Getting Started: How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Thesis Statement
No sentence of your essay can be annoying and hard to complete as a thesis statement. This is because a thesis is that sentence that servers as your paper’s backbone, giving you direction and controlling the scope of your argument. Without a strong thesis statement, you will not go far with your written assignment. What complicates the matter is that thesis statements vary from course to course and from discipline to discipline. From rhetorical analysis to research papers, a thesis statement bears a lot of weight. In this guide, you will find tips on how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement.
Coming up in this handout:
- What is a rhetorical analysis thesis statement?
- Developing a rhetorical analysis thesis statement
- Attributes of a good rhetorical analysis thesis statement
Spare a few minutes of your time and go through this guide. You will need this tool throughout your course. What is more, share it with your friends and cause them to love rhetorical analysis homework. Are you ready? Let us hit the road…
Stepwise guide of how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement
Many authors fumble when writing rhetorical analysis because of the inability to organize their thoughts in a logical manner and defend their arguments. To overcome this, you need a functional thesis statement that offers direction to your paper from the interlocution to the conclusion.
Immediately after an interesting and brief introduction, you must state your position in one sentence. This sentence, which comes toward the end of your intro, is the thesis statement. It mainly gives a summary of your argument.
What a thesis Statement does During Rhetorical Analysis
Orients the reader – From the interlocution, the person reading your essay will know your purpose and the importance of the subject matter.
It is a roadmap of your paper – as you develop your paper, a thesis statement ensures that you remain on track. Without a good thesis statement, you are likely to get off the tangent, miss the mark and end up with something different from a rhetorical analysis essay.
Gives answer to the question at hand – As you work out on how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement, remember that your main business is to provide solutions to the question asked of you.
It makes a disputable claim – A thesis statement is not a flat statement but an arguable statement with the potential to a spark a discussion among readers.
Developing a strong thesis statement in rhetorical analysis
You may be wondering if there is a known formula to use when drafting a thesis statement. While many authors dispute its existence, this handout got you sorted. We have a systematic approach to follow and have your thesis in a few minutes.
Let us examine some of these steps:
Read the text or watch the movie – You can only envisage an argument over a document, when you understand what you are analyzing. So, take your time to read and read the text to get the author’s main point plus the rhetorical appeals he employs to change the attitude of the audience towards the topic. For films, sit down and watch the movie, keenly following the plot.
Establish relationship between facts – As you read the text, bring out the facts, which the rhetorician uses to back his case. For instance, look out for contrasts and similarities in the document. Once you have these relationships, try to get their significance.
At this point, you should have a tentative thesis, which you can develop and support with evidence from the text. Always remember that mastering how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement takes various forms. Therefore, feel free to adjust to steps that befit you to complete the task ahead.
Writing a specific and clear thesis statement for your rhetorical analysis
Among other attributes, an excellent thesis statement should be specific and clear. A specific statement points out your main idea, which you intend to support in the rest of the paper. Make it clear so that everyone reading your intro gets a full picture of what you are talking about without developing conflicting mental images of the issue at hand.
This is how you should declare your intentions:
State the rhetorical methods the author uses. The basis of rhetorical analysis is bringing out rhetorical appeals, which a rhetorician uses to pass his message. Pinpoint these strategies in your thesis and wait to flesh them out in the rest of your paper. Do an evaluation of the author’s success or failure in using logos, ethos or pathos to woo the audience.
Adopt a narrow focus of your essay. As you think about how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement, bear in mind that you cannot cover everything in the text within your essay. You must identify those areas that matter most. You may also consider a complex approach to get enough materials to discuss and support your argument.
Endeavor to present an original argument. If you choose to follow a particular path in your essay, stick to the path and delve into the document to get all the details you need to cement your claim. Since rhetorical analysis is about your evaluation of the author’s effectiveness in persuading reader, your analysis should be as unique as possible.
Avoid passing judgment on the text. A good way to state your position on the text is to use words like ‘successful’, unsuccessful, ‘effective’, ineffective, etc. Do not be the judge and say if the author did a bad or good job.
More tips on how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement
To write a good thesis statement for your rhetorical analysis, focus on the tone and the main argument in the text. At the end of it, your paper should clearly bring out the rhetorician’s style, target audience and his effectiveness in applying various techniques to influence the opinion of the audience.
Your thesis statement must therefore resonate with the main purpose of your rhetorical analysis essay. The following hints on how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement should help you understand this better.
STEP 1: Brainstorm about your topic. Take time and think about all the possible angles of the piece you want to analyze. As you do this, note down the author’s tone, appeals, and arguments. As you do this, be sure to deduce the target audience, the author’s goal and the most appealing elements of the text that are worth discussing in your analysis.
STEP 2: Narrow your brainstorm. Condense your brainstorm such that you only have the main ideas, which you intend to explore and defend using proofs in the rest of the paper. Ensure that your argument highlights reasons why the author was successful or unsuccessful in making his case. Was his tone effective?
STEP 3: Craft your thesis. At this point, come up with a strong thesis that gives an overall view of your argument, which you are set to pursue in your rhetorical analysis essay. Take a clear position on the author’s style, tone and application of different appeal strategies.
The secret is here is to compose several thesis statements, with varying tones and styles. By this, you will be able to come up with a strong and excellent thesis statement.
STEP 4: Adjust your thesis. As you gain deeper understanding of how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement, keep in mind that your thesis must be in harmony with your argument. Since your argument may change from what you had before, revisit your thesis statement and make necessary changes. After this, you can comfortably say that you have worked on your thesis successfully.
Examine the following example as you reflect on the above steps:
“In “Why I Won’t Buy an iPad (and Think You Shouldn’t, Either)” the author uses facts about Apple, his expertise and appeals to the needs of consumers to persuade potential buyers of iPad that Apple limits their digital rights by determining the content they can use on the devices.”
This is a thesis statement of a rhetorical analysis by Bethany Jensen, a Professor York. The writer makes it clear about his position on the effectiveness of the author to win his audience.
