Tumor Suppression Gene
Tumor suppression gene also known as antioncogene refers to genes regulating cell growth. This gene protects the cell from been cancerous and when it mutates causing reduction or loss of function, the cells then progress to cancer. This occurs when other genetic changes are present as well. Loss of the tumor suppressor gene is more important than oncogene/proto-oncogene activation in the formation of different kinds of human cancerous cells. There are different kinds of tumor suppressor genes and they include the following:
- Gatekeeper genes
- Caretaker genes
- Landscaper genes
As medicine continues to evolve, classification genes also evolve and adapt from fields such as genetics, epigenetic and molecular biology.
Unlike the case of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes follow “two-hit hypothesis”. This implies both alleles coding for a certain protein must first be affected before any effect is noted. This is attributed to the fact that just one allele for that gene gets damaged while the second still produces the appropriate protein. In other terms, this means distorted tumor suppressor alleles are recessive while mutant oncogene alleles are dominant.
A.G Knudson was the first one to make the proposal of two-hit analysis. He made the observation that onset of retinoblastoma follows the second order kinetics which implied that 2 self-determining genetic events were a necessity. He also made the recognition that it was consistent with recessive mutation which involved one gene but required biallelic mutation. In contrast though, oncogene mutations involve single allele since they are the gain of mutation functions.
There however exist exceptions to the rule of “two-hit’ for tumor suppressors like particular mutations in p53 gene product. Such mutations are known to function as “dominant negative” which means if there is a p53 mutated protein, it prevents the functioning of normal protein from an allele that is un-mutated. Other suppressor genes that are also an exception to the “two hit” rule include those exhibiting haploinsufficiency such as:
- NF1 in neurofibroma and
- PTCH in medulloblastoma.
A good example in this case is p27Kip 1 cell inhibitor cycle in which a single allele mutation leads to an increase in the susceptibility of carcinogen. Tumor suppressor genes functions fall into different categories some of which include:
- Gene suppression which is important for continuation of cell cycle. When the genes aren’t expressed, then there is no continuation of the cell cycle hence cell division is inhibited
- Coupling of cell cycle to damage of DNA. If there isn’t damaged DNA then the cell shouldn’t divide. In cases where the damage is repairable, the cycle of the cell continues
- When the damage isn’t repairable, the cell initiates apoptosis and gets rid of the threat posed for the organisms good.
- Proteins involved in division of cells prevents tumor cells from dispersing, block contact inhibition loss and also inhibit metastasis
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Inbreeding is a term that defines production of offspring from breeding or mating of organism or individuals that are genetically related which is the contrast of outcrossing which is mating of individuals that are unrelated. By analogy, inbreeding is used in relation to human production but often refers to genetic disorders as well as consequences that might arise from consanguinity or incestuous relationships. Inbreeding can lead to homozygosity which increases the possibility of the offspring getting affected by deleterious or recessive traits.
As a result of this, the population is exposed to a decreased level of biological fitness (known as inbreeding depression) which is the ability of the offspring to reproduce as well as survive. Individuals inheriting deleterious traits are referred to as inbred. The technique of inbreeding is often applied in selective breeding and is often used in the case of livestock. For instance, majority of breeders try to create a desirable, new trait in livestock but they also have to keep an open eye for characteristics that are undesirable so they can be eliminated by carrying out further culling or selective breeding.
In plants, inbred lines are often used as the stock for creating hybrid lines and make use of heterosis. In plants, inbreeding will occur naturally as self pollination. Note that inbreeding in humans can lead to congenital birth defects and this is because there is a likelihood of the homozygous zygotes level been very high in offsprings.
Individuals with 2 gene copies are likely to suffer from disorders such as autosomal recessive for recessive genetic mutation. Except in extremely rare cases, like uniparental disomy or new mutations both parents of the individual with the disorder are carriers of that gene. Such carriers don’t display mutation signs and in some cases they are often unaware of the fact they have a mutated gene. Since relatives have a high proportion of the same genes than is the case in unrelated people, it is likely related parents have similar recessive genes hence the children they have together are placed at a high risk of suffering from a genetic disorder. The risk of the disease been worse will depend on the parents’ genetic relationship.
Children of sibling-sibling or parent child relationships are at a high risk of such defects compared to those of cousin to cousin relationships. Inbreeding also results to higher phenotypic expression of recessive genes in a population than would be expected. Consequently, the first generation of inbred individuals re likely to have health and physical defects which include:
- Reduced fertility in the viability of sperm as well as litter size
- Increase in genetic disorders
- Facial asymmetry that is always changing
- Low birth rate
- High infant mortality
- Facial asymmetry that is always fluctuating
- Immune system loss function
- Small adult sizes
- Depression on the rate of growth which includes weight, height as well as body mass index.
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of an Article
Knowing how to write a critical analysis of an article is very important because your university professor will most probably ask you to critique a journal or newspaper article at some point. A critical analysis is a subjective form of writing in which a writer expresses personal evaluation or opinion of a text, which in this case is an article. This can be a journal article, a magazine article or a newspaper article. While writing a critical analysis, you should read an article and think about it critically. It is important that you start by understanding the prompt or assignment question. This will enable you to understand the angle that you are required to take in your critical analysis.
A step-by-step guide on how to write a critical analysis of an article from a newspaper
- Know the event that led the author to write the article
Before you start analyzing the article, know why the author wrote it. This can be an event that happened or an event that is about to happen. When you know the reason why the author wrote the article that you are required to analyze, you can understand the purpose for writing it or the goal that the author wanted to accomplish by writing the article.
- Read and analyze the title
You can know the main idea of the article by reading its title. Before you start reading the body of the article, think about the title of the article and write a subjective opinion about it. You can also form basic points that you would include under the title in your mind if you were to write an article on that title. This will give you the first impression and help you in forming a critique of the article.
- Read and analyze the body of the article
After analyzing the title of the article, read the body to find out how the author supports the main idea as expressed by the title. To analyze the article critically, read it several times. Take notes while reading. Come up with a list of the analytical questions that will guide you in your analysis. Use these questions to form your critical analysis of different aspects of the article. For instance, what words does the writer uses in the title and the body of the article? Why does the author use these words? Is the author biased or objective? Does the author make and substantiate claims with valid arguments in article? This is a vital step of a guide on how to write a critical analysis of an article because it determines what forms the basis of your critique.
- Consider how the author supports claims in the article
In this step, analyze the article carefully to determine whether the author has provided adequate factual material which supports the presented ideas. The author can quote witnesses, state information sources or provide statistics in supporting claims. An author of an article can also be an eyewitness to an event or the author can obtain information via a news service.
- Consider your opinion about the reportage
Since critical analysis is subjective, you should give your opinion about the reportage. Is the reportage true, biased or balanced in your opinion? Explain your opinion while citing examples of instances that support your claim from the article.
- Explain how the author presents different points of view
For instance, tell readers whether the article under analysis is an editorial, a balanced article, an informative article or a convincing article. Again, support your stance with evidence from the article that you are analyzing.
- Conclude your critical analysis
Wrap up your analysis with your final view or opinion of the article. Tell readers about the tools that the author used to pass the message, the goal of the article and whether the author accomplished that goal. Also tell readers about the target audience and whether the article had impact on the intended audience in your opinion.
How to write a critical analysis of an article from a scientific journal
A scientific journal article is different from a newspaper article. As such, even how you analyze a scientific journal article should be different from the way you analyze a newspaper article.
To analyze a scientific journal article, follow these steps:
- Read the article and the critical analysis prompt
Start by reading the assignment and the article that you are required to analyze critically. Understand what the assignment requires you to do and whether you are required to take a particular angle in your analysis. Find out if there is a theoretical framework on which the argument in the article is based.
- Summarize the article
Summarize the goals or objectives of the article, methods, findings, analysis and conclusions. Explain how they are presented by the author. Show your comprehension of the research that the author of the article presents using one or two paragraphs.
- Highlight the strengths of the scientific article
Characterize the features that you find useful in the article. Tell readers about the aspects that are strong in the article. For instance, tell readers whether the article has sections that are particularly helpful.
- Highlight the weaknesses of the scientific article
Characterize the aspects of the article that you find confusing. For instance, are there apparent weaknesses of the study that come out in the article? Did you find any section of the article confusing and why? Support your claim with evidence from the article.
- Conclude your critical analysis
Conclude the analysis by telling readers how effective or ineffective the article was in presenting the findings of a scientific research. For instance, did the author suggest directions for future studies? Were the findings and analysis presented in a conclusive manner? Leave readers with a sense of completion after reading your critical analysis.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write a critical analysis of an article
- Always identify the objective of the author
Before you start your critical analysis of an article, identify the objectives of the author. Ask yourself, what was the motive behind writing the article? What did the author want to achieve by writing the article?
- Identify any theory in the article
Is there a clear theoretical framework in the article? Does the author make vital theoretical assumptions? Are there clearly defined concepts in the article?
