels serve an important role of enhancing the experience of customers from the services of this company. The role entails raising customer awareness, helping customers, enabling customers to evaluate value proposition of the company, delivering value proposition as well as providing post-purchase support.
The company meets the customers via these channels. Channels segments play an important role of delivering value proposition to the company’s mass markets. The company values the challenges that it faces by including website and in-house sales. Website and in-house sales enhance the channels that link the customers and the organizations. The channels also help in the integration of customer experience as well as increasing the revenues of the organization.
Customer relationships are greatly upheld by the American Airlines. This is because they enable the company to identity the existing relationships within particular customer segments. The relationships that the company would like to have with the customer segments are clearly stated by the management. The relationships that this company has with the customers are specific motives of this organization whose aim is to realize increased sales, customer acquisition and customer retention. Lowering the discounts of return tickets motivate these relationships. There are discounts that help the company in conquering its target markets by enhancing customer retention as well as maximizing revenues. In most cases, the company engages automated services. In this relationship, customers are able to engage in self-service. Customers as well as their personal attributes are recognized by automated processes. In American Airlines, this relationship is the best because it offers a reliable and simple way of stimulating personal relationships. Customer relationships also help in improving the model that the company uses to enhance customer experience.
The canvas of the business model of this company uses revenue stream to obtain the money that is realized from every customer. As long as customers remain relevant in the canvas of the business model of this company, revenue streams will always play an important role in the canvas of this business model. Every revenue stream has a unique pricing strategy. As such, its management is done separately. This company uses a business model that helps in the provision of value proposition.
However, revenue streams aim at relating revenues and value. Different ways are used to obtain revenues for the company. They include subscription fees, assets safes as well as renting and ticket collections. Revenue streams of the American Airlines are maximized as way of increasing productivity in the organization.
The organization has key resources which enable it to operate and control its business model. These resources enable the company to reach its markets, earn revenues and maintain relationships. As such, key resources play a relevant management and operation role of the company’s business model. Key resources cover financial, physical, intellectual and human aspects. These resources in the American Airlines are either leased from the major partners or owned. They are important to this company. Therefore, the airline company cannot function or operate without these resources.
Various essentials in the promotion of the operations of this company are represented by its key activities. American Airlines depends on these key activities to maintain proper business model functioning. Key activities and key resources help in the creation and provision of value propositions, reaching out to new markets, maintaining relationships with customers and earning revenues. The key activities of this company include an online tickets system which enhances the online sales of tickets.
There are also production activities that include the provision of services by the firm such as carrying passengers to their preferred places (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2013). Additionally, there are problem-solving activities which provide solutions to certain problems that the company faces. Key activities of American Airlines are recorded as a vital productivity of the processes.
The traditional canvas of the business model of the American Airline includes key partners as well. This shows the connections that partners have with suppliers in business. This organization has established alliances with different business models as a way of reducing risks as well as acquiring new resources. Among the partnerships that the company has include joint ventures, buyer-supplier relationships as well as strategic alliances. The major partners of this company have a design that facilitates the allocation of available resources to appropriate or optimum levels. The logic in this is that partnerships that promote the economies of scale help in cost reduction. Key partnerships are important because they help in cost reduction which promotes relevant capabilities.
Incurred costs and expenses are indicated by a cost structure within the business model of this company. Value delivery, revenues generation and customer relationships are enhanced by the incurred cost in this business-operating model. Other segments of the canvas of this business model incur costs. As such, American Airline has a cost-driven business model. Thus, this company has to established low-cost structures. Reduction in the operation cost in this organization assists in maximizing margins. Minimizing cost is important as a way of maximizing the acquired revenues.
New Business Model
Running an airline is a complex venture that needs a new or unique business model. The airline should make flying at low prices possible for different people. IATA notes that there has been a reduction in travel costs by 60%. Travelers have also increased rapidly. Towards the end of the 2000s, the EBIT margin earned by the airlines was 0.7 percent. The fact that price variation is dependent on the systems of price differentiation of different processes has been accepted by customers. The aim of a new model should be to introduce a new way of repositioning this company in the industry so that it can tackle pertinent issues with ease. The model will enhance sustainability and competitive advantage.
The new model’s generation will enable the company to use ideation process which occurs via prototyping. Prototyping enables the company to reduce issues that affect the five major innovations of the potential business. The five major innovations in this business are from the prototyping business model idea. The creation of a business model by the American Airlines entails innovations that will increase its influence, revenues and enhance competitive advantage. This company chooses a team to participate in innovation as a way of indicating the value of exploring the business model.
Open strategy assists in the promotion of future business strategies while focusing on an open innovation approach. This aims at expanding value creation for various organizations. Open strategy should sustain a section of the created value. Openness has helped in shifting focus from ownership to reconsidering the processes of capturing and delivering value.
However, the products of open innovation face the challenges of the traditional strategy. Industry’s costs are reduced by some costs despite the increased competition (Kaplan, 2012). The business model that is based on innovation is customer-oriented. It is based on the needs of customers and it facilitates access as a way of enhancing competitiveness within the industry.
Fig4. Customer-Driven Business model that is based on Innovation
|Key Partners||Key Activities||Value Proposition||Customer Relationship||Customer Segments|
|Joint ventures||Production||Easy of travel||Personal assistance||Mass markets|
|strategic alliances||Problem solving||Frequent reliable departures||Self-service||Diversified|
|Cooperation||Refundable ticketless flights||Co-creation|
|Physical assets||In house sales|
|Cost Structure||Revenue Streams|
|Fixed costs||Asset sales|
|Variable costs||Ticket fees|
|Economies of scale||leasing/renting|
The focus of customer-driven model depends on open coordination while establishing stronger relationships in business processes. Different units’ integration is represented by business innovation within the open innovation model that has multiple segments. A company that engages in innovation processes can notice the bulkiness of innovation as well as the protection of flight rights. The focus of the American Airlines is on minimizing costs for customers and expanding the markets and destinations. As such, incorporating open innovation in its new model enhances the efforts of accomplishing the set goals. Development of new products focuses on creation of this business model to enhance diversification of markets and capturing greater value. The focus of innovation is also on sales success and technical success’ translation in order to commercialize the company’s systems.
In terms of technology, product innovation plays a significant role in the enhancement of the competitiveness of the American Airlines. Innovation process, more so the organizational formats need new, unique business models. As such, technological innovation leads to the development of new business models. This helps in handling the increasing costs of development while reducing the lifecycles of the products of this company. This shows the importance of controlling development and research resources to save money and time that is spent on innovation processes. Additionally, an innovation model can transform revenue streams requiring the company to seek license for new services and products that it will offer. This shows that the company is willing to pursue more revenue opportunities (Kaplan, 2012).
The American Airlines’ traditional model explains carrier adoption in the marketplace that is always changing. There are disruptive changes that relate to business behaviors of passengers and competition which requires more resources. The current airlines firms are unable to charge premiums to customers in some markets because of the low cost carriers at the entry points.
The new model seems perfect when compared to the traditional model. The new model will undergo alteration and experimentation to produce better results. This helps in identifying the needs that new business models and value creation should entail. Innovation business model’s approach has several benefits in terms of the identification of various risks, understanding weaknesses and strengths, market changes, as well as emphasizing on mutual reliance on people. This depicts it as an appropriate approach that can be used to leverage value which is important in sustaining the profitability of organizations (Kaplan, 2012).
Kaplan, S. (2012). The business model innovation factory: how to stay relevant when the world is changing. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2013). Business model generation: a handbook for Visionaries, game changers, and challengers. New York: John Wiley & Sons