Innovation means to change, renew, and create more creative and better products, process or ways of doing things. It is also defined as a process through which the social and economic value is extracted from knowledge by developing, implementing and generating ideas that produce improved or new products, strategies, processes or services (Sloane, 2012).
Innovation versus Creativity
While innovation leads to observable improvement in services, products and ways of doing things, creativity refers to ability of coming up with original and new ideas. Such ideas on their own do not have any value and the value is only realized after they get implemented. As such, creativity is an important precursor to innovation. An example that is practical demonstrating difference between innovation and creativity is a meeting that is held by organization members (Sloane, 2012).
There are numerous challenges that organizations face and their goals are highlighted while those in attendance come up with ideas on how they can make progress within the organization. Ability of members to come up with ideas that are original in order to solve problems as well as achieve goals of the company demonstrate creativity. After these ideas are proposed, they are developed then implemented so they can have value. The process of implementing and developing ideas is what innovation constitutes (Sloane, 2012). The difference therefore, between creativity and innovation is that action is part of innovation and not creativity.
Innovation in Medicine
Innovation in medicine, according to Medical Innovation in the Changing Healthcare Marketplace (2002) is two-pronged. The first aspect of medical innovation involves coming up with some new diagnostics, therapeutic procedures and devices as well or improvement. Innovation must occur in these two areas for the benefits in medicine to be fully realized. Innovation in implants and drugs are closely linked to innovation in medicine though they are classified differently. It is far easier for innovation in implants and drugs to take place as compared to medical innovation. This is due to the fact innovation in drugs us far less costly to have any effect than mainstream medical innovation.
Medical innovation can mean varying things to varying societies. In developed nations like the US, it can be interpreted as invention of new sophisticated technology that improves health. In middle and lower-income countries, medical innovation is measured and judged in terms of distinct needs. In such countries, application of technology without understanding or identifying the most compelling needs of the population could result to failure in medical innovation (Leonard, 2011). True medical innovation for such regions require addressing and assessing unmet need in a cost effective and friendly manner. Medical innovation must as well be applicable to remote regions that have limited access to resources and workable with untrained and trained personnel.
Types of Innovation
In any field, innovation can be either radical or incremental. Incremental innovation involves improvement of services, products or processes within an organization. Mostly, it involves identification of the problems with existing set up as well as fixing them. On the other hand, radical innovation entails complete abandonment of familiar ways of doing things as well as finding an entirely different and new set up. Radical innovations are not only very risky but difficult to implement. Majority of persons in positions of leadership within an organization find it easy to implement incremental innovation as compared to carrying out radical innovation (Sloane, 2012). An incremental innovation example in medicine would include coming up with means that are less intrusive of disposing ailment or improving treatment effectiveness. Radical innovation in medicine might also include finding procedures that are entirely new of treating disease like the use of nanotechnology to fight cancer instead of using chemotherapy.
Incremental innovation as well as the benefit of making services, processes and products improvement as such, increasing their value. Radical innovation aids an organization to move with technological advances and removes risk of an organization producing services or products that are obsolete and from use of processes that are outdated (Sloane, 2012).
There are various sources that inspire innovation. It might result from the focus of creating new ideas as it happens in institutions of research r by accident, as is the case with numerous inventions, like NutraSweet and the microwave. The values or requirements that are conflicting in relation to a product could lead to product innovation to satisfy opposing notions at the same time. Process needs might also lead to innovation just as is the case of lack of skilled workers in the US during the 19th and 20th century which led to products standardization and labor division in industries. Some of the other sources include the demographics, changes in the new knowledge, industry and market structure as well as perception.
Long term survival of an organization is dependent on innovation. Organization leaders, therefore have the mandate of nurturing creativity among members of an organization, ultimately leading to innovation. Leaders who are receptive to new ideas, open minded and flexible have a higher possibility of encouraging innovation in their organizations. As earlier mentioned, majority of leaders are often good at implementation of incremental innovation rather than radical innovation. As such, they are supposed to give their juniors a chance to manage implementation of radical innovations since juniors have hands-on experience.
Often, creativity and innovation are used interchangeably. While this is wrong, it points out the fact both are related closely and they cannot be effective without each other. Creativity is an internal process occurring in the mind of a person while innovation is an eternal phenomenon. Without creativity, no innovation can exist and without innovation, creativity would not have any value.
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Leonard, S. (2011). Defining Medical Device Innovation in a Global Arena. MedTech Pulse Blog. Retrieved from: <http://www.qmed.com/mpmn/medtechpulse/defining-medical-device-innovation-global-arena>
Medical Innovation in the Changing Healthcare Marketplace: Conference Summary. (2002). the Characteristics of Medical Innovation.Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Sloane, P. (2012). What’s the Difference between Creativity and Innovation? Innovationexcellence.com. Retrieved from <http://www.innovationexcellence.com/blog/2012/08/04/whats-the-difference-between-creativity-and-innovation/>
Emiratization in the UAE and its Impact on Unemployment
The UAE, presently has a population that is estimated at more than 8 million. It is estimated expatriates make up 87% of this. According to the Ministry of Labor statistics (2009, cited in Koji, 2011), 99% of the workforce in the region are expatriates. There is no doubt, these figures are very alarming. Emiratization policies have been the response of the UAE government and strategy to the demographic imbalance noted in the labor market. The policies of Emiratization, in this regard are aimed at increasing the UAE nationals participation in the labor market, as well as reduction of the country’s reliance on expatriate labor and expertise. This paper evaluates the Emiratization policies as well as their effects on the unemployment state in the region (SCCI, 2009; Koji, 2011; Stuart, 2011; Forstenlechner, et al., 2012).
Emiratization and Unemployment
As stated above, the policies of Emiratization have always been aimed at increasing participation of UAE nationals in the labor market. In this regard, the government, also attempts to address the issue of low employment rates among nationals of UAE. In 2009, for instance, only 38.7% of UAE nationals were employed in the region as compared to 76.8% for expatriates (non-nationals) (Stuart, 2011).
In line with these policies, the government has already introduced a quota system within the banking industry. In accordance to the system, employers in the sector of banking are mandatory supposed to increase the number of Emirati workers by 4% annually and insurance by 5%. However, in 2010, amendments were done to the quota system as a response to challenges that Emiratization, as a national policy faced. The amendments were released by the Ministry of Labor. The private sector business, accordingly were compelled to “apply a specific Emiratization ration by implementing a quota based system” (SCCI, 2009, p.14). In this regard, companies were expected to reserve at least 15% of their positions for Emirati nationals in private industries. The companies, however, have been known for going round the requirements by attempting to fill these positions” with what are effectively non-jobs or ghost workers just to meet Government quotas” (Stuart, 2011, p.1). The government has been watchful in this case and companies guilt of such behaviors face great fines among other penalties like “additional punitive rates on labor cards” (Stuart, 2011, p.1).
However, despite this, the policy continues to face numerous challenges. For instance, according to Koji (2010), expatriates, more than the nationals are willing to tolerate poor working conditions, long hours of work, accept lower wages as well as tolerate jobs that are more physically demanding.
Ultimately, however, the question is whether the policies of Emiratization have in reality helped improve the rates of employment among the Emiratis (that is, decreased unemployment). This paper mainly focuses on the financial and banking sectors. The statistics and indicators of Emiratization cited by Al Tayer (The UAR financial and banking sector’s Head of the National HR Development Committee show results that are contrasting. For instance, in June, 2009, of 36,516 employees in the sector of banking, 11,188 were Emirati men and women. In other terms, UAE nationals constitute only 6% of the workforce. Almost, at the same rates, UAE nationals comprise only 6.5% and 10.6% of the workforce in exchange for financing and business respectively (SCCI, 2009).
Al Tayer expected towards the end of 2009, Emiratization percentage in the sector of banking would be 35% (which is the targeted percentage). Al Tayer made the argument that global crisis could not have any influence in the nationalization process of the sector’s workforce.
Despite promising figures seen in the financial and banking sectors, the reality is quite different. For instance, in 2008, December, UAE nationals in the financial and banking sectors were 53, 575. By 2009, June, the number decreased by 1,468 to 52, 107. This in part was attributed to resignations by UAE nationals from their positions. 1,388 UAE nationals in the sector had resigned between June 2008 and June 2009. In the end, the Emiratization process by 2009 dropped by 0.5%, 0.1% and 0.35% in the financial, insurance and banking sectors respectively. The indicators, further showed that the bank branches in the country had rose by 27 branches, reaching a total of 784 branches. Yet, the percentage of Emiratization has dropped over the same duration (SCCI, 2009).
