PROMOTION OF THE GREEN CULTURE WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS
Promotion of the Green Culture within Organizations
Today, the world is characterized by greening culture that has become integrated into the core aspect of society in order to avert climate change effects as well as promote sustainable protection of the environment. There has been formation and implementation of a myriad of rules, regulations and laws at organizational and government level aimed at enhancing environmental sustainability. A large percentage of organizations have implemented effective measures for these rules and laws. However, implementation of the rules and laws is not sufficient to enhance environmental sustainability. This is due to technical fixes which cannot be considered sufficient for green change in employees and management (Harris and Crane 2000, 215).
Instillation of behavioral change related to green culture is not easy doe to a myriad of barriers and challenges to changing perceptions present for employees and managers. Literature dictates lack of motivation in pursuing a given objective or goal is can be an impediment that is quite serious in generation of the desired results that an objective or goals aims to achieve. This analogy can be evidenced by the comments of manager regarding choice between organizational success and objectives. Majority believed the core principle of their companies is enhancement of revenues and profitability, while environmental sustainability takes second place (Harris and Crane 2000, 220). Additionally, , they believe consideration of the necessity for green culture can be done effectively it comes with economic benefits that are substantial with their social responsibility to society deemed as irrelevant in business environment (Harris and Crane 2000, 220).
There are numerous risks linked with organizations that conform to green culture. Top on the list is resistance to change by not only employees but the management which results in the contravention of the company’s effectiveness and productivity. Forcing laws, requirements and rules for organizational change on the basis of green culture model is deemed unfair or cumbersome for purposes of implementation. As such, this means there will arise dissociations and conflicts which lead to poor management of customers, employees and resources which ultimately as great effects on the organization.
The organization is also at risk of economic and competition sabotage. Competitors who have adopted green culture can have their products considered as environment friendly which in turn drives sales upwards. This can result in products of other companies suffering from reduced sales and subsequent revenues. Lack of adherence to green culture can also force revenues and sales as a result of societal and consumer perceptions that a company is not taking its social responsibility seriously. This can paint a company as selfish and operating to achieve its needs only without taking into consideration the serious environmental effects it causes as a result of its operations.
Additionally, lack of adhering to environmental sustainability can also result to hefty fines, taxes and levies on the company due to flouting environmental safety rules, standards and laws. The charges serve the purpose of increasing company expenses and reducing profitability. Managers have also adapted and reiterated that green culture has to a great extent, affected their decision making within organizations. This means some decisions in conflict with green culture have experience delays or rejection in passage or implementation. As such, this negatively affects the performance of the company. However, some managers believe green culture effect on decision making has its overall positive effect on the agenda of a company (Harris and Crane 2000, 221). This has resulted in employees having social moral and responsibility, which in turn drives their output as they believe their work will have a positive effect on the community.
Harris, C. L. and Crane, A., 2000. The greening of organizational culture: management views on the depth, degree, and diffusion of change. Journal of organization change management. 15(3), 214-234.
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The Invasion of Canada in 1775
The invasion of Canada in 1775 saw the newly created Continental Army of the United States launch their first military action in the American Revolutionary War. It also marked the first major defeat of the Americans in the Revolutionary War. The invasion led by Colonel Benedict Arnold and General Richard Montgomery, was staged in the city of Quebec with the aim of protecting Canadians from British rule. Americans also hoped to persuade Canadians to join their campaign in revolting against England.
Events leading to the Invasion of Canada in 1775
After the forces led by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen captured Fort Ticonderoga in the spring of 1775, Americans got wind that a British Army was being created in Canada under the command of Sir Guy Carleton. Owing to the American resistance of British rule, they thought that by invading Canada, a rebellion would be triggered. Through the invasions, they hoped British plans for war with rebellious colonies would be disrupted.
With the approval of the Congress, George Washington authorized the attack on Canada in 1775 under General Philip Schuyler. The offensive was to be led by Richard Montgomery, advancing with troops from Ticonderoga.
How the 1775 American Invasion of Canada Occurred
Also known as the Battle of Quebec or Canadian Campaign, the invasion of Canada in 1775 started late August when Gen. Schuyler led American troops up Lake Champlain and captured St. Johns. However, the battle impacted ill health on the General, forcing him to wait for Montgomery’s forces before making further advancement.
Montgomery and Arnold finally met and joined their troops in early December 1775, outside Quebec City demanding the city to surrender. However, their demands were rejected by the then governor of the province of Quebec, General Guy Carleton.
With the looming expiry of the enlistment of American troops, they continued the march towards Quebec under snowfall cover in the wee hours of December 31. As the troops approached and surrounded the city, the British were ready and fire erupted between the two forces.
Montgomery was unable to make it through the first assault, and after several unfruitful attempts to penetrate through the British defenses, his troops were turned back.
At the time of Montgomery’s defeat, Arnold and his men were also taking heavy fire on the northern wall, forcing them to retreat. Apart from losing several troops, Arnold also got wounded on the leg. His role was taken up by Patriot Daniel Morgan who continued the assault but got held back at the second wall in wait for reinforcement. As Arnold’s men arrived, the British had reorganized and the Patriots were forced to discontinue the invasion.
Arnold and his men had to stay fortified outside the city amidst raging cold and lack of supplies. Thanks to their counterparts, reinforcements arrived in spring but there were no further orders to proceed with the invasion.
Instead, the American troops moved back to Montreal to team up with other forces, from where they all marched to Crown Point for safety. During this time, British forces and Carleton were still in pursuit. However, they later decided to return to Montreal after failing to capture the Americans who survived the battle.
Results and Significance of the Invasion of Canada in 1775
The greatest impact of the invasion of Canada in 1775 was on the Americans, considering their defeat. Of the about 1,200 American soldiers who took part in the war, more than 400 were taken into captivity, suffered wounds or died. Apart from losing a number of men, American troops also lost one of their Generals, Montgomery. Colonel Arnold left the battle filed with a broken leg while Morgan was captured.
Casualties on the side of the British were low
Canadians did not stage an uprising against the British as expected by the Americans. Canada remained as a British colony.
Americans had not planned well for the invasion of Quebec and this was clearly shown in their defeat. Besides, they had not properly analyzed the information about anti-British sentiments in Canada.
However, the actions of Arnold and his men while retreating to Montreal on Lake Champlain bore great impact by holding back the British Army from staging a counter-attack until 1777.
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After the conclusion of Samnite War , Pyrrhic war began when all of central Italy was put under Roman control. Roman territories were brought closer to Magna Graecia cities in Northern Italy, bringing about conflicting interests and subsequent fights.
An overview of Pyrrhic War
The pyrrhic war began shortly after the end of Samite wars with the Lucians and Brattain’s fighting in the early 3rd century BC. The continued attacks on Greek colonies did not deter them from appealing to Roman regional power for assistance. At that moment, the City of Magna Graecia, Tarentum was the most powerful.
The city of Magna Graecia and Tarentum signed a treaty with Rome clearly stating that it would not send any of her troops into the Gulf of Taranto. This situation led conflicts between Rome and Tarentum because the former started interfering with the affairs of Greek colonies in Southern Italy.
Soon, other states in Magna Graecia including Croton, Locris and Rhegum asked for Rome’s support in their struggles with their neighbors. Rome sent a troop to garrison town of Thurri in 282 BC since it had been attacked by Lucania. Tarentum saw this as a hostile act and responded by sinking the fleet and expelling roman troops from Thurii.
The city and states of Magna Graecia had sought help from mercenary kings during their struggles but now, Tarentum sought assistance from King Pyrrhus of Epirus, on the Greek Peninsula across the Adriatic Sea from southern Italy. Pyrrhus landed in Italy with 25, 000 men and twenty war elephants in 280 BC. His first move against the Romans took place at Heraclea, small coastal town.
