Factors Affecting Indian Economic Growth
India is one of the fastest growing economies. Since introducing the concept of free market in 1991, the Asian country has experienced rapid growth and is predicted to grow even further. As at 2011, India was ranked 11th in terms of nominal GDP and fourth in terms of GDP purchasing power parity (PPP). India has one of the highest populations in the world and a bustling manufacturing sector. In addition to this the country has changed its economic policies since independence in order to propel economic growth further. It is also known to save a lot and this has helped it to stabilize and grow.
All in all there are several factors that currently affect the Indian economic growth and these include:
- Capital flows and Stock Exchange Market. India has had a very steady flow of capital from both foreign and local investors. In addition to this, the country also has a thriving stock market and this has helped it gain capital. With this amount of capital, India has less to worry about in case the GDP rates fall. This is because its currency can still get overvalued given its steady flow of capital.
- The RBI ranks. The currency of India largely depends on the rankings by RBI. The RBI is in charge of managing the balance of payments for India. Slight changes in the RBI assessments can have a huge impact on the currency of India and lead to either over assessment or under rankings of the country’s economy.
- Global currency trends of economically powerful countries. India like many other countries has economic and currency links with powerful countries such as US, UK, Japan, Canada and others. When the currencies of these countries are undervalued, India’s currency is also likely to depreciate. On the other hand an appreciation of these currencies has similar effects on India’s currency. These global currency trends therefore influence India’s economic growth.
- Political changes. Political setup in India also influences its economic growth. A change in the country governance often leads to changes in economic policies especially with regard to importation and exportation of goods and services. Political changes also impact on the tax rates and may affect the investment climate which ultimately influences the economic growth rate of the country.
- Energy and oil. India imports oil in large quantities. This is an essential commodity and it affects India’s economic growth rate. When crude oil prices in the world market fluctuate, India’s currency cannot remain stable. High oil prices result in high inflation rates hence overvaluing of India’s currency.
- Demographics and poverty rates. India is one of the most populous countries in the world and economists predict that its population will rise by over 300 million by 2030. In as much as this population growth may be good in terms of larger markets, it is costly to maintain and can only be fruitful if India puts in place measures to provide its citizens with social, educational and economic needs. Otherwise poverty rates which are already high will increase with this population and drag the economic growth rate of the country.
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Factors Affecting the Leather Industry in India
Background facts on India’s leather industry
India is the second largest producer of leather garments and footwear in the world and its leather industry has grown substantially in the past decades. Between 2011 and 2014, the estimated growth rate of this industry was 8.5% and analysts predict better figures in the near future.
The main factors affecting India’s leather industry
As one of the top ten contributors to India’s GDP, the leather industry rakes in 7.5 billion dollars annually and the country has thus invested heavily in it. There are many factors that have affected the growth of the leather industry in India.
- Availability of raw materials. According to experts, 11% of sheep and goats in the world are found in India. This number almost double for buffalos and cattle with an estimated 21% of this population thriving in India. There is therefore a huge supply of hides and skins which are necessary raw materials in the leather industry. India has a comparative advantage in this industry because of the ready supply of these raw materials hence the growth of the industry.
- Presence of human capital. The leather industry is highly capital intensive. In India it employs more than 2.5 million people with an estimated 30% of the female population being absorbed in the industry. India’s high population and readily available cheap human resource has been instrumental in propelling forward the leather industry. It has encouraged both local and foreign investors to put their stakes in this industry.
- Support industries. There are several support industries which have helped the leather industry to grow. Industries such as chemical, machinery and tool industries have played a major role in the growth of the leather industry. Since chemicals, machinery and tools have been readily available, the leather industry is able to run more efficiently. There are also other support services such as transport, telecommunications and distribution services which have also enhanced the growth of the leather industry.
- Research and development investment. There have been major changes in the leather industry in India over the past decade. The quality of shoes has improved because of these design and manufacturing changes. This is due to varied investments in the research and development areas. These have resulted in new developments and more efficient methods of production. There are also many up and coming designers who have invented better designs for shoes that are more cost effective to make. Additionally, the industry is embracing new trends and this has increased its European market.