Indeed, these figures are not a satisfactory justification of Emiratization. But again, the figures are not supposed to be read to mean Emiratization is having completely no effect towards rising participation of UAE nationals in the nation’s labor market. As it was, there are numerous factors that explain the contrastive trend, factors that do not exclusively have do with Emiratization only.
A possible explanation for the continued demographic imbalance has a lot to do with a shift towards non-oil sector which is aimed to reduce the dependency of the government on oil revenues. New sectors (manufacturing, construction and services) have expanded. Unfortunately, just as the government was forced to bring in a large number of expatriate workers during the 1970s owing to lack of skilled and unskilled national workers, such new sectors have prompted mass arrival of expatriates who take up jobs the UAE nationals are still just learning.
What is more, the UAE nationals do not like taking jobs in the unskilled sectors: “these sectors create job opportunities mainly for the expatriates because nationals tend to avoid working there due to the working conditions” (Koji, 2009b, and p.71-72). Another factor is the rising number of youth within the country. The national youth (15 to 24 years old) population in the nation is estimated at about 230,000. This is about 25% of the entire population. Statistics show 15,000 graduates (young people) enter the labor market annually. As such, while the efforts of nationalization go on, the overwhelming number of young people who are searching for work undermines the potential of Emiratization policy. Other aspects include development of human resource in the post-oil era (that is, great revenue against the inadequate human resource) as well as globalization among others (Koji, 2011; Forstenlechner, et al., 2012).
To conclude, this paper, through the statistics provides justification for the UAE government’s desire to increase participation of its nationals within the labor market. However, the efforts have not paid off, as it was initially affected to. The attitudes of UAE nationals towards certain types of working conditions and work, the increasing number of young people within the country, development of human resource in post-oil era and globalization among others are factors that contribute to contrastive effects of Emiratization in the nation. The implication that the policy has not failed necessarily, it might be a victim of other circumstances like the ones cited above. Time, might prove that the policy is effective.
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Forstenlechner, I., Madi, M.T., Selim, H.M. & Rutledge, E.J. (2012). Emiratization:
Determining the Factors that Influence the Recruitment Decisions of Employers in the UAE, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(2), 406-421
Koji, H. (2009b), Expatriate Problems and the Transformation of Domestic Politics in the
GCC countries: the Case of the United Arab Emirates (in Japanese), in Japan Association for Comparative Politics (ed.), Comparative Politics of International Migration, Kyoto: Minerva
Koji, H. (2011). Controversies over Labor Naturalization Policy and Its Dilemmas: 40 Years
ofEmiratization in the United Arab Emirates, Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, 4(1&2), 41-61
Shariah Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI) (2009). Emiratization-
Drawing Nationals into the Surging Economy, Al Tijarah, 38(11), 1-34
Stuart, G.H. (2011). Emiratization Seeks to Cut Employment Rate and Curb Reliance
on Expatriates, The National, March 05. Retrieved 10 January 2013, http://www.thenational.ae/business/emiratisation-seeks-to-cut-unemployment-rate-and-curb-reliance-on-expatriates
As it is the case with any (post) modern state, regulation and public policy in Canada have great impact on the lives of individuals. Educational standards, garbage disposal, public transit, access to media and driving standards etc. are among the areas or facets impacted by regulation and public policy. The focus of this response paper is on basic concepts of the Canadian public policy.
|How is “Public Policy”, defined by Miljan? At least use one specific example in your province, municipality or Canada as an illustration of understanding her definition.||The public policy, according to Miljan (2008, p.3) is action taken by the government of any nation together with its agents. For example, take the instance of toxic chemical in Canada. For years, polychlorinated biplhenyls were used, stored and disposed without much care for public safety. The government did not have any public policy to handle the latter till the time it realized there was need to worry about the public’s welfare. Without question, it was a case of the state’s failure to act, though not its decision not to act. Once the public became aware of cancer causing effects of PCBs, their elimination, transportation as well as use became an issue of policy.|
|When are instances when inaction is viewed as public policy? Use your own examples to explain||Inaction is regarded as public policy that is based on circumstances or situation where failure to take action gets exhibited and if the circumstance that might have been addressed by such action is looked upon as problematic. For example, in the case aforementioned, the inaction of government before the danger of PCBs was realized to have great health effects on people that were exposed to such dangers and it allowed stockpiles of currently the most toxic and feared chemical in Canada (Midjan, 2008, p 3).|
|What does Miljan mean by “the political agenda”?||According to Miljan (2008, p.6), “the political agenda, refers to the gestures, symbols and the words that are manipulated by the policy makers” indeed, they are a definition of what is imperative in the public’s life, how the issues are viewed, whose views need to be considered as well as the solutions deemed tenable.|
|Discuss the context that follows of your understanding of political agenda: “Political issues and policy problems are constructed out of the conflicting terminologies and values that different groups put forwards when they compete for things that cannot be shared in order to fully satisfy them. These problems and issues never exist apart from the symbols and words used to describe them” (Miljan, p.6).||This statement is an indication of the nature or language of communication policy maker’s use when they are formulating the problem of policy, solutions and issues that pertain to the same. The policies are just created or they are constructed by use of words, but they never realized. Indeed, policy makers make promises that they never fulfill. Only words and symbols describe them though they are never formulated. (Miljan, 2008, p.6).|
|Miljan argues prevailing cultural values are what determine what policy options a government is supposed to adopt. Use examples to illustrate understanding of this point.||The prevalent cultural values in the apparent generation are a depiction of policies taken by the government. Issues of policy like pay equity, pornography , women’s affirmative action, subsidized daycare and sexual harassment are cultural factors that determine the policies that governments are supposed to take (Miljan, 2008, p.)|
|What is “policy discourse”? Are we all able to equally influence policy discourse? This is a relevant point to subsequent readings to extent that it helps you understand how public policy on communication (e.g. the policy on the atrocious cell phone bills in Canada) evolve.||The policy discourse, according to Miljan (2008, p.7) is an unfolding drapery of words and symbols that actions, thinking and structures formulated from different definitions of a problem. We all cannot influence policy discourse. According to Miljan (2008, p.9) policy discourse is not free-for-all and is usual to talk of a systematic bias (a statement meant to depict how the system policy selects policy discourse).|
|Once a public policy is in place, the next issue is one that means achieving policy goals. What are the factors that influence the choice of means?||Some factors that influence choice of means include and is not limited to Human rights, domestic and international forces as well as the rights considerations injected into new domains (Miljan, 2008, p.19)|
|What is the relevance of studying public||The study of public policy is what enables those motivated to comprehend functions the government grasps with great ease. Through the study, they will get to know what governments do, the motive that is behind what they do and the results or consequences of their action (Miljan, 2008, p.17).|
Nevertheless, one of the ways the government intervenes is by manner of regulation in order to achieve policy goals through establishment of independent regulatory agencies. The subsequent part of this response paper is to focus on the latter that is based on Canadian public policy scholars, David Siegel and Kenneth Kernaghan.
|How are regulatory agencies defined by Siegel and Kenaghan (Note: please give me their definition, not the definitions of other scholars that they reference).||According to Kernaghan & David (1999, p.261), regulatory agencies refer to statutory bodies with the responsibility of establishing, administering, fixing, regulating or controlling an environmental, economic, cultural or activity through regularized and established means in the public interest and in regards to policy guidelines that are stipulated by governments. These regulatory agencies are managed by a minister and legislature reasonable in respect to matters of policy though have relative autonomy of deeds in decision making within the policy guidelines given.|
|List and summarize the functions of regulatory agencies||Adjudicative; focuses on the establishment of results in people’s cases dealing with regulation Kernaghan & David (1999, p. 261).Legislative; involves capability of regulatory agencies to formulate regulations and rules in a form of stipulated legislation, but with the force of law (Kernaghan & David, 1999, p.262)
Research; regulatory agencies deploy their staff members to they can research in given areas of regulation. This ensures they are conversant with any changes or trends in the field (Kernaghan & David 199, p.262)
Advisory after carrying out research, regulatory members will advise the ministry as well as operating departments regarding the need to consider specific issues of policy afresh (Kernaghan & David 1999, p.262)
Administrative, some agencies will have direct rules of administration while handling programs (Kernaghan & David, 199, p.261)
|What are the rationales Siegel and Kernighan provide for creation of regulatory agencies? List all and explain one briefly.||The rationales provided by Kernaghan and Siegel includes:Eliminating issues from politics, provision of judicial such as hearing, impartial, apply specialized expertise, future situations handling that cannot be foreseen by legislation, regulation of natural monopoly, smooth instability in the market, discrimination prevention where there is a situation of inequality, externalities control as well as provision of low cost option based on the standpoint of the government (Kernaghan & David, 1999, pp.263-267).
Natural monopoly as well is experienced whenever there is just one producer offering specific services. As such, regulatory bodies make sure such companies never exploit consumers via malpractices.