Pyrrhic War first and second engagement
The first engagement of the war took place at Heraclea, a small coastal town. The romans had 50,000 thousand troops who drove to the Lucanian territory to prevent them from aligning with Pyrrhus. Romans technically lost at the battle at the small coastal town, Heraclea and Pyrrhus lost a large number of troops. The pattern became quite common during the fight between Pyrrhus and Romans. Despite winning main engagements, Pyrrhus could no longer keep up with the war without support.
After marching to northern parts of Latium, Pyrrhus was not happy with the domination of Romans. He hoped that many cities would join his cause. He misjudged the situation because Roman military alliances were more stable. Roman rule was evident as many states enjoyed roman protection. Leaders of the states also enjoyed their positions under the leadership of the romans. However, only a few Lucanians and Samnite’s sided with Pyrrhus.
This led to the second engagement took place at the battle of Ausculum. It took two days with massive fights between ancient armies. The Romans were led by Publious Dentius Mus and used the terrain of the area to their advantage thus, reducing the effect of the elephants and Epirote Calvary. The first day was a virtual draw and the second day of the fight was a stalemate. At the end of the battle, more than 6000 Romans and 3, 5OO Epirotes died. Pyrrhus was left in the command of the field. It was the results of this fight that was considered the Pyrrhic victory.
Pyrrhus upon receiving the congratulatory message said ‘’ that one other such victory, would utterly undo him’’. He acknowledged the costly victories and thought of signing peace treaties to Rome with no success and he remained in Italy. Appius Claudius who built the Appian Way refused the negotiations calling for the freedom of Tarentum and her allies.
Pyrrhus went to Sicily in 278 BC, aided the Greek city against Carthage and became quite victorious. Rome formed alliances with Carthage against Pyrrhus and later on, Rome’s interest became conflicts. Pyrrhus in 275 BC went back to Italy, faced the romans in Southern Italy, town of Malventum and was defeated. With the victory of him, Pyrrhus left Italy for good and went to Green mainland.
Results of the war
Pyrrhus lost in the war, more than a third of his army died in the fight and there was little to show for his efforts. Two years later, he died in a street battle in Argos.
Tarentum which was the third significant Greek city in the state of Italy finally accepted to sign an alliance with Rome in 272 BC. Rome became the mistress of the entire southern and central Italy.
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Company Profile: SWOT analysis of Best Buy
Best Buy is an American with its stocks trading on the New York Stock Exchange. It specializes in consumer electronics, accounting for about 20% of America’s domestic market in technology-based products. Best Buy has 24 stores across the United States. Besides its presence in America, it also operates in the United Kingdom, Mexico and Turkey. By the year 2010, Best Buy and its subsidiaries had more than 1,050 stores in local markets. Today, Best Buy is position 45, according to Fortune’s top 1000 companies. What are the factors that keep Best Buy outshining its competitors in the market? What are its weaknesses and opportunities? Read this SWOT analysis of Best Buy to find out more.
Strengths: SWOT analysis of Best Buy
Best Buy enjoys dominating the market in retailing electronic products in America. For example, it is the leading retailer of electronic goods in the USA, accounting for about 20% of the market. As a result, the company has a unique market position, which favors its business operations, making it position 45 on global ranking.
Another reason why Best Buy excels is its enhanced presence across the United States, with outlets all over. With its strong network, Best Buy is able to maintain its economies of scale and strengthen its brand image. This network allows the company to reach more customers and penetrate the market effectively.
Best Buy has good practices in terms of growth, profitability and community involvement. This gives it a higher customer satisfaction index as compared to other players in the industry.
SWOT analysis of Best Buy further shows that it manages several stores in America, as a joint venture with various warehouses. This relationship helps consumer to buy and use its products with a lot of ease.
Weaknesses of Best Buy
Besides dominating the market in retailing electronic products and making good profits over the years, Best Buy has a range of weaknesses. Its main weakness is over dependence on a few suppliers. By the end of 2007, Best Buy maintained only 25 suppliers, who accounted for the company’s 60% of purchases.
Additionally, Best Buy does not maintain strong ties its suppliers. It does not favor long-term contracts. This approach exposes the Best Buy to risks of shortages especially in the event one of the suppliers turns its back on them.
Another weakness is the endless lawsuits against its operations. In one of the suits, Best Buy was accused of charging higher prices more than what is advertised. In 2000, Best Buy was also charged for concealing warrantees of products with the aim of selling their labeled merchandise. Lastly, its overdependence on the US domestic market could affect sales with low economic growth.
Opportunities: SWOT Analysis of Best Buy
From this SWOT Analysis of Best Buy, it is clear that the company has a bright future with a range of opportunities to expand and diversify its operations. First, Best Buy can make major acquisitions. From its recent acquisitions, the company was able to increase its customer base and strengthen brand image in the market. Such will allow Best Buy to enter new market and develop new products under the same brand name and increase sales.
Secondly, Best Buy plans to expand its business in other countries. By expanding its operations geographically, this will guarantee the company more opportunities and a higher market share.
Threats of Best Buy Inc
The first threat is cutthroat competition from three main players, Amazon, Apple and Wal-Mart. The competition is stiff as the leading giants increase inventory of products related to electronics. In addition, these retailers offer installation services and focus on increasing their market penetration. With increasing competition, this many exert pressure on the company’s margins and harm its operating results.
Another threat is the increase in prices of rental equipment in America. If this trend escalates, it may increase Best Buy’s operating cost, which is likely to affect its profitability. The company also faces a risk of low sales because of low desire for Americans to make purchases. This SWOT analysis of Best Buy has explained the business environment, which favors and threatens the company’s optimal operations.
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Sympatric speciation refers to a process by which evolution of new species from one ancestral species occur while inhabiting a similar geographic region. In biogeography and evolutionary biology, sympatry and sympatric are the terms that are used in reference to organisms that have overlapping ranges or ones that are identical making them to occur together even once in certain species.
If the organisms are related closely for instance, sister species, the distribution might be due to sympatric speciation. In etymological terms, sympatry comes from the Greek word together with and fatherland or homeland. Poulton invented the term in 1904 and he explains his derivation.
Sympatric speciation refers to one of the three traditional and geographic categories of speciation phenomenon. Allopatric speciation refers to evolution of the populations that are isolated geographically into different species. As such, absence of the glow of genes facilitates divergence which tends to maintain similarity in the genetic of the populations.
Parapatric speciation refers to evolution of the populations that are geographically adjacent into different species. In such cases, divergence takes place despite the limited interbreeding in which contact is established between the diverging groups. No geographic constraint hinders interbreeding in sympatric speciation. These are special cases categories of the continuum from sympatric or zero to allopatric or complete spatial segregation of the diverging groups.
In the eukaryotic multi-cellular organisms, sympatric speciation is usually thought of as an uncommon though plausible process where genetic divergence via reproductive isolation of different populations from one parent species inhabiting a similar geographic location leads to the creation of another species.
However, in bacteria analogous process can be more common. This is because bacterial are not constrained by homogenizing effects that sexual reproduction has as well as prone to the comparatively rapid and dramatic genetic change via horizontal gene transfer. Analogous process in bacteria is defined as origin of the new species of bacteria that occupy the definable ecological niches.
In simple terms, sympatric speciation can occur in different instances including when individuals of different species reproduces forming an offspring that is viable such as extra chromosomes coming from different species due to allopolyploid. It can also occur when extra set of the chromosomes in polyploidy comes from the individual due to failure by the gamete to undergo cytokinesis upon the completion of meiosis.
Sympatric speciation may also occur when an individual develops abnormal chromosomes’ number with fewer or extra chromosomes. A species can have an abnormal chromosomes’ number and then interbreed with another member of a population with similar abnormal chromosomes number resulting in the development of a different species.