- Huge market. India’s leather industry accounts for 3% in the global market. This industry has a huge market is comprised of both domestic and foreign consumers. It is estimated that around 95% of all the shoes manufactured in India are purchased locally. Besides China, India is the second largest supplier of shoes in the world. There are also several leather articles that cater for both the local and foreign markets. India thus supplies articles such as saddles, gloves, jackets and bags to both foreign and local consumers. According to statistics, the major foreign destinations for India’s leather products include European Union (64%), USA (9%), Hong Kong (7%), UAE (2% and Africa (1%). Ultimately the leather industry in India has grown steadily due to this market.
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Important factors affecting the location of industries in India
In 2013, India had a nominal GDP of $1.87 trillion and was ranked 10th largest economy in the world. 26% of India’s GDP comes from its vibrant industrial sector. The main industries which have contributed to India’s rapid economic growth in the past decade include:
- Textile industry
- Petroleum and chemical production
Many investors, both local and foreign are rushing to India to set up industrial firms. There are several factors that affect the location of industries in India and these are what the investors look at before setting up their businesses.
- Availability of raw materials. Different industries require diverse raw materials. The availability of certain raw materials in some parts of India has led to the influx of industries that use these raw materials in these areas. For instance, sugar production industries have been set up in areas where there is large production of sugarcane. Additionally, the leather industry has thrived more in areas known for cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep farming. The raw materials therefore determine industrial locations. Textile industries are also located in areas that produce most cotton.
- Supply of labour. Whilst a few of the industrial firms may be capital intensive, most are labour intensive. In India the supply of cheap labour has been a huge influence in the location of industries. Most of the industries require many workers to run efficiently. Even though it has been argued that setting up firms can attract laborers from outside a location, many firms prefer to start industries in areas with constant supply of cost effective labor. Some provinces in India have fewer industries because of poor supply of labor and unproductive workforces.
- Market access. The proximity of the industries to the required markets has also influenced the location of industries. Most of the industries have been set up nearer the markets so as to ease distribution of goods and products. This is why some of the industries are closer to the cities because this is where the consumers are.
- Transport and distribution facilities. The availability of good road, rail and air networks has been a major factor in the location of industries in India. Most investors prefer to set shop in areas that are well connected. This makes it easier for them to distribute the manufactured products to their clients and markets.
- Power supply. Power supply greatly influences the location of industries in India because production is heavily dependent on power. Areas where power supply is erratic have fewer industries because this affects the cost of production and also slows down production rates. Most investors in India therefore tend to choose areas that have reliable supply of power.
- Financial factors. Areas with easy access to financial help in India tend to have more industries. Cities such as Bombay developed economically and industrially because many rich people were lending out capital to those who had viable industrial and economic ventures. Furthermore, the government has given out tax incentives to the investors setting up industries in remote parts of India in order to encourage more industrial investment in such areas.
- Environmental and climatic factors. There are certain industries which rely on climatic and environmental conditions to thrive. Such is the textile industry in India. The textile industries are set up in humid climates where cotton grows well.
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Effects of Income Inequality in Brazil
Despite the fact that Brazil has been recording an impressive economic growth, the country is still dealing with income inequality. In 2010, the country had a gross domestic product of 7.5% and in the last couple of decades income inequality has risen in the country.
The GINI coefficient in the country has decreased slowly from 0.596 in 2001 to 0.543 in 2009 and though this is the case, there is still a major problem in regard to income disparity. The richest people in the country who make up 1% of the population enjoy the highest income level which makes up 13% of the entire household income.
The percentage is the same as that of the poorest 50% which is roughly about eighty million Brazilians. Because of this inequality, the poverty levels in the county are inconsistent with the country’s economy. People who have an income of USD 6.1 per day in Brazil are classified as middle class earners and many of them are likely to fall into poverty once more if the issue of income inequality is not effectively addressed.
