Inbreeding refers to the process of producing offspring by mating or breeding organisms or individuals that are related closely genetically. The opposite of inbreeding is out-crossing which is breeding or mating individuals or organisms that are not related. Analogically, the term inbreeding is used in reproduction in human although it commonly refers to genetic disorders as well as other consequences that arise from constanguinity and incestuous sexual relationships.
Homozygosity results from inbreeding. This can increase changes of the offspring suffering the effects of deleterious or recessive traits. Generally, this leads to decreased fitness biologically in a population. This is known as inbreeding depression and the ability of a population to reproduce and survive is greatly reduced.
Individuals that inherit the deleterious traits are called inbred. The main reason for selective out-crossing is avoidance of the deleterious recessive traits or alleles that result from inbreeding. For many years, inbreeding has been used as a technique for selective breeding. Breeders, for instance use inbreeding in livestock when they want to establish a desirable and new trait in their stock. However, they always watch for the undesirable characteristics in the offspring that can be eliminated later through culling or further breeding selectively.
Inbreeding is basically used in revealing the deleterious recessive alleles that can be eliminated via culling or assortative breeding. Inbred lines in breeding of plants are used as the hybrid lines creation stocks. This makes it possible to use heterosis effects. In plants, inbreeding occurs naturally in form of the self-pollination process.
In human beings, offspring of persons that are closely related are likely to suffer the effects of inbreeding including congenital birth defects. Chances of the disorders occurring are increased by the closeness of the relationships of biological parents. This can be attributed to the fact that pairing increases proportion of the homozygous zygotes being produced in the offspring, particularly, the deleterious recessive alleles that produce the disorders.
In populations, majority of recessive alleles are not common. It is highly unlikely for marriage partners who are unrelated to carry the alleles. Nevertheless, due to the fact that close relatives have a large portion of alleles, there is a dramatically high probability that such deleterious alleles will be inherited from common ancestor via both parents.
This is contrary to the common belief that allele frequencies are not altered by inbreeding but instead, it increases relative homozygote to the heterozygote proportion. However, its frequency decreases rapidly in an inbred population due to the increased proportion of the deleterious homozygote allele exposed to natural selection.
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Protein biosynthesis is the process through which biological cells build new proteins and is balanced by loss of cellular proteins through export or degradation. Translation which is protein assembly by ribosomes plays an important role in the pathway of biosynthetic along with messenger RNA generation (mRNA), post-translational modification, co-translational transport and aminoacylation of RNA transfer (tRNA).
Protein biosynthesis is regulated strictly at multiple steps and there are mechanisms for error checking in place. This process is initiated in the nucleus of the cell where specific enzymes unwind need DNA sections which make DNA in the region accessible and a copy of RNA is made.
All cells will function through their proteins and the function of protein is defined by molecular function, involvement of a biological process and localization within the cells. All protein components functions are defined by the exact structure, conformation and composition of the proteins encrypted in the DNA region (known as locus) encoding that protein.
The cistron DNA gets transcribed into RNA intermediate varieties and the last version gets used in the synthesis of polypeptide chain. Protein is also often synthesized directly from genes through translation of mRNA.
When there is need for protein to be available within short notice or in larger quantities, there is production of a protein precursor. Proprotein is an inactive protein that contains one or more inhibitory peptides that can be easily activated when inhibitory sequence gets removed by proteolysis especially during posttranslational modification. An mRNA chain is generated during transcription with one DNA strand double helix in genome as a template. The strand is known as template strand. Transcription is divided into three stages which include:
Each of the stages mentioned above is regulated by a high number of proteins like coactivators and transcription factors that ensure the correct gene is transcribed. Transcription will take place where DNA is held which is the cell nucleus. The structure of the DNA cell so made of two helixes made up of phosphate and sugar held together by hydrogen bonds between bases of opposite strands.
The phosphate and sugar in each of these strands are joined by stronger phosphodiester covalent bonds. Synthesis of proteins from RNA is referred to as translation and it occurs in the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located. The ribosomes make up large and small subunits that surround mRNA. The capacity of inhibiting or disabling protein biosynthesis is used by some antibiotics like cycloheximide, anisomycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, puromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin.
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Protease inhibitor is a class of antiviral drugs widely used in treated of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis which is caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitor prevents viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (for instance HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleave of protein precursors that are important for infectious viral particles production.
Protease inhibitor has been developed or is currently undergoing testing for treatment of various viruses such as the ones listed below:
- Hepatitis C: telaprevir, boceprevir
- HIV/AIDS-antiretroviral protease inhibitors
This inhibitor prevents HIV from multiplying and also reduces the level of virus in the body. Whenever the level of virus in the blood is kept low, the immune system has a better chance of growing stronger and recovering. Protease inhibitor was the second class of antiretroviral drugs to be developed. The first were saquinavir (Hoffman-La Roche) and Ritonovir (Abbott) which were approved in the late 1955 to 1996.