Identify the argument of the author in the article. Find out if there are specific hypothesis made and whether the author of a scientific journal article states whether they were supported by the study or not.
- Identify the main points and evidence
Tell readers what the main arguments or points made by the author in the article are. Are there conclusions or inferences made by the author? What information or evidence does the author provide to support the arguments, inferences or points? Is the provided evidence used to measure something? Is the provided evidence factual? Does the author of the article present factual data?
Tell your readers whether the author is reliable. State what the sources of evidence or information are. Are the sources of the provided evidence identified? For instance, can the eyewitness mentioned in the article be reached? Does the author give examples of specific publications, organizations, journals, books or web sites? Are the sources secondary or primary or are they from other sources like textbooks. Does the author site authorities? What are the credentials of the authorities and are they credible or not and why?
- How persuasive is the author?
Tell readers of your critical analysis whether the author presents evidence that is consistent with the presented argument? Does the author present a convincing argument? If yes, tell readers why and if not, explain why. Can the presented evidence in a scientific journal article be interpreted in another way? Do you have adequate evidence to support your judgment? What additional evidence do you consider necessary to judge the made claim’s validity?
- Global view
Tell your readers whether the author makes general assumptions in the article? If yes, state them. Does the author present a world view of the findings presented in the scientific article? Is there a different viewpoint or world view that should be considered on the basis of the presented findings?
Does the author use propaganda words in the article? Does the author use propaganda techniques in the article to make arguments?
- Your take
Do you disagree or agree with what the author says in the article and how they say it?
- Use a sample to write your critical analysis
To know how to write a critical analysis of an article with ease, review a sample critical analysis of an article. You can find a critical analysis of an article here.
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of a Poem
When you know how to write a critical analysis of a poem, you can enable the readers of your critical analysis to understand the language and symbols that the author of the poem uses better. A critical analysis is a form of subjective writing in which the writer expresses his/her evaluation or opinion of a text. A poem on the other hand is a form of writing that takes the nature of a song and a speech and it is almost rhythmical in most cases and usually metaphorical exhibiting different formal elements which include a stanzaic structure, rhyme and meter. A critical analysis of a poem therefore should break down a poem and study its parts to give the evaluation or opinion of the entire piece.
A step-by-step guide on how to write a critical analysis of a poem
While writing poems, authors are very deliberate with their choice of words as well as the format that they use to convey meaning. Most poets hope that their poems will be read aloud. This is why they strive to maintain high lyrical quality. Others strive to maintain interesting rhythms in punctuating the elements of their poems. As you write a critical analysis of a poem, depict an intimate appreciation of it.
Step 1: Read the poem
To critique a poem, you should read it severally to understand what the speaker is saying or what the main message of the poem is. If there are unusual or difficult words, find their meaning. In most cases, the title will give you the summary or general meaning of the main idea or thought that is being presented.
Step 2: Know who the speaker is
The speaker in a poem can be an elderly person, a child, a shepherd, a student, a swordsman, a sailor, a milkmaid, an animal or an object such as a chair, a place or a mountain. Speakers in poems speak differently.
Step 3: Identify the main theme of the poem
Start your critical analysis by identifying the major or specific theme in the poem that gives it a larger meaning. To identify this theme, you need to consider or study the entire poem including its title. Maybe the poem that you are analyzing is about losing innocence, growing old, or importance of preserving the environment. The overarching or major theme of a poem can come out clearly or it can be hidden in its presentation and words.
Step 4: Establish the context
The context gives the location and time of a poem. This is usually what prompts the creation of a poem. A poem can be prompted by a political event which has a great importance in the history of a country.
Step 5: Identify inter-textuality
This implies that a poem looks back to another poem. This is also called reference. If a poem has this aspect, include it in your analysis and show how it enhances the message or its delivery.
Step 6: Identify the genre of the poem
Genre is simply the category. There are characteristics and rules of each genre. For instance, a poem that comprises of a long narrative dealing with demi-gods or divine figures and describing incredible journeys or terrible wars that determine humanity fate is called an epic poem. A sonnet on the other had is a short poem with 14 lines in which intimate emotions are expressed. Other poem genres include mock-epic, lyric, ballad, parody and ode among others.
Step 7: Create a checklist for your critical analysis
You should come up with a checklist that will guide you as you review or analyze the poem. A checklist will enable you to analyze or dissect the poem into separate pieces in order to understand it as a complete piece better. For instance, you can come up with a checklist that includes the title, genre, viewpoint, setting, meter, rhyme scheme, context or conflict. Make the elements in your checklist your guide while writing the critical analysis of the poem.
Step 8: Review the poem’s plot
While reviewing the plot, answer the following questions after reading the poem:
- What is going on in the poem?
- Who is affected by what is going on?
Your answers to these questions will enable you to understand what exactly the poem is describing. This will enable you to apply the meaning of the poem in the analysis.
Step 9: Analyze the poem’s rhyme scheme
Note that, not every poem has a rhyme. Nevertheless, most poems are written with the hope that they will be read aloud and therefore they have a rhyme scheme. Perhaps, this is one of the most important steps of a guide on how to write a critical analysis of a poem because you must read and analyze the poem carefully to notice its rhyme scheme. Before you conclude that the poem under analysis does not have a rhyme scheme, read it aloud with a friend or alone. Listen to its sound instead of simply looking at its words. This will enable you to identify its rhyme scheme and analyze it.
Step 10: Analyze the format
A poem can be a free form. This means that it does not have an identifiable pattern. It can also have a unique writing scheme. The format of a poem is usually a deliberate choice of style or act by the writer. Describe the format chosen by the author in your critical analysis and what it could mean as well as how it hinders or help in communicating the message.
Step 11: Analyze the used figurative language
Poetry uses a wide range of literary devices which include personification, metaphor, simile, metonymy and irony. Apart from constituting the body, these devices also demonstrate the control of language by the author. Therefore, it is highly important that you evaluate and analyze the use of figurative language in the poem.
Step 12: Create a thesis statement
On the basis of your comprehension of the meaning of the poem, create a thesis statement for your critical analysis. Note that while writing any academic piece, you should have a strong, clear thesis statement.
Step 13: Gather evidence from the poem to support the controlling idea or thesis statement
In the body of your critical analysis, cite actual lines of the poem to support your thesis. This will make your critical analysis credible and strong. Readers will get clues of where your thesis statement came from because it will have adequate supporting evidence from the poem.
Step 14: Write the analysis
At this step, you already know how to write a critical analysis of a poem and you have all the information required to write a critical analysis of a poem. Use your checklist to write your critical analysis.
Your critical analysis should include the following:
The introduction should include:
- Title of the poem under analysis
- Author of the poem
- Publication information
- Purpose or topic statement
- Thesis statement that indicates your reaction to the poem
- Description or summary of the poem
Provide a summary or brief description of the poem that you are analyzing critically.
- Evaluation or/and interpretation of the poem
Use your checklist to analyze or evaluate or discuss different aspects of the poem as described in the steps of this guide.
Draw conclusions from your analysis. Tell readers what was the goal or theme of the poem that you were analyzing, tools that were used in conveying the main idea or theme of the poem, how they were used and whether they were effective.
Bonus tips on how to write a critical analysis of a poem
- Add value
While writing a critical analysis of a poem, try to help the writer and the reader know how the poem would have been made better. Provide suggestions on how the writer can improve the work. However, point out instances where the author is inconsistent or not clear and then provide concrete advice to the writer.
- Be positive
When critiquing the work of another person, be constructive. Do not say unnecessarily harmful things about the poem. If you must say something negative about the poem, provide supporting evidence.
- Review the content of the poem
In your critical analysis, say whether the author was redundant in terms of the used imagery or chosen words. For instance, did the author use varying syllables, meters and vowel rhymes? How did the author choose the words to use in the poem? Did the author use irony, similes, metaphors or symbolism properly? Were they used consistently?
- Use a sample of a critical analysis of a poem
To easily know how to write a critical analysis of a poem, use a critical analysis sample as your writing guide. A good sample will enable you to know where and how to present different elements of your analysis. You can find an example of a critical analysis of a poem here.
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of a Film
If you enjoy watching movies, you would most probably like to know how to write a critical analysis of a film. Critical analysis refers to a subjective form of writing in which the author evaluates or critiques the work of another person. The work that is critiqued or evaluated can be a film, an essay, a book, a painting or any other creative work. The aim of writing a critical analysis is to enhance the understanding of the work by the reader. Additionally, the analysis aims at determining how effective the work is. It is important to note that critical analysis of a film is different from a movie review. A movie review is just about watching a film passively while a critical analysis entails engaging on a level that surpasses mere storytelling.
How to write a critical analysis of a film step by step
While writing a critical analysis of a film, you should always remember that this writing is subjective because it should express your evaluation or opinion of the film. Analysis simply means breaking down and studying the parts. Therefore, your analysis should depict two major aspects: studying and critiquing.