What is more, most of the Brazilians that fall in the middle class category are also known to have high debt service costs which in turn make them vulnerable financially. Of 200 million people in Brazil (as of 2013) 40 billion and roughly 100 million are reported to live in poor standards according to a report released by the World Bank. This is despite the fact that the country has kept the inflation down for close to two decades and there has been steady economic growth as well as stabilization of the currency.
The public service has failed to keep up with its income provision and public services in the country are provided by municipalities and states. The health sector has especially been impacted by income inequality despite the fact it was identified in 1998 as a fundamental right. The health system in the country suffers from underfunding while health spending remains low.
There is also a shortage of medical stuff which in turn results to insufficient access to the most basic health services. Education is another sector affected by income inequality when measured by international standards. There is limit to social mobility and the inequality is attributed to pre-determined circumstances of the people such as gender, family, background and race.
Until income inequality is effectively addressed in Brazil, the people will continue to suffer and the numbers of those living below the poverty line will continue to rise as well.
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Effects of Income Inequality in South Africa
Apartheid in South Africa came to an end in 1994 and despite this fact the country still records the highest income inequality globally as measured by Gini Index. As a matter of fact, income inequality is the biggest and major challenge facing the nation and it is detrimental not only to economic development but the business environment as well.
- Real gross domestic product in SA between 200 and 2001 averaged 3.6% which was on par with average global growth. Despite the fact that the country has recorded high economic gains, it still has the highest level of unequal income distribution with a 63.6% Gini Index in 2011 relatively unchanged from the 2000 Gini index of 63.5%.
- Between 2000 and 2011, there has been a widening of the gap between the richest 10 percent households and the poorest 10 percent households. During this time, the average disposable household income was an increase of 14.4 percent and 26.8 percent.
Income inequality in South Africa has lowered the people’s standard of life and it has also proved to be economically inefficient. According to the president of the Center for Global Development Nancy Birdsall (2007) income inequality makes it impossible for the markets to function their best because of resources that remain unused as well as diminished demand.
In addition to this, it also creates a society that does not support rational thinking thus limiting regulatory effects of government and creating unstable markets. Because of this, there is a decrease in consumption, the GDP is driven down and so is the economic progress within a country. Income inequality also hinders growth and as a result, the country ceases to develop as a result of capital influx.
- Income inequality which is on a rise in South Africa is a major challenge for the country and it adversely affects social political stability, impedes progress of education and health, while at the same time impacting economic development.
- Because of huge income variations, there is increased poverty incidence in South Africa and this has contributed to high crime rates. In 2011, reports indicate that the country had the 8th largest homicide rate.
- While the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) classifies South Africa as middle income country, it also reports that it has the highest levels of poverty with a large portion of the population living below the poverty line. What is more, a large percentage of the population in the country is classified as low income earners.
- Income disparities also limit growth of middle income earners though the size of this class can also provide ideal opportunities for non essential consumer goods industry.
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Factors Hindering Growth of Economy in Africa
There are several factors that affect economic growth in Africa such as investment, high education and development of infrastructure. These same factors have contributed towards holding the continent back from development.
There have been numerous economic reforms made in the continent and deals which have been given to China (on resource rights) that have made it possible for the continent to record gradual growth. Climate change, politics and unstable governments have also contributed towards hindering economic growth in Africa. The following are some of the factors that continue to hinder economic growth within the continent.
Majority of the African nations are not economically empowered because they don’t understand what sets the difference between the underdeveloped countries and developed ones such as Europe, Asia and America is technology. Simply put, this means how a country is able to create access and make use of ICT and Science to solve socio-economic issues. Technological innovation is what drives the world. Agriculture, transportation, clean water and medicine are all influenced by technology and the continent needs to embrace this in order to advance.
Poorly planned economic structures
Because majority of African nations haven’t adopted technology, they also haven’t made any changes to the economic structures they inherited after gaining independence. As a matter of fact, most African nations, if not all, rely on exportation of raw materials such as diamond, cocoa timber in raw forms yet there is no value in such exportation. Since they don’t have the capacity to manufacture, it also means they have to import things and this further hinders economic development.