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Miljan, L., (2008). Basic concepts in the study of public policy. Public Policy in Canada: An Introduction. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
Kernaghan, K.,& David S., (1999). Regulatory agencies and deregulation. Public Administration in Canada. Toronto: ITP Nelson
Review of the article “The Association and Impact of Inflation and Population Growth on GDP: A Study of Developing World,” by Khan, et al, (2013)
Primarily, this article center on the discussion of effects of inflation on the economy and precisely on effects of inflation on population growth and GDP in developing nations. An overriding theme is presented in the article showing inflation has negative effects, as such, upsetting to an economy. Negative inflation effects in an economy include reduction or stagnation in disposable income, decline in individual savings and tax increases; hence, currency depreciation, increase in import prices as well as national savings. At inflation onset, the levels of income for individuals in an economy also become stagnant and they remain there as the rate of inflation intensifies.
Stagnation lead to tax increases in which case individuals get taxed a higher percentage of their income on services and good they consume. Increase in the tax bracket leads to low saving power of individuals in the economy. Additionally, individuals also save less during inflation as they are afraid their cash will diminish persistently in value at future dates. Such pessimistic perception leads to low national saving. Inflation leads to local currency to degrade value, leading to reduction of purchasing power. This makes imports more costly than exports. These negative inflation effects have great impacts on population growth and GDP in developing nations.
Generally, inflation leads to a decline in GDP growth in developing countries. As already aforementioned, inflation effects on the economy are negative. Inflation impact on individuals in saving translates to reduction in national saving. When the individuals in developing economy have a preference for saving less during recession, they reduce the function of saving of GDP, leading to reduction in overall growth of the national GDP. Additionally, the growth of national GDP in developing nations leads to decline during recession due to decrease of national income. Income is a GDP function; as such, when there is a decline in disposable income, national saving declines as well, reducing the national rate of GDP growth.
Depreciation of currency in the period of inflation causes decline in foreign direct investment in developing nations. Investment is a function of national GDP and as such, a decline in the investment results in decline of national GDP growth rate. National GDP growth is correlated positively to population growth. As such, decline in the national GDP it is an implication there is decline in population growth. This means during inflation, population growth is low as a result of low national GDP growth. Hard financial times that are experienced in the cause of inflation lead to negative impact on the health of individuals and life expectancy. Decline in the life expectancy and health in the course of inflation have pronounced effect on population growth in developing nations; population growth declines. This article, evidently relates to inflation since it provides a clear picture of inflation effects on the economy and precisely, effects of national GDP and population growth. This article, outlines various forms of economic components that are affected by inflation in developing nations, and how these effects translate into reduced population growth and GDP.
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Khan, A., Z., Yahya, F., Nauman, M. &Farooq, A., (2013).‘The Association and Impact of Inflation and Population Growth on DGP: A Study of Developing World,’ International Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 903-911. Retrieved from: <http://journal-archieves27.webs.com/903-910.pdf>
Every so often, race as a social concept has not be taken serious as many people contemplate that the American system of leadership and the legal framework have defeated the bad habit. This is false because of the verity that most of black Americans still agonize from disparity prejudices, racism, racial profiling as well as discernment. Despite the fact that the president of America is an African American elected by the people, the nation is not free from physical disparity racism, prejudices or discernment. Even though an individual may demonstrate that the scope of bigotry and discernment has lessened, it still thrives in the minds as well as setting of the American system. The United States department results in 2003 showed that African Americans made 10.4 percent of all the imprisoned people at the age of 25 to 29 years, expound the stand these individuals have taken. This is in comparison to similar results where Hispanic men imprisoned were 2.4 percent whereas white Americans were only 1.2 percent.
Despite the fact that it may be factual that the African Americans are vulnerable to wrongdoings because of their past account, social, financial, education level and demographic patterns amongst other facets, there is no equal treatment against white Americans when it comes to sentences, trials, and arrests or jail terms. Study undertaken shows that the African Americans are most probable to get unkind jail terms as well as more years when sentenced in comparison to white people. Altogether, even though the justice framework is perceived as unbiased, certain components of controlled disparities, where the African American are discriminated when it comes to conviction or prosecution. The same happens when it comes to convictions on capital punishments despite the offended being the African America, whereby less actions are taken against the white American. This paper will focus on dealing with the issue why many African American men between age bracket of 25 to 29 years are probable to be jailed than the white people or Latinos, facets that impact those involved in the wrongdoing and also the planned disparities in the judicial framework when it comes to lawyers, lawmakers as well as judges composition.
Why blacks at the age of 25-29 are more likely to be in jail than the Whites or Latinos
From the study as well as research undertaken, the population of black Americans who get jailed is more than the number of people from other races. Black men aged 25 to 29 years are probable to remain in cell accompanied by harsh punishment. Several explanations can be pinpointed to this verity that incorporate the resulting variables.
As stated by Torr (2004), black people experience challenging financial issues, and this pushes them to take part in wrongdoings than the white people. Torr (2004) signposted that the joblessness rate of blacks is double that of the white Americans, and poverty rates are thrice than those of the white Americans. Financial gap as well as poverty led to wrongdoings as individuals struggle to find ways to meet their social needs. These leads to the black Americans being vulnerable to joblessness as well as poverty, and thus, take part in criminal habits that result to their apprehension and trial. As Robert and Rector (2000) in Schram (2006) stated, the US Bureau of Census (1999) showed that 33.1 percent of the black kids were deprived in comparison to 13.5 percent of the white children populace (Schram, 2006). Poverty is more probable to push the black Americans to take part in wrongdoings so as to sustain themselves.
Study undertaken shows that a link between wrongdoings as well as family setups exists. Certainly, poor child upbringing as well as single childcare have been ascribed for swaying youngsters to participate in wrongdoings in coming days. Simultaneously, family violence as well as children abuse probably sway youngsters to take part in wrongdoing. Majority of black America single parents are poor, and this impacts the development of their kids who get involved in criminal activities leading to their apprehension as well as trial.
Education aids greatly in lessening criminal activities as it lessens financial merit of an individual taking part in the wrong activity. The white people are more probable to acquire finest education than the black people, and thus they have more job openings than the black people. Being deprived education leads to joblessness as well as poverty. To meet day to day requirements, many people start taking part in wrongdoings that eventually get them apprehended as well as imprisoned.
Community and the peer pressure
The community where people live shows what to expect in near future. Living in poor houses, congested as well as slum regions, where security is not guaranteed is probable to push youngsters to take part in wrongdoings as well as gangs. Due to the fact that many deprived black people live in slums, they are probable to be apprehended for wrongdoings, crimes and other harmful conducts than the white people.
Alcohol and drug abuse
Alcohol plays a great role when it comes to criminal undertakings. Even though it is not backed by exceptional facts, poverty degree amongst the black youngsters pushes them to participate in alcohol consumption more than the white people. The alcohol venture causes individuals involved to traffic weapons in the states, be part of other crimes and hijack people as they undertake their illegitimate ventures. Black people are more involved in these crimes than white people in the society and this causes more apprehension, trial as well as sentencing.
Despite backing for the equality and unbiased judgment by judges in the legal framework, research from the California study showed that Black people were jailed for longer periods more than the white people were offered probation terms (Walker, Spohn & DeLone, 2012). This shows the unjust treatment amongst the black people and the white judges. This is probable to lead to one race being enslaved than the other.
Racial disparity in prison sentencing
In the account of the judicial framework in the U.S, there is a verified racial profiling on offenders sentencing. Study shows that in June 2004, 4919 out of every 10000 African Americans, 1717 of 10000 Hispanic men, and 717 of 100000 white men were imprisoned (Walker, Spohn & DeLone, 2012, p. 284). These verities can be acquired from two proportions; the judges sentencing decisions and the statistics acquired from the prison populace and admissions. As Spohn (2008) designates, racial gap in sentencing has not culminated as the 2006 figures showed that per 100000 citizens under imprisonment, 3042 were the ratio for the black male, 1261 for the Hispanic male, and 487 for the whites (171-176). This shows a sign of disparity and may have been as a result of several facets.
One of the motives that could expound the inequality in imprisonment, may be due to the verity that black American men and the Hispanic take part in many wrongdoings in comparison to the white people (Walker, Spohn & DeLone, 2012, p. 285). Whilst, it could be probable that this people have more wrongdoing accounts in comparison to the white people. Simultaneously, due to the financial disparity amongst the white and black Americans, the young African American are probable to be jobless, and this has forced them to take part in wrongdoings, therefore causing their apprehension as well as imprisonment. Spohn (2008) expounds that jobless people are probable to get rougher sentence than those working, causing racial discernment whilst the black American is probable to get rougher sentence due to prejudices and discernment from the judges (Spohn, 2008, pp. 171-176). The judge might consider the ethnicity and race of the offended when making decisions, which leads to a prejudiced sentence.