With this example and various approaches that we have discussed in this handout, you should find no difficulty when developing your thesis. Make these basic principles of how to write a rhetorical analysis thesis statement, your study tool to turn around your performance. Hope this helps!
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Consumer movement refers to the effort of consumer protection promotion through a social movement that is organized and which exists in several places. Usually, consumer organizations are at the front position of such a movement. It also advocates consumer rights especially those that are infringed through actions taken by governments, organizations or other firms that provide services and goods to consumers.
Where it started
The first conference on an international scale was held in 1960 March in The Hague. Several consumer organizations participated in the conference and five of these signed papers creating the International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU). Consequently, as a result of that conference, the global movement was formed.
The term “consumer movement” is used in writing and is comparable to “consumerism”. Consumerism is a traditional term and one that is practiced by modern day age consumer organizations. It refers to progression of consumer protection which includes passing of customer protection laws by legislators.
Additionally, it includes educators teaching consumer policy, product testers who ensure products are within the desired quality standards and regulators who policy consumer laws. Note that consumer movement is non-profit group and it promotes the interests of consumers through reformation of practices upheld by corporations or government policies. Therefore, consumer movement is described as a subset of “consumerism” discipline.
The United States
During the 1960’s, US lobbyists of the Chamber of Commerce and the National Retail Federation begun using “consumerism” referring to the movement in a hostile and depreciatory manner. This was with the aim of denigrating the movement and Esther Peterson’s work in her position as the Special Assistant to the materialism and commercialism President. The term has an ideological foundation and some of the people who were behind the idea of the movement include:
- Ellen Swallow Richards who pioneered home economics
- Upton Sinclair who raised public interest in the protection of consumers
- Herbert Hoover who demanded that products should be tested and insisted on the need for application of technical standards in product manufacture
- Thorstein Veblen who introduced advertising theory and conspicuous consumption concept
Historians recognize the publication “Your Money’s Worth by Stuart Chase and Fredrick J. Schlink as the event that led to establishment of consumer movement. The publication of the book, according to historians was innovative leading to introduction of product testing concept which forms the basis of modern day age consumer movement.
Consumer movement is believed to have its origins in the US. From the 1960’s through to the 70’s scholars started recognizing consumer activism “waves” setting the stage for a whole movement to be born with the purpose of protecting consumer interests.
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Comparative advantage is the economic theory regarding probable trade gains for firms, individuals or nations arising from their technological or factor endowments. An agent enjoys comparative advantage over a competitor if they are in a position to produce goods at low relative autarky price or opportunity cost which is the lowest marginal cost before trade.
The theory is a classical one and it was developed in 1817 by David Ricardo. It explains why some countries prefer to international trade regardless of the fact that workers in their countries are efficient in production of every good compared those in other countries. He further made the demonstration that when 2 countries with the capability of producing 2 commodities engage in free market then each country increase its consumption through export of the product it has an advantage over while they import the rest of the goods.
However, this is as long as there is exists a difference in productivity labor between the two countries. This theory is viewed as the most influential but counter-intuitive theory, it implies comparative advantage is what greatly influences international trade and not absolute advantage. Further, the theory holds that as long as one partner has the capability to produce products at a faster, cheaper and better pace, then they enjoy absolute advantage.
Nations fear to participate in free trade because they are aware of the fact that it is easy for them to be out-produced especially if the other countries have comparative advantage in varying areas which can boost imports rather than exports. This theory therefore stipulates countries are supposed to specialize in specific products for purposes of exporting and import the rest as long as they hold absolute advantage over such products.
This theory can best be illustrated through use of simple examples. For instance, if A is skilled at making cabinets and painting and they spend a day either building a cabinet or painting a picture they have comparative advantage over B who has the same skills but takes one day and a half to construct a cabinet or 3 days to paint. This example is also true in cases where trade is carried out at international level.
Britain offered its support to the theory by outsourcing food (Importing cheese, grains, meat and wine) and shifting focus on manufactured goods for purposes of exporting as such, making it the workshop of industrial revolution. In a nut shell, comparative advantage theory encourages nations to participate in free true trade and also pay attention to areas they have high advantage rather than bolstering weak industries through imposing tariffs that only serve the purpose of stifling production that could lead to overall wealth gain.
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How to Write an Analysis Paper
Knowing how to write an analysis paper is very important because your instructor will most likely tell you to write an analysis of a specific work at some point during your academic career. The purpose of an analysis paper or essay is to examine a work and sometimes evaluate it. See more at by following this link. Doing this entails breaking down the work into components and examining how they contribute towards ensuring the effectiveness of the work. When you know how to analyze any work, you can easily examine how different elements of that work function and appreciate them better.
For instance, you can analyze a poem in which you deal with different images and how they relate to each other enabling the poet to convey the main message in a more vivid manner. When writing an analysis paper of a play, you can examine how subplots relate to the main plot. You can also analyze a tragic hero’s character flaw and how it is revealed in different acts of the entire play. When analyzing a short story, your paper can include the identification of themes and how they are suggested by the writer through his or her viewpoint. You can also explain the attitude of the main characters in the play towards women and how it is revealed via actions or dialogue.
A four steps guide on how to write an analysis paper
Write the introduction
The introduction of an analysis paper should capture the interest of the readers. It should bring their focus to the subject of your analysis immediately. The introduction should also provide important background details of the work under analysis while preparing readers for the major thesis- follow the link here for more information. Come up with an introduction that includes the work’s title, the author’s name and main theme’s explanation. You can also include details of the main characters and the setting. The main thesis of your analysis paper should come at the end of the introductory paragraph.
Write a strong thesis statement
Come up with a thesis statement for your analysis paper that tells readers what they should expect from your paper. Your thesis statement should be precise and restricted in its wording. It should be a declarative sentence stating the purpose of your analysis paper. If you do not craft a good thesis, your paper will have minimal success chances.
Therefore, come up with a thesis statement that:
- Suggests how the author reveals the theme while showing how the paper is organized.
- Relates the paper to the main theme of the work under analysis.
A thesis statement can be too large to fit in a single sentence. In such a case, use two sentences to express it.