Researchers are carrying out investigations into use of protease inhibitor that is developed for treatment of HIV as anti-protozoals for use against gastrointestinal and malaria protozoal infections:
- Lopinavir and ritonavir combination was found to be effective against infections such as Giardia
- Cysteine protease inhibitor drug has the property to cure Chagas disease common in mice
- Lopinavir, Saquinavir and ritonavir have anti-malarial properties
When protease inhibitor is used as a combination therapy, it helps in the following ways:
- Reduced viral loads that can lead to increase or stable CD4+ cell counts. This is also a sign that the immune system has the ability to fight off any opportunistic infections.
- Helps to decrease the severity and number of opportunistic infections
- Prevents or reduced occurrence of resistance to medication
- Goes a long way to help in prolonging life.
Researchers are also investigating to determine whether protease inhibitor can possible be used for the treatment of cancer. For instance, atazanavir and nelfinavir have the ability to kill tumor cells in culture.
The effect has not been tested or examined in humans yet through studies in a laboratory with mice has shown nelfinavir can suppress tumor growth in these animals thus representing the promise that the same tests can be carried out in humans.
Inhibitors of proteasome like Bortezomb and Velcade are in the front line of drugs that are been used to treat different types of cancer most notably, Multiple Myeloma. Protease inhibitor also has some side effects which include kidney stones, lipodystrophy, diabetes mellitus type 2 and hyperlipidaemia.
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Nucleic Acid Sequence
Nucleic acid sequence is determination of nucleotide bases sequence in a RNA or DNA fragment. This type of sequencing is an indispensable tool for carrying out basic biological research and it is also applied in varying fields like molecular diagnostics, forensics, systems biology, pharmacogenomics and genetic engineering.
By principle sequences are presented from the five inch to the three inch end. Normally, nucleic acids are linear (unbranched) polymers specification of the sequence is equivalent to definition of covalent structure of the complete molecule. Precisely for this reason, sequence and nucleic acid is also termed as the primary structure.
Sequence also has the capacity of representing information. Biological DNA also represents the information that is needed to direct functions of a living thing and in such context, the term genetic sequence is used often. Sequences can also be read from biological raw material though DNA sequencing techniques.
Nucleic acids also have a tertiary and secondary structure. The primary structure of often mistakenly known as the primary sequence. Equally, there is no parallel concept of tertiary and secondary sequence. The analysis of DNA sequence was traditionally accomplished through use of two varying techniques:
- The ddNTP mediated chain termination technique if Sanger (1997
- The chemical degradation technique of Gilbert and Maxam (1997).
Numerous next generation sequencing technologies for DNA have been developed and while this is the case, the traditional nucleic sequence techniques are routinely used in majority of life science laboratories. Obtaining optimal results with the conventional sequencing techniques requires careful reagents selection.
Nucleic acids is comprised of a chain of units that are linked known as nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of 3 subunits which include, a sugar (ribose in RNA case and in DNA case deoxyribose) which makes up the backbone of nucleic acid strand, phosphate group and a set of nucleobases attached to the sugar. The nucleobases are especially important in the base pairing of strands to form tertiary and secondary structure like the famed double helix.
Possible letters in this case include A, C, G and T which represent the 4 nucelotide bases of DNA strand adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine-covalently linked to a phosphodiester backbone. I n typical cases, the sequence are printed adjoining one another without any gaps as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC which is read left to right in the 5 inch to 3 inch direction.
Current methods of sequencing rely on discriminatory ability of DNA polymerases and as such can only distinguish 4 bases. When using current technology, it is difficult to sequence small amounts of DNA because the signal is usually too weak t be measured and this can be overcome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification.
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How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis of a Speech
Having the right guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech helps you to carry out your analysis efficiently. Note that a rhetorical analysis essay is a paper that deeply explores the goals of an author, tools or techniques used, give examples of those techniques and states their effectiveness.
Therefore, when writing your essay, you are not stating whether you agree or disagree with the argument. You are making an in-depth analysis and discussion of how the rhetorician makes that claim and whether the approach he or she employs is successful.
How to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech critically
There are a number of things you should focus on to help you understand how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. It includes the tasks you should carry out when writing your essay. The tasks include
- Determining how rhetoric operates in a speech or text
- To explore deeply how a specific analysis unit operates to achieve the purpose of the speech
- To take a close reading of one key statement or passage
- To answer an important research question about the function and nature of the rhetoric
Being a research question, your rhetorical analysis should therefore focus on finding out more about rhetoric by studying the speech. The research question will therefore, guide your text analysis. For this reason, you should write an essay that contributes to your understanding of how a rhetorical analysis processes work and your understanding of the speech itself.
