When, How and Where to Get a Report Example
Report writing is a common assignment in colleges and universities. Regardless of the course you are pursuing, you need report writing skills at your fingertips. This will help you overcome last minute rush. Besides mastering the art of report writing, you should also have an idea of where to get a report example whenever you are in need. Such sources will always become handy when you are not in a position to work on your homework effectively. Do you want to know these sites, companies, and writers that guarantee you nothing but excellence? Then all you need is this handout.
As you read this guide, you will find the following:
- Recommended sites to get report examples
- Sample reports
- Warnings when sourcing reports
Spare a few minutes and go through a journey that will transform your writing experience. Are you ready? The journey begins now…
Guiding tips when finding where to get a report example
Unlike normal essays, handling a report assignment can be a daunting task. This is because of the groundwork you need to conduct and unwinding sections of most reports. However, with a good writing partner, this should not be a problem at all. This section will help you understand the meaning of as report before you consider looking at an example.
What is a report? An organized document defines and evaluates a subject or an issue. There are different types of reports, depending on the nature of your assignment. If you are looking for where to get a report example, ensure that it contains the following key elements:
Elements of a good report
Introduction – Give background information of the report, including the problem you are addressing.
Sequence of events – A good report is a record of events in a particular order. This order helps the reader to follow the ideas with a lot of ease.
Interpretation and significance – As you work on your report, tell the audience why the facts and events matter to them. Without this, there would be need of doing your report.
Evaluated results – The backbone of any report are the findings. However, bring out the meaning in the figures and statistics through explanation and deeper analysis.
Discussion – This section focuses on the impact of a given decision. Discussion gives an in-depth analysis of your findings for everyone, including non-specialists in the field to understand what you are putting across.
Conclusion – This paragraph gives the deductions of your research. After conducting your survey, collecting data and doing an analysis, give your closing remarks on the subject.
These elements form the basis of standard academic report. However, some lecturers may use different synonyms to mean the same sections. As you look for where to get a report example, go for samples that will enhance your writing skills.
Example #1: Sample Reports
Where to get a report example online
If you are working on your academic report, you might need an extra hand to help you polish your project and turn it into a superb paper. Do no break your back when you can find writing help from anywhere you are in the world.
With the massive use of the internet, you can order for academic writing services at the comfort of your study room and beat urgent deadlines without any panic. Thanks to the information age and globalization that is sweeping across the globe. Here are a few benefits of using the internet as a source of writing help:
Importance of online academic help
Saves your time – Even in the 21st century, time is still money. Everyone is looking for a way to create an extra hour or some free time. With urgent and complex assignments from your professors, free time is slowly losing meaning. You can still regain this by having reliable writers.
You get variety – The internet allows you to get writing help from writers with a range of background knowledge and experience.
Can be cheap – While many online writers charge exorbitant prices, there are service providers who mind your welfare and offer reasonable rates. If you are wondering about where to get a report example, consider the following examples:
Example #2: Sources of Report Samples
What to consider when choosing a report example
The challenge you are likely to encounter is finding reliable sample papers to help you as you work on your report. Do not be quick to buy report example from anyone. The following guidelines will help you when selecting a reliable source of writing help.
Cheap is expensive – Do not always go for cheap service providers. Consider other parameters before settling for a particular company.
Go through reviews – You do not want a writer to experiment his or her writing skills on your academic report. Choose writers who are veterans and understand what you want.
Do background check of the writing company– Read more about the service provider before you place an order. This helps you know other services and products that the company offers.
Reliability – Choose reliable writers who are accessible from anywhere in the world. This will help you monitor the progress of your assignment and recommend necessary changes whenever need arises.
Where to find report writing help for your assignment
Different reports have varying requirements. For instance, a scientific report and a business report present unique challenges. Therefore, besides thinking about where to get a report example to help you complete your homework, focus on individuals who can help you complete the task without further straining. Try the following approaches:
Consult your professors – Talk to your lecturer every time you get an assignment brief or notice. Having a chat with your professor over the report assignment will help you make any clarifications. Do not assume anything. Talk about the length of your report, the scope, and sources to use and formatting style among others.
Talk to friends – Do not undermine your classmates. Discussing your topic of research before you write your final report could help you to brainstorm your subject matter. Your friends will help you recall an idea that had escaped your mind or gain a different understanding of the issue, thus giving a unique angle.
Consult libraries – Libraries remain to be resource centers where you can replenish your knowledge on any subject. Talk to your college librarian and find out available publications on your subject.
You may as well visit a public library for further reading. The following libraries can be a good starting point for you. Take a look…
Example #3: Sources of Report Examples
- Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Canada
- New York Public Library, New York
- Seattle Central Library, Seattle, WA
- The Morgan Library & Museum, NY, USA
While some of these libraries charge membership and subscription fee, you will find them to be reliable sources where to get a report example. Do not settle for mediocrity. Remember that the assignment you are working on could be a major determinant in your career life; give your best.