Here are the steps to follow when writing a critical analysis of a film:
Step 1: Watch the film
At this step, you watch the film severally to get its gist. This is very important because it enables you to understand different aspects of the film which is crucial in writing a good critical analysis paper. To watch the film critically implies that you must watch it severally and take notes while watching it. If you are watching the film using a DVD player or a computer, rewind and pause to understand crucial parts of the movie.
Step 2: Engage with the film critically
At this step, start engaging critically with the film that you want to analyze. This is very important because it will enable you to come up with a strong critical analysis essay. Identify and focus on a single concept or theme that dominates the film. For instance, you can focus on how the film was photographed, how a sequence in the film relates to a broader cinematic concept, how the film relates to a specific historical event dramatically without compromising facts. You can also focus on the use of various devices such as dramatic irony and overlapping dialogue.
Step 3: Outline your critical analysis
Writing an outline of a critical analysis will enable you to present your critical analysis in a more organized manner. Writing an outline entails determining the information that you intend to include in the analysis, where to place it in the critical analysis paper or essay and how to place the information. In this step, determine the number of chapters to have in your analysis. Create rough headings for different chapters. Outlining a critical analysis is simply planning how to write a critical analysis of a film and this makes the actual writing easier.
Step 4: Introduce the film
In this step, you start the actual writing by introducing the film that you are analyzing critically and the major participants in it. Among the participants that you can introduce at this step include the film director and the actors. You can also include names of other technicians in the film especially if you will focus on that particular aspect of the film in your analysis. For instance, if you will be writing about shadows in a film, introduce the cinematographer. If you will be writing about the importance of the included background information in creating the emotional tone, introduce the composer of the movie.
Step 5: Write the movie story overview or summary
In this step, provide an overview of the film story in a brief manner. However, avoid writing a synopsis of the movie instead of an analysis. Reveal twists in the plot or how the film ends if this is related to the analysis directly.
Step 6: Write the analysis
Start writing the analysis section with the film at hand. If possible, have the movie in the DVD player and the television close to you. To write a food critical analysis of a film, avoid relying on your memory. This is because it is difficult to memorize all the events, cinematic techniques and dialogues after playing the film. Therefore, make sure that you have easy access to the film while writing your critical analysis.
Step 7: Make sure that you are familiar with filmmaking technical jargons
While writing your critical analysis, make sure that you can differentiate a dissolve from a cut. Familiarizing yourself with such terms will enable you to write about the subjective work of a camera if the analysis entails a film shot part from the viewpoint of a character. Using filmmaking words properly will make your critical analysis essay more authoritative.
How to write a critical analysis essay of a film in a conventional essay format
You should know the format of a critical analysis essay to compose a good critical analysis of a film.
Here is a simple format that you can use as a template for writing a critical analysis of a film:
- The introduction
In the introduction section, introduce the key players in the movies. These can include the producer; the director and the cinematographer among others depending on the angle that you intend to take in your analysis. You can also include the main idea or theme of the movie as well as the thesis statement of your essay or paper.
In the summary or film overview section, you outline the major theme or idea of the film. This involves what, who, where, when, how and why. You can also discuss the style, structure or view point.
In this section, you tell readers what you liked and what you did not like about the film. Provide an explanation for your ideas by citing specific examples from the film. Additionally, identify the goal of the film and whether it accomplished it. Your analysis should focus on determining whether the film is understandable, focused, interesting, properly concluded, authentic, clear and meeting its purpose, among others. Include several paragraphs in the analysis section with each paragraph giving a specific idea and supporting it with evidence from the film.
In the conclusion section, end your critical analysis by restating the thesis statement that you stated in the introduction. However, use new words. Also summarize the main ideas that you discussed in the analysis section using stronger and new words. End the conclusion with an effective call to action.
Remember that a critical analysis is a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of a work of another person. This entails determining whether the work does well, how and where as well as how it does poorly, where and how. Therefore, watch the film carefully and severally to familiarize yourself with its different aspects before you start writing your critical analysis paper or essay.
Bonus tips on how to write a critical analysis of a film
- Conduct research from secondary sources before you start writing the analysis
Before you write your critical analysis of a film, conduct some research from other sources. Find analyses by other people and reviews about the film that you are about to analyze. Consider the issues that others have raised about the film before you start writing your analysis.
- Select the theme or idea that dominates the movie and other analyses
This could be the theme that you agree with, find relevant or disagree with. It could be a controversial theme that some people are uncomfortable with on the basis of their beliefs. Find out whether it is worth majoring in while analyzing the film critically.
- Consider the question that you are required to investigate
While giving you the assignment, your teacher or lecturer may have given you a question or prompt. This prompt may require you to investigate a particular idea. Consider your feelings towards that issue or idea and why you may support the feelings that you hold about the issue. If what you have written is interesting, then you can use it as or in forming your preliminary thesis. If it does not impress you, continue analyzing the film until you come up with a good preliminary thesis. This is a very important tip on how to write a critical analysis of a film because it guides you in creating a thesis that you can use as the controlling idea of your critical analysis paper or essay.
- Use a sample of a critical analysis of a film
Using a good critical analysis of a film sample makes mastering the steps of writing a critical analysis essay or paper easier. Therefore, look for a well-written sample analysis of a film and use it in writing your own analysis. To read a critical analysis of a film online, click here.
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How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab
Knowing how to write a conclusion for a lab report is very important because the conclusion is an important section where you state what you learned from the lab experiment while justifying how you learned it. The conclusion is the last paragraph and a working part of a paper. In this section, you should push readers into thinking about the global implications of the findings that you present in the report.
In the conclusion, you should sum up the procedures that you used and the results of the lab project for the reader. Also restate the goals of the lab project and include final notes or data on whether the experiment answered the posed question successfully. Readers should get all the vital points of the lab report by simply reading the conclusion while noting the unforeseen results of the experiment.
How to write a conclusion for a lab report step by step
The conclusion of a lab report ought to be written in the format of an essay. It should have proper spelling as well as correct punctuation.
Here are steps that you should follow when writing this section of a lab report:
- Restate the purpose or the problem
Start by restating the purpose or the problem and whether the experiment supported the purpose of conducting the lab experiment. This is very important because it ensures that your conclusion relates to the purpose or problem that you stated at the introduction of the report. Remember that the purpose or problem is what necessitated the experiment.
The purpose of carrying out this experiment was to establish the comparison between acid pH after adding bases to it. Data from this experiment supports the notion that acid pH increases with base addition to it.
- Discuss how you reached the conclusion with the help of the gathered data
To show how the data that you collected during the experiment relates, refer to the graphs that you used to present the findings in the body section. Your explanation in the conclusion should be based on the relationship of the information presented in the graphs. If you included an equation while presenting the findings, use the equation to explain the relationship of your data in the conclusion.
- Discuss possible errors in data collection or procedures
In any experiment, there are possible causes of errors. Therefore, discuss possible reasons why your conclusion or data may be inaccurate because of certain errors.
- End the conclusion
Close your conclusion by restating the conclusion and the problem. You can also suggest changes that should be made while carrying out future experiments and how they are likely to affect the collected data.
Various bases were used to indicate their neutralization effect on acid pH in this lab experiment. It might be helpful to add base into acid using a dropper rather than a beaker to prevent base spilling into acid. The other part of the process is safe and following it is easy.
Checklist for a conclusion of a lab report
Once you have known how to write a conclusion for a lab report, find out how you can evaluate your conclusion to determine if it serves its purpose.
To do this, you need to ask yourself the following questions:
- Have you restated the goal of your experiment?
The conclusion should start with a restatement of the goal of the lab experiment. Restate the goal that you stated in the introductory paragraph though using different words. Ask yourself, what question were you trying to answer with the experiment? It is also important that your conclusion include a summary of the predictions that you had made for the results of the experiment.
- Have your described the used methods or procedure?
Your lab report should briefly summarize the methods or procedures that you used in the experiment. Note that a comprehensive list of the items that you used in your experiment should be in the section where you discuss the methods in the body of the report. The conclusion should provide just a summary of the procedures or methods and the reason for choosing them to obtain data.
- Does the conclusion include an analysis of the final data?
The focus of a lab report is on the data that you collected from the experiment. This includes all the data that you obtained from experiment and its analysis. In the conclusion, restate the data that you gathered from the experiment. Include the final data acquired from the analysis only. Additionally, provide an explanation of the final data and what it means in a brief manner. Explain data trends while noting whether there were irregularities indicated by the results raising further questions. Additionally, make sure that your conclusion indicates possible causes of errors.
- Have you stated whether your experiment answered the question successfully?