Representation of the African Americans in the criminal justice system
The many black Americans in prison can be expounded from the presentation of viewpoints of the judges, lawyers, prosecutors as well as legislative representation. The few black Americans in the justice framework brings in an option of prejudice in the system. When the prosecutor is white, the judge being white, and the defense of black ethnicity, some incidents culminate in discriminatory verdict. As Free (2003) pointed out, 12.8% of the US population are Black Americans, but less than 9% of their population is represented in the House of Representatives (19-24). Whilst, the judicial framework is known to make up only 5.7% of African American lawyers and judges. This is a sign that black American people are underrepresented in the power structure than in the legislature or in judiciary, and this showed that the underrepresentation is probable to impact the manner judgment is undertaken on the black and white criminals.
The existence of few African American lawyers causes underrepresentation of the black people in the court of law. Whilst many cases that black Americans deal with may exhaust the lawyers as well as defense counsels, causing a circumstance that they will not be capable of dealing with these cases successfully. Even though this is not backed by material verities, it is factual that they are surprised by the workload of representing the black Americans. It ought to be denoted that the component of discernment is culminating, however some destructive components may yet be evident that should be dealt with. Hudson, in his book “Entangled by White Supremacy” directs that the cruelty of the white people does not acknowledge the blacks in the job market as well as education industry, in the sense that the white people hold every work place in the discriminatory system, judge, lawmaker, sheriff and county magistrate (Hudson, 2009).
Even though discrimination condition has significantly lessened, the social creation of disparity is still present. With disparity existing, it is vastly doubtful that the current situation of the American system will completely adjust, chiefly due to the fact that there are those individuals who have labeled black Americans to be of second class as well as nobody, if not mediocre to the white people.
The black American men of the aged bracket of 25 to 29 years are most probable to be jailed than any other races. This is due to the black peoples’ predisposing facets, which incorporate discriminations, underrepresentation, poor academic backgrounds as well as socioeconomic status amongst other facets. The percentage of lawyers, judges and other professions in the judicial system fails to equally represent the African Americans, and this may have led to high rate of black prisoners in jail. More has to be undertaken to deal with the numerous social constructions that restrict equality and parity in the American justice system.
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Cochran, J. L., & Fisher, D. (2003). A lawyer’s life. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s.
Free, M. D. (Ed.). (2003). Racial issues in criminal justice: The case of African Americans. Greenwood publishing group.
Hudson, J. (2009). Entangled by White Supremacy: Reform in World War I-era South Carolina. University Press of Kentucky.
Schram, S. F. (2006). Welfare discipline: Discourse, governance, and globalization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Spohn, C. (2008). How do judges decide The search for fairness and justice in punishment. SAGE Publications Inc.
Torr, J. D. (2004). Crime and criminals: Opposing viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2012). The Color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Inventing a Business: Richmond Gold International Inc
Richmond International Inc is a production corporation that majors in production of coffee products. It is located in many nations within Europe, Asia and North America. It began its undertakings in January 1988. Despite having its headquarters in Australia, it takes care of a clientele base of coffee consumers with a worldwide distribution. Coffee commodities are packed as soluble mixed flavors. They incorporate coffee blends of caffeinated or decaffeinated blends in regular, small and premium packs as espressos, lattes and cappuccinos. The mixtures have mint, chocolate, vanilla and hazelnut flavors. The flavors differ depending on areas or nations of distribution, due to the fact that local consumers have diverse and varying likings and flavors when it comes to the coffee commodities. It acts as a wholesale as well as a retail corporation for customers buying coffee goods so as to improve and meet client effectiveness and monetary standards. Money-making undertakings at the Richmond International Inc are strategically organized, enacted and understood. As a result, analyzing logistic plans all over the corporation’s production branches is essential in meeting money-making as well as performance success. Corporation older and younger bosses, workers, worldwide partners as well as clients, thus, play a vital function in meeting Richmond International Inc.’s objectives and purposes.
Richmond International Inc Mission and Vision Statements
Richmond International Inc.’s mission statement displays the company as a corporate enterprise built and committed to forming as well as enhancing pleasant exposures amongst worldwide coffee customers. The workers, investors, as well as employing and running techniques, focus on improving the productivity and standardization of coffee commodities. They are as well given the duty of improving service delivery, chiefly via improved and creative technology solutions. The mission statement also focuses on enhancing, inspiring, teaching as well as spurring coffee clients to buy commodities from the corporation, because it presents a promise in meeting distinctive, special and full ability from coffee use.
The vision statement looks forward to offer a hopeful and dynamic working setting for corporation workers and the workforces. This is according to the corporation’s anticipations and philosophies that secure, inspired, respected and spurred workers attempts in meeting the needs, requirements, requests and prospects embraced amongst coffee clients. This is due to the fact that they make worthy, qualified, quantified as well as unvarying coffee goods. The vision statement in addition targets backing and forming a social and business money-making enterprise capable of making use of revenue generating undertakings at the corporation, whereas increasing Richmond International Inc. and investors’ worth. As a result, it focuses on meeting and also growing effectiveness in the corporation situated at a vast competitive and rapidly developing sector.
The mission and vision statements at Richmond International Inc are, as a result, made based on the following philosophies. Trained, skilled and qualified workers are dynamic and active. Due to this, produced coffee products can satisfy and meet clients’ needs, requirements, interests and anticipations, together with flawless service distribution. As a result, gained revenues, stake values, as well as reserved incomes are assured to escalate to realize accomplishment at the Richmond International Inc.
The Porter’s five forces concepts will be used in analyzing and debating the corporation’s prospects in the vastly crowded coffee production sector. This concept is made up of five force factors in figuring out the most active and influencing facets impacting a corporation in a vastly crowded and rapidly growing sector. They as well impact productivity scopes in a corporation because of the money flow effects faced by many corporations and a SWOT analysis. The five Porter’s factors incorporate input differentiation, bargaining power among suppliers, buyer’s inclination to substitute, their bargaining powers and competition (Duncan, 2009).
Input differentiation alludes to the accessibility of substitutes. The corporation focuses on making distinctive and exceptional coffee commodities. This would incorporate the concentration on lessening of threats from competitors, new entries and general competitors. Suppliers have a surged bargaining power because of an improved degree of input differentiation. In addition, the corporation uses large sum of money to get certain distinctive and special raw materials, therefore lessening the dangers brought about by intensified bargaining power amongst suppliers chiefly where there is rigid rivalry. Buyers’ susceptibility to substitute is established on the accessibility of substitute. The corporation’s distinctive, high quality, reasonable price, standardized as well as easy availability of commodities protects it from rivalry and lessening rigid competition threat. As a result, consumers as well rejoice in a bargaining power founded on huge sums of coffee products in domestic and oversea markets. Richmond International Inc has made sure that the volumes are huge, and that data regarding its undertakings and roles is accessible and handy on the site. Together with high quality coffee commodities, the substitute and competition threats are significantly lessened (Tony, 2006).
SWOT Analysis on Richmond International Inc.
Based on the Porter’s five factors analyzed aforementioned, the table shows the corporation’s SWOT analysis. It signifies the four sections making up a SWOT analysis: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (Duncan, 2009).
· Production of high quality and standardized coffee commodities
· Diminished production costs per unit
· Effortless purchasing approaches and systems
· Highly motivated and productive human resources
· Elastic production operations
· Newly innovated manufacturing, advertising and selling program
· Multiple branches available and accessible globally
· The rate at which buying habits are changing among coffee consumers is too dynamic
· Headquarter production unit recording a reducing rate on revenue growth rate
· Unavailability of raw materials and resources to manufacture organic coffee products
· new entrants manufacturing organic coffee commodities
· Augmented consumer demands, wants and needs for coffee
· Newly acquired machinery, plant and equipment
· Increasing number of unsatisfied consumers purchasing from rivals
· Partnering with coffee growers and manufacturers
· Acquisition of more advanced technologies to enhance company functions and operations
· Availability of new and highly potential markets across the globe mainly Africa
· The current plans for the company to expand are overwhelming and unrealistic
· Weak and poorly performing economies status in various global countries
· An increasingly unhealthy debt position and cash flow
· Substitutes especially organic coffee products are on the rise in markets
· Increasing fluctuations on global currencies
· Sales in the coffee industry are reducing and slowing
A Strategy for Richmond International Inc
The SWOT analysis table above pinpoints several working and useful parts in Richmond International Inc that can be eradicated, altered or fortified. Centered on the recorded strengths, the corporation requires to be developed when it comes to coffee production undertakings in the company to carry on successfully. Enhanced corporation structures offer better operations and purposes according to the adjusting customer purchasing conducts. The SWOT analysis table shows that the buying conducts amongst clients are adjusting, as they fancy coffee blends because of the wellbeing merits with which they are linked with. The wellbeing merits are linked with the lessened levels of sugar detrimental to diabetic clients as well as they are highly maintainable amongst the aging people.