Concluding remarks on where to find a report example
Have you ever wondered why your lecturers always demand written reports? Well, it is a good tool to conduct a written assignment. A report will gauge your understanding of a learned concept and ability to explain what you know.
Thus, a good report is not about the length of your text. In this section, you will discover some of the things that will make your report to stand out from a stark of assignments.
Avoid plagiarism – Plagiarism remains a punishable academic offence. As you work on your report, adhere to the standard writing rules. Avoid plagiarism by:
- Proper citation – acknowledge every source you consult in your report
- Paraphrasing- paraphrase ideas instead of quoting. Avoid very long quotes
- Digest ideas – This will help you to put the ideas in your words
Keep it simple – Do not try to impress your tutor. Use a simple language that allows to you communicate your ideas. Use short sentences and avoid unwinding explanations. Every word you use should advance the purpose of your report.
Use good grammar – A flawed report has no place in the world of academia. Do not commit inexcusable mistakes like punctuation and tense. Take time to proofread your work and eliminate all the errors.
We hope that you now have all the information to help you choose where to get a report example. Let us know how it goes.
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Regulation of Gene Expression
Regulation of gene expression involves a range of mechanisms used by cells for purposes of increasing or decreasing production of specific gene products. In biology, there are sophisticated gene expression programs which are widely observed for instance to trigger developmental pathways, adapt to new sources of food or respond to environmental stimuli.
Any step of gene expression can be virtually modulated from RNA processing to post-translational modification of a protein and to transcriptional initiation. Regulation of genes is essential for eukaryotes, viruses and prokaryotes for the simple reason it increases the adaptability and versatility of organisms by allowing the cell to express protein when it is needed.
The most tightly controlled process in the body is that of gene regulation. When the process is not regulated strictly, the cells don’t produce the correct amount of proteins when they need them and this disruption can cause serious consequences which might include cancer.
Gene expression should be regulated according to the needs of cells. If cells are exposed to an environment where particular gene products are needed, expression of that product is increased. Cells can also produce precise gene products as a way of responding to cellular damage or external signals.
Examples of gene regulation include insulin expression in order to ensure the level of blood glucose is regulated and cyclin expression control in order to ensure normal cell cycle progression. In this manner, gene regulation determines the overall structure of the cell as well as its function governing cell morphology, differentiation and adaptability of the cell to its environment.
Regulation of gene expression can be carried out at varying stages. For instance, transcription step can be prevented in order to stop DNA from been converted to RNA or post translational modification of protein can be stopped.
In this case, regulation can be carried out in three major ways which include:
- Epigenetic-Where non sequence DNA structure changes affect transcription
- Genetic-Where there is a control factor that interests with a gene
- Modulation-Where the control factor interacts with transcription machinery
At this stage, control is carried out by exporting and importing proteins that influence RNA transport out and in the nucleus
Compared to other stages, regulation at this stage is less common and it is used by toxins and antibiotics for instance that inhibit protein translation for purposes of disrupting the usual gene expression f the cell and leading to cellular death and dysfunction.
In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives the process of morphogenesis and cellular differentiation leading to creation of different cell types that pose different kinds of gene expression profiles and produce different ultra structures that suit their functions though they possess the genotype that follows the same sequence genome.
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Protein biosynthesis is the process through which biological cells build new proteins and is balanced by loss of cellular proteins through export or degradation. Translation which is protein assembly by ribosomes plays an important role in the pathway of biosynthetic along with messenger RNA generation (mRNA), post-translational modification, co-translational transport and aminoacylation of RNA transfer (tRNA).
Protein biosynthesis is regulated strictly at multiple steps and there are mechanisms for error checking in place. This process is initiated in the nucleus of the cell where specific enzymes unwind need DNA sections which make DNA in the region accessible and a copy of RNA is made.
All cells will function through their proteins and the function of protein is defined by molecular function, involvement of a biological process and localization within the cells. All protein components functions are defined by the exact structure, conformation and composition of the proteins encrypted in the DNA region (known as locus) encoding that protein.
The cistron DNA gets transcribed into RNA intermediate varieties and the last version gets used in the synthesis of polypeptide chain. Protein is also often synthesized directly from genes through translation of mRNA.
When there is need for protein to be available within short notice or in larger quantities, there is production of a protein precursor. Proprotein is an inactive protein that contains one or more inhibitory peptides that can be easily activated when inhibitory sequence gets removed by proteolysis especially during posttranslational modification. An mRNA chain is generated during transcription with one DNA strand double helix in genome as a template. The strand is known as template strand. Transcription is divided into three stages which include:
Each of the stages mentioned above is regulated by a high number of proteins like coactivators and transcription factors that ensure the correct gene is transcribed. Transcription will take place where DNA is held which is the cell nucleus. The structure of the DNA cell so made of two helixes made up of phosphate and sugar held together by hydrogen bonds between bases of opposite strands.