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How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis of a Speech
Having the right guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech helps you to carry out your analysis efficiently. Note that a rhetorical analysis essay is a paper that deeply explores the goals of an author, tools or techniques used, give examples of those techniques and states their effectiveness.
Therefore, when writing your essay, you are not stating whether you agree or disagree with the argument. You are making an in-depth analysis and discussion of how the rhetorician makes that claim and whether the approach he or she employs is successful.
How to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech critically
There are a number of things you should focus on to help you understand how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. It includes the tasks you should carry out when writing your essay. The tasks include
- Determining how rhetoric operates in a speech or text
- To explore deeply how a specific analysis unit operates to achieve the purpose of the speech
- To take a close reading of one key statement or passage
- To answer an important research question about the function and nature of the rhetoric
Being a research question, your rhetorical analysis should therefore focus on finding out more about rhetoric by studying the speech. The research question will therefore, guide your text analysis. For this reason, you should write an essay that contributes to your understanding of how a rhetorical analysis processes work and your understanding of the speech itself.
Therefore, to carry out effective rhetorical analysis of a speech, it is wise that you choose one unit of analysis. It is always your responsibility to choose a unit that reveals the most about the rhetoric speech you are analyzing. The units include
- Logos- appeals to the audience’s logic and reason
- pathos –appeals to the emotions of target audience
- ethos-this includes techniques that make target audience believe that what is said is because of their trust towards the nature of the rhetor revealed in the speech
- metaphors and other comparison modes including similes and analogies
- Tone including sarcasm, academic, irony and sentimental tone and
- Types of evidence used by the speaker and their effect
Procedure on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
Writing a rhetorical analysis is a process and you have to focus on the research question to have a better understanding of what you are expected to do. As a result, it is essential that before you read the speech, go through the research question and have an idea of what to write about in mind
- Find anything that is rhetorical in the text or something that puzzles you
- Take a close look into all units of rhetorical analysis in mind
- Read the speech carefully, note the appeals and illustrate them clearly
- Go through the speech again and list down all metaphors used by the speaker
- Categorize the metaphors depending on what the speaker compares them to
With a list and categories of metaphors in mind, explain them to your readers because they will simply ask the question, so what?
The next rhetorical analysis step to carry out is to discover the effect that the unit of analysis you have chosen has on the meaning. Talk about the effect of the whole speech and how it helps you to address your research question.
Structure of how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
The structure of a rhetorical analysis of a speech should follow the right structure and use specific headings. Each section should be written in a coherent manner to unify the essay. Most importantly, write each section and state its purpose but do not evaluate the speech in the analysis sections. The sections or parts of your analysis should include an
Introduce the author and text or speech you are analyzing
Explain a rhetoric situation and focus on original audience, occasion, context and where the speech was delivered in the first place
State your rhetorical analysis question
Summary of speech
Write a brief summary of the text and explicitly state the purpose of the speaker
Write down the thesis and major points of the speech (always use the terms, thesis, texts purpose and major points in your writing.
The purpose of writing a summary is to help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech and give a sense of rhetor’s points. Your summary doesn’t give audience a complete list of all minor points and examples. In this case, it is imperative that you are specific in your writing.
For instance, instead of saying, he comments on the global situation, it is good to say, he denounces enemies of freedom and applauds new democracies.
This is a major part of a rhetorical analysis and it has two sub-sections
- Unit of analysis- choose and define the unit of analysis you will employ and briefly explain why you settled for it. Go an extra mile to demonstrate that you have a command of the concept to efficiently write your rhetorical analysis. It is also imperative to give quotations as evidence to support your thesis.
- Close reading- this is a skill that a person who knows how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech has mastered. You therefore need to choose one important or key passage in the speech and quote it in full. Re-read it and give it a proverbial fine tooth comb.
-remember to evaluate all appeals including pathos, ethos, logos, stylistic techniques and appeals to the needs of audience as well as values. It is essential to organize this part of your analysis based on the manner in which the speech sentences appear.
Insight into rhetoric
Give an explanation of the speech and explain what it reveals to you about the rhetoric. Here, you need to answer the research question efficiently. How did you analysis support or prove your argument? What is next diachronic or synchronic significance of the speech?
In this section, respond to the text and implications expression your point of view on issues that the speech raises. This enables you to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech that is thoroughly explains your argument. Explain your thoughts about the author’s argument, did it work, give reasons why or not. What is the significance of the text to your work and in your intellectual life?
Analytical techniques to use when writing a rhetorical analysis of a speech
There are different techniques that will help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. They include
Use of a rhetorical canon of invention to develop your ideas- this focuses on a rhetorical situation that a rhetor faced
Use tenor and vehicle rhetorical terms if you find similes and metaphors in the speech
Image analysis is also another technique that helps you to focus the elements of a vehicle and choose the best that matches your speech.
Additional tips to writing your rhetorical analysis of a speech
- Learn to advance your argument by stating your thesis clearly and supporting
- Always make an original argument and reflect on your unique perception of the speech
- Focus on what the speaker said and how he or she said it
- Always choose the most relevant and significant appeal that matches your reading of the speech. It helps you to write an effective rhetorical analysis, make an original argument and write a very compelling thesis
- Read, edit and proofread your paper to eliminate possible errors
Examples of rhetorical analysis of a speech
I Have a Dream- Martin Luther King
I have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, has a simple context. The author, Martin Luther King, is known for his great work in Civil Rights in the 1960’s. the purpose of his speech is to instill or inspire change in both black and white citizens of the United States of America during the Civil Rights era………………………………………………………………..
Borrow more ideas on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech from this essay analysis.
Fight them on the Beaches: Churchill
I myself have full confidence that if all carry out their duty, if nothing is neglected, and is the best preparations are made, as they are being made, we shall prove ourselves once again more than able to defend our island home, to ride out the storm of war and to outlive the menace of tyranny for years. If necessary, alone, at any rate, that is what we are going to try to do…………………………………………………………………
This is a sample of a rhetorical analysis of a speech. Visit the link and see how the author highlights different parts of the speech and use of appeals therein.
Bush 911 Bullhorn Speech
Thank you all. I want you all to know, it that bullhorn can’t go any louder. I want you to all to know that American today, America today is on bended knee, in prayer for the people whose lives were lost here, for the workers who work here and for the families who mourn. The nation stands with the good people of New York City, and New Jersey and Connecticut, as we mourn the loss of thousands of our citizens………………………..
This is a rhetoric analysis of the Bush Bullhorn speech. Read it and learn more on how to do write your analysis.
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Also referred to as argument from design or design argument, teleological argument is an argument that tries to explain the existence of the deity or God based on the perceived evidence of deliberate design in the physical or natural world. The name teleological argument is borrowed from the Greek word, telos that means ‘end’ or purpose. This according to the argument tries to point out that the world is being ordered, meaning that it is ordered towards a certain end or purpose.
This argument suggests that the universe is the way it is because it was created by an intelligent being in order to accomplish that purpose than it is to suppose that it is this way by chance. The use of the teleological argument can be traced back to the times of St Thomas Aquinas. He used the argument as one of his Five Ways of knowing the existence of God. However, the most cited statement of the argument is that of William Paley who likened the universe to a watch, with many ordered parts that work harmoniously to further a certain purpose. In the same way that a watch’s intelligent design can be implied by its order, complexity and purpose, he suggested that it so occurs to the universe.
Today, teleological arguments have been described as quite different to that constructed by William Paley. The reason for this is because, as Paley was particularly impressed by the appearance of design in biological systems like the eye or animals, the teleological arguments that we have today often refer to physics for evidence of design. Modern teleological arguments tend to emphasize on the fact that the universe is exactly as should be or ‘fine-tuned’ to support life.