Write the body paragraphs
The body of your analysis paper is where you support your thesis statement. You cannot claim to know how to write an analysis paper if you do not know how to write body paragraphs of an analysis since the body of an analysis paper is where the supporting details are presented. For instance, the body paragraphs can have concrete explanation, analysis or details of the topic sentence which are basically the main points of the analysis paper. Every paragraph in the body should basically have a topic sentence, textual evidence from the work under analysis, commentary, and a concluding sentence.
- Topic sentence
This is the first sentence in a body paragraph. Note that a body paragraph is also called a support paragraph because it supports the thesis statement. This sentence identifies an aspect of the thesis statement and supports it with an aim of showing why the thesis statement is true.
- Textual evidence
This is an example that is drawn from the work under analysis and it provides evidence for the stated topic sentence. Textual evidence may comprise of combined paraphrases or direct quotes from the subject or work under analysis.
This is simply your interpretation and explanation of the stated textual evidence. Your commentary should tell readers the meaning of the text and/or how this proves the stated topic sentence. The commentary can include an analysis, interpretation, insight, reflection and/or argument.
- Concluding sentence
This is the last sentence in a body paragraph. It should conclude the body paragraph by properly tying the evidence to the stated thesis statement.
While writing the body paragraphs, remember that an analysis paper should focus on the text under analysis closely. It should not introduce your original reaction, discussion, thought lines or opinions about the ideas of the author- follow the link for more information. If you quote anything from the work under analysis, use clear quotation marks.
Write the conclusion
Your analysis paper should have a properly-written conclusion. This is the last paragraph of the paper and it should start by echoing the main thesis of the paper though it should not do so using the exact words. Broaden your conclusion from the stated thesis to show how your paper has answered the “so what?” question.
Among the things that the conclusion of your analysis paper should accomplish include:
- Reflect on the way the topic of your analysis paper relates to the work under analysis.
- Evaluate the success of the creator of the work in accomplishing his/her goal.
- Provide your personal statement towards the work or the topic.
- Connect the work to your creative opening
- Make predictions
- Give an opinion of the work or its significance.
While writing your analysis paper, consider your subject as a varied, vast terrain where each square foot differs from the next with the differences having subtle meaning. As such, you have to go past simple gut reaction and do something that is more nuanced and be attentive to finer details of the work under analysis. Knowing these steps on how to write an analysis paper alone is not enough because your knowledge of the work or subject that you are required to analyze is also important when it comes to writing an excellent analysis paper. You also need to look at the work under analysis severally to understand it properly before you analyze it-follow the link here for more information.
Bonus hints and tips for writing an analysis paper
To write a good analysis paper, you need time, critical thinking and effort. You have to evaluate the work carefully considering more details below the surface. Writing a good analysis paper also requires you to read the work and understand its facets.
Here are tips that will enable you to come up with an excellent analysis paper:
- Select a topic for your analysis paper wisely
You need to select a straightforward topic for your paper especially if you are allowed the freedom of selecting an angle or topic for your paper. Conduct some research of the material under analysis then choose a topic that will fit your analysis paper or subject better.
- Start your analysis early
You need time to read and understand the work before you analyze it. Read the work severally taking notes so that you can understand its aspects or elements and how they work together to accomplish the goal of the creator of the work. After reading and taking notes, review the notes while being more detailed. Make sure that the final paper that you come up with is not vague or general but specific and detailed. Assess the materials once your ideas start taking shape to determine if the angle that you have taken is the right one.
- Write a strong, effective thesis statement
The kind of a thesis statement that you write will tell readers whether you know how to write an analysis paper from the introduction and whether they should read your paper. A thesis statement usually comes at the introductory paragraph where it provides a preview of the analysis paper. It also grabs the attention of the reader. As such, your thesis should be straight to the point, narrow and specific. Its structure should enable it to present exactly what will be discussed in the paper. Therefore, take time to draft a strong, effective thesis statement for your analysis paper.
- Back up your argument
Thesis statement will basically present your argument. However, the body should support your argument as presented by your thesis statement. Therefore, cite examples from the work under analysis directly to support your argument- follow the link for more information.
- Write a precise conclusion
An analysis paper should not be wordy. Make sure that the paper and the conclusion provide a detailed account of the analysis of the work or situation. Sum the analysis with a precise conclusion.
- Use a good example of an analysis paper
Using a good analysis paper sample and the guidelines highlighted in this section is a surefire way that will enable you to grasp the steps on how to write an analysis paper. You can find a good analysis paper example online. Here are links to sample analysis papers that you can easily find online; McDonald’s competition analysis 2013 and Renaissance Paintings’ details analysis by Andy Warhol- ualr.edu.
Get help with your analysis paper
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How to Write an Analysis of an Article
Knowing how to write an analysis of an article is an important academic paper writing skill that you should have for better grades. Writing an article analysis involves proper understanding, arguing out of ideas expressed in the given piece of work, and presenting them in a way that your audience can get and relate to. Continue reading for greater insights on how to write an analysis of an article.
Writing an article analysis is a better way of enhancing your analytical and writing skills. Basically, such a paper requires you to carefully read or study the given article in order to determine the aims of the author and how they have been brought out therein. Finally, you will have to discuss what you have come up with from the article to readers.
An article analysis can take the form of a typical essay paper, thus, the writing process should not scare you. By mastering the skills on how to write an analysis of an article, you will be able to easily craft various kinds of academic papers since the formats are more or less similar.
In fact, knowing how to write analysis essays can be a greater way of developing your oral and written communication skills. These will be used even long after school in your area of work.
Guidelines on how to write an analysis of an article
An analytical essay or article analysis is just like any other academic paper with an introduction, body and conclusion. However, there are certain aspects that you should highlight in the analysis in order to ensure that it serves the intended purpose.
The following tips will give you more pointers on how to write an analysis of an article.
Read the article properly
Many students are always not very keen when reading articles for analysis and this can negatively impact the quality of your work. Take time to carefully read the article from beginning to end in order to get all the facts right.