The phosphate and sugar in each of these strands are joined by stronger phosphodiester covalent bonds. Synthesis of proteins from RNA is referred to as translation and it occurs in the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located. The ribosomes make up large and small subunits that surround mRNA. The capacity of inhibiting or disabling protein biosynthesis is used by some antibiotics like cycloheximide, anisomycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, puromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin.
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Protease inhibitor is a class of antiviral drugs widely used in treated of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis which is caused by hepatitis C virus. Protease inhibitor prevents viral replication by selectively binding to viral proteases (for instance HIV-1 protease) and blocking proteolytic cleave of protein precursors that are important for infectious viral particles production.
Protease inhibitor has been developed or is currently undergoing testing for treatment of various viruses such as the ones listed below:
- Hepatitis C: telaprevir, boceprevir
- HIV/AIDS-antiretroviral protease inhibitors
This inhibitor prevents HIV from multiplying and also reduces the level of virus in the body. Whenever the level of virus in the blood is kept low, the immune system has a better chance of growing stronger and recovering. Protease inhibitor was the second class of antiretroviral drugs to be developed. The first were saquinavir (Hoffman-La Roche) and Ritonovir (Abbott) which were approved in the late 1955 to 1996.
Researchers are carrying out investigations into use of protease inhibitor that is developed for treatment of HIV as anti-protozoals for use against gastrointestinal and malaria protozoal infections:
- Lopinavir and ritonavir combination was found to be effective against infections such as Giardia
- Cysteine protease inhibitor drug has the property to cure Chagas disease common in mice
- Lopinavir, Saquinavir and ritonavir have anti-malarial properties
When protease inhibitor is used as a combination therapy, it helps in the following ways:
- Reduced viral loads that can lead to increase or stable CD4+ cell counts. This is also a sign that the immune system has the ability to fight off any opportunistic infections.
- Helps to decrease the severity and number of opportunistic infections
- Prevents or reduced occurrence of resistance to medication
- Goes a long way to help in prolonging life.
Researchers are also investigating to determine whether protease inhibitor can possible be used for the treatment of cancer. For instance, atazanavir and nelfinavir have the ability to kill tumor cells in culture.
The effect has not been tested or examined in humans yet through studies in a laboratory with mice has shown nelfinavir can suppress tumor growth in these animals thus representing the promise that the same tests can be carried out in humans.
Inhibitors of proteasome like Bortezomb and Velcade are in the front line of drugs that are been used to treat different types of cancer most notably, Multiple Myeloma. Protease inhibitor also has some side effects which include kidney stones, lipodystrophy, diabetes mellitus type 2 and hyperlipidaemia.
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Nucleic Acid Sequence
Nucleic acid sequence is determination of nucleotide bases sequence in a RNA or DNA fragment. This type of sequencing is an indispensable tool for carrying out basic biological research and it is also applied in varying fields like molecular diagnostics, forensics, systems biology, pharmacogenomics and genetic engineering.
By principle sequences are presented from the five inch to the three inch end. Normally, nucleic acids are linear (unbranched) polymers specification of the sequence is equivalent to definition of covalent structure of the complete molecule. Precisely for this reason, sequence and nucleic acid is also termed as the primary structure.
Sequence also has the capacity of representing information. Biological DNA also represents the information that is needed to direct functions of a living thing and in such context, the term genetic sequence is used often. Sequences can also be read from biological raw material though DNA sequencing techniques.
Nucleic acids also have a tertiary and secondary structure. The primary structure of often mistakenly known as the primary sequence. Equally, there is no parallel concept of tertiary and secondary sequence. The analysis of DNA sequence was traditionally accomplished through use of two varying techniques:
- The ddNTP mediated chain termination technique if Sanger (1997
- The chemical degradation technique of Gilbert and Maxam (1997).
Numerous next generation sequencing technologies for DNA have been developed and while this is the case, the traditional nucleic sequence techniques are routinely used in majority of life science laboratories. Obtaining optimal results with the conventional sequencing techniques requires careful reagents selection.
Nucleic acids is comprised of a chain of units that are linked known as nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of 3 subunits which include, a sugar (ribose in RNA case and in DNA case deoxyribose) which makes up the backbone of nucleic acid strand, phosphate group and a set of nucleobases attached to the sugar. The nucleobases are especially important in the base pairing of strands to form tertiary and secondary structure like the famed double helix.
Possible letters in this case include A, C, G and T which represent the 4 nucelotide bases of DNA strand adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine-covalently linked to a phosphodiester backbone. I n typical cases, the sequence are printed adjoining one another without any gaps as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC which is read left to right in the 5 inch to 3 inch direction.
Current methods of sequencing rely on discriminatory ability of DNA polymerases and as such can only distinguish 4 bases. When using current technology, it is difficult to sequence small amounts of DNA because the signal is usually too weak t be measured and this can be overcome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification.