In the conclusion, you should examine data from the experiment on the basis of your predictions and goals of the experiment. Tell readers whether the experiment answered the question that you stated in the introduction. If it answered the question successfully, tell readers so. If it did not, explain the possible reasons or explanation for this while suggesting methods that can be used in future experiments. However, whether the experiment answered the question successfully or not, tell readers what you learned from it while stating the experiment’s results predictions that turned out to be true.
Your answers to these questions will enable you to determine if the conclusion of your lab report serves its purpose effectively.
Additional tips on how to write a conclusion for a lab report
- Maintain the accurate length for your conclusion for a lab report
The conclusion of a lab report can be long or short depending on the nature of the lab experiment and what you learned or deduced from it. Its length can also be determined by the prompt or what you were required or wanted to accomplish during the experiment. Thus, it can be a one sentence conclusion or a paragraph conclusion. There are also cases where it can be longer than one paragraph. Therefore, make sure that your conclusion has an accurate length that includes relevant information only.
- Identify the most important aspect of the result from the experiment
The main interpretation of the results should be based on the single most vital result of the experiment. Make sure that your conclusion presents the analysis of this result as well as its implication.
- How data was obtained
Remember that your conclusion is based on the data that you obtained while conducting the experiment and its analysis. It is therefore important that you tell readers how you obtained data so that they can determine if your data is reliable and whether your interpretation, analysis and conclusions are based on solid evidence.
The conclusion is the last part of the lab report where you should tell readers what the results of the experiment mean and their implications to the real world. Therefore, make sure that your conclusion leaves readers with something to think about. Stating the implications of the findings of your lab experiment also shows that the experiment was necessary.
- Edit the conclusion of your lab report
After writing the conclusion for your lab report, ask a friend that you trust to edit it for you or enlist our editing service. You may have a good conclusion for a lab report but spelling and grammatical errors ruin it.
- Double-check results
It is important that you take time to double-check all results from the mathematical equations that you presented in the body. This will enable you to avoid the embarrassment which may arise from misplacing decimal points.
- Use a conclusion sample to easily know how to write a conclusion for a lab
You should also use a conclusion sample while mastering the steps of writing a lab conclusion.
Here is a lab report conclusion sample that you can use:
The purpose of this experiment was to find out how the concentration of nitrogen fertilizer affects com plants’ growth by comparing com plants’ growth when subjected to nitrogen fertilizer with different concentrations. The hypothesis was that the concentration of nitrogenous fertilizer does not affect the height of plant but the experiment did not support it. There was a significant variation in the height of the non-fertilized plants and fertilized plants with the average height increasing more in fertilized plants. The experiment was done in a classroom in which there was no constant temperature. Perhaps, this may have caused some errors in the results. Future experiments can be improved by conducting the experiment in a place with constant temperature.
With such a sample, knowing how to write a conclusion for a lab report is easy. This is because it enables you to know how and where to place different elements of a conclusion for a lab report.
Get online help with a lab report
If you face difficulties while writing a conclusion for a lab report, read these guidelines on how to write a conclusion for a lab report and then write your conclusion. Once done, contact us for professional editing help. Alternatively, visit our homepage for more details about our writing services and information on how we may help you. You can also keep reading for more academic writing guidelines and sample papers on our blog.
How to Start a Conclusion
As a student, you should know how to start a conclusion because you will be required to write it severally when concluding essays, term papers, research papers and other academic writing assignments. A conclusion can be defined as a paragraph that gives you a chance to wrap up your paper or essay in a tiny package while bringing it home to your reader. It is the closure and summation of all ideas that you presented in the introduction and body of your paper or essay. The goal of a conclusion is to ensure the satisfaction of the reader after reading your piece of writing. However, starting a conclusion is not easy and that is why you need a guide to help you start this paragraph.
A guide on how to start a conclusion
Prepare to write a conclusion
Contemplate about the purpose as stated in the introduction and tone
While writing the conclusion, consider the purpose of your paper or essay as stated in the introduction. For instance, why were you writing the essay? Was your aim to entertain, persuade, inform, or argue a point? Your answer to this question should dictate how you write the conclusion. Make sure that the tone of your conclusion matches that of the entire paper or essay. If you were writing to inform readers, remind readers what you informed them, if you were writing to persuade readers, give them your final thought and if you were writing to entertain, provide a humorous conclusion.
Answer the “so what” question
This will enable you to start thinking about what to include in the conclusion. Once you have written the introduction and the body of your paper or essay, ask yourself, why should the reader care? Make sure that your conclusion answers these questions to shape the thoughts of the reader.
Read what you have written
Before you start writing the conclusion of your paper or essay, read what you have written in the body and the introduction severally. While writing the conclusion, make sure that you have your introduction fresh in mind. The conclusion should follow the logical transition from the introduction, to the body and then the conclusion. You can maintain this transition only when you have the rest of the essay in mind. Therefore, read what you have written in the introduction and the body to come up with a focused conclusion that addresses the most vital points in the paper or essay.
Write the first draft of the conclusion
Although “In conclusion” words are overused, they are a popular way of starting the conclusion. These words provide a transition phase that can help you in getting started with the first conclusion draft. You can start with these words then replace or remove them later after writing the first draft.
Pre-write the conclusion
Most students under utilize a pre-writing strategy but it is very effective when it comes to writing a conclusion. In fact, you should try it out as you master the steps on how to start a conclusion. Pre-writing should come before writing a draft. While pre-writing, put your ideas down. Come up with sentences that explain the covered topic. Conclude your paper or essay instinctively after writing the entire essay. As you pre-write the conclusion, ask yourself why readers should care or so what? This will enable you to form the answers that you provided in the body and supported with evidence using clearer sentences.
Start the conclusion
Make the first sentence a transition
The first sentence of a conclusion ought to create a bridge between the ending thoughts and body paragraphs. Connect the sentences of the body with the conclusion using phrases and words from the topic. Make sure that the first sentence creates a clear transition from the body to the conclusion.
If you were writing an essay on exercise benefits, the first sentence of your conclusion can read like this, “There are several benefits of exercising three times in a week.”
Start your conclusion with the topic
You can restate the topic of your paper or essay in your conclusion. Also tell readers why the topic is important. However, use different words in restating the topic. Tell readers about the importance of your topic in a few sentences.
When writing a conclusion for an essay on the side effects of school bullying, you can restate the topic in a sentence like this, “Bullying is very common in school and it should be stopped.” The sentence that follows should explain the importance of the topic. It can read, “Children are not treating their friends with respect and kindness as they should.”
Restate thesis statement
Remind readers the thesis that you stated in the introduction using different words. Use new words to phrase your thesis and show readers how you have proven it in the essay or paper. This is a very important step of a guide on how to start a conclusion because it enables you to write a conclusion that serves its purpose. Restating a thesis statement in the conclusion gives it a sense of finality. It gives the readers a feeling that the journey that started at the introduction has come to an end at the conclusion.
Include a phrase that links the conclusion to the introduction
Start the conclusion with a phrase that links it to your introduction. For instance, you can use imagery or comparison phrase that reiterates the introduction. This will enable your introduction to bring the idea or theme of your introduction back through the conclusion. This will enable readers to wrap what they have read in the paper or essay and form a clear perspective on the topic.
Contrast and compare
If you were writing about several characters, animals, groups or anything that can be compared and contrasted, use the presented ideas to do this at the beginning of your conclusion. Use a single statement or observation that is relevant to your paper or essay to follow up the contrasted or compared ideas.
In a paper about vacation sports, start the conclusion with a statement like, “Whether you choose to sunbathe in a Florida beach or to ski the Aspen slopes, vacation ought to be an enjoyable and relaxing experience.”
Start your conclusion with a rhetorical question
A rhetorical question can be an effective way of starting a conclusion because it emphasizes a point. You can use this strategy especially if your paper is argumentative. Come up with an evocative question to drive point home.
When writing an argumentative paper on smoking and its ban in public places, you can start your conclusion with a question like, “Are some people allowed the right to interfere with the health of those around them?”
Start with a clear statement on the basis of your argument
You can open your conclusion with an opinion or statement whose basis is what you tried to argue or persuade readers about. This should be a sentence that restates your topic while providing a way that readers should adopt while thinking on the basis of the information or argument that you presented in the body of the essay or paper.
If the thesis statement of your essay was, “People should make sacrifices which do not bring obvious benefits on the basis of their morals,” your conclusion can start with a statement like, “Some people make sacrifices that do not seem sensible until their motives become apparent.”
How to start a conclusion using simple strategies
There are strategies that you can implement when starting a conclusion to make the task easier.
- Echoing the introduction: This implies bringing the readers full-circle. For instance, if you started your essay with a description of a scenario, start the conclusion with the same scenario.
- Challenge readers: Give readers a challenge to redirect the information that they got from the paper so that they can apply it in life.
- Look to the future: This entails emphasizing the importance of the essay or paper as well as redirecting the thought process of your readers.
- Pose questions: This is an effective strategy because it gives readers a different perspective on the discussed topic.