When studying the article, remember to take notes, highlighting key phrases or statements that stand out in the text. The marked phrases will be useful in brainstorming and even formulating the thesis.
In simple terms, you should highlight the following key elements while reading the article:
- The thesis of the author
- Main ideas of the piece of work
In case there is some part of information in the article that you are not conversant with, it should also be marked and well researched on before writing.
You can read the article as many times as you wish to ensure that you get the context for proper analysis.
Do more research
Although much research is not always needed in writing an analytical essay, you should go ahead to investigate other pieces of work related to it. This will help you in getting a broader view of the subject of analysis.
Try to find various responses to the argument expressed in the article to be to get a better understanding of the work. Information from alternative sources can also offer you more ideas for writing the analysis.
When researching ensure that you only focus on specific material that is related to the subject of your analysis. Besides, do remember to list the sources that you have obtained information from for easy reference.
Organize your ideas
Based on what you have read from the article and ideas obtained from various sources about the subject, it is important to narrow down your points. When doing this, you should take note of the main elements of an analytical paper.
A good analysis of an article should show readers that you have read, understood and logically argued out the arguments of the author. The best approach to take in organizing an analytical paper is chronological order.
First choose a stance on the subject of the article in order to have a clearly defined thesis to be addressed in the essay. Using the thesis, you can now select the key points and evidence that will be used to prove it in the paper.
It is also advisable that you identify the appeals used in the article, if any. The most commonly used ones include pathos, ethos and logos. These should be identified, with evidence or examples from the article to support each.
Take time to carefully read through the outlined points, identifying strengths and weaknesses from different angles in order to deliver a good analysis paper.
Steps on how to write an analysis of an article
After making an outline for the analysis, you can proceed to presenting a detailed discussion in the paper. The following procedures will direct you on how to write an analysis of an article with so much ease.
The first part of your analysis should open with an attractive statement that can compel readers to read on. Besides, it should also precisely tell readers about the article to be analyzed, its author, date of publication and other basic information about it.
The opening paragraph should also point out some interesting facts about the topic so your readers can see the importance of reading your analysis. The thesis or your main argument should come towards the end of the introduction paragraph.
The introduction can simply identify the topic of analysis, give your stand and reason to support it, and express a contrary opinion. However, your key argument should be vividly stated in the intro. Besides, you can also tell readers how you plan to present the analysis.
In this section, you should give a comprehensive and logical analysis of the given piece of work. Formulate a short discussion, indicating the main points used by the author in delivering the message contained in the article.
It is advisable that you give examples to support your argument from the article. For every paragraph, you can include two or three examples. However, the number will depend on the point being addressed and article.
In writing the body, you can also simply write a short description of the article’s organization.
Always dedicate a new paragraph for an idea in order to enhance proper flow of the analysis and also make your work more appealing.
Wind up the analysis by giving your final judgment on the subject of the essay. The conclusion should also restate your thesis statement to remind readers of the purpose of the analysis. Besides, you can also give a short recommendation on the analyzed article for further improvements or research.
Examples of Article Analysis Papers
In order for you to know how to write an analysis of an article, it is also advisable that you read sample article analysis papers. The following are samples are written by professionals and will offer you more ideas on how to go about writing an article analysis.
Sample Analysis of an article; ‘’The Case against the Death Penalty’’
‘’In the article, ‘’The Case against the Death Penalty,’’ which appears in Crime and Criminals: Opposing Viewpoints, Eric Freedman argues that the death penalty not only does not deter violent crime but also works against reducing the crime rate. Freedman says, ‘’The death penalty not only is useless in itself, but counterproductive…’’ (140). This paper will analyze Freedman’s article from the viewpoints of a middle-aged working man, a poor person, and a politician…’’
To read the rest of this sample analysis paper, simply click here.
Analysis of ‘’The Paralyzing Principle,’’ by Cass Sunstein
‘’In the article, ‘’The Paralyzing Principle,’’ Cass Sunstein argues that, as a normative guideline to creating and implementing policy, the strong version of the Precautionary Principle is inept. The author claims that the Precautionary Principle cannot be an adequate guide towards determining a regulatory course of action because the principle will warn against any action, and even against non-action, in almost every given case. Sunstein then argues that the strong Precautionary Principle is a commonly referenced justification for implementing regulation because of human biases that have the tendency of masking the logical implications of the principle itself…’’
Click here to read the entire sample analysis.
Sample Literary Critical Analysis of, ‘’The Road Not Taken.’’
In the genre of poetry, there are many well-known works that society have come to love. Among them, ‘’The Road Not Taken,’’ by Robert Frost, is one of the most famous. As a deep and eloquent allegory for the struggle of choice in everyday life, Frost is stating that choices about one’s future are challenging to make, and predictions toward an outcome are often mysterious.
Frost introduces two roads diverging in the woods, alluding to the point in life when a choice of many must be made…’’
Read the rest of this sample analysis on this link.
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Spontaneous order is a theory that has been reserved in the history of social thought for several years. It is a still a relevant theory that many refer to in their daily lives. The theory can simply be defined as an order that emerges from a situation that seems chaotic. The order mainly results from voluntary activities of persons and not imposed on them by a particular authority like the government. Some people refer to it as self organization.
Spontaneous order occurs when people are left to make their own decisions based on what they feel suits them. For instance, when there are no regulations for entrepreneurs such that they are able to visualize the needs of the people on their own and come up with investments (products and services) that can satisfy those desires. According to most people who propose spontaneous order, it is much better and very productive compared to relying on a few individuals who consider themselves as elites.
When discussing the spontaneous order, it is ideal to bear in mind that there are two main elements that are can qualify it. One of them is that the order does not result from activities that are deliberately contravened by humans. Besides, it does not originate from phenomena that are purely natural like the weather. It is mainly the result of human activity and not an execution of human formulation.
At some point, some people often confuse spontaneous order with an organization. The difference between the two is that a spontaneous order is a network that is scale-free while an organization is a network that comprises of a hierarchy. Besides, it should also be noted that a spontaneous order is created and controlled by nobody. It is not in the power of any person to control spontaneous orders even though they result from human activities.