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Gene expression refers to the process through which genetic instructions are used for purposes of synthesizing gene products. The purpose of genes is information storage as such, each gene contains information that is needed to make a protein or in other cases, RNA non-coding. Genes are expressed in order to produce functional protein molecules and RNA in the cells.
Gene expression can occur in two stages which include transcription and protein synthesis:
In this case, the gene is copied so it can produce RNA molecule (primary transcript) with basically similar sequence as the gene. In most cases, human genes can be divided into introns and exons. Only exons carry information needed for protein synthesis. The most primary transcripts are consequently processed through splicing in order to remove intron sequence and as such, generate mature messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcript that is comprised of exons only.
This is the second stage and it is also known as translation for the simple reason it does not have any direct correspondence between the sequence of amino acids in the protein and nucleotide sequence in DNA (RNA). As a matter of fact, there are three nucleotides which are needed in order to specify one amino acid. The amino acid chain must also fold up in order to generate final tertiary structure of protein.
All genes in human genome are not expressed in the same manner. There are those that expressed in all cells at all times and they are known as housekeeping genes. They are essential for the purposes of carrying out basic cellular functions.
There are other genes that are expressed in specific cell types or at particular development stages. For instance, genes that encode protein muscle like myosin and actin are expressed in muscle cells only not in brain cells. Still, there are other genes that are inhibited or activated by signals circulation in the body like hormones.
Differential gene expression is achieved through regulation translation and transcription. All genes are also surrounded by DNA sequences that control expression. Proteins known as transcription factors bind the sequences and can switch genes off and on. As such, gene expression is controlled by activity and availability of different kinds of transcription factors.
Note transcription factors are in themselves, proteins as such, they must be produced by genes as well and the genes should be regulated through other transcription factors. In such a manner, all proteins and genes can be linked into regulatory hierarchy starting with transcription factors in the egg at the start of development. There are some diseases that are caused by malfunction or absence of transcription factors as such, they cause gene expression interruption.
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How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis of a Speech
Having the right guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech helps you to carry out your analysis efficiently. Note that a rhetorical analysis essay is a paper that deeply explores the goals of an author, tools or techniques used, give examples of those techniques and states their effectiveness.
Therefore, when writing your essay, you are not stating whether you agree or disagree with the argument. You are making an in-depth analysis and discussion of how the rhetorician makes that claim and whether the approach he or she employs is successful.
How to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech critically
There are a number of things you should focus on to help you understand how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. It includes the tasks you should carry out when writing your essay. The tasks include
- Determining how rhetoric operates in a speech or text
- To explore deeply how a specific analysis unit operates to achieve the purpose of the speech
- To take a close reading of one key statement or passage
- To answer an important research question about the function and nature of the rhetoric
Being a research question, your rhetorical analysis should therefore focus on finding out more about rhetoric by studying the speech. The research question will therefore, guide your text analysis. For this reason, you should write an essay that contributes to your understanding of how a rhetorical analysis processes work and your understanding of the speech itself.
Therefore, to carry out effective rhetorical analysis of a speech, it is wise that you choose one unit of analysis. It is always your responsibility to choose a unit that reveals the most about the rhetoric speech you are analyzing. The units include
- Logos- appeals to the audience’s logic and reason
- pathos –appeals to the emotions of target audience
- ethos-this includes techniques that make target audience believe that what is said is because of their trust towards the nature of the rhetor revealed in the speech
- metaphors and other comparison modes including similes and analogies
- Tone including sarcasm, academic, irony and sentimental tone and
- Types of evidence used by the speaker and their effect
Procedure on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
Writing a rhetorical analysis is a process and you have to focus on the research question to have a better understanding of what you are expected to do. As a result, it is essential that before you read the speech, go through the research question and have an idea of what to write about in mind
- Find anything that is rhetorical in the text or something that puzzles you
- Take a close look into all units of rhetorical analysis in mind
- Read the speech carefully, note the appeals and illustrate them clearly
- Go through the speech again and list down all metaphors used by the speaker
- Categorize the metaphors depending on what the speaker compares them to
With a list and categories of metaphors in mind, explain them to your readers because they will simply ask the question, so what?
The next rhetorical analysis step to carry out is to discover the effect that the unit of analysis you have chosen has on the meaning. Talk about the effect of the whole speech and how it helps you to address your research question.
Structure of how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
The structure of a rhetorical analysis of a speech should follow the right structure and use specific headings. Each section should be written in a coherent manner to unify the essay. Most importantly, write each section and state its purpose but do not evaluate the speech in the analysis sections. The sections or parts of your analysis should include an
Introduce the author and text or speech you are analyzing
Explain a rhetoric situation and focus on original audience, occasion, context and where the speech was delivered in the first place
State your rhetorical analysis question
Summary of speech
Write a brief summary of the text and explicitly state the purpose of the speaker
Write down the thesis and major points of the speech (always use the terms, thesis, texts purpose and major points in your writing.