Apart from just demonstrating the existence of God, teleological argument also exposes shortcomings in the evolution theory. This gives an advantage to modern design arguments over Paley’s in that they are less vulnerable to attacks based on the theory of evolution. It objects the argument by Paley that evolution can explain the appearance of biological design that involves, evolutionary processes, however, do not apply to the laws of nature.
Over the years, there have been several criticisms of the different versions of teleological argument. Of great concern are the general logical arguments made by David Hume in publication of 1779 titled, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, and also the explanation of biological complexity given by Charles Darwin in his Origins of Species publication of 1859. Today, the teleological argument is crucial to the creationist religious concepts of intelligent design and creation science, which are presented with the allegation that they are alternative explanations in opposition to the evolution theory.
The teleological argument operates on the assumption that one can infer the existence of intelligent design through mere examination, and since life is reminiscent of something a human might design, it too must have been designed. However, the design claim can be challenged as an argument from analogy.
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Intrinsic Value Vs instrumental Value
Intrinsic value and Instrumental value have been a case of seemingly contrasting ideas in ethics, since philosophers began debating the subject of philosophy. Instrumental values are those values that are merely meant to achieve an ethical decision. Intrinsic on the other hand, are values that are understood as human nature. The two make up the philosophic argument of whether or not a particular value refers to means-to-an-end, or an end itself.
When making comparison between intrinsic value and instrumental value, it is important to note that intrinsic value simply refers to something worthwhile not because it leads to something else, but due to its own sake alone. This can be simply expressed as Good-in-itself. Instrumental value on the other hand, is something considered as a means to some other good, i.e. it a lead to something else that is good. For instance, money can be termed as instrumental good since it can lead to pleasure.
In terms of instrumental value, every idea or concept is an action that leads to value. For instance, reading is an action and it leads to the value of happiness. The next question would be where happiness leads or is it a value that is good in itself. The debate over that is from the belief that on one hand, happiness could be an instrument to make us feel content. However, to some, it simply could just be the end. Thus, it can be said that the classification of certain values as either intrinsic or instrumental vary.
Instrumental values can be direct and indirect means of observing intrinsic values. This is plausible suggestion since instrumental values are basically a means to an end while intrinsic values are the end. Thus, it can be said that the two can as well fit in together. An example would b of a man being happy while spending the day with his family. Spending time with family is the instrumental value that leads to the intrinsic value of being happy. The fact that the two fit well together calls to question whether or not there is an agreement between the two values at all.
Instrumental value is quite easier to spot and define. However, an intrinsic value can be very challenging. The idea that an intrinsic value is something that a person cannot explain why it is a value, apart from merely being a value, is an issue of debate. It is hard to explain or even accept that something can be good in and of itself, and that there is no any other reason for its good. However, if people only consider their core beliefs as intrinsic and everything else as instrumental, intrinsic values begin to clear up.
While the two ideas appear to be in contrast, they fit together almost quite well and can be termed as mutually exclusive. From their arguments, it can be concluded that instrumental values can lead to intrinsic values.
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How to Write an Analysis Paragraph
Knowing how to write an analysis paragraph makes writing analytical essays easier. An analysis paragraph is a paragraph that responds to analytical issues. A good analysis paragraph should support the claim or thesis statement that is presented at the end of an introductory paragraph of an analysis essay. It does this by providing evidence, which can be a quote, and explaining how the work and literary features enhance the impact or contribute to the success of the work as a whole piece.
Why you need to know how to write an analysis paragraph
Analysis paragraphs are at the core of research papers, history essays and other writing assignments that require you to demonstrate your ability to think critically and tell others what you are thinking about. Usually, most students are taught how to construct analysis paragraphs in junior high as well as high school. However, knowing how to construct them and practicing their construction will greatly help you in college and university. Any well-paying job requires the employee to process information in an analytical manner.
Additionally, logic requires that ideas and their supporting evidence be conveyed in an analytical manner to convince readers. It is analytical paragraphs that make this presentation possible especially in research papers. Therefore, to write good research papers and other documents, you must know how analysis paragraphs should be written.
A step by step guide on how to write an analysis paragraph
Step 1: Develop a topic sentence for your analysis paragraph
This is a sentence that tells your readers what the paragraph that you are writing is about. It states the main idea of the analysis paragraph. This sentence should be the first one in your analysis paragraph. It should also connect to your thesis statement. Make sure that your topic sentence is not a mere statement of facts but a statement that other reasonable people can argue against or for. The topic sentence should also present an idea that you are passionate about and something that has a crucial meaning to you. Tell readers about something that you are confident that it deserves your expression through this sentence and make it concise.
“The feeling of Mama is that the complications that she and Walter are facing are due to their differences but their differences are in fact caused by their common desire for pride.”
Step 2: Establish context and introduce evidence
The topic sentence should be followed by background information, explanation of the setting, the condition, motivations and characters. These are important because they orient readers to the analysis. Providing evidence after a topic sentence helps in supporting the stated main point in the topic sentence and creating context of the analysis. Some people think that examples or quotes that they use in supporting their thinking speak enough in an analysis. However, this is not true. Although you are thinking, your readers do not know what you are thinking about.
Therefore, your analysis paragraph should:
- Provide a context for the readers before presenting evidence. This should show who the example or quote involves, what is generally happening and when or where it is happening.
- Include details that you consider necessary in establishing a smooth flow of information and ideas in the analysis paragraph.
Step 3: Provide support or examples
After introducing your evidence, you should support it with examples. Choose the examples or support to include in your analysis paragraph wisely. For instance, you can choose a quote that expands on your topic sentence or the main point of the analysis paragraph while allowing for analysis or elaboration. Thus, you should pick a quote that you have something to say about. Additionally, avoid a quote that is simply a repetition of what you have already said or too complex to use in supporting your idea.
Step 4: Write the analysis
This is perhaps, the most important step of a guide on how to write an analysis paragraph. Here, you bring your ideas into play. This part is very important because it is where you express your thoughts and show how the quote or example that you have selected supports the main point that you expressed through the topic sentence.
While writing your analysis:
- Analyze the quote in a clear manner explaining the visible connection between the quote and the main point of the paragraph as expressed in the topic sentence. Do not assume that readers can see the connection.
“The belief of Mama is that due to changes in times, Walter can no longer understand the challenges and difficulties endured by his parents in ensuring that their children have a good life. Consequently, the pride his father and mother had for their family no longer exists.
- Avoid simply restating the quote or using phrases like, “this quote indicates that” or “this quote proves that.”
The analysis section should be the largest in your analysis paragraph trying to prove or support your main point as stated in the topic sentence. It should include a detailed illustration and irrefutable facts with an aim of persuading the audience.
Step 5: Write a profound transitional or concluding sentence
This is the final sentence of your analysis paragraph. It should create a good impression in the readers. Consider your concluding sentence carefully just the way you consider the topic sentence. Make sure that your concluding sentence unveils a specific unseen aspect of the analysis. Avoid a simple restatement of your topic sentence and instead, take a unique approach.
“Although Walter does not win the liquor store, they resolve their differences in the end. They reach an understanding that gives each tremendous pride though the pride of each of them takes a different form.
Checklist for a good analysis paragraph
A good analysis paragraph should have four major elements.
- A topic sentence: This is a clear answer or response to a topic statement or topic question.
- Evidence: This is one or two citations or quotations that support the answer that is presented through the topic sentence.
- Analysis: This comprises of between two to four sentences that explain the topic sentence and the evidence in relation to the stated topic question.
- Concluding sentence: This states the conclusion or the vital thing that is learnt or what comes out clearly in regards to the topic question.
In a properly organized analysis paragraph, these elements work together in creating a unified and coherent piece.
Bonus tips on how to write an analysis paragraph that serves its purpose effectively
While writing an analysis paragraph, think about it as a mini-essay whose aim is to prove a particular aspect of the thesis statement of your overall essay.