Richmond International Inc, as a result should get new plants, machines and devices. They ought to be used in manufacturing healthy coffee beans mixed into last organic products that boost and maintain health amongst clients. Therefore, diabetic customers who treasure coffee however cannot buy the latest mixes will be cared for, reducing the danger posed by competitors. Ascertaining lately improved production actions, together with better technology in producing, growing and making coffee mixes, will lead to more healthy products. They will be more cherished amongst health-mindful coffee clients.
Therefore, their buying manners will be upturned, as they go on to purchasing coffee commodities from Richmond International Inc. As a result, corporation sales will upsurge, as the market will rejoice in the freshly enhanced healthy coffee produces, leading to an increased demand. Flow of money at Richmond International Inc will progress, and this will cause lessened debts and improved foundation of happy, reliable and contented clients.
The corporation ought to join together internal and external abilities, assets, openings and strengths in building a sturdier base via which the corporation can go on to progress and enlarge. Richmond International Inc has been working for more than 25 years. So as to carry on its undertakings as well as roles in the coming days for long duration, premises, worker skills, raw material, abilities and experiences ought to be vastly sustained. Grouping these facets will be an accreditation that the corporation will invariably be important in the coffee production sector, whereas satisfying and nourishing business and customer wants and requirements.
The external modifications, chiefly making up poor market structures and currency variations, signify the corporation’s threats and weaknesses. To either lessen or get rid of them and uphold corporation’s undertakings as well as duties in the sector, whereas satisfying and sustaining desires, requirements and requests amongst coffee clients, the company should go for a broad-based plan. It ought to make use of rental vehicles as well as more airlines to offer coffee goods to all clients who make their orders via the corporation’s site. Domestic outlets list delays prior to offering coffee goods to clients because of snarl-up and damage to vehicles.
Giving an easy to fathom account to clients regarding changes of policies will offer the company a chance to expound why coffee rates are as well impacted. The clients will neither feel weighed down nor contemplate that Richmond International Inc is immorally earning from currency variations via the escalated prices of goods. The profits and revenues made beyond the invest cost of capital confirm that the corporation can go on to satisfy and accomplish coffee clients’ needs. Therefore, they offer a chance for the corporation to make huge profits and incomes whereas accounting for efforts and production processes. Copyrights, licenses, capital, plants, employees, staff skills, equipment and also finances, also involve corporation resources that have to be justified, so as for the firm to be significant and gainful all over the worldwide markets as well as the coffee manufacturing sector.
Richmond International Inc should bring together these assets via an experienced and trained group of professionals. These staff should evaluate, organize and enact helpful ways so as to record a great performance that can give it an extra advantage in the sector. The SWOT analysis presents the firm with an overview to enhance and fortify its undertakings and roles in the manufacturing sector. SWOT table verifies that the corporation has the ability of accounting for better undertakings to remain essential all over the worldwide markets and the sector.
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Duncan, W. J. (2009). Chapter Three: Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm, Academy of Management Executive.
Tony, L. (2006). Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model, New York, Simon & Schuster 1: 1-3.
Gang Reduction in Big Cities
Grant Proposal for Gang Reduction in Big Cities: Focus on New York City
Definition of the problem
The gangs’ number has always been high regardless of the high anti-gang activities that have been performed in USA. According to the National gang Center’s statistics, gangs’ number has been high since 1996 (National Gang Center). Actually, there were about 30,000 gangs within USA in 1996. From 1996 to 2011, a reduction in this number was registered in 2003 only. There was a reduction in this number from 30,000 to 20,000. However, this number rose to 30,000 again in 2011 (National Gang Center). The concentration of the gangs is high in larger cities, with smaller cities as well as sub-urban regions and rural areas following in that order. These gangs are mainly made up of the youth.
What could be causing the rise in the number of gangs, particularly in larger cities?
Larger cities such as New York have experienced drugs abuse and small arms proliferation. These are mainly the factors that motivate the gangs (National Gang Center). Large cities’ congestion as well as technology advancement also motivates gangs. Youths who abuse drugs and access fire arms including guns can easily engage in criminal activities. Specifically, such youths need quick wealth due to the high rate of joblessness and the increasing living cost. These factors hinder the youths from acquiring wealth. Therefore, they use fire arms that they can easily access while injecting themselves with the drugs that give them a high feeling while committing crimes. Gangs have been found to be organized. There are top commanders in the gangs who plan different crimes. There are also hit men responsible for implementing these plans. The generated revenue is shared by the gang members. Top commanders get the largest portion. Peers influence is common among the youths especially on the realization that one can acquire wealth within a short time (National Gang Center).
Why this program is needed
This is an important program because it aims at reducing gangs’ number. A lot of properties and many lives are destroyed when a crime is being committed. Increase in the gangs’ number causes fear among the populace and this interferes with economic productivity as well as the citizens’ wellbeing.
The mission of this program is to minimize gangs’ number via collaborative participation of the state governments, federal government, law enforcers, local communities and NGOs as well as any other like-minded entity.
- Reducing drug abuse within New York City
- Reducing small arms’ proliferation among the population of New York
- Encouraging stricter immigration laws
- Enhancing rehabilitation services
The endeavors of this program are to reduce gangs’ number within New York City. It aims at achieving this by addressing crime motivators that include drug abuse, small arms and guns access, poor laws of immigration as well as inefficient rehabilitation solutions. Through a reduction of access to small arms, illegal drugs as well as improvement of immigration policies, gangs’ number will reduce significantly in this city. Youths who do not have access to drugs and guns are less likely to engage in crime. Additionally, youths who drugs have already affected will have access to proper rehabilitation. Currently, low rates of retention hamper rehabilitation programs. The aim of this program is to improve retention rates in order to enable the youths within rehabs to complete the programs that they are enrolled in.
Additionally, strict policies for immigration will assist in decongesting and identifying locals. Immigration policies’ loopholes make it possible for most people to enter New York City illegally. There are people who enter this city with an aim of committing a crime. The program intends to work in collaboration with Justice Department, Defense Department, Local health facilities and correctional facilities, Immigration Department as well as the New York City Council. Eight gang control strategies will be employed as set out by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJP). These are community mobilization, opportunities provision, social intervention, organizational programs and change, suppression, enforcement of targeted gang and anti-gangs programs (U.S Department of Justice 10).
The expectation is that this program will take 3 years. It will be championed by a six experts’ panel. This will comprise of the chief coordinator as well as two assistants (a manager and a public relations expert), the other panel members will be programs coordinator, financial officer as well as a professional psychologist.
Budget: The cost of this program will be $100,000.
Program evaluation: How the attainment of goals will be measured
|Objective||How to attain the project/ Project methodology||Evaluation|
|To minimize drug abuse within the New York City.
|Working with the state and federal authorities, this project will close all dealers in illegal drugs. This will eliminate illegal drugs supply which is its main target.||A comparison of drug abusers at the start of the project and at the end of this project will be done. The expectation is that there will be a significant reduction in the addicts’ number.|
|To reduce small arms proliferation in the population of New York.||Strict gun control will be supported by this program. Registration of the guns under the public ownership will be encouraged and punishing of owners of illegal guns.||Small arms owned by the public will be compared when the program starts and when it ends. The anticipation is that there will be a significant reduction in their number in the population of New York.|
|To encourage the enactment of strict laws on immigration.||This will be implemented by the Immigration Department and the New York City Council. A crucial census will map the city’s occupants. There will be an assessment of all houses as well as their occupants. Occupants will also be assessed to determine how they entered the city. Illegal immigrants will all be deported.||The Immigration Departments as well as the New York City Council will compare their notes to determine the exact number of occupants. The expectation is that it will be possible to account for all residents.|
|To improve rehabilitation services.||Poor retention is the major challenge that rehab services are facing currently. Additional psychologists will be employed to boost counseling and improve the stay of people in the rehab so that they can be trained and offered the necessary opportunities for starting SMEs.||A comparison of the number of the individuals recruited in the centers when the program started and the number of those who will complete the process successfully will be made. The anticipation is that the rate will increase within three years.|
Data and reporting procedure to the DOJ
The Department of Justice (DOJ) will be used to channel the collected data. There will be a website created for making major announcements and allowing data sharing.