The purpose of writing a summary is to help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech and give a sense of rhetor’s points. Your summary doesn’t give audience a complete list of all minor points and examples. In this case, it is imperative that you are specific in your writing.
For instance, instead of saying, he comments on the global situation, it is good to say, he denounces enemies of freedom and applauds new democracies.
This is a major part of a rhetorical analysis and it has two sub-sections
- Unit of analysis- choose and define the unit of analysis you will employ and briefly explain why you settled for it. Go an extra mile to demonstrate that you have a command of the concept to efficiently write your rhetorical analysis. It is also imperative to give quotations as evidence to support your thesis.
- Close reading- this is a skill that a person who knows how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech has mastered. You therefore need to choose one important or key passage in the speech and quote it in full. Re-read it and give it a proverbial fine tooth comb.
-remember to evaluate all appeals including pathos, ethos, logos, stylistic techniques and appeals to the needs of audience as well as values. It is essential to organize this part of your analysis based on the manner in which the speech sentences appear.
Insight into rhetoric
Give an explanation of the speech and explain what it reveals to you about the rhetoric. Here, you need to answer the research question efficiently. How did you analysis support or prove your argument? What is next diachronic or synchronic significance of the speech?
In this section, respond to the text and implications expression your point of view on issues that the speech raises. This enables you to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech that is thoroughly explains your argument. Explain your thoughts about the author’s argument, did it work, give reasons why or not. What is the significance of the text to your work and in your intellectual life?
Analytical techniques to use when writing a rhetorical analysis of a speech
There are different techniques that will help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. They include
Use of a rhetorical canon of invention to develop your ideas- this focuses on a rhetorical situation that a rhetor faced
Use tenor and vehicle rhetorical terms if you find similes and metaphors in the speech
Image analysis is also another technique that helps you to focus the elements of a vehicle and choose the best that matches your speech.
Additional tips to writing your rhetorical analysis of a speech
- Learn to advance your argument by stating your thesis clearly and supporting
- Always make an original argument and reflect on your unique perception of the speech
- Focus on what the speaker said and how he or she said it
- Always choose the most relevant and significant appeal that matches your reading of the speech. It helps you to write an effective rhetorical analysis, make an original argument and write a very compelling thesis
- Read, edit and proofread your paper to eliminate possible errors
Examples of rhetorical analysis of a speech
I Have a Dream- Martin Luther King
I have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, has a simple context. The author, Martin Luther King, is known for his great work in Civil Rights in the 1960’s. the purpose of his speech is to instill or inspire change in both black and white citizens of the United States of America during the Civil Rights era………………………………………………………………..
Borrow more ideas on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech from this essay analysis.
Fight them on the Beaches: Churchill
I myself have full confidence that if all carry out their duty, if nothing is neglected, and is the best preparations are made, as they are being made, we shall prove ourselves once again more than able to defend our island home, to ride out the storm of war and to outlive the menace of tyranny for years. If necessary, alone, at any rate, that is what we are going to try to do…………………………………………………………………
This is a sample of a rhetorical analysis of a speech. Visit the link and see how the author highlights different parts of the speech and use of appeals therein.
Bush 911 Bullhorn Speech
Thank you all. I want you all to know, it that bullhorn can’t go any louder. I want you to all to know that American today, America today is on bended knee, in prayer for the people whose lives were lost here, for the workers who work here and for the families who mourn. The nation stands with the good people of New York City, and New Jersey and Connecticut, as we mourn the loss of thousands of our citizens………………………..
This is a rhetoric analysis of the Bush Bullhorn speech. Read it and learn more on how to do write your analysis.
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Also referred to as argument from design or design argument, teleological argument is an argument that tries to explain the existence of the deity or God based on the perceived evidence of deliberate design in the physical or natural world. The name teleological argument is borrowed from the Greek word, telos that means ‘end’ or purpose. This according to the argument tries to point out that the world is being ordered, meaning that it is ordered towards a certain end or purpose.
This argument suggests that the universe is the way it is because it was created by an intelligent being in order to accomplish that purpose than it is to suppose that it is this way by chance. The use of the teleological argument can be traced back to the times of St Thomas Aquinas. He used the argument as one of his Five Ways of knowing the existence of God. However, the most cited statement of the argument is that of William Paley who likened the universe to a watch, with many ordered parts that work harmoniously to further a certain purpose. In the same way that a watch’s intelligent design can be implied by its order, complexity and purpose, he suggested that it so occurs to the universe.
Today, teleological arguments have been described as quite different to that constructed by William Paley. The reason for this is because, as Paley was particularly impressed by the appearance of design in biological systems like the eye or animals, the teleological arguments that we have today often refer to physics for evidence of design. Modern teleological arguments tend to emphasize on the fact that the universe is exactly as should be or ‘fine-tuned’ to support life.