Therefore, to carry out effective rhetorical analysis of a speech, it is wise that you choose one unit of analysis. It is always your responsibility to choose a unit that reveals the most about the rhetoric speech you are analyzing. The units include
- Logos- appeals to the audience’s logic and reason
- pathos –appeals to the emotions of target audience
- ethos-this includes techniques that make target audience believe that what is said is because of their trust towards the nature of the rhetor revealed in the speech
- metaphors and other comparison modes including similes and analogies
- Tone including sarcasm, academic, irony and sentimental tone and
- Types of evidence used by the speaker and their effect
Procedure on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
Writing a rhetorical analysis is a process and you have to focus on the research question to have a better understanding of what you are expected to do. As a result, it is essential that before you read the speech, go through the research question and have an idea of what to write about in mind
- Find anything that is rhetorical in the text or something that puzzles you
- Take a close look into all units of rhetorical analysis in mind
- Read the speech carefully, note the appeals and illustrate them clearly
- Go through the speech again and list down all metaphors used by the speaker
- Categorize the metaphors depending on what the speaker compares them to
With a list and categories of metaphors in mind, explain them to your readers because they will simply ask the question, so what?
The next rhetorical analysis step to carry out is to discover the effect that the unit of analysis you have chosen has on the meaning. Talk about the effect of the whole speech and how it helps you to address your research question.
Structure of how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
The structure of a rhetorical analysis of a speech should follow the right structure and use specific headings. Each section should be written in a coherent manner to unify the essay. Most importantly, write each section and state its purpose but do not evaluate the speech in the analysis sections. The sections or parts of your analysis should include an
Introduce the author and text or speech you are analyzing
Explain a rhetoric situation and focus on original audience, occasion, context and where the speech was delivered in the first place
State your rhetorical analysis question
Summary of speech
Write a brief summary of the text and explicitly state the purpose of the speaker
Write down the thesis and major points of the speech (always use the terms, thesis, texts purpose and major points in your writing.
The purpose of writing a summary is to help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech and give a sense of rhetor’s points. Your summary doesn’t give audience a complete list of all minor points and examples. In this case, it is imperative that you are specific in your writing.
For instance, instead of saying, he comments on the global situation, it is good to say, he denounces enemies of freedom and applauds new democracies.
This is a major part of a rhetorical analysis and it has two sub-sections
- Unit of analysis- choose and define the unit of analysis you will employ and briefly explain why you settled for it. Go an extra mile to demonstrate that you have a command of the concept to efficiently write your rhetorical analysis. It is also imperative to give quotations as evidence to support your thesis.
- Close reading- this is a skill that a person who knows how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech has mastered. You therefore need to choose one important or key passage in the speech and quote it in full. Re-read it and give it a proverbial fine tooth comb.
-remember to evaluate all appeals including pathos, ethos, logos, stylistic techniques and appeals to the needs of audience as well as values. It is essential to organize this part of your analysis based on the manner in which the speech sentences appear.
Insight into rhetoric
Give an explanation of the speech and explain what it reveals to you about the rhetoric. Here, you need to answer the research question efficiently. How did you analysis support or prove your argument? What is next diachronic or synchronic significance of the speech?
In this section, respond to the text and implications expression your point of view on issues that the speech raises. This enables you to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech that is thoroughly explains your argument. Explain your thoughts about the author’s argument, did it work, give reasons why or not. What is the significance of the text to your work and in your intellectual life?
Analytical techniques to use when writing a rhetorical analysis of a speech
There are different techniques that will help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. They include
Use of a rhetorical canon of invention to develop your ideas- this focuses on a rhetorical situation that a rhetor faced
Use tenor and vehicle rhetorical terms if you find similes and metaphors in the speech
Image analysis is also another technique that helps you to focus the elements of a vehicle and choose the best that matches your speech.
Additional tips to writing your rhetorical analysis of a speech
- Learn to advance your argument by stating your thesis clearly and supporting
- Always make an original argument and reflect on your unique perception of the speech
- Focus on what the speaker said and how he or she said it
- Always choose the most relevant and significant appeal that matches your reading of the speech. It helps you to write an effective rhetorical analysis, make an original argument and write a very compelling thesis
- Read, edit and proofread your paper to eliminate possible errors
Examples of rhetorical analysis of a speech
I Have a Dream- Martin Luther King
I have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, has a simple context. The author, Martin Luther King, is known for his great work in Civil Rights in the 1960’s. the purpose of his speech is to instill or inspire change in both black and white citizens of the United States of America during the Civil Rights era………………………………………………………………..
Borrow more ideas on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech from this essay analysis.
Fight them on the Beaches: Churchill
I myself have full confidence that if all carry out their duty, if nothing is neglected, and is the best preparations are made, as they are being made, we shall prove ourselves once again more than able to defend our island home, to ride out the storm of war and to outlive the menace of tyranny for years. If necessary, alone, at any rate, that is what we are going to try to do…………………………………………………………………
This is a sample of a rhetorical analysis of a speech. Visit the link and see how the author highlights different parts of the speech and use of appeals therein.
Bush 911 Bullhorn Speech
Thank you all. I want you all to know, it that bullhorn can’t go any louder. I want you to all to know that American today, America today is on bended knee, in prayer for the people whose lives were lost here, for the workers who work here and for the families who mourn. The nation stands with the good people of New York City, and New Jersey and Connecticut, as we mourn the loss of thousands of our citizens………………………..
This is a rhetoric analysis of the Bush Bullhorn speech. Read it and learn more on how to do write your analysis.