Agency’s past record of accomplishment
According to DOJ, a strong correlation exists between drugs and crime. More than 83 percent of the people in incarceration have used drugs (NCJRS 1). Actually, 51% note that they were under drugs’ influence while committing crime (NCJRS1). DOJ has played an influential role in drugs and their supply’s reduction in New York. Therefore, DOJ has a successful record in the war against gangs. As such, this project will closely work with DOJ as well as the agencies mentioned in this proposal.
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U.S. Department of Justice.”OJJDP FY 2011 Comprehensive Anti-gang Strategies and Programs.” Municipal Association of South Carolina 10 Jan. 2011. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
National Gang Center. National Youth Gang Survey Analysis. n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2014.
NCJRS. A Comprehensive Approach. Jan. 2014. Web. 12 Jan. 2014.
Collective efforts are required to eliminate the serious condition of poverty. The survival needs of the people who are considered poor are minimal. They include shelter, clothing and food. They also include other essential wants that are necessary for the improvement of life. In nations where poverty prevalence is high, growth rate is increased while production is economically low. Both emergent and developed economies experience poverty. For example, about 46.5 million or 15% of the American population is estimated to be poor. Statistics also reveal that out of five children aged below 18 years old, four are impoverished. Unfortunately, this is the current reality regardless of the efforts that the United States has put in eliminating poverty. Poverty remains a problem globally and this indicates that there is so much that needs to be done about it. The aim of this proposal is to study actions that are necessary or appropriate in enforcing the efforts that are aimed at eliminating poverty.
Poverty is a complex issue in most developing countries since their economies cannot put appropriate measures in place in their fight against poverty. The main factor that is necessary in the war against poverty is economic development. The main goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was to help in the establishment of a common front in the war against poverty all over the world. While trying to meet Millennium Development Goals, the UNDP works hard in its efforts to ensure the elimination of poverty among the developing nations within a set timeframe. This proposal agrees to the fact that poverty elimination requires alteration of the existing measures that national and international bodies have in place in their efforts to eliminate poverty. Several researchers have established poverty statistics. Nevertheless, these do not have much to show in relation to actual measures that have been implemented to eliminate poverty within their societies. This proposal seeks to realize this.
The research body has points that will deal with poverty elimination measures. Poverty elimination is only achievable if poverty cycle is broken. For this to be achieved, young children should be empowered so that they can grow up with the necessary hope. Consequently, one point that is dwelled on by this section is ensuring access to education for children by supporting initiatives that are aimed at promoting areas that are hit by poverty. Efforts that can enable the society allow children access to education includes building schools, sensitizing communities about education benefits for both girls and boys and training teachers. Healthcare is also an important poverty indicator and more efforts should be put towards the empowerment of health clinics and providing the required equipment and medicines.
Clean water access and sanitation can also help in poverty elimination. This has a direct relation with environmental preservation and conservation. This implies that communities ought to get assistance in order to get clean water access and efforts should also be put towards the prevention of environmental pollution. Lastly, ensuring economic security requires consideration since it enables individuals to take good care of families. The implication of this is that when citizens are equipped and trained they acquire important knowledge and skills that help them in fighting poverty by engaging in economic activities. These are among the points that the research body will be addressing.
Information that will be collected from these sources will show poverty status in various regions globally. It will also assist in establishing the efforts that are already in place and being used by various governments and organizations in trying to identify failures. Apparently, many lapses of the measures that different governments and organizations have in place in their efforts to fight poverty been identified. Although many projects are already being funded in areas where poverty index is high, the situation’s prevalence shows that something might be wrong and appropriate ways are necessary to save the situation. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the concentration of this research will be on ways through which poverty can be eliminated. This implies that the study will not consider information about poverty that does not provide poverty elimination methods.
Poverty elimination entails attempts to improve poor people’s lives in a society. Regrettably, aid which is among the most vital tools for eradicating poverty has in some cases been used as the tool for other gains in developed countries. For example, this aid is tied to agreements of purchasing some products from the donor countries. Such agreements have a problem because products that come from the donor nations are expensive and therefore unaffordable to the recipient nations. Technology and health are among the areas which require aid. Nevertheless, it is important to note that using donations in fighting poverty is difficult. In most countries, researchers have forwarded creating opportunities for people to ensure their self-sufficiency as the best means of fighting poverty. For a while, debt relief was used in fighting poverty. This entails canceling debts that poor countries owe rich countries due to the fact that the involved amount is too large. Poor nations can get direct help from debt relief by using the money in vital projects such as health provision and education. It ought to be noted that this has benefited developing countries because debt relief has enabled them to offer medical services freely to citizens.
Among the main factors that can lead to poverty elimination is economic growth. This implies that the measures that are implemented when it comes to fighting poverty should enable the economy to grow. Nevertheless, large businesses are unable to create adequate opportunities that will enhance the larger population’s self-sufficiency. This leads to a point where governments ought to work with an aim of realizing social goals through the encouragement of microfinance. As stated above, agriculture can accelerate self-sufficiency more than other measures. As such, efforts made towards ensuring water management assist in providing adequate water that can be used in agricultural production because this is among the main issues that should be addressed in the war against poverty.
In addition to these concerns, poverty is entrenched in the developing and developed countries due to inequalities of the opportunities of power structures. This implies that most countries have deliberately embraced discriminatory systems in relation to job and educational opportunities that are available. This is an unfortunate scenario because it increases poverty levels. To get out of such a situation, equal opportunities should be availed to everybody in any country so that people can exercise the ability to develop and grow. Unless there are systems that guarantee this in place, eliminating poverty will be difficult in any nation. Additionally, provision of equal opportunities to all people involves cushioning low-income earners. This is because most poor individuals might be in employment but their income is inadequate to enable them to amass wealth. As such, a system that ensures that all people get minimum wage will help in the war against poverty.
Lastly the major issue that will determine poverty elimination strategies’ implementation is good governance. According to the researchers of the World Bank, graft is a serious problem that hinders the elimination of poverty. Good governance relates to rapid economic growth. On receiving aid money, poor countries divert most of this money to private hands. Eventually, this money goes to private accounts overseas. This implies that aids money is not spent on the purpose for which it was intended and this increases poverty levels. If aid money is used correctly, programs for empowering the poor will be accomplished. As such, the governments of the poor countries ought to be effective and accountable in order to accomplish long-term goals in eliminating poverty.
In a nutshell, it is crucial to consider the fact that as a global problem, poverty calls for everybody’s attention. It is apparent that there is poverty in the developing and developed nations. This makes it an international issue. This study will assist in identifying approaches that should be used to help in poverty eradication. Actually, these approaches need the concerted effort of relevant bodies.
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Evolution of Behavior
Human behavior study has developed to become the assessment of the human beings’ past in order to comprehend the future. According to evolutionary psychologists, past adaptations of human ancestors are related to human behavior (Downes 2010). These adaptations helped our ancestors in reproducing and surviving. For the behavior patterns that have been observed in the contemporary world to be understood, evolution needs to be appreciated via which the ancestors passed. To evolutionary psychologists, the brain is a computer that natural selection designs to extract vital information from human’s surrounding (Downes 2010). The brain is an evolved computer which determines the behavior of a person as a way of reacting to the extracted information. As such, to understand human behavior better, cognitive programs which generate behavior should be articulated (Downes 2010).
Adaptations are involved in the brain’s cognitive devices. The activities, survival and reproductive efforts of the ancestors were promoted by these adaptations. Programs for special purposes were developed by the brain via natural selection and in response to certain environmental conditions (Downes 2010). The selection of these programs occurred due to their ability to enhance the capacity of the organisms to survive as well as to yield offspring. Body organs are used by evolutionary psychologists as the psychological mechanisms’ analogy that produces behavior. There is no general-purpose organ of the body. Instead, the body has organs. Every organ performs a certain purpose. Similarly, behavior provides specific advantage to an organism helping it to reproduce and to survive.
Today, there is a behavior that has been observed and its explanation baffles the approach of evolutionary psychologists. Kolbert (2012) explores the variation in the behavior of the Matsigenka tribe’s children in Peru as well as the behavior of Los Angeles’ children in a book entitled Spoiled Rotten: Why do Kids Rule the Roost? She provides anecdotes to the behavior patterns that have been observed. The Matsigenka children are responsible and they make attempts to be useful. The author provides the example of a girl aged 6 years called Yanira. This girl goes on a trip with an anthropologist, Carolina alongside other members of the tribe to get palm leaves that are used in thatching. The observation of Carolina is that though this girl does not play a specific role, she is useful to the group because she cleans sleeping mats, fishing and even stacking palm leaves. She gathers crustaceans, cleans and boils them after which she serves them to other group members (Kolbert 2012). Yanira does not ask for anything from the members since she is self-sufficient.