Apart from just demonstrating the existence of God, teleological argument also exposes shortcomings in the evolution theory. This gives an advantage to modern design arguments over Paley’s in that they are less vulnerable to attacks based on the theory of evolution. It objects the argument by Paley that evolution can explain the appearance of biological design that involves, evolutionary processes, however, do not apply to the laws of nature.
Over the years, there have been several criticisms of the different versions of teleological argument. Of great concern are the general logical arguments made by David Hume in publication of 1779 titled, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, and also the explanation of biological complexity given by Charles Darwin in his Origins of Species publication of 1859. Today, the teleological argument is crucial to the creationist religious concepts of intelligent design and creation science, which are presented with the allegation that they are alternative explanations in opposition to the evolution theory.
The teleological argument operates on the assumption that one can infer the existence of intelligent design through mere examination, and since life is reminiscent of something a human might design, it too must have been designed. However, the design claim can be challenged as an argument from analogy.
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The Ontological argument is an argument for God’s existence based entirely on reason. According to the argument, there is no need to wander around looking for physical evidence of the existence of God; we can easily work out that he exists just by thinking about it. Ontological argument purports to be an a priori proof of the existence of God. The argument was first proposed by St Anselm of Canterbury in the 11th century. His main aim was to refute claims by some people that God does not exist. In his view, the atheist is not just mistaken but internally inconsistent.
St Anselm in his proposition of the ontological argument claimed to have derived the existence of God from the concept of being than which no greater can be conceived. He reasoned that, in case such a being fails to exist, then a greater being –namely, a being than which no greater can be conceived, and which exists- can be conceived. However, this would be absurd in that, nothing can be greater than a being than which no greater can be conceived. Thus, a being than which no greater can be conceived- i.e. God exists.
The ontological argument asserts that that idea by some people that God does not exist is just as absurd as the idea that a four-sided triangle does. According to the argument, we can easily tell that the claim that God does not exist is false without having to look into it in any detail. The claim that God does not exist is self contradictory. The argument further points out that, to call something that is not all-powerful God would be like calling a shape that does not have three sides a triangle, which would not make any sense.
According to the ontological argument, God is perfect and all-powerful. If something is perfect, then it could not possibly be better than it is, there cannot be anything better than perfection. If we think of God as perfect, then we must think of God as a being that cannot be imagined to be better than it is. It is therefore, impossible to conceive either of there being anything much greater than God or of it being possible to imagine God being better than he already is.
Despite several people having supported the Ontological argument, it has also received its fair share of criticisms. For instance, Immanuel Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason claims that ontological arguments are vitiated by their reliance upon the implicit assumption that existence is more of a predicate. However, as Bertrand Russel observed, it is much easier to be convinced that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them. This helps in explaining the reason why ontological arguments have fascinated many philosophers for over a thousand years. According to another critic, Gaunilo of Marmoutiers, using the analogy of a perfect island, he suggested that the ontological argument could be used in proving the existence of anything.
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Intrinsic Value Vs instrumental Value
Intrinsic value and Instrumental value have been a case of seemingly contrasting ideas in ethics, since philosophers began debating the subject of philosophy. Instrumental values are those values that are merely meant to achieve an ethical decision. Intrinsic on the other hand, are values that are understood as human nature. The two make up the philosophic argument of whether or not a particular value refers to means-to-an-end, or an end itself.
When making comparison between intrinsic value and instrumental value, it is important to note that intrinsic value simply refers to something worthwhile not because it leads to something else, but due to its own sake alone. This can be simply expressed as Good-in-itself. Instrumental value on the other hand, is something considered as a means to some other good, i.e. it a lead to something else that is good. For instance, money can be termed as instrumental good since it can lead to pleasure.
In terms of instrumental value, every idea or concept is an action that leads to value. For instance, reading is an action and it leads to the value of happiness. The next question would be where happiness leads or is it a value that is good in itself. The debate over that is from the belief that on one hand, happiness could be an instrument to make us feel content. However, to some, it simply could just be the end. Thus, it can be said that the classification of certain values as either intrinsic or instrumental vary.
Instrumental values can be direct and indirect means of observing intrinsic values. This is plausible suggestion since instrumental values are basically a means to an end while intrinsic values are the end. Thus, it can be said that the two can as well fit in together. An example would b of a man being happy while spending the day with his family. Spending time with family is the instrumental value that leads to the intrinsic value of being happy. The fact that the two fit well together calls to question whether or not there is an agreement between the two values at all.
Instrumental value is quite easier to spot and define. However, an intrinsic value can be very challenging. The idea that an intrinsic value is something that a person cannot explain why it is a value, apart from merely being a value, is an issue of debate. It is hard to explain or even accept that something can be good in and of itself, and that there is no any other reason for its good. However, if people only consider their core beliefs as intrinsic and everything else as instrumental, intrinsic values begin to clear up.
While the two ideas appear to be in contrast, they fit together almost quite well and can be termed as mutually exclusive. From their arguments, it can be concluded that instrumental values can lead to intrinsic values.