There are several examples that can be used to illustrate spontaneous order. According to non philosopher named Hayek, an example of a spontaneous order can be market economies. He argues that based on the requirement of specifics of information, market economies cannot be designed by any human mind. For instance, price of commodities in the market are defined by several factors that can be determined by buyers through their individual knowledge. Buyers do not have to rely on a centralized authority for information, thus prices are crafted for the benefit of society.
The idea of spontaneous order is not intuitive but emphasizes that when people are left alone, good things are deemed to come their way. Even though some people may be considered to be stupid, it still does not add up to argue that decisions made by a select few can be of benefit to the greater population.
Over the years, there are quite a number of developments that have been made based on spontaneous order. Some of them include Michael Polanyi’s argument that science is a spontaneous order, Friedrich Hayek’s assertion that the brain and common law are both spontaneous orders, Troy Camplin’s argument that literary productions and art are spontaneous orders.
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Neoliberalism is a phrase that is used in reference to a set of economic policies that have been widely popularized in the past 25 years. Through these policies, a situation is created whereby the rich grow richer while the poor continue to languish in abject poverty. This mainly occurs because through neoliberalism, the control of economic factors is moved from the public to the private sector. Thus, only handful individuals who already have some sort of power are able to make their way up in terms of economic gains.
Neoliberalism offers a suggestion that governments should cut down deficit spending, exercise limitation on subsidies, limit protectionism, privatize businesses that are run by the state, back deregulation and give and give way for private property developments. When looking at the concept of liberalism, it is also of great importance to bear in mind that it can as well be used in reference to religious and political ideas. However, the phrase neo suggests a new form of liberalism that gives capitalists the opportunity to make as much profits as they can even if it is at the expense of the majority of the population.
There are main points that one should always base their arguments when defining neoliberalism. One of them is the rule of the market. Neoliberalism seeks to excuse private enterprises from any bonds that may have been imposed on them by the state irrespective of the social impacts that it is deemed to cause. Besides, it also aims at reducing wages through de-unionization of workers and elimination of their rights. Besides, it also looks towards removing price controls, and ensuring free movement of goods, services and capital.
Another basic aspect of neoliberalism is that it significantly reduces the public spending on vital services like education and healthcare. In fact, it ensures that the government’s role in providing almost all kinds of essential services like road maintenance, water supply is withdrawn. With this, the safety nets for the poor are completely removed so that they are open to oppression. Neoliberalism is aimed at reducing government regulation of anything that has the potential of diminishing profits so that capitalists can make as much as they wish.
Neoliberalism also proposes that the state should sell a greater part of its assets like industries, banks, toll highways, hospitals, schools among others to private investors. In order to avoid public suspicion, all these are conducted under the banner of enhancing greater efficiency. However, the result is that it concentrates more wealth in just a few hands such that the public is pushed to paying more in order to meet its needs.
When all the issues highlighted above are brought together and successfully executed, the concept of community or public good is completely eliminated. Neoliberalism imposes a concept of individual responsibility whereby each and every person is entitled to use their own means to survive. Apart from just being used by governments, neoliberalism has also been imposed by many powerful institutions around the globe like the IMF, Inter American Development Bank, World Bank among others.
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How to Choose the Best Essay Format
Knowing how to choose the best essay format is very important because essays form an important part of your overall academics. To write good essays, you need creativity, imagination and have a good structure of your thoughts. Format refers to the way something is set out or arranged-follow the link oxforddictionaries.com for details. An essay format therefore refers to how a composition or essay is set out or arranged.
The basic format for essays considers essays as five-paragraph compositions or projects. Although this format is not the only one that is used in writing essays, it is useful as a model that should be kept in mind especially while starting to write essays- ckick here for more information.
Knowing how to choose the best essay format enables you to organize information properly
When writing an essay, it is important to ensure that every aspect of the essay is of the highest quality. You should ensure that the structure or format and style of your essay are correct to guarantee excellence and quality for your essay. By following the right format while writing your essay, you will be able to organize the information that you want to pass to the readers according to its importance or relevance.
When you follow the right essay format, you start your essay with an introduction that grabs the attention of the reader, introduce your thesis or the main point and elaborate the supporting points before wrapping up the message in a well-written conclusion. The right format also enables you to reference your information sources in a professional manner.
How to choose the best essay format and stick to it
The best essay format is the one that your teacher or lecturer assigns in the essay writing assignment.
To choose the best format for writing your essay:
- Read over the instructions of your essay writing assignment to find out if there is any information that specifies the essay format to use.
- Go through your course syllabus searching for information that might be indicating the right format for the essays written for that particular course.
- Ask your lecturer or teacher which format you should use in writing your essay.
In addition to the basic essay format, there are other formats like the APA format, MLA format, Harvard format and Chicago format. You can easily find websites that provide guidelines for using each of these formats online. Therefore, if your teacher or lecturer has not taught you how to use the specified format, use the internet to learn more about it.
Get your essay format right before you start writing your essay
Before you start drafting your essay, start by understanding how to use the best essay format. This is because if your essay fails to depict all aspects of the assigned essay format, the examiner will consider your essay as poorly written and therefore he/she will not even bother to read it keenly. Failing to follow essay formatting guidelines or instructions tells the examiner that you are incapable of following simple instructions. Thus, your examiner will judge your essay formatting ability and the content instantly. Therefore, pay close attention to the simple guidelines for formatting your essay before you start writing the essay and while writing it. After writing the essay, go through it carefully to ensure that you have adhered to all instructions of the format that you choose for your essay.
How to choose the best essay format on the basis of your essay type
Teachers and lecturers usually specify the kind of the essay that they want students to write. If your teacher or lecturer does not specify the format that you should use, choose a format for your essay on the basis of the kind of the essay that the assignment requires you to write. Be careful to ensure that the format that you choose is the best for your essay type. To do this, consider the target audience and purpose of the essay. Also understand the subject of your essay.