- Make sure that your analysis paragraph makes a debatable claim through the topic sentence.
- Provide a proof for the claim and show how the claim is supported by the evidence through your analysis.
- Conclude your analysis paragraph with an effective transition to give your argument a logical flow.
Example of an analysis paragraph
To understand how to write an analysis paragraph better, take a closer look at a well written analysis paragraph.
Here is such an analysis paragraph:
“Alexander the Great became a successful ruler for creating long lasting impacts on cultures which continue up to this day. The creation of the Hellenistic Society is a good example of the legacy of this ruler. Hellenistic society combined the Greek, Egyptian and Persian cultures. During the remarkable time of this society, members of the society were encouraged to develop different arts and pursue education formally. New art designs, science and math that impact on the modern society emerged that time. Were it not for the success of the new culture introduced at the time of Alexander the Great, his legacy would not be as groundbreaking and memorable as it is. By merging cultures and conquering several countries, this ruler has been credited for many achievements throughout history.”
This sample of an analysis paragraph starts with a clear topic sentence, main point or thesis. It identifies the thesis or main point of the paragraph. The second sentence introduces the example by using a specific detail in history, “the Hellenistic society.” This sentence also uses the transition, “a good example” to enhance the logical flow of information. This is followed by the analysis of the main point and the provided example. Part of this analysis is the definition of the Hellenistic society and the explanation of the historical information or detail that follows.
The writer ends the analysis with the explanation of what makes the stated example or evidence important. The writer makes a clear connection of the example or evidence to the argument of the analysis paragraph. Finally, the author concludes the analysis paragraph with a sentence that sums up the thesis or main point of the analysis paragraph. The sentence reminds readers what the thesis statement or main point of the paragraph was and the example that has been used in the paragraph.
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Good Ways to Start an Essay
In order to deliver essays that will attract your audience and compel them to read on, you should know good ways to start an essay paper. They way your essay is introduced will determine whether readers will be interested in it or not. The following section will not only show you some of the good ways to start an essay paper but also offer advice on how to choose the right approach to pursue when writing an essay introduction. Besides, you will also be able to find examples illustrating how essay papers should begin.
Essays are academic papers that require proper analysis and evaluation of the topic of discussion before writing. The introduction part of an essay paper is written to inform readers about the topic and motivate them to continue reading. The essay should start on a high note that can capture the attention of the audience. Therefore, it is advisable that you know a couple of good ways to start an essay for success.
Tips on how to choose good ways to start an essay paper
There are various ways through which an essay paper can be introduced. However, it should be noted that academic papers follow a particular writing format that you should always consider. The following are some of the points to also consider when choosing good ways to start an essay paper.
Get information about the topic
Despite the approach that you will pursue in starting the essay, you will need to also provide readers with a precise background information about the subject. This will be used in setting the stage for your thesis statement. Therefore, it is important that you evaluate your points keenly in order to come up with a few points or facts for introducing the paper. The information should be based on outstanding facts about your subject.
Refine your thesis
At the point of picking a strategy for writing the introduction paragraph, you must have decided on the main claim of the paper. But, it is important that you refine it further to ensure that it represents your specific reason for writing the essay.
When refining the thesis, you should also draft a plan that will be used to show readers how the paper is organized. It is recommended that you come up with a unified statement that highlights the main claim and plan of the paper.
Know the type of essay
There are various types of essays that you can be asked to write including analytical, argumentative, persuasive, and expository among others. Each of these essays play a specific role and requires a particular format or style of writing. Therefore, it is advisable that you also consider the kind of essay that you will be writing in order to choose the most appropriate approach for the introduction.
For example, a short story about yourself or anecdote can work quite well for a personal essay introduction unlike an argumentative essay.
Consider your audience
An audience refers to readers or people to whom the essay is addressed. Based on your target readers, you should always start the paper with information that they can read, understand and relate to with ease.
Choosing good ways to start an essay paper
Just as hinted above, there are numerous ways on how to frame the introduction of an essay paper. However, not all may work for you in every paper. The following are some of the good ways to start an essay that you can choose from.
Anecdote or quotation
It many circumstances, it is said that emotions appeal more to readers than plain facts. One of the best ways of evoking emotions in essay writing is starting the paper with a brief story that is memorable and relevant to the topic of discussion.
In case you decide to use an anecdote, always go for a short narrative that is engaging while also creating a clear link to your argument that will be expressed in the paper. You can draw from myths or legends that tend to answer a similar question to your own. For quotes, you should choose those that are outstanding.
Interesting facts about the subject
Another way to start an essay is giving some facts about the topic that are not known to many people. In order to make the introduction compelling, you should identify facts that readers should know but not likely to access. Find something out of the obvious to tell your audience in the introduction, ate least that would compel them to finding out more from the rest of the paper.
The facts presented in the introduction of your essay should be surprising and related to the problem that the paper seeks to address.
Starting an essay paper by highlighting something or a point that you disagree with can be another way of introduction. For instance, you can begin by giving the long-standing belief about an idea, then transition to the different conclusions that your discussion will present. This approach is mainly recommended for argumentative essays.
You can also start an essay paper by posing a question to the readers. Rhetorical questions are often used but you can as well just ask one that deserves an answer. The question should be short and well linked to the topic of discussion.
Generally, an ideal way to start an essay paper should be one that can enable you to easily formulate a brief, topical and compelling introduction.
Writing an essay introduction
Depending on the way that you choose to start your essay, there are other elements of an introduction that you should also keep in mind. In fact, the good ways to start an essay highlighted above should mainly be used as the hook or ‘’attention grabber.’’
Other elements that should also be included in the introduction of your essay include:
- Brief relevant background information about the subject
- Thesis statement
- Plan showing how the essay is organized
All these should be presented in the first paragraph of your essay to portray a typical introduction. However, you should always try to make the paragraph short so your readers can have a quick grasp of what the essay is all about.
A good essay introduction should start in the following order:
- Attention grabber or hook: Among the various ways highlighted above, choose one to use in formulating the opening statements.
- Background information: In order to put the paper into context, you should also give a brief description of the issue or problem that your essay seeks to address. The points given here should reflect general information about the topic.
- Thesis statement: The introduction of an essay paper should also make a clear statement of the specific issue or claim that will be discussed in the body paragraphs and conclusion. The overall point should be coined into one or two sentences long for clarity.
- Plan: Lastly, the introduction paragraph should end with a ‘road map’ to illustrate how you will prove or defend your thesis.
On a final note, the introduction should smoothly lead your readers into the rest of the paper. This implies, you should use a few connecting phrases to enhance cohesion and proper flow of ideas.
Although essay introductions should be short; just one paragraph long, certain longer or complicated essays may require two opening paragraphs.
Examples of Essay Introductions
By reading well written samples of essay introductions, you can also get ideas on how to easily select good ways to start an essay paper on just any subject. Below are some samples to refer to for more on how to introduce an essay.
Sample Introduction for an Essay about Five Important Economic Factors Affecting Banks
‘’How Important is the banking industry?
Since the 17th century, the banking industry has marked its niche as one of the most important financial sectors in any economy. Indeed, a country’s economic prowess can progress or slow down depending on the performance of its banks…’’Read the rest of the introduction here.
Introduction for an Essay on Human Sex Trafficking Around the World
‘’Economic and social imbalances as well as different kinds of conflicts that are as a result of politics have led to migration of people internationally and domestically throughout the globe. Technology mobility, sex tourism and capital has received a boost as a result of globalization…’’ Continue reading the sample introduction on this link.