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US Electoral College
The United States constitution specifies the United States President and Vice President are to be selected every four year by a small group of people. These people are individually known as ‘presidential electors’ and collectively as the ‘Electoral College’.
Therefore, the Electoral College is not a place but rather a process. It was put into place by the founding fathers and the constitution specifies that every state is entitled to have one member of its U.S Representatives and U.S Senators.
Today, the total number of electoral votes is 538 and it corresponds to the 435 United States Representatives from the fifty states plus the 100 United States Senators from the 50 states plus another 3 members of the Electoral College that the District of Columbia became at liberty to under the 23rd Amendment that was ratified in 1961.
After every ten years, the 435 United States Representatives get reappointed among the state according to the latest federal census as such reapportioning membership of the Electoral College among all the states.
The US Electoral College was based on several anticipations and assumptions of the constitution Framers. Some of these include the following:
- Candidates wouldn’t pair together on a similar ticket with assumed placements towards each office of the Vice President and the president
- Every state would choose a district system of choosing the electors
- Each presidential elector would employ or exercise their own judgment independently when voting
- The system as it was designed would rarely produce any clear winner as such, election would be sent to Congress.
Based on the facts stated above, some scholars argue that the Electoral College is intended to nominate candidates and from there, Congress is mandated with the task of choosing the president and vice president. Each state government also is free to have its own strategy or plan for selecting its electors.
The theory behind the constitutional indirect election of the President and Vice President of the US is that while Congress is generally elected by the people, the President and Vice President are elected as executives of a federation of states that are independent. James Madison in Federalist No.10 argued the constitution was designed to serve as a mixture of population and state based government.
The Congress therefore would have two houses which include the Population based and State Bases Senate House of Representatives. At the same time, the President would be elected based on the mixture of two modes.
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United States Fiscal Cliff
The United States fiscal cliff came into existence in 2013 January whereby, a series of laws previously enacted came into effect simultaneously. The 2001 Bush tax cuts which had received a 2 year extension by the Tax Relief Act of 2010 and were to expire on 31st December 2012 as well as planned spending cuts under Budget Control Act of 2011 at that time also came into play.
In the past, the term ‘fiscal cliff’ has been used for purposes of referring to various fiscal issues. The use of the term came into context with the 2010 expiration of the Bush tax cuts. In 2011, the term started been used to refer to deficit reductions that would occur in 2013 under fiscal cliff scenario. Ben Bernanke, the chairman of the United States Federal Reserve in late February 2012 popularized use of the term for the upcoming tax reduction deficits.
He described the massive fiscal cliff of tax increases and large spending that would take effect on 1st January 2013 before the House Financial Services Committee. Majority of the analysts were not in agreement with the choice of words and argued it should have been called fiscal hill or slope.
They reasoned that such options would have been appropriate since while the cumulative economic effect of 2013 would be substantial, the same would not be felt immediately but gradually with advance in the weeks and months.
There are some key laws that lead to the cliff and some of these are as highlighted below:
- Bush tax cuts expiration as part of the 2001 Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act and the 2003 Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act as extended by the 2010 Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization and Job Creation Act.
- Spending cuts across the board to most of the discretionary programs directed by Budget Control Act of 2011
- Reverse of Alternative Minimum Tax threshold to the 2000 tax year levels.
- Expiration of 2percent Social Security Payroll tax cut extended most recently by MCTRJCA
Without any new provisions, the provisions were to go into effect automatically on 1st January 2013. There are some provisions that raised the taxes while others reduced spending. Some of the lawmakers had intentions to attach bipartisan extension to expiring wind-power tax credit.
There were proposals to avoid the fiscal cliff which involved passing new legislation or repealing legislation that contained some of the provisions in order to extend the provisions that were about to expire. There were also different proposals aimed at including changes to all or some of the provisions.
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United States Debt Ceiling
The United States debt ceiling also known as the debt limit is a legislative mechanism that limits the amount of national debt issued by the Treasury through limiting the amount of moey the government can borrow. Debt ceiling therefore is an aggregate figure that’s applied to gross dent which also includes the debt in the intra-government and public accounts.
Around 0.5 percent of the debt isn’t covered by the debt ceiling. There are separate legislations that authorize expenditures as such debt ceiling does not limit government deficits directly. The only thing that it can do is restrain the Treasury from paying the expenditures once the limit is reached but it must have been approved and appropriated already.
Once the debt ceiling is reached and still there is no limit enacted, Treasury resorts to ‘extraordinary measures’ in order to finance the government obligations and expenditures temporarily until a resolution is reached.
So far, the Treasury has not arrived at the point of exhausting extraordinary measures, resulting in default. While this is the case, there are instances when it has appeared like the Congress would allow defaults to take place.
The debt ceiling has been in effect since 1917 when the Second Liberty Bond Act was passed by the United States Congress. Prior to 1917, no debt ceiling was in force though there were parliamentary limitations on the possible debt level that a government could hold. The financial history of the US has been one of government indebtedness and the same applies to most of the North American and Western European countries in the last two hundred years.