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Also referred to as argument from design or design argument, teleological argument is an argument that tries to explain the existence of the deity or God based on the perceived evidence of deliberate design in the physical or natural world. The name teleological argument is borrowed from the Greek word, telos that means ‘end’ or purpose. This according to the argument tries to point out that the world is being ordered, meaning that it is ordered towards a certain end or purpose.
This argument suggests that the universe is the way it is because it was created by an intelligent being in order to accomplish that purpose than it is to suppose that it is this way by chance. The use of the teleological argument can be traced back to the times of St Thomas Aquinas. He used the argument as one of his Five Ways of knowing the existence of God. However, the most cited statement of the argument is that of William Paley who likened the universe to a watch, with many ordered parts that work harmoniously to further a certain purpose. In the same way that a watch’s intelligent design can be implied by its order, complexity and purpose, he suggested that it so occurs to the universe.
Today, teleological arguments have been described as quite different to that constructed by William Paley. The reason for this is because, as Paley was particularly impressed by the appearance of design in biological systems like the eye or animals, the teleological arguments that we have today often refer to physics for evidence of design. Modern teleological arguments tend to emphasize on the fact that the universe is exactly as should be or ‘fine-tuned’ to support life.
Apart from just demonstrating the existence of God, teleological argument also exposes shortcomings in the evolution theory. This gives an advantage to modern design arguments over Paley’s in that they are less vulnerable to attacks based on the theory of evolution. It objects the argument by Paley that evolution can explain the appearance of biological design that involves, evolutionary processes, however, do not apply to the laws of nature.
Over the years, there have been several criticisms of the different versions of teleological argument. Of great concern are the general logical arguments made by David Hume in publication of 1779 titled, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, and also the explanation of biological complexity given by Charles Darwin in his Origins of Species publication of 1859. Today, the teleological argument is crucial to the creationist religious concepts of intelligent design and creation science, which are presented with the allegation that they are alternative explanations in opposition to the evolution theory.
The teleological argument operates on the assumption that one can infer the existence of intelligent design through mere examination, and since life is reminiscent of something a human might design, it too must have been designed. However, the design claim can be challenged as an argument from analogy.
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The Ontological argument is an argument for God’s existence based entirely on reason. According to the argument, there is no need to wander around looking for physical evidence of the existence of God; we can easily work out that he exists just by thinking about it. Ontological argument purports to be an a priori proof of the existence of God. The argument was first proposed by St Anselm of Canterbury in the 11th century. His main aim was to refute claims by some people that God does not exist. In his view, the atheist is not just mistaken but internally inconsistent.
St Anselm in his proposition of the ontological argument claimed to have derived the existence of God from the concept of being than which no greater can be conceived. He reasoned that, in case such a being fails to exist, then a greater being –namely, a being than which no greater can be conceived, and which exists- can be conceived. However, this would be absurd in that, nothing can be greater than a being than which no greater can be conceived. Thus, a being than which no greater can be conceived- i.e. God exists.
The ontological argument asserts that that idea by some people that God does not exist is just as absurd as the idea that a four-sided triangle does. According to the argument, we can easily tell that the claim that God does not exist is false without having to look into it in any detail. The claim that God does not exist is self contradictory. The argument further points out that, to call something that is not all-powerful God would be like calling a shape that does not have three sides a triangle, which would not make any sense.
According to the ontological argument, God is perfect and all-powerful. If something is perfect, then it could not possibly be better than it is, there cannot be anything better than perfection. If we think of God as perfect, then we must think of God as a being that cannot be imagined to be better than it is. It is therefore, impossible to conceive either of there being anything much greater than God or of it being possible to imagine God being better than he already is.
Despite several people having supported the Ontological argument, it has also received its fair share of criticisms. For instance, Immanuel Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason claims that ontological arguments are vitiated by their reliance upon the implicit assumption that existence is more of a predicate. However, as Bertrand Russel observed, it is much easier to be convinced that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them. This helps in explaining the reason why ontological arguments have fascinated many philosophers for over a thousand years. According to another critic, Gaunilo of Marmoutiers, using the analogy of a perfect island, he suggested that the ontological argument could be used in proving the existence of anything.
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Intrinsic Value Vs instrumental Value
Intrinsic value and Instrumental value have been a case of seemingly contrasting ideas in ethics, since philosophers began debating the subject of philosophy. Instrumental values are those values that are merely meant to achieve an ethical decision. Intrinsic on the other hand, are values that are understood as human nature. The two make up the philosophic argument of whether or not a particular value refers to means-to-an-end, or an end itself.
When making comparison between intrinsic value and instrumental value, it is important to note that intrinsic value simply refers to something worthwhile not because it leads to something else, but due to its own sake alone. This can be simply expressed as Good-in-itself. Instrumental value on the other hand, is something considered as a means to some other good, i.e. it a lead to something else that is good. For instance, money can be termed as instrumental good since it can lead to pleasure.