This is major economic development deterrent and it is seen in African countries such as Sudan, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Congo. Whenever there is civil war in a country, investors do not dare to make any investment and this in turn inhibits growth and impedes employment opportunity creation. What is more, the infrastructure is also affected and this forces such countries to spend more on repairing infrastructure than coming up with development plans.
Foreign aid overdependence
While foreign aid is of great benefit to Africa’s economy, overreliance on the same has caused the economy to stagnate. For majority of African nations, foreign aid makes up a large percentage of the budget yet this shouldn’t be the case. Africa needs to get on its feet so it no longer relies on foreign aid to enhance education or infrastructure. African nations should therefore look for ways of creating their own revenue instead of budgeting on what will be issued by developed nations.
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Impact of income inequality on the Canadian economy
In the last 20 years, Canadian income inequality has continued to rise. Between 1993 and 2008, the richest faction of Canadians enjoyed an increase in national income while the poorest faction lost its share. Among its peers, the country has the 4th largest income inequality according to global analysis. Most of the gains in Canada go those who are ‘super rich’.
A study that was carried out by the Canadian Center for Policy Alternatives used tax file data for purposes of keeping track of the richest 1% of Canadians whose income was high than 99% of tax filers in Canada. The study found that the group, which comprised of 246,000 people with an average income of $405,000, took a third of the income growth from 1998 through to 2007. This is a decade in which the fastest economic growth was witnessed.
This growth noted among the ‘super rich’ is not as a result of assets they already own because it has been historically proved that the super rich rely greatly on the undeserved profits from assets. This means that their income is largely as a result of lavish sums they get paid when they work.
There are two important factors that contribute towards income inequality in Canada and they include:
- Market forces-This specifically includes skill bias change and globalization which have created an increased in skilled labor demand.
- Institutional forces-This includes decline of unionization rates, stagnation of minimum wage rate, national policies and deregulation that favors the super rich.
Income inequality has far reaching impacts on the Canadian economy. This is especially witnessed in business establishments which are becoming more concerned about the state of inequality. It diminishes economic growth because it means that the country is not using the capabilities and skills of its citizens fully and leads to increase in social tensions. In addition to this, it also raises a moral question in regard to social justice and fairness.
Also, because of income inequality in the country, consumers are often left without much purchasing power. Traditionally, economic growth meant that everyone within the country would benefit but this is not the case in Canada. The latest economic growth surge has seen the rich Canadians getting richer while the poor get poorer.
The challenge that Canada is now facing is that of preserving for the future generations so they can enjoy a fair and level playing ground. At least 61% of Canadians say that inequality stands between them and the opportunity of living a better life than their parents as reported in a survey by Ekos Research Associates.
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Effects of Income Inequality on Economy
Income inequality is a problem that is today affecting almost every economy across the globe. Income inequality is a phrase that is used in reference to the uneven distribution of individual or household income among a given population. In simple terms, it can be referred to as the gap between the rich and other people forming the population. In most countries today, the gap has been viewed as continuously widening, creating different impacts on their economic muscles.
Income inequality can have various kinds of effects on an economy. However, it should be noted that the greatest effect of income disparity is economic instability. In fact, income inequality greatly curtails the growth of an economy since it creates differences in the spending habits of the entire population. Those who usually earn much less often tend to spend more on consumables compared to those in the high-income brackets. As a result of this, those in the lower income brackets are unable to grow economically since most of their earnings or profits are used up in consumption. Since the low-income earners often use most of their earnings on consumables, they are unable to save or even acquire credit facilities as a means of raising their economic standards.
The above argument has also been cited by some economists who say that in one way, income disparity can fuel economic growth. According to their argument, a greater portion of the rich’s income is not spent on consumable; instead, they tend to save and invest more. As a result of this, there is expected economic growth due to the increased investments made by those with high incomes over the years.