Introduction for Personal Statement Essay
‘’From the time that I was a child, I have grown an intense desire in the nature around me. I originate from a household of three with revenue of about $30,000. The household chiefly relies on my father who is a businessman. Looking at the exceptional impact he has on my life, I believe this is the motive I picked a desire in economics primarily…’’Click here to read the whole sample introduction.
In case you may need more advice on good ways to start an essay paper, simply talk to us. Our writers are always ready to offer you professional help with all essay papers. Besides, you can also check out our homepage for high quality essay writing services.
Examples of Thesis Statements for Essays
It is always advisable that you refer to examples of thesis statements for essays when writing essay papers. Examples are excerpts from essay papers and can give you a clear illustration of how thesis statements should be crafted. However, it should be noted that unless you use high quality examples, writing a good thesis might not be easy. Read on for insights on how to determine strong examples of thesis statements for essays.
A thesis statement refers to the main idea or argument in an essay paper. It is the claim which you intend to support or prove in the rest of the paper. The statement is usually written in the introduction part of the essay. However, it should always come towards the end of the first paragraph, and clearly give a plan for the paper. The discussion tabled in the rest of the essay should always revolve around the thesis statement.
Qualities of Good Thesis Statement Examples
When obtaining examples of thesis statements for essays online or from other sources, it might be challenging to determine the best ones to refer to. The best way to overcome this is by knowing the features of a good thesis statement. The following are some of the main qualities of a top notch thesis statement.
- Specific to the subject of discussion and clear to the point
- Makes a strong unified point
- Present an argument and not re-stating the topic
- Brief, about one or two sentences long
- Relevant to the topic and accurately captures the discussion in the paper
A good thesis statement should also be based on something that is of importance to the audience in order to make the paper interesting. Although thesis statements should generally be short, the lengths may sometimes vary depending on the topic of your essay, scope of the study among other aspects.
Knowing how to determine high quality thesis statement samples will make it easier when choosing examples to refer to. Besides, it can also help you in gauging your writing skills for better points in assignments and term papers.
Where to find examples of thesis statements for essays
Finding examples of thesis statements for essays to use should be easy and fast when you know how to distinguish between a well and poorly written thesis statement. There are various places that you can check out for examples of thesis statements. However, not all can always offer you top notch samples to refer to.
The following are some of the key places where you can be sure to acquire well written samples of thesis statements for essays.
School Writing Centers
Today, almost every school has a dedicated writing center which is tasked with offering academic help to students. The benefit of such sources is that their materials are available online so you can always get the samples that you need conveniently. Whether you are high school, college or university, there is a school writing center that you can visit for sample thesis statements.
From school writing centers, you are able to acquire examples of thesis statements for past papers written by other students. In fact, a writing center is more like a library and can always offer you a wide range of reference materials for essay writing.
Essay writing takes a similar approach, therefore, you can always acquire and use samples from the writing centers of other institutions. Texas University Writing Center is one of those that you can visit for good thesis statement examples. Besides, the center also offers guidelines for formulating thesis statements to motivate you in writing.
Online essay writing services
Online essay writers can also be a good sources of sample thesis statements. In fact, professional essay writing service providers have blogs from where you can obtain examples of thesis statements for essays and other academic papers as well. The samples offered on the sites are originally created and can guide you in writing good thesis statements for essay papers.
Essay Experts is one of the best academic writing service providers that you can get in touch with for examples of thesis statements. One of the unique features of online essay writing services is that you are able to order for a custom written thesis statement for your essay.
Although blogs are all over the internet today, you should always be keen to identify those that can offer useful educational materials. If you can find those blogs that are operated by professionals in your area of study, it would be ideal to get thesis statement examples from them.
Blog Hoshida is one of the many academic blogs that you can check out for examples of thesis statements. The blog also offers tips and elaborate guidelines to be followed in writing thesis statements for essays.
Apart from the above listed sources, there are still numerous others that you can also access for sample thesis statements. However, the internet is always the best considering its efficiency and convenience.
Tips on how to use examples of thesis statements for essays
Finding the best quality examples of thesis statements for essays alone does not guarantee success. You should know how to properly use the examples when writing thesis statements in order to deliver good essay papers. The following are some of the points to consider when using thesis statement samples to write.
Examples are specifically for reference
Sample thesis statements or academic papers offered online are mainly aimed at helping students to know how to write thesis statements on their own. The example that you have acquired should only guide you on how a thesis statement should be written.
Therefore, it would not be advisable to directly copy the example and paste onto your essay paper. You can borrow ideas from the sample but do not copy or lift materials and insert into your paper since that would amount to plagiarism.
Know the type of essay that you are writing
Although thesis statements play the same role of presenting the main argument of the essay, there are slight variations depending on the type of essay. For instance, a thesis statement for an analytical essay may not be crafted in the same way as that of an argumentative paper.
Besides, there are also various kinds of thesis statements, including those that advocate for cause of action, make comparisons and evaluations, attribute causes among others. In order to get proper guidance in writing thesis statements, it is advisable that you look for samples which are related to the subject of your essay.
Consider the terms of using the examples
There are lots of sample thesis statements and academic papers offered free of charge for downloads and use online. However, there are also cases whereby you may find that the samples are offered at a fee. This usually occurs in cases whereby you are placing an order for custom essay writing services online.
It is advisable that you know the terms and conditions of using samples obtained online in order to avoid inconvenience. Besides, it is also important consider obtaining sample thesis statements from reliable sources.
Samples of thesis statements for essays
Perhaps, you may still not be able to easily determine a good thesis statement example. Reading professionally crafted examples of thesis statements for essays is another way through which you can easily know how to spot top notch thesis statements. In fact, reading well written samples is an easier way of knowing how to write good thesis statements for essays and other papers too.
The following are well crafted examples of thesis statements that you can read to gain more insights.
Sample thesis statement for Essay about Organ Donation
‘’People who sign up for organ donation freely give their hearts and other organs, but this free system limits the number of available donors and makes it difficult for recipients to access lifesaving transplants. Therefore, organ donor should be financially compensated to produce more available organs and, at the same time, to decrease profitable, illegal organ harvesting activities in the black market.’’Find the thesis statement example here.
Thesis statement example for an Essay about Technology Dependence
‘’Our school’s dependence on technology has caused students to lose the ability to think independently. This dependence has caused a greater prevalence of mood disorders, memory loss, and loneliness. Educators should combat these issues by requiring students to take part in regular technology detoxes.’’ Simply click on this link to read the above example and many others.
Thesis statement example for an essay on Cyber Bullying
‘’Bullying has extended far beyond school and into cyber space. Even though these acts of aggression take place outside of school boundaries, school officials should have the authority to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying without fear of reprisal. Doing so will help improve the online behavior of students and decrease incidences of cyberbully-related suicide attempts.’’Click here to get the example.
In case you may need more professionally crafted examples of thesis statements for essays, simply get in touch with us. Alternatively, you can also refer to our homepage to find out more on how to get the best custom essay writing services online.
The term genetic drift is applied in the genetics of population and it refers to statistical drift that is noted with time of gene frequencies within a population which is as a result of random sample effects in successive generations’ formation. This evolution mechanism occurs as a result of random chance and not natural selection.
In the case of genetic drift, the population experiences changes in frequency of a specified allele which is triggered by arbitrary luck instead of adaptation need. Consequently, it is different from natural selection through which allelic frequency gets altered on the basis of the fittest genes which survive while the weaker genes die off. The phenomenon of genetic drift usually occurs among small populations while larger populations are often subjected to natural selection.
A genetic variant or allele is the gene component that produces a particular trait. A good example is the existence of both white and red worms within the same population. If these two worms mate, each passes an allele to the offspring white or red forming a gene. The strong or dominant allele determines which traits the new born worm is going to have. In the event the white one is dominant, then the new worm is going to be white as well and vice versa.