- Every year the United States has been in debt except in 1835
- Debts that were incurred during the American Revolutionary War and Articles of Confederation led to the first yearly report on amount of debt
- Since Herbert Hoover, every president has added to national debt which is expressed in absolute dollars. Since March 1962, the debt ceiling in the US has been raised seventy four times. This includes eighteen times under Ronald Regan, 8 times under Bill Clinton, 7 times under George W. Bush and under Barack Obama, 5 times.
Since 1950s, the vote to increase debt ceiling has been a matter of legal budgetary formality between the Congress and the President. It has not been a political issue that would make any elected government unable to pass its yearly budget. Reports made from congress though in the 1990s stated repeatedly that debt limit is an ineffective means to restraining dent growth. The redundancy of the debt ceiling has also led to suggestions that it should be abolished.
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Pension Obligation Bonds
Personal obligation bonds are financing maneuvers that make it possible for local governments and states to ‘wipe out’ pension liabilities that are unfunded by borrowing against future tax revenues. Once this is done, it is followed by investing proceeds in equities and other cases, high yield investments.
The reasoning behind this is that the investments will lead to higher returns than the interest rates on the bonds thus earning money for the pension fund. While it is a gamble, it is one that most governments are ready to take. Pension obligations bonds:
- Are debt securities that are used to fund ‘unfunded accrued actuarial liabilities’ in pension public plans
- Are always, almost issues as taxable debt
- Are issued as fixed term or fixed rate securities or as fixed term, variable securities.
- Typical security is in the form of the issuers general fund pledge.
Pension plans mostly face major losses and it is because of the local revenue and dearth of state that pension obligation plans are viewed as the most favorable tool for fixing pension woes. Some of the major issuers of pension obligation bonds include Illinois, New Jersey, Oregon, California and Connecticut.
In the recent past though, these bonds have taken on some form of notoriety when 2 California cities San Bernardino and San went bankrupt. Generous pensions that were propped awkwardly and with pension obligation bonds that were ill times contributed to the debacle. Also, over the years, the returns made on pension obligation plans often fall below the interest rate the locality or state paid in order to borrow the money as such, digging deep into the liability hole.
Despite this fact, these bonds still remain a favorite among many politicians in revenue pinch. It is easier to politically borrow money in order to pay the cost of pensions rather than squeeze a budget that is already stressed. Many policy holders and economists view pension obligation bonds as risky gimmicks and they even question the high market growth assumptions that make them appear viable.
However, defenders of these bonds believe that with proper timing, they can pay off. The first bond was launched in 1985 in Oakland, California and at that time, it appeared a reasonable strategy. This is because it qualified as a tax free bond and could be issued at low municipal bond rates.
A city or state could then pivot and invest the fund in securities that were safer but the strategy was ended by the 1986 Tax Reform Act that prohibited local governments and state from reinvesting for profits money from tax free bonds.
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Retinol Binding Protein
Retinol binding protein or simply RBP refers to a proteins’ family that has different functions. These proteins act as the carrier proteins whose role is to bind retinal. Assessment of the retinal binding protein is usually used in determining the mass of visceral protein in nutritional studies that are related to health matters.
Retinoic acid and retinol play significant roles in gene expression modulation and the overall embryo development. However, excess or deficit of retinoic acid or retinol can cause developmental malformations or early mortality of an embryo. Regulation of the metabolism and transport of retinol that is necessary for the successful pregnancy is usually accomplished through retinol binding protein.
Retinol binding protein has been identified in the embryo, extra embryonic tissue of bovine, uterus, porcine and ovine. This is a clear indication of the crucial role that is played by proper exposure of retinol to embryo as well as successful transportation during maternal-fetal interface. However, additional research needs to be done to determine exact effects of the poor expression of retinol binding protein on pregnancy as well as the threshold levels of the said expression.
Retinol binding protein is mostly synthesized in the liver. However, there are indications that this protein can be synthesized in peritubular, sertoli cells of testis, epithelium of the retinal pigment, and kidneys before it is circulated to the rest of the body via the blood stream. Retinol binding protein is not found alone in blood. However, it is filtrated easily due to its small weight molecules.
Retinol is also a fast-soluble vitamin that plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal development and growth, reproduction, immunity and vision among other crucial physiological processes. Retinal can be supplied to the body through diet and nutrition. RBP7, RBP5, RBP2 and RBP1 are cellular. RBP is linked interstitially while RBP4 occurs in the blood plasma. Although each of these retinol binding proteins differ slightly they are all alike sufficiently such that it is possible to study all of them by simply focusing on one. Many studies focus on RBP4 due to the fact that it is the most studied and extensively understood.
Despite being identified in placental tissues of bovine and ovine which suggests the high involvement of RBP in the retinal metabolism and transport during pregnancy, exact timing of the expression has not been identified yet. This implies that further studies on retinol binding protein need to be done.
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