In terms of instrumental value, every idea or concept is an action that leads to value. For instance, reading is an action and it leads to the value of happiness. The next question would be where happiness leads or is it a value that is good in itself. The debate over that is from the belief that on one hand, happiness could be an instrument to make us feel content. However, to some, it simply could just be the end. Thus, it can be said that the classification of certain values as either intrinsic or instrumental vary.
Instrumental values can be direct and indirect means of observing intrinsic values. This is plausible suggestion since instrumental values are basically a means to an end while intrinsic values are the end. Thus, it can be said that the two can as well fit in together. An example would b of a man being happy while spending the day with his family. Spending time with family is the instrumental value that leads to the intrinsic value of being happy. The fact that the two fit well together calls to question whether or not there is an agreement between the two values at all.
Instrumental value is quite easier to spot and define. However, an intrinsic value can be very challenging. The idea that an intrinsic value is something that a person cannot explain why it is a value, apart from merely being a value, is an issue of debate. It is hard to explain or even accept that something can be good in and of itself, and that there is no any other reason for its good. However, if people only consider their core beliefs as intrinsic and everything else as instrumental, intrinsic values begin to clear up.
While the two ideas appear to be in contrast, they fit together almost quite well and can be termed as mutually exclusive. From their arguments, it can be concluded that instrumental values can lead to intrinsic values.
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CREB Binding Protein
CREB binding protein is also called CREBBP or simply CBP. It is a protein that is encoded by CREBBP gene in humans. CREB binding protein performs its roles through the activation of transcription. In this process, CREB domains manage the interaction with the transcription factors.
These are the interaction of nuclear receptor and (RID) domain, domain (KIX) interaction with MYB, and CREB interaction with nuclear receptor, regions TAZ2/CH3 of the histidine/cysteine interaction with MYB and domain (IBiD) that binds interferon response.
CREB protein domains TAZ1, KIX and TAZ2 bind to the sequence that spans both the transactivation domains 9aaTADs of the transcription factor p53. Genes are expressed ubiquitously and they are involved in transcriptional co-activation of various transcription factors. At first, they are isolated as the nuclear protein used in binding to the CAMP-response of element-binding protein (CREB).
The isolation plats a crucial role in the development of the embryo, control of growth as well as homeostasis through coupling of the remodeling of the chromatin to the recognition of transcription factor. The protein that this gene encodes has an intrinsic activity of histone acetyltransferase. It is also acts as the scaffold that stabilizes interactions of additional protein with transcription complex.
The protein acetylates non-histone proteins and histone proteins. It shares the high-sequence similarity regions with the protein EP300 in the bromodomain, histone acetyltransferase domain and regions that are rich in acysteine-histidine.
Studies reveal that CREB binding protein and p300 play an active role in hundreds of various transcription factors. There is a latest model that suggests that binding of the co-activators to the activation domains of transcription factor positions the histone acetyltransferases close to specific nucleosomes that are in the target of regions that promote gene. Interactions with the components of the machinery of general transcription such as the TFIIB, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II have been suggested to have a role in the function of CREB binding protein function.
Simultaneous interaction of different transcription factors with the CBP/p300 is also suggested to have a contribution in transcription synergy. Conversely, CBP/p300 binding competition has been said to mediate some instances of transcriptional repression that is signal induced.
Although an overview of cellular growth of CBP/p300 and differentiation has been published, there are several questions regarding the role of CREB binding protein in transcriptional regulation that are still not answered. For instance, there is no strong evidence to indicate that CBP as well as p300 have different functions and that they are regulated by phosphorylation.
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Wisdom to help you choose Where to Find Good Samples of Thesis Statements
A thesis statement is a sentence, which usually comes at the end of your introduction paragraph and states your main idea. It plays a major role in written assignments, as it determines the flow of ideas within the paper. Notably, a thesis statement is not merely a topic of discussion. It denotes an opinion you intend to defend throughout your paper using authentic evidence. Because of the challenge in drafting this sentence, you need to figure out where to find good samples of thesis statements to become an excellent writer.
This manual has different sections to help you find quality examples of thesis statements from reliable sources.
See what we have for you briefly:
- Tips for writing good thesis statements
- Pros and Cons of sourcing thesis online
- Selected examples of good thesis statements
- Reliable sources of thesis statements
Read on and follow these guidelines to overcome all your writing challenges.
Tips on where to find good samples of thesis statements without any hustle
Writing is a skill you acquire through learning and practice. For freshmen, it appears to be a tall order but a walkover for veterans. Once you master the art of paper writing, you forget about constant stress from writing assignments.
However, knowing where to find writing help will become handy when you are stuck. From the people around you to someone in a different continent, you can receive writing solutions from anywhere in the world.
Who can help you write a better thesis?
Your professor – make your lecturer your friend, draw from their vast knowledge, and experience in writing. Seek assistance at any time to enhance your writing prowess.
Your classmates – Your friends and the people studying the same course will help you master some concepts after the lecturer has left. Make good use of discussion groups, to give you forums to teach one another, identify your areas of weakness and strategize on turning weaknesses into strengths.