Income inequality is viewed by most people to be a result of government policies that impact an even distribution of income among its population. One of such policies is marginal top tax rates cuts, weakening of unions and persistent unemployment. With cuts in top tax rates, there are minimal wage increases and little capital improvements. However, it facilitates spending on high-end goods, thus widening the gap between the profit seeker and the wage earner. The overall result of this is an increase in the levels of income inequality and suffering on economic growth.
Persistent unemployment is yet another scenario of income inequality. When the rate of unemployment keeps rising, there is a redundancy of earnings, meaning that the wages remain stagnant for a very long period of time. Even if they increase, it is often with a very little percentage. Besides, any labor gains in productivity are simply passed on to those at the helm of the industries. Thus, the low-earners shall remain poor while the owners of the industries continue to enrich themselves. In most occasions, it is viewed that certain governments initiate policies that enable companies to profit by maintaining high levels of unemployment. This continued income disparity can significantly harm economic growth in the long term.
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Solutions to Gender Inequality in the Workplace
It is indisputable that gender biasness exists in different forms at workplace. For example, there are cases where people of the same gender are paid different salaries after performing the same task. In some scenarios, employers hire and train people of the same gender, with the belief that certain jobs are meant for men or women. There are numerous cases where companies fail to promote expectant women and favor those who are not pregnant. History is further replete with cases of sexual harassment at workplaces, most of which are directed to women. With all these, the impact of gender inequality is dire and there is need to tame the situation. This essay explores solutions to gender inequality in the workplace.
The first step towards stumping out gender inequalities in our offices is embracing actions, which promote equality at workplace. For example, it is necessary to empower the management through training. It is true that there are managers who do not understand the basics of gender inequity and have no idea of how to resolve issues relating to this topic. Thus, educate managers in all aspects of discrimination, including common and subtle areas of management. Of great significance is equipping them with knowledge on how to identify discrimination among the staff and be able to deal with the situation. Above all, the management should how measures in place on how to prevent possible cases of gender unfairness at workplace in future.
Additionally, it is paramount to provide childcare support and facilities at workplace for fathers and mothers working for you. Through this, employees get motivated and work hard to achieve their objectives. To obtain better results, it is vital to make family leave available to men and women without favoring any gender. Moreover, empowering women and recognizing their impact at workplace is a practical way of dealing with gender inequalities in business. How do you do this? The easiest approach is showcasing successful women of the organization. This should cut across departments and levels, regardless of the positions these women hold.
While these efforts are important, they should not go unnoticed by everyone else at workplace. This calls for publicizing efforts to augment gender balance. Besides making it known to the employees, external publics like other companies and vendors ought to be aware of these efforts. You can achieve this through media adverts in newspaper editorials, ads or on the company website for everyone to know what you are doing about gender inequality.
Nonetheless, legislation that promotes gender equality is vital. It is the role of the management to develop and implement gender equality policies. For instance, the company should hold the view that men and women deserve the same pay as long as they are performing the same tasks for the company. Besides this, the policies should embrace all-round equality. For such, men and women should be treated fairly and equally during recruitment, training and promotion at all times. However, most companies focusing on maximum utilization of workers, the management should strike a balance between their employees’ duties and their personal lives. For example, there should be equal opportunities for employees to pursue further studies to better their careers without losing their jobs.
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Examples of Gender Inequality in the Workplace
Gender inequality is an issue that affects women in almost every aspect of life. The workplace is not an exception. It is for this reason that the government has been working hard to ensure women lead a fulfilling professional life. A number of policies and state legislations have been put in place to protect women against gender inequality.
Some of the examples of gender inequality in the workplace include
Stereotype in form of interview questions
In the workplace, women are prejudiced. There are jobs that are specifically set aside for men and women. Even though an employer may not directly discriminate you as a woman from certain jobs, he may ask questions that put you off on jobs set aside for men. An employer may ask you questions such as are you married or are you planning to have kids. Such questions suggest that the employer is not interested in hiring a mother because of responsibilities that come with motherhood.
Discrimination and gender inequality in the workplace also comes in the form of low pay. Many women are paid less than what they should really earn. Even if you enforce policies such as performance review with an aim of earning more, your employer will not pay attention. Women are often reprimanded and criticized when they request for a high pay or a similar amount that male employees earn.