Each of these strategies is effective depending on the kind of a paper or essay that you have written. It is therefore important that you read the introduction and the body of your essay or paper carefully to determine how to start a conclusion of your paper or essay in the most appropriate and effective way.
Get help with your conclusion
If you encounter difficulties in writing a conclusion for your academic paper or essay, contact us for immediate assistance. We offer the best academic writing help online and sample papers. You can also visit our website’s homepage for additional information about our writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to start a conclusion and sample conclusion on the papers found on our blog.
How to find an Example of a Term Paper when you are in Need
Do you love writing? Well, whether writing it is your hobby or tops your list of things you hate in life does not matter. The underlying factor is that term paper writing is a compulsory assignment in college. Before your academic year ends, you will submit a term paper in your area of specialization. For your information, scoring high grades in your term paper can be an easy and impossible mission depending on how you prepare. A recommended way of overcoming these challenges is finding a good example of a term paper to help you master different elements, which tutors look for.
In this guide, you will find the following sections:
- Understanding Term papers
- Elements of a good term paper
- Examples of excellent term papers
- The don’ts of term paper writing
Do not rush reading this handout because it is the key to a successful term paper. Take your time and grasp every segment. Do not hesitate sharing these secrets with your pals and excel as a class. Are you ready? Let us go….
Things to look for in a good Example of a Term Paper
What to note about term papers
A term paper is any academic paper that is worth publishing. It is a common writing assignment for students in colleges. If you are a freshman in college, prepare to tackle several term paper be before you graduate in that field.
Term papers pose a range of challenges to students, who find it tasking to compile a sensible academic paper and present for grading at the end of an academic year. You can only write an appealing term paper if you have the right knowledge, skills, and experience.
In addition, good term paper writers are patient and persevering in order to hone their skills. A good starting point can be laying your hands on an example of a term paper to understand basic principles like format and style.
No matter how short your term paper is, you must include the following:
Parts of a good term paper
The introduction- This acts like the head of your paper. It shows the reader what you are discussing and contextualizes the issue at hand. Your intro should capture your problem and present a summary of solutions to the issue.
Length- The length of your introduction depends on the overall length of your term paper. However, a standard intro should be 10% of the total paper. Thus, a twenty-paged term paper will have two pages of introduction while short papers may have a paragraph or a few sentences as the introduction.
Functions of an introduction: A good introduction does the following things to your term paper:
- Provides background information – This is relevant information on the topic, which will help year readers understand what you are doing.
- Contextualizes the issue – Your introduction should put the issue into perspective. Tell the reader what you are discussing, giving them reasons why they should read your paper.
- Gives your thesis statement – a complete introduction has your thesis at the end. This is your main idea, claim or argument. It gives a roadmap of how you will defend your argument in the rest of the paper.
A paper whose introduction does not meet these needs then it is not a good example of a term paper to help you become a better writer.
State the problem – Your introduction should tell the reader more about the problem, including its significance. Here, you justify the need to conduct a thorough study on the issue. As you do so, propose ways of dealing with the problem and possible solutions.
Literature review – This is a detailed section. It shows the current findings, and approaches on the issue. Dig into academic sources and find out what different authors say about the issue at hand. Remember to cite your sources using recommended styles like APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard among others.
Important elements that every term paper must have
Besides a detailed introduction, your term paper should cover the following areas:
Let us look at these elements in details one after the other:
METHODS – This section shows the approaches you employed to gather information or relevant data on the topic. Common methods to apply in data collection include:
- Interviews – Talk to people, including experts on the issue and the public. Interviews help you get deeper knowledge on an issue as you can ask probing and follow up questions during the session.
- Questionnaire – Administer questionnaire to a sample of the population within which you are conducting your survey. A question is a list of question, requiring short answers, including YES/NO.
- Observation – Here, you go out in the field and document what you see. For example, if you are discussing how student utilize their free time, you will have to note the activities they undertake during this time.
RESULTS – If you are looking for an example of a term paper, settle for one that clearly shows the results of the research. With the results, you can convince the reader that you conducted the research.
Under results, you should capture all your findings. You can present your results in form of tables, graphs, statistics and charts among others.
In addition, tell the reader any problems with your findings. This can be a good chance to state your shortcomings and error margins in your numbers. Findings form a basis for you to recommend future researches changes to methodology for accuracy.
Discussing your results in a term paper
Bring out meaning. Once you have the results, discuss them. Discussion is important because it helps you give meaning to your findings. Remember that a table of results without an analysis makes no sense to the reader.
As you discuss, bring out any observable trends for your audience to understand the gravity of the issue.
Go for important results – Since you have limited time and space, focus on important results in your discussion. Spend time explaining figures that add value to your term paper or provide answers to your research problem.
Draw conclusions – Your conclusions should come from the discussion. Make conclusion based on the results and the research issue you are handling.
Link your results to the worldview – With your findings say how the issues relate to the broader society. This helps the reader to connect your survey with an issue in the real world.
Works Cited – As you search for an example of a term paper, get one from professional writers who do not plagiarize. Remember to acknowledge all the sources you use to develop your ideas.
Consider the following term paper examples. They should help you understand the basic elements of a standard paper:
Examples of term papers
More tips that will guarantee you a good example of a term paper
Good term papers are not easily available. The best option is developing good writing skills. The following hints should always be at your fingertips when handling term papers. Take a look.
Be complete – Your audience will enjoy reading you paper if you give complete information. For example, provide full bibliographical information about your sources, including name of the author, publisher, year of publication, editor, edition, etc.
Be consistent – Stick to one style of referencing. Do not mix citation styles as this is against the cardinal principles of academic writing.
Be kind to the reader – Provide all the information the reader will need. Make good use of footnotes and endnotes.
Number your work – A good term paper should have page numbers to guide the reader. Choose a good numbering system.
Are you looking for where to find an example of a term paper? Here are some the reliable sites that students are turning to for reliable solutions:
Example: Where to find term papers
Mistakes to avoid when working on your term paper
Here are common errors that students make when writing term papers. Do whatever it takes to avoid them.
Not following instructions – Read and reread the instructions and follow them to the letter.
No proofreading – Go over your paper to eliminate common mistakes
Poor intro and conclusion – Ensure you have a good first and last impression
Poor paragraphing – have coherent paragraph. Every paragraph should start with a topic sentence
No references – Unreferenced papers will earn you no mark
With these ideas, you should be able to find a good example of a term paper and also write your own. It is as simple as that. Godspeed.
Essay writing made easy
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A thesis generator is a guide, a series of questions that help you to formulate or develop an argument from your topic. It helps you to develop a thesis statement, which is the main idea of your essay in one or two sentences. The statement usually identifies the topic or the writer’s opinion based on that topic. For instance,
Topic: The modern television rating system
Thesis statement: The modern television rating system does very little to help parents to make wise decisions for their children on programming.
Why is a thesis statement essential?
A thesis statement is imperative because it helps you to focus on the subject of your essay. If you can’t sum up the main idea in a few sentences, then you may not have a better understanding of the topic. Note that a thesis statement tests your clarity of thought as a writer. Therefore, once you decide on the main focus of the paper, a thesis statement will further act as a reminder for you to keep the paper organized and focused.
Secondly, a thesis statement enhances the readers understanding. The hallmark of a well-structured paper is a good thesis support outline. This means that your thesis should announce the topic of the essay. The body of the paper will further explain and enhance the topic.
Therefore, it is imperative that you learn how to develop a solid and relevant thesis statement using a thesis generator.
Formulating a thesis statement using a thesis generator
Being a thesis guide development tool, a thesis generator is easy to work with. However, you should follow these steps to formulate the right and ideal statement for your essay
State your subject or topic
State your main idea about the subject as it forms the basis or the heart of your thesis. An ideal and effective statement will
- Express one main idea
- It will name the topic and assert something specific about it
- Create a more ideal thesis statement compared to the above statement. Use your thesis generator to fulfil this goal.
- take a stance on a subject about what readers might agree on or disagree
- state your opinion or position about the topic
Give the strongest assertion or reason to enhance your main idea or opinion
Give another reason supporting your main idea
State another more solid and strong opinion to enhance your statement
Include another viewpoint to your main idea where applicable. In other words, this should be an opinion or for the opposing view that you belief has a merit even if you do not necessarily agree with this kind of opinion.
Provide an ideal title for your essay
Thesis generator ideas to help you develop your statement
With the right thesis generator ideas, developing a good thesis becomes an easy task.
Focus about thesis equations as you ask essay questions and make a move towards developing a tentative thesis. Consider the following equations for your thesis
Specific topic angle/attitude/argument = Thesis
What are you planning to argue+ how you plan to argue it= Thesis
Use different stems to develop a proficient and advanced thesis statement
You can rank with justification (move from most important to the least important or move from least important to the most important)
Contrasts (of perspectives)
State the most significant cause or reason behind your argument and contrast it
Reveal perception vs reality
For example, if so and so may have believed in X, the real causes include x and z
Give good vs bad reasons
List reasons for the cause of x and differentiate between valid and invalid reasons
Cause and Effect
Give causes and effects of certain occurrences and challenge it. For example, the effects of rampage were ………………..and the causes were unjustifiable.