Seek online help – With the advent and massive usage of the internet, you can get all you need online. You do not have to worry about where to find good samples of thesis statements because the solutions are on your Smartphone. However, as we are about to see, online sources have a range of challenges and benefits.
Finding good thesis statements from the internet
Have tried the internet when handling writing assignments? It is a cool place with solutions right in your search engine. What is more, you only need internet connection to link with writers from all over in the world. Here are the merits of the internet as a source.
Internet saves time – internet has become an instant answer for students worldwide. Why spend endless hours in the library or miss your friend’s party because of an essay. It allows you enough time to attend to other tasks on your ‘to do list.’
Internet is convenient – Imagine getting your research paper at your study table or in a cyber café without altering your busy schedule.
Internet has professional writers – Depending the company you consult, the internet can be a source of standard assignment solutions, which the requirements of your lecturers.
With all these benefits of the internet your source of writing help, you must be ready to visit some of the selected sites for excellent and unmatched products and services. Take a look:
Example of top Essay sites
With these recommended companies, establishing where to find good samples of thesis statements should no longer trouble you.
Why you should be wary of the internet when looking for sample thesis statements
While the internet will offer you numerous advantages when handling written assignment, it equally poses a range of challenges and threats, some of which could be shatter your career dreams.
Disadvantages of online source of writing help:
Internet exposes you to scammers – Using the internet for writing help can land you into the thirsty online fraudsters who prey on unsuspecting clients. Since most of these companies know that you are desperately seeking help, they will promise what they cannot offer before disappearing into the thin air as soon as you pay. Be cautious when browsing the net for assignment help.
Online companies are extortionists – it is almost impossible to find an online company that offers excellent services with affordable rates. They will charge you exorbitant prices that do not match the services they offer.
Unreliability – Online sources of help can be a big disappointment when you need urgent help. Since they are operating virtually and you cannot reach them physically, finding reliable help could be a problem.
Maneuvering the internet for your thesis statements
Surviving online is not easy. You need wisdom to overcome issues of fraudsters, poor quality, unreliability and extortion among others. Besides equipping you with skills to hone your writing skills, this handout is also an important tool to use to overcome the above challenges when considering where to find good samples of thesis statements.
Here are undisputable online tricks for you
Seek help from online libraries
The web is replete with libraries that guarantee you quality and professional assignment help. Established libraries in the world offer helpful learning materials to better your writing. You will also find reading materials, sample papers. In cases where these facilities require subscription fee, it is worth your dollars because of what they deliver.
Some of the top libraries in the world to think of include the following:
- The Morgan Library & Museum, NY, USA
- Seattle Central Library, Seattle, WA
- New York Public Library, New York
- Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Canada
Use university websites to get your writing help
Close to libraries are leading universities in the world, which offer online research and writing help. Do not struggle with your thesis and other written assignments when you can get assistance from renowned learning institutions like Harvard University, Stanford University, Cornell University, University of Chicago and Purdue University among others.
Do background check before hiring online services
Before selecting a company, find out more about its products and services through reviews. Know what previous clients say about the company in terms of reliability, quality and prices.
You do not want to risk your PhD paper with a company that is fresh in the market with no track record. From these findings, it will become easier for you to narrow down to a trusted source, which will not disappoint you in the end.
Things that make a thesis statement strong to support your argument
With the above discussion on places where to find good samples of thesis statements, it is important to know the attributes of a good thesis statement. This will help you:
Firstly, to identify the best sample thesis statement from a collection of several options
Secondly, this knowledge will enhance your writing skills in all aspects
Examine the following attributes of a good thesis statement:
It should be arguable – A strong thesis statement presents a contestable point, which allows the audience to disagree. At its minimum, a good thesis statement should be provocative. Make a strong claim and gather enough evidence to support your argument.
It is specific – A good thesis statement focuses on proving a single point without addressing every topic of your field. Ensure that you narrow down to an issue in order to orient your readers. Being specific will further help you to determine the scope of your paper. Your paper should not be too broad to drain you or too narrow to limit your argument.
A good thesis asserts your conclusion using evidence – as you work on your paper, be flexible and ready adjust your thesis statement so that it rhymes with your paper, including the conclusion. Do not be among students who never revisit and evaluate their thesis upon completing the assignment.
It anticipates a counterargument – As you draft your thesis statement, expect opposing views
It does not use vague language – Be confident. Avoid phrases such as ‘it seems’
Do not use first person- Avoid the use of ‘In my opinion’
With these attributes, you will have a clear mind even as you think of where to find good samples of thesis statements.
Examples of essays with good thesis statements worth your time:
If you are wondering where to start from in your search for good thesis samples, here are selected essays with clear and provocative arguments. Read on and see how the above tips we have discussed come into play.
- BP Oil Spill: Major Public Relations Issue
- Cloning of Embryos
- Effects of Ageing on Cognitive Development
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Capital Gains Tax
Capital gains tax refers to a type of tax that is levied on capital gains that are made by individuals or organizations. Capital gains are profits that an investor is able to make when he or she sells the capital asset under his or her ownership for a price that is more than the price at which it was purchased. To most investors, the tax levied on capital gains is viewed as a control measure to regulate the profits made by them.