For instance, you cannot write an argumentative essay for a topic that states universal facts. It is also impossible to write a persuasive essay that tries to convince readers on something that already exists as an accepted fact. On the same note, a compare and contrast essay should have two things that have differences and similarities. Therefore, choose the format of your essay on the basis of the type of an essay that you are required to write, its purpose and topic. Traditionally, essays follow narrative writing, argumentative essays, cause and effect essays as well as compare and contrast essay formats.
Commonly used essay formats
APA and MLA are the most common essay formats. With APA essay format, essays ought to be typed and double-spaced on a standard-size paper. All sides should have 1inch margins. The used font should be clear and highly readable. 12 points, Times New Roman is the recommended font. A page header or running head should be included at the top of the pages. Page numbers should be flushed to the right while creating the running head which is the shortened essay title’s version. It should not be more than 50 characters inclusive of punctuation and spacing- follow the link for more information.
With MLA format, essays should be typed using 12 points Times New Roman as the font. They should be double-spaced without extra spacing between paragraphs. The upper corner of the essay on the left side should have a heading which should be your name, name of the instructor, your class and date. An essay written in MLA format should have margins of one-inch at the bottom, top, right and left. In every page, there should be a page number and last name of the author at the upper corner on the right side. The essay should have a centered title under the information on the header. First line of every paragraph ought to be indented for half an inch or five spaces. The text of the essay should be aligned left- follow the link ivcc.edu for more information.
The basic essay format
Most guides on how to choose the best essay format emphasize the importance of having the basic essay format in mind while writing an essay. With the basic essay format, your essay should have the following sections:
- The introductory paragraph
This is the first paragraph in an essay and it should capture the attention of your readers and get them involved in the essay. It should introduce the essay topic and include a thesis statement which tells readers what your essay is all about. The introduction should have general ideas to enhance comprehension of the topic or main claim by the readers before becoming specific in the thesis statement- follow the link uvu.edu for more information.
- Thesis statement
Thesis statement should be included in the introduction and it should state the main argument or idea of your essay, set the limit of your topic and indicate essay organization. It should work as the road map for your entire essay.
The main points or point presented by the thesis statement should be supported in the body. Each major point is developed in the body using one or even more paragraphs which provide more details. The provided details can be experiences, research findings and examples depending on the requirements of your essay writing assignment. Each paragraph of the body should have a topic sentence at the beginning, supporting details and the concluding sentence.
These are words or sentences that connect paragraphs in an essay. They maintain the smooth flow of the information of an essay. They can be two or one word such as “next”, “first” and “in addition”.
The conclusion section of an essay brings the main points together. It should refer readers back to the stated thesis statement. After reading the conclusion, readers should be left with something to think of and a sense of logical closure of the essay. The conclusion should show readers that the ideas that the essay brought up have been resolved. It can also address the argument’s implications.
If the essay includes research, credit should be given to the used sources using a references, works cited or bibliography page and in-text citations. How the used sources are given credit depends on the chosen overall format. Therefore, refer to the guidelines of MLA format, Chicago format, Turban format or APA format to know how to cite the sources that you use in writing your essay depending on your chosen format.
When you know how to choose the best essay format, the essays that you write will have coherence and unity. Sticking to the best format enhances the understanding of the reader because it makes your essay easy to read and ideas easy to follow.
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Visual merchandising refers to the manipulation and use of attractive sales merchandise or displays and floor plans in engaging customers as well as boosting the sales activity. It entails displaying the products that are being sold in ways that attract customers or capture their attention to the benefits and best features of the products.
Both services and goods can be sold using this strategy. A marketer needs to highlight the benefits and features of the service or product that they are marketing in the best way possible. The main aim of visual merchandising is to capture the attention of customers, attract, engage and motive them so that they can make a purchase.
Although visual merchandising is common in retail spaces that include trade shows and retail stores, it dates back to the 19th century. For instance, the giants of the 19th century such as the Marshall Field & Co. adopted visual merchandising as a way of attracting customers after shifting to retail business.
This company used the windows of their stores to display merchandise attractively. Eventually, the design beauty that was used in the window displays was moved indoors. This later became a part of the design of the interior stores and it reduced display windows in most suburban malls.
Visual merchandising is established on or used to augment the store’s retail design. In most cases, it is used as a way of setting a store in a manner that makes it appealing and attractive to customers. Visual merchandisers use different elements in creating the displays. These include lighting, color, product information, technologies like interactive installations and digital displays as well as sensory inputs that entail appeals to sound, touch and smell.
Methods of visual merchandising include the use of style and color, rhythm and symmetry, side and face presentation among others. Tools of visual merchandising include a floor map that helps a visual merchandiser in finding the best location for colorful stories of the footwear, clothes or garments in their shop. A floor map is like a floor plan.
There are different forms of visual merchandising. These include shelving, point of sale display, food merchandising and window displays among others. In an already saturated market, grocery stores, restaurants and convenience stores employ visual merchandising as a way of differentiating themselves from competitors. Window displays are used to communicate content, price and style to potential buyers.
The main goal of visual merchandising is to help in making sales. Visual merchandising gives a presentation of an image of what or who a shopper will be while or after using the displayed merchandise. When done properly, visual merchandising helps in converting walk-by shoppers into walk-in customers.
Nevertheless, visual merchandising requires artistic knowledge, creativity and understanding of the store design to be effective. Color plays a crucial role in attracting and converting potential shoppers into buyers or customers. This strategy makes a retail space the most efficient and most productive salesperson.
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Import Substitution Industrialization
Import substitution industrialization is an economic and trade theory that advocates for the replacement of foreign imports with products that are produced domestically. The premise of this theory is that a nation should try to reduce foreign dependency by producing industrialized products locally. Emerging markets and developing nations employ this economic theory to decrease dependency on the developed countries by increasing their self sufficiency.
The focus of countries that employ this theory is on the incubation and protection of the domestic infant producers or industries to enable them to emerge as the producers of goods that can compete with those of the developed countries. This policy also enhances self-sufficiency of the local economy.