The behavior of Yanira can be explained by evolutionary psychologists. Her tribe, which resides in the jungle, struggles to exist. As such, children adapt to specific behavioral characteristics while growing and these allow them maximum survival chances in the harsh jungle life. Children who fail to learn self-sufficiency quickly have limited survival chances because the jungle is unforgiving. Yanira exhibits maturity despite being a child. She has developed this maturity due to the demands of the environment that she is accustomed to. Peru jungle’s children have to learn wild survival tactics quickly or they will die. According to evolutionary psychologists, behavior can be explained better in the way through which humans adapt in order to solve specific problems that were faced by the ancestors at some point (Downes 2010).
The behavior of Yanira is a complete contrast of the behavior of Los Angeles’ children. Angelinos depict a unique lack of competence and initiative in performing even simple tasks (Kolbert 2012). Apart from being incapable of tying their own shoelaces, these kids also decline to act as per the instructions of their parents. The feeling of Kolbert (2012) is that American children may represent most indulged kids in history globally with few exceptions. The American children exhibit a behavior that does not provide them with any advantage in their life when it comes to reproduction and survival. This behavior can be a development’s regression. Without chaperons, young people cannot be responsible for themselves. These children cannot cook and they will starve when left alone in a place without food outlets.
Despite being useful in behavior explanation, evolutionary psychology makes some assumptions whose testing is difficult. For instance, if a person can establish how natural selection shaped the brain, then they can understand its functioning (Gottlieb 2012). Nevertheless, scientific studies have shown that knowing an organ’s evolution is not necessary in deducing the way it functions. For instance, biologists do not resort to organ’s evolution in order to deduce the way it functions. To understand the growth of our ancestors’ minds, we just need a notion of their mental equipment. This exercise risks being misinterpreted. Just like Gottlieb (2012) observes, one can have a plausible explanation regarding the way a specific behavior assisted hunter-gatherers in their reproduction and survival. However, this might have been established for various reasons and earlier.
Particular characteristics and behaviors observed in natural settings may lack satisfactory explanations. For instance, human infants have flexible skull bones at birth. These give elastic properties to the head. One can argue that flexible skull bones are an adaptation of the baby which enables it to navigate the narrow canal during birth. Nevertheless, even a chick has similar characteristics despite the fact that it hatches from an egg. As such, such an explanation is incredible. The same argument can be extended to human behavior. This makes identifying a specific reason for a certain behavior accurately difficult. For instance, a wide assumption is that step-children are likely to be abused by a step-parent physically and emotionally. However, a biological parent can also abuse a child of his/her own. An evolutionary reason as to why parents may abuse their own children might not exist.
There is a romanticized look of the past with an aim of establishing the appropriate behavior or lifestyle for the current “cavemen lifestyle” (Goldstein 2010). According to some cavemen lifestyle’s adherents, this can be interpreted to mean consuming large amounts of meat while fasting between the meals in order to estimate the lean periods that were faced by the ancestors between hunts (Goldstein 2010). The comprehension of the lifestyle of cave dwellers is not global. There are different notions that people have in regards to what comprises the routine of the life of cave dwellers on daily basis. There are modern cavemen who take raw meat since their belief is that it represents the diet of the original cavemen.
Caveman lifestyle has a positive aspect because it encourages people to engage in strenuous physical activities. This makes modern cavemen fit. They have fitness regimes that are designed specifically to mirror the caveman’s exercises. The intense activities of the cavemen enabled them to adapt a healthier lifestyle as compared to the lifestyle of the people in modern America. Cavemen have a Caveman (Paleo) diet (Zelman 2012). The claim of those who follow this diet is that there is a genetic programming for people to eat the way cavemen did prior the agricultural revolution (Zelman 2012). This diet comprises of lean meat that is reared genetically, organ meat, fruits, wild fish, nuts and vegetables. This diet discourages sugar, salt and synthetic foods.
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Downes, S. (2010). Evolutionary psychology. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Zalta, E. N. (ed) (Fall Ed). Retrieved on 12 January 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/evolutionary-psychology/
Goldstein, J. (2010). The new age caveman and the city. The New York Times. Retrieved on 15 January 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/10caveman.htm
Gottlieb, A. (2012, September 17). It ain’t necessarily so [Review of the book How much do evolutionary stories reveal about the mind?]. The New York Times.
Kolbert, E. (2012, July 2). Spoiled rotten [Review of the book Why do kids rule the roost]. The New York Times.
Zelman, K. (2012). Caveman diet.WebMD. Retrieved on 12 January 2012 from http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/diet-review-the-caveman-paleo-diet?
PESTEL Analysis for Retail Sector
The PESTEL Analysis is an analysis of six key macro level elements which impact business and the decisions that they make. The retail sector on the other hand entails the sale of goods and services from a fixed location like a departmental store, kiosk or boutique, or through mail in small quantities that are directly consumed by the buyers. Besides, it should be noted that retailing can also include subordinated services like delivery. The buyers can be individuals or businesses based on the product. The PESTEL Analysis looks into factors like political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal.
There are various kinds of political factors for the retail industry. Such factors can be impacting the sector currently and also have an impact in the future. Some of those macro level elements that players in the retail industry need to look into include rate of tax levied by the government, interest rates, political stability, consumer protection and foreign exchange rates for retail businesses that are operating on an international platform.
The economic environment is yet another aspect of PESTEL analysis that is very crucial for the retail sector. All those businesses that fall under the retail sector have to be up to date with the economic situation of the country in order to survive and make profits since when the economy is doing badly, spending habits shift. This in-turn impacts demand and supply.
Social and cultural changes that take place in a country are also of great importance to players in the retail industry. Such changes may have significant impacts on the performance of the sector. For instance, in a country whereby the population is culturally diverse like the UK, retailers have to be on the look out to supply products and services that can suit the various needs of buyers in order to perform well. The retail industry has to know how to manage diversity in order to benefit from the market.
In almost every sector today, technology is taking center stage. For instance, many consumers are today opting to shop online. Thus, it is very important that players in the retail industry are very keen to adapt to the technological changes in order to meet the various needs of buyers. Through technology, retail businesses can develop better relationships with the customers.
Since retailers operate on fixed locations, it is also important to consider the physical environment. Retailers have to be keen on selecting environment that is conducive for their target customers, the location is ideal in determining the number of customers that a business can attract. Besides, retailers should also be keen on the impact that their businesses have on the environment since that too can impact their performance.
For any business, there are always certain legal minimum standards that have to be met. Besides, there are also various pieces of legislations that are made from time to time in order to control the way in which retailers operate. These are important to look into so as to avoid getting on the wrong side of the law.
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PESTEL analysis is an analytical tool that is used for the strategic planning of a business. It is a means through which a business is able to review the political, economical, social, environmental and legal issues that impact its operations. It should be noted that these six factors can either affect a business positively or negatively. In conducting the PESTEL analysis, managers and owners of businesses can follow certain guidelines or answer some questions in order to come up with the results.
In the PESTEL analysis, political factors are mainly external to the operations of a company. They can include elements like government regulations or even the activities of individuals that can impact the performance of the company or business. Through conducting a review of the political factors, a company can determine how increase in revenue will impact its tax liability, the barriers to its entry into new markets based on the existing laws and also the results of its violation of political regulations and laws.
Economical factors are also classified as external in the PESTEL Analysis. When looking at these factors, it is important to note that there are certain economic trends that a company cannot manipulate like consumer income, spending habits, available credit, inflation, interest rates and current money supply levels. However, a company must keep these factors in check and operate within a given boundary in order to match the prevailing economic atmosphere. For instance, taking lots of debts when the interest rates are expected to hike in the future can have very bad consequences on a business.
Social factors of this analysis are related to the cultural trends and demographics in a local economy. It should be noted that demand for goods and services changes as the population ages. Thus, it can be argued that such a population has a higher demand for healthcare compared to electronics. Besides, a constantly growing population a result of higher birth rates or immigration impacts a change in preferences.
Environmental factors highlight the physical environment where a company or business operates. It comprises of natural resources like minerals, wildlife, waterways among others. Besides, companies have to also consider their impact on the environment and the opinion of the public regarding their practices.
Technological factors are of increasing concern in the PESTEL analysis. As the technology keeps changing, it is also expected that a company should adapt to them. A good company or business should always be aware of the emerging technologies in order to take advantage of them. Failure to keep with the changes can give your competitors an upper hand.
Legal factors in PESTEL analysis refer to the future changes in the existing laws and regulations. Governments often add or amend certain laws and regulations that can impact business activities to varying extents. It is very important for every company or business to stay up to date with information on government regulations in order to know how to frame their activities for profitability. For companies or businesses that operate internationally, it is important to consider the laws of other countries as well.