During instances when the worm gets two similar recessive alleles, then it exhibits recessive features. Note that while genetics is complex compared to this example, it provides the general concept of what genetic drift is all about. Often, genetic drift causes gene variants to completely disappear and can also cause genetic variation. Whenever there are a few allele copies, genetic drift effect is larger and whenever the copies are more the effect is less. Debate has always been rife on the comparative importance of natural selection versus that of neutral processes such as genetic drift.
The view held by Ronald Fisher was that genetic drift plays a crucial role in evolution and for decades, this view was held as the dominant one. The debate was however rekindled by Motoo Kimura when he came up with the neutral molecular evolution theory which states in most cases where there is a change in genetics spread across the population, the cause if genetic drift.
Genetic drift also occurs as a result of random sample errors. An error arises when the sample exhibits results that are different from what the entire population exhibits. For instance in the case where scientists have 50 red and white forms then they select 10 randomly, the sample is small and hence, the alleles that are passed in the group does not even out as would be the case in a group consisting of 100 worms.
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Genetic divergence refers to the process through which 2 or more populations of the same ancestral species amass genetic changes or mutation over time. This often occurs once the populations are reproductively secluded for certain duration. There are instances when subpopulations living in environments that are ecologically distinct show signs of genetic divergence from the rest of the population especially in cases where the population is very immense.
Some of these genetic differences among populations might include silent mutations which don’t have any effects on phenotypes or lead to significant changes whether physiological and/or morphological. At all times, genetic divergence is accompanied by reproductive isolation which can be as a result of novel adaptations through selection and/or as a result of genetic drift. This is in essence the major principal that underlies speciation.
The technique of detecting and directing two or more desirable genetic traits artificially is known as genetic divergence technology. Genetic divergences that occur naturally are often seen in high character levels of function and structure that can be observed readily in different species. For instance the limb of the vertebrate is a classic example of genetic divergence that occurs naturally. In numerous varying species, the limb can be traced back to an origin that is common.
While this is the case, it has diverged not only in its overall function but the structure as well. The technology of genetic divergence is applicable in the biology of molecular characteristics. Ideally, this is applicable to the pathway of two or additional cell types of organisms for instance, it is applicable to proteins and genes like nucleotide sequences or those of protein sequences which are derived from two or additional homologous genes.
Orthologous genes which result from speciation event as well as paralogue genes which result from the duplication of genes within the population are said to showcase natural divergence. This is attributed to the fact that the paralogous genes are likely to undergo genetic divergence when there are 2 genes within that species.
There are different factors that contribute to genetic divergence and some of these are as highlighted below:
These are genetic changes which occur as a result of two processes which include mutations and sexual recombination. Chromosomes carry genes and each cell body has identical pairs of chromosomes known as diploid state. Sexual production requires gametes pairing from 2 individuals hence each gamete should have one pair of chromosome each known as haploid state.
This is yet another contributor of genetic divergence. Genes are comprised of DNA while DNA is comprised of nucleotides. Whenever there is a change in nucleotides sequence, there is also a change in the DNA and this leads to genes changes.
Other factors that lead to genetic divergence include allopatric speciation, sympatic speciation and natural selection.
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How to Write a Reflection Paper
Knowing how to write a reflection paper enables you to organize thoughts methodically so that you can gain more from your practical experience. A reflection paper is a paper that gives you an opportunity to add your analysis and thoughts to what you experience or read. It enables you to tell the reader how your comprehension of a class-related material is shaped by a specific lesson, article, experience or lecture. A reflection paper is usually subjective and personal. However, it contains a tone that is somewhat academic and it has to be cohesively organized and thorough. While writing a reflection paper, you should integrate the main themes of the work with classroom experience then indicate how they affect your thinking and practice.
Importance of knowing how to write a reflection paper
Sometimes, you attend lectures but at the end of it you do not get comprehensive experience until when you sit down to analyze what was taught. A reflection paper can have a significant impact in your learning process because writing it entails evaluating your experience analytically. While writing a reflection paper, you must deconstruct and analyze. This enables you to dig deeper into the work that you are reflecting on and discuss its specific aspects. For instance, you may be required to reflect and explain how a task that you performed during a class session will assist you later in life. Although the reflections that you express in a reflection paper are based on your opinion, that opinion is built on personal experience from a lecture or coursework at the university, college or school.
How to write a reflection paper in two major steps
Step 1: Brainstorm
- Select the major themes
Start by listing down your reflections or experiences from your notes, readings or even lessons. You can do this using a few descriptive but straight sentences.
- Highlight the major materials
Some materials will stand out once you list down your main themes. Come up with another list of these materials explaining what makes them stand out. For readings or lectures, highlight specific quotations or passages. For experiences, note down the specific sections of the experience. You can even come up with a story or a summary of the event that happened, sounds or images that came out in a clearer way.
- Organize your ideas
You can come up with a table or chart that will enable you to organize your ideas. For instance, you can do this by creating three columns. Include the key experiences or main points in your first column. The points may be anything that the speaker or the author highlighted as important or the specific details that are important. You can include each point in a separate row. In a second column, indicate your response to what you listed in your first column. Explain how your response is influenced by your experiences, subjective values as well as beliefs. In the final column, describe the amount of personal response that you will share with readers through a reflection paper.
- Present a guided response
Pinpointing responses or gauging personal feelings can be a challenge while writing a reflection paper. In that case, you can ask questions that will help in guiding your response. For instance, you can ask yourself these questions:
- Are you challenged culturally, socially, theologically or emotionally by a lecture, experience or reading? If so, how and in what way? Why does it capture your attention or why are you bothered?
- Does the experience, lecture or reading raise questions in you? Did you have these questions before the experience, lecture or reading or did you develop them after?
- How was your thinking changed by the experience, lecture or reading? Is it in conflict with your previously held beliefs and is there evidence that made you change your perception of the topic?
- Did the speaker, author or the involved parties leave any critical issue unaddressed? Was the conclusion or impact of the experience, lecture or reading changed dramatically by a certain idea or fact?
- Do the ideas or issues raised by the experience, lecture or reading mesh with your past readings or experiences? Do they support or contradict each other?
Step 2: Organize and write the paper
This is a very important step in a guide on how to write a reflection paper. The length of reflection papers ranges from 300 to 700 words. Therefore, you must organize your reflection paper properly so that it can lie within this range. Generally, a reflection paper should be organized like any other paper with an introduction, the body and the conclusion.
- Keep your paper short
Start by verifying whether the instructor specified the word count instead of trying to fit your paper within the range. If there is a specific word count set out by the instructor, organize your paper in a way that enables it to include all relevant information without exceeding or falling below the specified word count.
- Write the introduction
In the introduction, tell readers what your expectations were before the experience, lesson or reading. While writing a reflection paper on a lecture or reading, indicate your expectations on the basis of the abstract, introduction or title. If the reflection paper is about an experience, tell readers what your expectations were on the basis of your prior knowledge from the information acquired from other sources or similar experiences.
- Create a thesis statement
Your introduction should end with a single sentence via which you explain transition from the expectations that you had to the final conclusion. A thesis statement should be a simple explanation of whether the expectations that you had were met or not. It should also provide cohesion and focus for your paper.
- Write the body
In the body of your reflection paper, include paragraphs that explain your understandings and conclusions that you made after the lesson, experience or reading. Explain the conclusions by giving concrete and logical details of how you reached them. Focus your paper on not just summarizing the text that you read but also drawing specific, concrete details from the experience or text so that you can provide conclusions from the context. Each idea or conclusion should be presented separately in one paragraph. Provide a topic sentence for each paragraph which identifies the main points, understandings and conclusions.
- Write the conclusion
Conclude your reflection paper with a conclusion that succinctly describes your overall understanding, feeling or lesion that you got after the experience or reading. The overall conclusion should be supported by the understandings and conclusions that you explained in the body paragraphs. You may have some conflicting understandings and conclusions but most of them should support the final conclusion.