Taxes that are levied on capital gains are not levied when an investor holds an asset but only when it is realized. For instance, an investor can have shares that increase in value each year but will not incur any capital gain tax on them until when they are sold. As a result of this, investors are able to hold on to their shares and only sell when they have made enough money from them. To most investors, this is an advantage since it gives them an opportunity to prepare and sell the shares only when they are sure that taxes will not affect their trading activities.
In most countries, the tax laws require investors to remit capital gain taxes. However, the laws on capital gains taxes vary from one state to another. The variations can be on when the tax should be remitted, the rates among other aspects. For instance, in the United States, individuals and business organizations are only required to remit capital gain taxes on the capital gains that they make annually. This gives investors the whole year to be able to trade with their shares and only pay taxes on capital gains at the end of the financial year.
When looking at capital gains tax, it is very important to note that only the net capital gains that are subject to tax levies. The reason for this is because, if a particular investor sells two stocks in the course of the year, one at a profit and another at a loss, the amount of capital loss that is made from the losing share or investment will counteract the capital gains realized from the profitable investment. The most common capital gains today are incurred from the sale of bonds, stocks, property and precious metals.
It is always in the interest of every investor to make profit from every investment. However, it should be noted that declaration of capital losses on tax returns can be an effective consolation prize in most occasions. Capital losses have very mild effects on earned income in the subsequent tax years, but can be wholly applied against capital gains in the future. It is always important that investors should first familiarize themselves with the prevailing tax laws before making any investments. This will help in strategizing on how to best do business without working just to pay taxes. With better knowledge on tax laws, you can be able to determine the best investment venture that can be profitable.
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Commonwealth of Independent States Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
The Convention of the Commonwealth of Independent States on Human Rights and Fundamental freedoms was opened for signature on 26 May 1995 in Minsk. The convention was signed by seven of the twelve states that are members of the CIS on the same day. These seven states included Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Russia, Tajikistan and Moldova. Since then, the convention has been ratified by the Russian Federation, Kyrgyzstan, Belarus and Tajikistan. It came into force on the 11th August 1998. This went down on the same day that the third instrument of the convention’s ratification was deposited by one of the member states, Belarus.
There are 38 articles in the Commonwealth of Independent States Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. One of the articles that are of great interest in the Convention, Article 11 states that:
- ‘’Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas by any legal means without interference by a public authority and regardless of frontiers.’’
- ‘’The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions and restrictions as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, public safety or public order or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.’’
The CIS Convention on Human Rights aims at the formation of a control mechanism; a Human Rights Commission of the states that are members of the CIS that can aid in the monitoring of the execution of the treaties signed in the convention through the issuance of recommendations. The commission is made up of appointed members that represent the state parties.
Since this convention came into force, there have been concerns from the Council of Europe regarding the legal implications that it may have for states that are ratifying it and the European Convention on Human Rights. The main area of concern has been on how the two can coexist without stepping onto each other’s mandates. This is particularly with regards to situations where the Commonwealth of Independent States offers less protection compared to the European Convention on Human Rights, both based on the body enforcing it and also the scope of its contents.
The Commonwealth of Independent States Commission cannot offer a guarantee of impartiality and independence to the tune of what is offered by the European Court of Human Rights. Besides, it recommendations do not enjoy the same enforcements like the judgments issued by the given court. As a result of all these issues, the Council of Europe advised its members and even those states that have made applications to become members, and also parties to the CIS not to sign or undertake any ratification of the CIS Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
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Commonwealth of Independent States
The Commonwealth of Independent States is a regional organization that brings together sovereign states. Formed in 1991, the organization currently includes states like Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The member states, while forming the organization, declared their interaction on the basis of sovereign equality. The CIS is a regional organization whose formation was triggered by the fall of the Soviet Union.
The Commonwealth of Independent States was formed when the elected leaders of three nations; Russia, Belarus and Ukraine signed an agreement to form a new association that would take the place of the former United Soviet Socialist Republics. It after signing the agreement that these three nations were subsequently joined by the Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and the others mentioned above. Among the nations that made up the former Soviet Union, there are three that declined to be part of the organization. These include Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.
The Commonwealth Independent States officially began operations in January 1992. The organization designated the city of Minsk, Belarus to act as its administrative center. This association of states was created with the aim of not only being a symbolic union but also one that exercises coordinating powers in trade, finance, security and law making. Besides, it has also been instrumental in the promotion of cooperation when it comes to the prevention of crime across the borders of member states. In order to come up with a fully-fledged common market, some of the member states have moved forward to form the Eurasian Economic Community.
The main functions of the CIS are to foster coordination of the policies of member states with regards to foreign relations, economies, immigration policies, defense, environmental protection and law enforcement. These are aimed at enhancing economic, social and political stability amongst the member states. However, this may not have been effectively achieved since just seven years after the formation of the organization, one of the member states; Georgia withdrew. The withdrawal of Georgia in 2009 was as a result of the hostilities that escalated between her and Russia that is still a member of the CIS.