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Political Factors Affecting Tesco
Tesco is arguably one of the largest supermarket chains in the United Kingdom. Thus, it is in the spotlight at almost all the times that decisions need to be made with regards to business activities and other players in the industry. Thus, it is expected that there are quite a number of factors, some political that can impact its operations or the way that it does business. Read through to find out about some of the political factors that impact Tesco.
It should be noted that politics play a great role when it comes to the regulation of business activities. This occurs through laws and legislations that are sanctioned by bodies like the European Union, the UK government and the World Trade Organization. There are several elements that politics can impact like fiscal policy, import and excise duty. Besides, it should be noted that through politics, it can also be easier to acquire infrastructure. For instance, the UK government has been very instrumental in the expansion of Tesco through the provision of good quality communications infrastructure. The UK government has provided broadband and landline phones. Besides, it has also made sure that waste and sewerage is removed from the streets. In this way, Tesco has been able to reduce the costs of its operations and enabled it to open up branches in various localities.
In the UK where Tesco does business, there are quite a number of trade unions that in one way or another can affect the way in which Tesco does business. Employees who are registered with trade unions usually have certain rights that may not be in line with the policies of Tesco. In most occasions, Tesco has not approved hiring employees who are affiliated to certain trade unions on grounds that they impose certain laws that are against the way in which their operations are scheduled to run. For instance, employees who are affiliated to trade unions often demand pay hikes, a move that has not gone down so well with Tesco considering that they are being pushed by trade unions to increase salaries for their employees even when they do not have such plans. In the event that the company fails to deliver the request, trade unions result to industrial action that ends up paralyzing the operations of Tesco.
Through policies formulated by the European Union, Tesco can now enjoy a viable trading platform and even expend its operations to an international scale. This is because the European Union allows the free movement of goods, services, people and capital across all its 27 member states.
When looking at the political factors affecting Tesco, it is also important to look into the aspect of import duty. This type of duty is levied on goods that are imported into a country and affects Tesco considering the fact that it imports some of its products from China and some East Asian nations.
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Technological Factors Affecting Tourism
Tourism is an industry that is considered to be quite volatile and unpredictable. Thus, it can be easily impacted by almost all kinds of factors including social, economic, political, environmental, legal as well as technological. However, this paper specifically examines some of the technological factors that impact the tourism sector. Going by the trends, technology is constantly changing. These changes can have different impacts on the tourism industry.
Technological factors in the tourism industry are quite many and can range from medical developments to the innovation of space tourism. Besides, it is also through technology that communication has been enhanced, an achievement that has been very helpful to the tourism industry. Through the development of better communication technologies, many people have been swayed to engage in tourist activities since it has enhanced safety. In fact, it has enabled tourists to now communicate easily with their families and others at their own convenience, thus, peace of mind. Besides, the development of enhanced communication has also made it much easier for people who are interested in tourism to make bookings and plan with travel agencies at their own convenience. Thanks to technology, tourists can now conduct bookings easily through the internet.
Another technological factor that continues to grow the tourism industry is innovation. It is as a result of technology that tourists can now have a choice of how to enjoy their vacations with regards to traveling vessels. Today, there are spacecrafts that can be used by those who are interested in touring the space and other bodies that people were unable to visit in the past. Technology has greatly enhanced the tourism sector since it has brought in a new life and meaning to the industry. There are even some kinds of equipment that tourists can now enjoy using while on vacation to make their experience more fulfilling.
Infrastructure is yet another technological factor that affects tourism. In the past, many people would not go on tours to certain places as a result of poor infrastructure like road and rail networks, lack of hotels and resorts among others. As a result of technology, better road and rail networks have been developed; resorts and hotels are being developed, thus enhancing tourism activities. However, it should be noted that not all the problems regarding infrastructure have been successfully solved since there are still quite a number of nations and regions lagging behind. This only hurts the tourism sector since it scares away potential tourists.
Technology has led to the development of various kinds of safety gadgets that can be used in the case of disasters. For instance, today it is much easier for tourists to even tell the weather conditions in various places that they plan to visit. This has played a major role in instilling confidence in tourists such that they can now visit various places without worries. This has enabled many people to embrace tourism as an activity. Without such gadgets, not so many people would be interested in tourism.
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Economic Factors Affecting Farming
It is doubtless that farming is one of the oldest professions in the world. Nonetheless, there are numerous economic factors, which affect this profession. Today, farmers all over the world confront a range of challenges in a complex economic environment. For example, customers have access to the global market and have a variety of farm products to choose. Oftentimes, farmers are at the mercy of the weather and economic factors. In this article, we discuss these economic factors, which largely affect farming in the world.
To start with, prices of commodities have far-reaching effects on farming. For instance, the price of some farm products is pegged on factors like the weather and future projections by investors in the market. The demand for these commodities for food and nonfood uses further complicate the situation. In most cases, farmers make profit or losses depending on the rates the buyers in the industry are willing to pay for the products. International factors equally have a hand in determining the price of commodities in the local market because of the existing market linkages globally. Consider the performance of a country’s currency! Under normal market conditions, the strength or weaknesses of the dollar will by far affect prices since farmers compete not only with American producers but also with others from all over the world.
Government policies on levies and subsidies also affect farming industry. For example, the American government gives financial support to corn and soy farmers since the federal policy assumes that mass production of such foodstuffs would keep food prices lower. Additionally, this policy ensures that farmers have a measure of stability and allows consumers to acquire a range of processed goods at affordable prices. This applies to products, which are manufactured from commodity crops under the government’s consideration. The basis of this policy is to encourage farmers to continue continue producing these regardless of market trends and conditions.
Another economic factor that affects farming is labor and immigration legislations. In most cases, most agricultural activities depend on labor that is informal and attracts low pay. Furthermore, migrant farmers living illegally in countries play pivotal role in promoting farming activities. However, their illegality affects their effectiveness in offering value addition services to the industry. Because of the poor pay of most jobs on the farm, most native are not willing to take up the jobs. The baseline of this is that most immigration laws affect farming since they have impact on the availability of labor in a country. In countries like India, famers prefer using the cheap and readily available labor as opposed to machinery. On the other hand, the United Kingdom and Japan utilize machines more because of expensive labor. Here, people on the farm could be skilled or not as long as they can use the available machinery. Common machines include tractors, milking machines and harvesters.
Technology also affects farming in different, with numerous advancements. A common area where technology is applied on the farm is through machines and irrigation. The two types of technology play a major role in increasing agricultural products.
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Economic Factors Affecting Tourism
Tourism plays a major role in most economies in the world. Even though this role varies from country to country, there are various factors, which affect the performance of the tourism industry. In this essay, we shall discuss in details different factors, which affect the performance of tourism.
Firstly, there are many hidden costs attached to tourism, which may in turn have unfavorable effects on the host country. Research however reveals that richer countries have a higher likelihood of benefiting from tourism as compared to those that are poorly developed. While this is the case, most poor nations are usually in need of income and creation of new jobs for their local people and hardly realize these benefits from the tourism industry. This is because most of the tourism revenues are always transferred to foreign countries, leaving host nations in poor economic states. Additionally, tourism leads to exclusion of domestic products and businesses. Thus, some people, or leaders may not embrace tourism activities that negatively affect the performance of their local commodities.
It is important to note that countries support tourism initiatives to get revenues for their economies, which is the expenditure that remains after eliminating taxes, wages and profits. In most countries around the world, about 80% of travelers’ expenditures are directed to airlines, international companies and hotels. When this happens, the local workers and companies hardly feel the fruits of tourism. This is called leakages.
Additionally, local businesses hardly support tourism since the industry affects their businesses. In most cases, tourists go for all-inclusive packages, denying local business people chance to make money from visiting guests. For example, when tourists choose to operate from a resort or cruise ship, they deprive the locals the market for their products. Research shows that all-inclusive accommodation hotels make a lot of money even though they usually have a limited economic impact to the host country.
Additionally, the infrastructure of a country can affect the performance of the industry in different ways. For tourism to thrive in any economy, a country requires good transport and communication networks. For instance, there should be easy international connectivity through airports to facilitate entry and exist of tourists from different parts of the world. No tourist would enjoy visiting a country that lacks connection to leading international cities. This applies to the local transport system, which has to be in good state to attract guests from all over the world. In the event a country ventures into the tourism industry with poor infrastructure, it is likely to incur huge expenses in order to attain standards.
Unlike other industries, tourism offers seasonal opportunities. For example, people prefer travelling during the winter season to other destinations like Africa, which do not experience these seasons. This situation leads to economic challenges for countries, which largely depend on the sector. For workers in this sector, they lack job security, as they can be rendered jobless once the peak season is over. Because of this, some entrepreneurs and governments do not invest heavily in the industry because of its unreliability.
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