Import substitution industrialization emerged during the post-World War II era in the Latin American nations. It uses different avenues that include subsidized loans from the government, tariffs and import quotas. Countries that practice import substitution industrialization policy aims at developing production channels for each stage of product’s development instead of focusing on the final products only.
This theory is considered as being counter-comparative advantage theory. Comparative advantage theory entails the specialization of countries in the production of items that have a specific advantage and engaging them in the international trade.
Import substitution industrialization theory has been advocated for by various economists including Friedrich List from the 18th centuries. However, it is used primarily in reference to the development economic theories of the 20th century. Its enactment is associated with the Global South countries that aimed at creating internal markets using this theory.
Import substitution industrialization works when a country leads in its economic development via subdivision of major industries, power generation and nationalization, embracing highly protectionist policies in trade and increasing taxation. Developing countries abandoned import substitution gradually from the 1980s to the 1990s as a result of structural indebtedness that was caused by policies that are related to this economic and trade theory. The World Bank and the IMF insisted that these countries abandon the theory by introducing market-driven liberalization structural adjustment programs in the Global South.
Although import substitution industrialization theory is considered as a development theory, it has political implementation as well as theoretical rationale. Some experts have argued that some or all industrialized nations followed the import substitution industrialization theory at some point. Mercantilist economic practices and theory adopted by some nations in the 18th, 17th and 16th century frequently advocated for the establishment of domestic import substitution and manufacturing.
Hamilton economic program especially the magnum and report opus by Alexander Hamilton advocated for self-sufficiency of the U.S with regards to manufactured goods. The American School is based on this program and it acted as an influential force during the industrialization of the United States in the 19th Century.
Nevertheless, economists have proved that although import substitution industrialization theory has apparent gains, it also produces high social and economic costs.
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Emissions trading which is also known as cap and trade is an approach that is market based used for purposes of controlling pollution through provision of economic incentives for reduction in emission of pollutants. A central power (often government body) is mandated with the task of setting the limit or cap on the pollutant amount that should be emitted.
This limit is sold or in some cases allocated to firms usually in form of emission permits that represent the appropriate discharge or emit. Firms are supposed to have a couple of permits that are equivalent to the level of emissions they make. The permits number should be more than the set limit or cap that limits average emissions to the stated level. Firms interested in increasing their emissions volume must be willing to buy the permits from those in need of few permits.
Permit transfer is known as trade and in effect, buyers pay a polluting charge while sellers are rewarded for their reduced emission. Consequently, those in a position to reduce emissions do so cheaply and they are able to achieve reduction of pollution at the lowest possible cost to the society.
Emissions’ trading is preferable because:
- It is an economically efficient strategy for attaining the desired emission target or reduction cap
- It is designed specifically to deliver an environmental objective.
- It delivers a price signal that is clear and against which abatement investments are measured.
There are various air pollutant programs that are active. For instance in the case of greenhouse gases, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme is the largest and its purpose is that of avoiding climate change that is dangerous. In the US, a national market is available for the purpose of reducing acid rain and numerous regional nitrogen oxides markets. Other pollutant markets however are often small and far localized.
The major goal of any emissions trading is minimization of costs associated with meeting set emissions cap or target. Usually, the cap is a limit that is enforceable and it is lowered over certain duration with the aim of reaching reduction target at a national level. In some of the systems, the proportion of traded permits should be periodically retired leading to net emissions reduction over time.
In most of the emissions trading systems, organizations that don’t pollute and with no obligations can also take part in trading. Therefore, environmental groups have the right to buy and retire emission permits driving the price of those permits remaining high in accordance to demand law. Corporations might retire allowances prematurely as well by donating such to non-profit entities and hence be eligible for tax reductions.
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Commercial revolution refers to the era of European colonialism, mercantilism and economic expansion. This period lasted from the thirteenth century till the start of the eighteenth century and was succeeded by industrial revolution in the middle eighteenth century. Europeans made the rediscovery of silks, spices as well as other commodities which were rare in Europe. Because of this development, the longing for trade was created and in during the second middle Ages half, trade expanded.
Through discovery voyages, European states were searching for new trading routes during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries allowing European powers the opportunity to build new and vast networks for international trade. Additionally, nations also sought after wealth sources. New economic practices and theories were also created for the purpose of dealing with the new found wealth.
As a result of the contending national interest, Europeans were driven by the desire to increase the power they had over the world through colonial empires. In essence, commercial revolution was marked by increases in general commerce as well as the expansion of financial services like insurance, investing as well as banking.
There are two circumstances that led to commercial revolution. Overseas trade preceded commercial revolution and it had many consequences which included Britain’s fleet expansion. This was an English phenomenon however the Scotts became highly engaged later on. Trade went through 3 long growth periods. In 1475-1550, existing English broadcloths markets and that of other woollens expanded rapidly due to the fact that import regions had become prosperous and they even enjoyed great purchasing power. Secondly, there was rise of new trades due to cheaper English sugar re-exports, calicoes and tobacco which created new markets.
The term commercial revolution was coined during the mid twentieth century by Roberto Sabatino Lopez, an economic historian for the purpose of shifting attention from English Industrial Revolution. In one of his best books “The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages” (1971 available in various reprints) the author argues the key contributor to medieval period was creation of commercial economy by the Europeans which was centered on Italo-Byzantine eastern Mediterranean. Eventually though, this extended to Italian city states as well as other areas of Europe.
The revolution lasted from the thirteenth century through to the eighteenth century. Historians such as Robert S. Lopez, Irving W. Raymond and Peter Spufford indicate the revolution begun in the 13th century and not later. There were several factors that contributed to this period and they include technological, monetary as well as geopolitical factors. During this period the center of European economy shifted from one that was Islamic Mediterranean to Western Europe. This change was a result of successful Africa circumnavigation which opened sea trading with the east.
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Also referred to as the Scopes Monkey trial or the Scopes Evolution trial, Scopes Trial is a trial that started on July 10th, 1925. In the trail, John Thomas Scopes who was a high school coach and substitute teacher was charged with having violated the Butler Act by giving lessons on the theory of evolution to his students. According to the act, it was regarded as offensive to teach about any theory that was against the biblical theory of creation. Thus, Thomas Scopes was charged with going against the law by teaching his students that man had descended from apes.