The top governing body of the Commonwealth of Independent States is a council that is made up of the heads of states of the member states. These include the presidents and prime ministers of the states that form the organization. They are assisted by the committees of cabinet ministers from the member states in key areas like defense and economics.
When coming together, the member states made a pledge to keep all their armed forces and nuclear weapons in one station with a single unified command. However, this did not work well as planned. The integration of the countries that are members of the Commonwealth of Independent States is executed through its coordinating institutions that include executive bodies, charter bodies and the organs of branch cooperation of the CIS.
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Freedom of Information Act
The Freedom of Information Act is a law that gives any citizen of the United States the authority to gain access to information that they may need from the federal government. To most people, it is described as the law that keeps people in the know about their government. Through the law, you are able to ask for certain information regarding government business or activities that you need and access it. The Freedom of Information Act has been viewed by many as one of the vital parts of American democracy.
The Freedom of Information Act was enacted and signed into law by President Lyndon B Johnson on July 4th 1966. However, it only took effect one year later. Despite the freedom that this law gives citizens to obtain federal records on request, there is an exemption that should be keenly noted. The freedom is restricted to certain information or records of the federal government that are protected from public disclosure. In case it is just part of the records that are protected, the particular agency that is issuing the records shall punch that section out and provide you with the rest. In fact, there are nine exemptions to this statute that one is required to know of.
Since there are various agencies that are charged with handling federal government records, it is always required that you know the particular one that can provide you with the information that you need. It is important to be sure of the agency that deals with the information that you need in order to make it much easier for you. According to the Freedom of Information Act, agencies have a mandate to disclose any information that is requested provided that it is not protected. Besides, the law also requires that agencies automatically conduct disclosure of certain information, including those that have frequently been requested.
The administration of the Freedom of Information Act is by the Executive Branch under the command of the President. However, the Information Policy office at the Department of Justice is charged with making sure that agencies are compliant with the directives set out in the act. Through the Executive and this office, various federal government agencies are encouraged to always be very transparent when it comes to responding to requests by citizens to access certain records.
Freedom of Information Act sets out the procedures for obtaining federal government records from the relevant agencies. It is also important that you get to know these procedures to avoid inconvenience and any problems that may arise in the course of making a request. The law also sets out penalties that can be awarded to any agency that acts in a manner that hinders the process of obtaining federal government information. For instance, if an employee or staff at an agency acts in arbitration with respect to withholding the information that you need, the mater can be taken to court and in case he or she is found guilty, disciplinary action can be awarded.
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Freedom of Religion in Malaysia
Freedom of Religion is one of the fundamental human rights that are embodied in the Malaysian constitution. According to Article 11 of the Federal Constitution, ‘’every person has the right to profess and practice his own religion.’ Each person is accorded the right to propagate the religion that they choose; however, federal law may exercise control or restriction on the propagation of any religious doctrine or belief among Muslims.
The same constitution that allows freedom of religion in Malaysia points out that Islam is the religion of the nation but other religions may also be practiced in a peaceful and harmonious manner. Despite this, the subject of freedom of religion in Malaysia is one that has been dodged with lots of controversies over the years. The issue of Malaysia being an Islamic or secular state remains unresolved. This issue has brought contentions and even tried to tear apart the relationship that exists between the various races present in Malaysia.
The Malaysian government generally supports Islam and religious establishments that conform to the Islamic faith. However, Sunday that is considered as the traditional Christian holiday is officially the weekend holiday in ten of the thirteen federal states. This is contrary to what happens in the Muslim countries especially in the Middle East. Having Sunday as a weekend holiday is a deviation from the traditional practices of Islam that were existent in the colonial era before non-Muslim immigrants started coming into the country.
Muslims exercise protection over their freedom of religion through Sharia law and Islamic courts. This makes it challenging and almost next to impossible for adherents to denounce the religion. However, there are no restrictions when it comes to converting Christians or people of other religions to Islam. In public schools, religious studies are mandatory for all Muslim children according to a curriculum that is approved by the government. Homeschooling is allowed in Malaysia but primary school is compulsory to all children who have attained the recommended age.
Despite the confusion that exists in freedom of religion in Malaysia, there are various religious holidays that are officially recognized like Hari Raya Haji (Muslim), Hari Raya Puasa (Muslim), Wesak Day (Buddhist), Thaipusam (Hindu), Deepavali (Hindu), Good Friday (Christian), Christmas (Christian) among others. With all these, one can be easily convinced that there is freedom of religion in Malaysia. However, there are more underlying issues that also need close scrutiny before that declaration is made.
Based on some of the events and revelations that have transpired in Malaysia, it cannot be justified that there is freedom of religion. Take a look at some below:
- The High Court in Malaysia in 1999 ruled that only the Islamic courts have the jurisdiction to decode on the religious conversion of Muslims.
- In April 2000, a sharia law subjecting those who defy the Islamic faith to one year of ‘rehabilitation’ was passed by the State of Perlis.
- Many Muslims who have opted from the faith to Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism among other religions are currently leading ‘double lives’ for fear of segregation and neglect from family and friends.
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