Engage in a brainstorming session because it will not only help you develop a good thesis. It will also help you to weigh your possibilities and focus on the statement. Question stems in a thesis generator help you to create a solid statement and write a good essay. Some of the questions that will help you write a good statement include
What should be the reaction of the readers?
Who are the key players in each side and what do they contribute and how?
What is the significance and impact of?
Can I compare? How is X similar or different from Y
What if, can I predict?
How could we solve, design, enhance or deal with?
What is the value or what are the potential benefits of what you belief in?
Give reasons for what you believe in (give three to five reasons)
Guidelines to using a thesis generator
As mentioned above, a thesis generator enables you to create a thesis statement with ease. You should however,
Choose an ideal topic based on the subject you are writing about
Use of short phrases and fill all the fields required to make your essay complete
Avoid the use of punctuation marks
Check out examples of thesis statements from past papers
Confirm your thesis
Choose your favorite statement and use it in your writing and
Follow the right outline based on the type of essay you are writing. A basic outline for your thesis should include
An introductory paragraph
- first paragraph making the first assertion
- second paragraph making the second assertion
- Third paragraph making the third assertion and is your strongest point. Refute any opposing point of views to your thesis statement in this paragraph.
The thesis should also feature a concluding paragraph rephrasing your thesis statement. Synthesize the points you made in your introduction and echo it.
Use your thesis generator and the above outline to draft a good thesis. You can condense it to match the size of your argument or main point.
Edit your thesis statement and your thesis generator so that the parts of your statement flow smoothly. Go an extra mile and correct possible grammar and typo errors.
Examples of a thesis generator
What is your topic e.g. music health effects
What is your general conclusion about this topic e.g. listening to your favorite music is good for your health
What is the main claim, idea or argument for your conclusion e.g. music plays a crucial role in reducing stress
What is another ideal argument for your conclusion e.g. tests revealed that it helps to relieve pain
What is the main argument against the conclusion e.g. people can respond differently to the same kind of music
(Check out the above thesis generator and get more information on how you can develop your thesis).
Write down the topic of your essay as assigned by your tutor
State what you believe to be true about the topic you wish to argue about? Take your stance
What is the qualification for the stance you make? Is what you say often true? Are there exceptions; are there good reasons why the stance you take may have a down side?
What is the reason behind your stance? Ask yourself why you believe that your position is correct. However, determine if your reasons will follow smoothly in the body of your essay
Put them together in one or two sentences, present your thesis including your qualification, reasons behind the position you wish to take and the position you take
NOTE: The easiest and most traditional way to combine your ideas in a thesis generator is by presenting your qualifications first. This is because it instantly demonstrates your understanding of what a thesis is and your interest in accuracy.
Secondly, present your main reason or general reason demonstrating your thinking process.
Lastly, drop your punchline, take your position.
Visit this link and check out the thesis generator therein to get more ideas on how to use a thesis creator.
Topic: Compare and contrast different relations between humans. Give examples from personal experiences and texts read or viewed. After comparing and contrasting them, make a claim about what you belief are our responsibilities and rights towards natural world in general. Give reasons and evidence behind your stance
Thesis statement generator
Identify the topic or subject of your paper: relationships between teens and their parents
Turn the subject into a leading or guiding question: how does the relationship between parents and their teen children change?
Use your statement to answer the question: as teenagers become more independent, they tend to resist and resent limitations and expectations imposed to them by their parents
Refine the statement into a working thesis: conflict between parents and their teenage children is usually difficult but an essential part of teen growth or development.
Therefore your thesis generator in simple terms should help you
- Identify the subject of your essay
- Turn the subject to a guiding question
- Answer your essay question with a statement and
- Refine the statement into a working thesis
Check out this link and learn more about the above thesis statement generator.
If you need more guidelines on how to create a thesis generator and developing your thesis, contact us today. We have the best assignment writing experts for all your writing needs.
Rhetorical Analysis Outline
Rhetorical analysis essay is a paper that analyzes an argument in specific text. The task of writing such an essay is not easy but with an outline, organizing your paper becomes easy. Rhetorical analysis outline is a structure that guides you on how to put your thoughts, ideas and points in the final essay and develop a compelling argument. In this article, you will find useful tips on how to structure an outline for your paper, how to use and examples of good outlines for different essays. Read on.
Composing an ideal rhetorical analysis outline
Before you write a rhetorical analysis essay, you got to work on a good structure and stick to it. This is because
It can be quite challenging to organize your thoughts and ideas structurally
It is also easy to get mixed up and get swept when discussing or analyzing the work of another writer
Note that despite the fact that you are discussing the work of another writer, you are still expected to keep the structure of basic essay which includes an introduction, thesis, body and conclusion
For the introduction, you should try to grab the attention of target audience and in a few sentences
Develop a narrow and strong thesis statement
In the body of your rhetorical analysis, you would want to enhance your thesis. You have to concisely analyze your essay by taking one paragraph to analyze each aspect of the writer’s argument. It is however very important that you do not agree with the author’s text or the speaker you are analyzing. In some cases, you may feel that the argument of an author actually crumbles
Therefore, take another perspective and analyze the text by criticizing lack of proof of the thesis statement and point out areas where the argument starts to break down.
In the conclusion, you would want something solid and a wrap up that is conclusive or ultimate in general. Consider discussing how you see the argument from a positive or negative larger view.
Structuring your outline as above is imperative when writing your essay because you will have a better and clear understanding of particular text sections and more specifically, those that serve the general goal of the writer. It will help you answer the questions
What’s your general objective for analyzing the text?
What do you have to do to achieve your analysis goals?
What kind of rhetorical moves do you wish to make or could you possibly make
What to include in a rhetorical analysis outline
Introduction: background information and thesis
The introduction of a rhetorical analysis essay should include background information about the topic you are analyzing. This information should help target audience to understand the nature of your analysis. For this reason, offer details on the title of your work, author and details of publication. It is also imperative to include a statement of the speaker’s argument and topic.
Create a solid thesis statement offering an evaluation of the writer’s main argument. Go ahead to offer specific examples and analytical reasons or appeals.Body: Analysis, Interpretation, and Evaluation
Main argument 1: focus on the use of logos in source and
Draft the first supporting paragraph giving logical examples of the type of logical appeal. State whether the appeal is based on deductive reasoning, cause and effect or inductive reasoning. In either case, give supporting evidence, statistics and illustrations.
Supporting paragraph 2: give an explanation as to why the example you have given is effective for the argument the author is making.
Main argument 2: pathos in source
Focus on the way the author used pathos in source. Give concrete examples of the pathetic appeals and target audience from trace. This means that you should write this paragraph giving examples of what appeals to the values of audience’s and their motivation.
You should also write the second supporting statement evaluating the effectiveness of this appeal on the argument. It is an essential part of rhetorical analysis outline and gives more credibility to your essay.
Main argument 3: Ethos
Give solid examples of ethical appeals employed by the author. State the appeals while using text, author and constraints from trace to gain more authority, achieve more credibility. Note that ethos can be invented or situated ethos.
For the second paragraph, it is essential that you evaluate carefully the effectiveness of the argument.
Conclusion: Final thoughts and re-highlight evaluation
A rhetorical analysis essay also includes a conclusion and it is usually a summary of your assessment, final thoughts and it should be a re-emphasize of your analysis. Therefore, make the final statement about the nature of the argument in regards to the topic. For instance, you can state whether the topic is highly emotional, is it a new topic that should be used to motivate other people or a subject that is unlikely to be addressed in the future.
Rhetorical analysis outline examples
With the above information on what a rhetorical analysis outline entails, you should be able to organize your paper. However, you can effectively write your analysis by reviewing a few examples of rhetorical analysis outline.
Good examples help you to extend your understanding of what a topic or text is all about and how it works rhetorically. Note that many students are used to summarizing what the text is all about instead of analyzing the content. In a rhetorical analysis outline, you ought to examine and evaluate why the text says something about particular things.
You ought to state clearly what the general purpose of the author is. This should also be in the most natural way. Therefore, reviewing different examples will enable you to sum up how specific text operates or functions within the entire essay.
Rhetorical analysis outline examples will also help you to clearly see how the text you need to analyze operates at a micro level, sentence by sentence, paragraph by paragraph and section by section. This kind of analysis is specifically useful based on the fact that it helps you to write a good summary, focus on an analysis and critique of the speaker’s rhetorical methods.
- Introduce your subject or analysis topic
- Make your statement clear
- Engage readers
- Focus on objective analysis
Summarize rhetorical situation
- Determine the issue
- What is the context?