Additional tips on how to write a reflection paper
- Maintain an academic or a professional tone
Although reflection papers are objective and personal, you should keep thoughts sensible and organized. Therefore, avoid being carried away by the use of the personal pronoun ‘I’.
- Use a theoretical concept to analyze experience
Illustrate how the experience that you got diverged from the expectations of a theory or how it conforms to the expectations of a theory. Discuss your reasons for feeling that your experiences where not described or they were described by a theory.
- Be careful while choosing the information to reveal
A reflection paper includes subjective opinions and feelings. Therefore, before you reveal any information, determine whether it is appropriate. If there is an issue that you cannot avoid yet you are uncomfortable sharing it, use general terms to write about it.
- Maintain an academic mix
Ensure that your reflection paper relates your reading or experience with relevant classroom details or information. Incorporate the information that the experience, lecture or reading addressed with what you have learned in classroom.
- Use transitions
Transitions introduce details while shifting arguments in a paper. Use them to show how one detail or experience links to your understanding or conclusion directly. In a reflection paper, you can use transitions like, “for instance,” “an opposing view is,” “a differing perspective is” and “for example” among others.
- Edit your paper
Before you submit your reflection paper, edit it. Revise your paper at the sentence level. Make sure that your paper is consistent with the stated thesis statement. Also ensure that your reflection paper is free of stylistic and grammatical errors.
- Use sample reflection papers
To know how to write a reflection paper with ease, read reflection paper samples for more hints. Click here to read a sample reflection paper.
Get online help with your reflection paper
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The basics of how to write a conclusion for any academic paper
Concluding your essay could be a tricky affair. What else do you need to tell the readers when you have presented a good introduction and excellent body? Do you repeat you have just said in previous sections? You will face this dilemma whenever you are working on writing assignment. Do you want to avoid these mindboggling worries? Then you should have the secrets of how to write a conclusion at your fingertips. This will ensure that piece together a final paragraph that will leave readers wanting more of your stuff.
Look out for the following sections in this guide:
- Writing a good conclusion
- Elements of a good essay conclusion
- Errors to avoid when concluding an essay
We have made these tips flexible because every academic paper requires a unique conclusion. You are free to adjust where necessary to fit your assignment needs. Come on! Put on a big smile as you go through this knowledge enrichment process. Here we go…
The principles of how to write a conclusion that you should know from now
The conclusion is that final part of your academic paper. It is probably the impression that the reader will carry for the rest of their lives. It is true that you probably remember a thrilling movie you watched, a fascinating book you read, or a moving speech you followed because of the concluding remarks of the author. This is a pointer to the important role of this tiny but determining part of an essay.
A good conclusion should clear any doubts and convince the reader that they did not waste their time; the piece was worth reading. Without a proper conclusion, you are likely to devalue all your points in the paper and discourage the reader.
Generally, here are some hints on how to write a conclusion:
Restate your topic – Do not tire going back to your topic. After all, you might be shocked to learn that the reader does not recall your topic by the time he or she is getting to the last paragraph.
State the importance of your topic – Remind the audience the significance of your topic. This convinces them that it was a good idea to spend time going through your essay. No one wants to waste time on something that has no value. Time is money!
Restate your thesis – Go back to your introduction and synthesize your main idea for your readers once more. Do not copy paste, your argument. Reword it to make sense to the person looking at your work. You do not want anyone to know that you are a lazy writer.
Capture the counterargument – Every argument has rebuttals. Address these negative views and emphasize why your audience should agree with your opinion.
Call for action – You want your audience to act. Go ahead and challenge them to do something. In addition, you may make recommendations for future researches to improve on the findings.
Practical strategies of how to write a conclusion without repeating yourself
Mastering how to write a conclusion ought to be an easy task because you already know the main argument of the paper, thesis, evidence and counterarguments. However, the challenge is making it the best part of your essay since it is what the reader remembers at all times even after putting aside your piece.
Here are suggestions that should clear your way and make conclusion writing as easy as putting down your name.
TIP 1: Provide answers to ‘so what question’ – You have not done your homework, if you cannot justify the importance of your paper. As you conclude your essay, show them its significance.
TIP 2: Do not give a summary – Conclusion is not time to repeat everything you can recall or all you have said in your paper. As you put together this paragraph, remember that the person looking at your work has already read your paper. Show them how your points and evidence harmonized to support your thesis throughout the text.
TIP 3: Redirect your audience – Do not end on a flat and boring note. Leave the reader with something to do, perhaps applying the paper in the real world. Since most introductions move from general statements to specifics, your conclusion should be the opposite. Go globally.
TIP 4: Generate new meaning – As you think of how to write a conclusion, focus on bringing out something new for your audience. Use whatever you have to create new meaning. Achieve this by demonstrating how your ideas work together.
How to draft your conclusion and end your essay in style
Renowned writers in the world understand the secret of making impact with a piece of work; have a strong conclusion. Why do you want the reader to remember your work? This is the time to prove that you are worth residing in their memory.
An effective conclusion is beyond summarizing your argument. Instead, it should appreciate your ideas by emphasizing the significance of the work. Do not lose the energy you injected in your introduction, pump it in your concluding remarks and end strong. Ask the following questions as you prepare to do your conclusion
Guiding questions when writing a conclusion
- How does your idea connect with class discussion?
- Have you added any new ideas to your conversation?
- What are the limitations of your research?
- What is the effect of your strongest argument in the paper?
- How do you get back to the situation in the paper?
These questions give a sense of closure to your idea. While you may not have the answers down, keep in mind the responses and use them to fine-tune your concluding paragraph.
Below is a good example that shows you how to a write a conclusion. Examine it before we proceed to other segments of this guide.
Example: A good Conclusion
In this example, We Can Live without Petroleum, the essay discusses the pros and cons of petroleum that can help the reader make a decision on whether or not man can live without petroleum. Here is the conclusion:
There is enough evidence to show that petroleum has a range of advantages and disadvantages. For example, petroleum boosts social, economic and political development all over the world. However, petroleum is a major environmental pollutant threatening human life. From global warming to land degradation, petroleum does not offer a safe haven for human beings. As a result, the world should explore alternative sources of energy like the green energy to overcome man’s overdependence on petroleum…
In this conclusion, the writer recaps the main issues in the essay, reminding the reader the pillars of his argument. The paragraph also gives recommendation on what the world should do in weighing whether we can do without petroleum or not.
This example captures the fundamental principles of how to write a conclusion. With practice, you too can master the art of warping up an essay just as experts do.
Final thoughts on how to write a memorable conclusion
Among other reasons, remember that a conclusion is your last chance to woo your audience to agree with you. You have your excellent opportunity that you are a scholar, thinker and professional writer. You want them to spread the word and probably recommend you as a top writer on the topic or field. If this is the case, nail that final paragraph as if you have never done before.
Convey a sense of closure by signaling the reader that your discussion is closing. However, remember not close off the discussion. The following thoughts should work in your favor. Apply them and see the magic of having an appealing conclusion:
Return to your introduction- A good research paper is always circular in argument. As you wind up, revisit your first paragraph, by moving from what you already know to the unknown.
Provide a solution to a problem – The purpose of a research paper is to offer an answer to an existing problem. The reader wants to know the solution you have for a problem you captured in the thesis statement. State how your findings can be applied in a larger concern in the real world.
Final points – With your conclusion, tie together all the points in your essay and suggest the way forward. As you do this, refrain from introducing new ideas in your paper. If you have not captured it anywhere in your paper, then you probably do not need it.
Keep it brief. The last rule of how to write a conclusion is keeping it short. A standard conclusion should be 10% of your paper. Do not give a long and unwinding end. Go for what matters.
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