The trial of Thomas Scopes occurred in Dayton, Tennessee. However, it is indicated that the trial was a move that had earlier on been planned together with other events in order to raise public attention. Those who orchestrated the events were local businessmen whose main intentions were that from the publicity stunt, they would be able to get more money trickling into the town. One thing about the entire trial is that the defendant was not even sure of whether he had at one point in time, taught his pupils about the evolution theory.
Just as expected by the businessmen who orchestrated the Scopes Trial, the events attracted many reports from the region. In fact, the trial became the first one to be broadcast on radio. Thomas James accepted to incriminate himself and undergo trial in the hope that the Butler Act would be challenged by the American Civil Liberties Union. Many students were encouraged to testify against Scopes during the trial. At the conclusion of the trial, Scopes was found guilty and fined $100. However, the verdict was later on thrown out after an appeal. The impact was that for the next five years, all textbooks in Tennessee were not to bear any mention of the phrase, evolution.
The ruling of Scopes case was a victorious signal for anti-evolutionists. As a result of the ruling, the law would remain in place for the next 42 years. However, it was repealed in 1967. The ruling came as a scare to many teachers such that teaching evolution in class was forgotten. It was only after the act was repealed that evolution began appearing in textbooks and being mentioned in classrooms.
As expected by the orchestrators, the Scopes trial drew a lot of publicity that eventually was good for business in town. The streets that led to the local courthouse were filled with hawkers, vendors and people doing various kinds of businesses. In fact, even booksellers made a killing from the trial since many people were flocking the courts to get a piece of the story. Evangelists too were not left out, most created open-air tabernacles where they encouraged the faithful to read their bibles.
The Scopes trial brought into the light, a trial as well as a theological contest on whether it is right to teach modern science with regards to the creation theory in schools.
Franchising Pros and Cons
To many entrepreneurs who have been successful in building business empires, franchising is an option that may be running through their minds. Franchising is one of the ways of expanding a business and you too may be moved to try it out. However, it is very important to note that just like any other models of business, franchising also has its benefits and demerits. Getting to know them will help you as an entrepreneur to make an informed choice on whether to franchise or not.
One of the pros of franchising is that it can be helpful in obtaining new talent for good business. Many people who are highly qualified and hard workers often tend to invest in running businesses instead of being employed by others in exchange for salaries. Thus, there is a higher chance that by franchising, you are able to get the best talent that can work towards building the business compared to hiring someone to work for you.
Franchising is also a way of obtaining expansion capital for the business without a lot of stress. Since franchisees pay to acquire outlets within the chain, you are able to significantly increase the number of locations without necessarily having to tap a great chunk of your own capital or even moving up and down in search of loans from banks.
When making comparison between starting your own business and franchising, you will realize that franchising is less risky and even costly. Since franchising involves the use of a brand that is already established in the market, there are several costs that are already avoided. Besides, it should also be noted that even though franchisors do not provide financing, many have better working relationships with lenders that can help with issues about financing.
Franchising limits creativity and flexibility on the part of the entrepreneur who is franchising. The reason for this is because the contracts always come with rules that set very explicit standards. In most occasions, the investor who has franchised is not allowed to make any change to the brand but stick to what its owner stipulates. Even if you have a new idea, the franchisor has to agree to it before it is rolled out. This can curtail the efforts of the franchisee to develop the business in the way that he or she likes.
Another con of franchising is that the success of the franchisee is based on the franchisor. The reputation that the franchisee will have in the market shall be a representation of the franchisor’s. This means that any problem that is encountered by the franchisor in the course of doing business will directly impact the franchisee. In fact, investors who fail to do their research well before franchising always find themselves stuck for years after signing the contract.
Just like any other ventures that people may think of investing in, there is no guarantee that franchising is risk-free and more profitable. Choosing to franchise or not is a decision that requires proper research and consultations.
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Pros and Cons of Peer to Peer File Sharing
There many pros and cons of peer to peer file sharing. Peer to peer file sharing refers to sharing of files in a network of connected personal computers. The connected computers share resources in a network that does not involve a separate computer acting as a server.
Peer to peer file sharing is a strategy that is gaining popularity among software corporations. Although this strategy has proved to be beneficial to companies, it has some faults or disadvantages as well. Among the pros of peer to peer file sharing include its easy installation.
Installing peer to peer file sharing network is easy. Computers that are involved in this network are also easy to configure. Thus, it is suitable for companies that do not have a lot of time to spend in installing a file sharing network. If a company does not have an in-house IT department it can also use this network.
In this network, all contents and resources are shared by all peers. This is not the case with server-client network where the server shares the content and resources. This implies that as long as a computer is in the network it can access all files, contents or resources of the architecture.
Peer to peer file sharing network eliminates central dependency. This makes it more reliable because if one peer fails the entire system is not affected. Other peers continue functioning properly when one peer fails. This is not the case with a client-server architecture where the entire system goes down when the server fails.
In addition, peer to peer network does not require a system administrator all the time. The system makes every peer an administrator of their computer. Users are able to control their resources or the shared files. Establishing and maintaining a peer to peer file sharing network is also relatively cheaper.
Among the cons of peer to peer file sharing network include the decentralization of the entire system. This makes administering the system difficult because a single administrator cannot determine the entire accessibility of the settings of the whole network.
The entire network is also not secure. This is because peers can transmit spywares, viruses, malwares and Trojans. These threats can spread from one peer to the other very easily since in most cases nobody monitors the system.
Backup or data recovery is also difficult in a peer to peer file sharing network. Each computer in the network should have a backup system of its own. Peer to peer file sharing network is also not necessarily legal. For this reason, copyrighted files such as music and movies are easily transferred via this network. A good example of this is torrents that use peer to peer file sharing technology.
Generally, peer to peer file sharing network is good when used in connecting a small number of computers and where high security level is not necessary. However, in business networks where there is availability of sensitive data, peer to peer file sharing network is not suitable.
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