- Who is making the argument?
- Who is the target audience?
- What is the thesis or main point?
- What kind of argument is being presented in the text?
Summary of the argument’s appeals
- Give a summary of ethos, describe the character of the author, credentials, and state his or her good will and likeability
- Summarize logos and describe in detail the work of logos for instance, is the author’s argument logical or not? Give evidence for the same
- Pathos- what are some of the specific emotions that the argument evoke
Give a summary of the claim negotiates opposing statements
- Does the work acknowledge opposing evidence and claims? Does it do so fairly and thoroughly?
- Does the text refute the opposing views or claims? If so, how?
Summary of weaknesses and strengths
Can you find any errors, any problems with the arguments? State them
Write the conclusion, briefly and concisely
Find the above rhetorical analysis outline example here.
Pick attention grabber text, something shocking or startling
Write a brief summary of the essay with the author’s info
Draft a thesis statement, choose what to start with, for instance is the statement effective or not effective
- Reason 1
- Reason 2
- Reason 3
- Reason 4
When giving reasons supporting your thesis statement, you should be very careful, do not go crazy, but be natural and honest. This will help you to keep your analysis on focus.
- Supporting point one
- Supporting point two
- Supporting point three
- Supporting point four
Write how your supporting statements or points work together enhance your thesis
State what the author might have done to make his or her effective (if you argue that the statement was effective, do you think that it could have been better? If so, give reasons.
Download this outline and get more details of how you can structure your paper.
Talk about the speaker, occasion and subject of your analysis
Write about the purpose of the author and what the author does in the topic of analysis
Focus on audience; does the author employ the right tone to keep the audience? For example, the author creates a highly dramatic tone to convey to target audience that the winds have inescapable effects and are sinister
This is the rhetorical analysis outline part and you should include a clear explanation of strategies employed by the author. Most importantly, work chronologically through the text; discuss each idea in each paragraph, one at ago.
The conclusion of a rhetorical analysis is often the easiest part. In one or two sentences, remind your readers of what you said in the introduction and briefly.
This link leads you to the above rhetorical analysis structure and offers more information on ow you organize your paper.
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How to Write an Essay Fast and Score High
Essay writing is common in every college or university in the world. Regardless of the case you are pursuing, you must have paper-writing tips at your fingertips to withstand the pressure. However, more overwhelming are urgent assignments or exams in which you have less than an hour to deliver a standard essay. At this point, sweating and panic will not save you apart from mastering the tricks of how to write an essay fast. You will have to think fast, decide fast and write fast to score a reasonable grade.
What to expect in this guide:
- Tips for faster writers
- Steps to follow to write fast
- Errors to avoid to write fast
Take a few minutes from your busy schedule and read this article. It is a must have toolkit that will help you fill that blank paper within minutes and still top your class.
The basics of how to write an essay fast and expertly
If you are about to take your exams, preparing for a 30-minute writing test or working on your essay writing speed, then you have every reason to worry about filling a blank page with accurate content within a limited time. Writing a 5-paragraph essay in less than an hour can seem impracticable. But with proper planning and proper guidance, it is as possible as writing your name with closed eyes.
The following tips should help you make your first step toward becoming a faster writer.
Becoming a faster writer
Plan for your essay – Good and fast essay writing is a product of proper planning and preparedness. Spend at least 10 minutes preparing for the task. During this time, develop an outline for your essay, showing a roadmap that you will take.
As you seek deeper knowledge of how to write an essay fast, do not consider planning a waste of your valuable time because your essay needs a structure.
Understand your question – A common mistake that you are likely to make is writing without studying the question. Look for the question prompt to guide your mind as you plan to write. Do not rush through the question; read and reread the question to clear any doubts about what the examiner wants from you.
Brainstorm your main idea – Every academic essay has a thesis statement, which acts as a compass pointer of your writing. You need a path and direction to write fast. Think about your main idea and visualize the flow of ideas. This statement should say what you are writing about in your essay. Make it as clear as possible.
You are ready to write. With your outline and thesis statement in place, you are ready to start writing. Have in mind the time you have so that you do not hand in your scripts without completing your assignment.
NEED FOR SPEED: Things to do to write your essay fast and professionally
Speed is an invaluable skill in essay writing. Not just for essay contests but during your study life. While this is the case, even veteran writers still fumble with writing fast; they make mistakes and submit shoddy work.
As a focused leaner, be ready for surprises from your lecturer. You do not want to be among that lot that cannot pen a simple essay in five paragraphs. With practice and hard work, these hints on how to write an essay fast should help you sort out all your troubles.
What you need to write fast:
To become a fast writer, you need the following:
A pen – This is your basic tool. Even in cases where you are tying your essay, you still need a pen to scribble something as you brainstorm your topic.
Paper – a pen works closely with a piece of paper. Your paper can be either for rough work or for your answer sheet/booklet. Ensure you have enough paper.
Have a watch. Having a stopwatch as you write, whether in an exam room or in your study room will help you work on your speed.
With these three key requirements, here are the steps to follow to write your essay within a time record and score a first class.
STEP 1: Do thorough preparation. Regardless of how limited your time is, take time and put everything in order. The time you spend on planning depends on the total time you have. For example, if you have 60 minutes to complete the task, spend six of them drafting a way forward.
STEP 2: Outline your essay. Ideally, before you start writing, have a skeleton of your essay, showing your introduction, body paragraphs with evidence and arguments, and a conclusion. With this structure, it will be easier for you to piece your thoughts together and write under pressure.
STEP 3: Support your argument before writing. As your figure out how to write an essay fast, think about the evidence you will need to defend your position. While you do not have to flesh out all your details before you start writing, save yourself the trouble of brainstorming your topic when you are already in the writing process.
STEP 4: Write with clarity. Be concise and use direct sentences. Avoid vague language. Stick to the vocabulary you know. You do not have time to consult the dictionary. So, do not take risks. Wrong word usage will not impress the person reading your essay.
STEP 5: Do the introduction. The length of your paragraph will largely depend on the size of your paper. It could range from a sentence to several paragraphs.
What makes a good introduction?
- It has to be catchy – Start your essay with an interesting approach to wet the reader’s appetite. Do this by use of personal anecdotes, startling stats, quote, etc. Remember that the reader will make an impression of what kind of a writer you are from a few lines of your essay.
- State your purpose – Your introduction should tell what you are writing about. Do not let the reader keep guessing when you have a chance to orient them at this initial stage.
- Give the scope – As you think about how to write an essay fast, visualize the scope of your paper. Your intro should help the reader know how much they should expect in the rest of the paper.
- End with a thesis statement – Your thesis statement should come at the end of the introductory paragraph. As we have mentioned above, your thesis captures your main idea or claim that you intend to defend in the rest of the paper.
STEP 6: Support your arguments. Here, delve into evidence to support all your claims. As you do this, focus on your main topic, and avoid going off the tangent. Be specific when giving examples to eliminate ambiguity.
STEP 7: Write your conclusion. This is your last paragraph. It offers you a chance to make a lasting impression in the mind of the reader. Your conclusion should sum up the whole idea. Revisit your thesis statement. Does your evidence support your claim? Do not introduce any new ideas at this stage.
TIME SAVING TIPS: How to write an essay fast without making silly mistakes
Perhaps the main reason why you should appreciate the principles of how to write an essay fast is to avoid making costly mistakes. Here is the catch. You must strike a balance between writing fast and remaining flawless.
That sounds and indeed, it is not easy. Wait a minute…below is the formula. Avoid these mistakes and you will gain your speed writing skills without any hustle:
The Don’ts of Writing Fast
Avoid a flawed structure – Nothing irks the reader like a poorly structured essay. Let your ideas flow coherently from the introduction to the conclusion. Even where you are writing in prose, the main parts of your essay should be distinct.
Avoid irrelevant content – Stick to the issues under your topic. Pulling anything from the blues to fill the empty space will earn you no grade.
Avoid illogical writing – Ensure that your ideas and essay parts connect well. Achieve this through smooth transition from one idea to another without leaving the reader handing.
Avoid being someone else – Though you have read many articles, stick to your writing style, without emulating anyone. This makes your writing and essay original.
We hope that this handout on how to write an essay fast will provide you with all the answers you need to improve your writing speed. Like the fastest athletes in the world, PRACTICE.
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Intrinsic vs. Instrumental Value
A comparison of intrinsic value vs. instrumental value brings out the differences and similarities of these ideas. These values have been seen as contrasting ideas since the start of philosophical debates among philosophers.
Intrinsic value refers to a philosophic and ethical property. An intrinsic value is a philosophic and ethical value that is found in an object or for its sake. An object that has an intrinsic value can be considered as an end-in-itself or an end.
On the other hand, an instrumental value is an extrinsic value or a contributory value. It is a value that an object has both abstract object and physical object and it is not an end or end-in-itself but a means that it can use to achieve something else. Instrumental value is studied in value theory.
An intrinsic value is usually contrasted with instrumental value. In this regard, instrumental value is considered as the value that depends on the amount of intrinsic value that it generates. Happiness comprises of an intrinsic value for eudaemonists. On the other hand, a family might not comprise of an intrinsic value but it can be an instrumental value because it brings happiness.
In axiology, intrinsic value is employed in studying value or quality. Ethic good that has instrumental value can be considered as an ethic means without necessarily being the end itself. Thus, the major difference between instrumental value and intrinsic value is that an instrumental value is a means of achieving ethical decision while an intrinsic value is seen as a human nature.
These two makes a philosophic argument on whether a value is a means to an end or an end in itself. However, when put together the ideas fit well.
Theory of an instrumental value originates from the notion of an idea or object leading to another value indirectly or directly. For instance, if a person enjoys reading, the action of reading gives them pleasure. Thus, reading as an action leads to a value which is happiness.
Theory of an intrinsic value however, is based on the idea that certain values or beliefs are just what they are. For instance, happiness is intrinsic because it is a feeling or emotion. It is difficult to control what makes an individual happy but everybody agrees that it is a good emotion or feeling. Thus, an emotional value, happiness is the end. As such, an intrinsic value is a belief that leads a person into making a judgment about a situation.
While an instrumental value is easy to define and easy to identify, an intrinsic value is tricky in most cases. The notion that an intrinsic value is not explainable apart from agreeing that it is a value itself makes it difficult to define and identify.
Contrary to this, an instrumental value is simply an indirect or direct means via which intrinsic value can be observed. This is because an instrumental value is simply a means to the end and the intrinsic value is the end.
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Instrumental variable is used in estimating casual relationships when a treatment is not delivered to all units successfully or a controlled experiment is not feasible in a randomized experiment in statistics, epidemiology, econometrics and other related disciplines.
Philip G. Wright derived the instrumental variable theory for the first time in a book entitled; The Tariff on Animal and Vegetable Oils. Instrumental variables are traditionally defined as variable Z with a correlation with an independent variable X without a correlation with the error term U in an equation.
The equation is as follows:
Y= βX +U
However, this definition has concept ambiguities that include independent variable and error term. This has caused confusion regarding the meaning that this equation has and it has been labeled as “regression” wrongly.
The method of instrumental variable allows for consistent estimation in the experiments with correlated explanatory variables with error terms of regression relationships. This correlation can occur when one of the explanatory variables is caused by a dependent variable, when the explanatory variables are subjected to measurement errors or when relevant covariates or explanatory variables are omitted in the model.
In any of these situations, inconsistent and biased estimates are generally produced by linear regression. Nevertheless, if there is an instrument variable, it is still possible to obtain consistent estimates. An instrument variable refers to a variable that is not part of the explanatory equation. It is correlated to endogenous covariates that are condition to the other explanatory variables.
In a linear model, using instrumental variable has two major requirements. First, the instrument has to be correlated to the endogenous covariates that are conditional to other explanatory variables. Second, the instrument should not be correlated to the error term in covariates equation. This implies that the instrument should not suffer from a similar problem with an original, predicting variable.
The method of instrumental variable has been used in estimating policy variable of the effects of a treatment in an experimental design that is not feasible and it has been successful. Estimating the casual impacts has several difficulties. Even randomized experiments are not perfect in some parts because researchers can seldom, if possible, perform true experiments.
Instrumental variable analysis is one of the most compelling quasi-experimental methods that are used in estimating impacts since the assumptions required to provide justification for the instrumental method are more plausible that the ones required in justifying other experimental methods.
Researchers have proposed the instrumental variable method as one of the potential approaches in solving common problems of the uncontrolled confounding in the comparative studies in medical interventions. Over the years, several reviews have been done on the instrumental variable methods in biomedical and statistical literature at different technical levels and substantive emphases have been made. However, many researchers are still unfamiliar with instrumental variable and its application.
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Instrumental variable method has been used in estimating casual relationships in epidemiology, econometrics and statistics among other disciplines. However, you must conduct an extensive study to write a quality essay about this method. Nevertheless, you can order this essay with veteran writers at Essays Experts.
US Electoral College
The US Electoral College is the highly presumed institution that legitimately elects the president and the vice president of the United States. It is a process that is established in the United States constitution. An Electoral College is made up of 538 electors who take part in the elections. Electors are the chosen and authorized constitutional participants who foresee the success of an election and are chosen by a popular vote on a state-to-state strategy. Hence, U.S president and the vice president are not directly elected by the voters, but Citizens vote for the electors who pick the best candidate.
There is a deep-rooted history on the U.S Electoral College. The year 1787 changed the face and history of America. It was an era when a group of national leaders drafted the U.S constitution whilst another group decided that the average citizen should not elect a president without a system to link the process – the Electoral College. At the time, many politicians believed that the most popular candidate was likely to win the election and this was a uncontrolled strategy that favors certain areas.
The Electoral College process worked effectively until 1800 when there was a tied election outcome between Arron Burr and Thomas Jefferson. But electors from both parties were selected to elect the best candidate. This outcome also resulted to 12th amendment of the Unites States constitution which clarified more on the electoral voting process. Today, each state has to present a number of electors’ equivalent to the number of senators and its representatives.
Despite being the most effective election process in United States, the Electoral College has been faced by a number of critics and proposals. Unfortunately, most of the debaters have been trying to abolish the Electoral College. Those against the U.S Electoral College and preferred a direct popular vote of the president cite issues such as;
- The possibility of having “faithless” electors.
- Risk of electing a minority president who has fewer numbers of votes.
- Failure to of the electors to reflect the national popular voter will and
- Possibility of the Electoral College in disappointing voter turnout.
Supporters of the U.S Electoral College have normally stood to defend it on its logical ground asserting that;
- It brings out the consistency of the nation by ensuring distribution of the popular support to rightfully elected president.
- It also boosts the status of minority interests
- The process also maintains a federal way of government and exceptional representation
- It also contributes to the political stability of the nation by boosting a two-party system.
The U.S Electoral College has played great roles over 50 presidential and vice president elections. It has also been in the forefront to pledging peaceful presidential elections that meet and gratify the needs of the people. The Electoral College has stood as an essential piece of American Federalist democracy for many years and millions Americans treasure it to date. Hence, due to its transparency and consistence in the election process, no one should have any qualms voting for his or her desired candidate.
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Illinois Pension Crisis
Illinois is one of the great states in United States. It is the 5th most densely inhabited state with an extensive and diverse economic base. The dollar gross state product for Illinois by 2010 was estimated to be US$652 billion while the state’s taxpayer burden in 2011 approximately hit US$38,500 mark per taxpayer. On top of this, unemployment rate in the state was estimated at 11.5% as of March 2010 and it has been decreasing with time. Currently, Illinois is going through the worst pension crisis in history. The recent passage of the breakthrough Illinois pension bill implies that the long fight over how to address the massive pension crisis will shift to courts.
There has been a lot of hullabaloo on whether the Illinois pension issue is a crisis that demands nation attention or not. Many leaders within the state have controverted their statements many times on the issue. The pension crises that have been facing Illinois have not only impacted state operations, but also have threatened education, public safety, social services and any other area of the public interest. Like many other states in Unites States, the ratio of workers to pensioners has been declining on daily basis.
With many public servants anticipating for retirement security, there have been differences on whether to abide to the Illinois pension systems. If proper reforms are not decreed, many retirees will lose or have their pensions deducted. These taxpayers will be pushed into huge bailout and the youngsters in such for better jobs might not pension at all. With a bill being tabled by the Illinois senate, it is wise to keep a number of things about the Illinois pension crisis in mind. They include;
- The Illinois pension crisis is a vast burden to the taxpayers as they are on the nail for more than $203 billion in local pension and state deficit. This means that, every household has a deficit of $42,000.
- The structure of the Illinois pension system can be blamed for the catastrophes. Most of the residents unfunded liabilities are due disaster of defined benefit plans.
- More than 63% of current Illinois state pensioners retired before the age of 60 years, a decade before those in the private sector.
- The current pension bill will not save the day and common citizens as it will do more harm than the anticipated benefits. This is because the bill will only reduce Illinois pension deficit to 2011 levels. The bill also lets state workers to retire in their late 50s and enjoy full benefits that come with their retirement package. On top of this, the pension bill also reduces state work contributions, placing larger burden on the taxpayers.
- The average Illinois state retiree contributes only 6% of what they will receive in his or her pension payouts. This means that, many workers contribute less and expect to earn more when their retirement benefits are due.
Illinois is facing the worst pension crisis in United States. Pension reform bills have been passed, but many have been a step backward for the state. For Illinois to overcome this pension crisis, real reforms that will move the state away from defined benefits and in relation to worker-controlled retirements need to be ratified and save the state from indebtedness.
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