Responsibilities being diminished
Women often complain of fewer responsibilities at place of work. This is based on the fact that there is an outdated notion that women are only best suited for negotiation related duties as opposed to managerial duties. At the end of the day, women are given tasks that may not even equal their academic credentials.
Last minute and impossible deadlines are also examples of gender inequality in the workplace. Bosses can give you as a woman impossible deadline just to prove that you cannot deliver on time. Such deadlines or tasks are a way of discriminating women and in most cases; a boss will use child care issues to prevent you from achieving your goals.
In addition, women do not get rightful promotions because of gender inequality. A woman may be passed over a promotion just because she is married and has kids. Such occurrences in the place of work demean women and waste their skills.
Male colleagues and bosses can also use abusive language or blurt demeaning comments in the office against women. Such comments are aimed at preventing women from communicating efficiently with their bosses and with their colleagues.
Similarly, bosses and superiors cut off women as they talk out their points on regular basis and do not do the same to male employees. By doing so, women feel embarrassed and undervalued in the workplace.
The workplace is full of gender issues. However, it is imperative to note that women and men have different conversation styles. Women are collaborative and men are more informative and do not often ask questions.
Therefore, there is need to implement policies that prevent gender inequality and stop employers acting on bias.
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Sample Essay on Gender Wage Gap
Gender gap is an issue that has generated fierce debate in the US and many other countries across the globe. It is the difference between the wages earned by women and wages earned by men. It can be measured in different ways but the commonly used strategy has been evaluation of full time and full year wages.
Gender wage gap can also be measured based on hourly wages. Recent research carried out in Canada and parts of the US reveals that gender gap is estimated at 26 percent for women that work on full time basis. This is an equivalent of $1.00 earned by a male worker and only 74 cents earned by a female employee.
Because of gender wage gap, a Pay Equity Act was passed in 1987. The gender gap was then estimated at 36 percent. The research also shows that the gap has been narrowing slowly over the past few years.
Common causes of gender wage gap
Gender wage gap is caused by a number of factors including the need to leave, choose or re-enter a work place because of family responsibilities. Many women are care givers at home and such responsibilities prevent them from earning a good amount. Such responsibilities also result in loss of seniority at place of work, in wages and advancement in technology or opportunity.
Low paying jobs including clerical work and childcare also cause gender wage gap. There has been historical segregation and women are undervalued because they are seen as the only ones who can take up such jobs.
Lower education levels also contribute to gender wage gap. Today, this is becoming less of a gender wage gap factor because many women have advanced in education. There are many graduate women across different parts of the globe.
Less unionization especially amongst the women also contributes to gender wage gap.
There is also discrimination in the workplace especially when it comes to hiring, promotion and compensation practices in different companies.
Closing the gender wage gap
The United States has been employing different strategies to help fight gender wage gap because of the alarming statistics on women who are affected by wage gap. It is estimated that 10 to 15 percent of gender wage gap is caused by discrimination.
Therefore, there are different policy options that the government has been pursuing to address the issue. Pay Equity Act is one of the policies put in place to address gender wage gap. This is because of systematic discrimination of women in the workplace especially in terms of compensation practices.
The act works by putting on onus on all employers to establish compensation practices that favor men and women. It also expects employers to maintain the same practices over a long period of time.
The policy also states that employers should adjust job rates and compare job classes of men and women. This is to ensure that job classes allow women to earn the same amount as men depending on their efforts, skills, working conditions and responsibilities in the work place.
Compensation practices help to address gender wage gap. By adopting pay equity initiatives in the states, the wage gap can also be addressed effectively.
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Reasons for Gender Wage
Gender wage is an issue that has not been fully addressed in different parts of the globe. The US is one of the countries that have been trying to close gender wage gap over the past years to no success. This is largely attributed to the fact that there are complex and interrelated causes of gender pay gap including
Research shows that many women earn less compared to males even if they have the same credentials and doing the same job. This is a factor that explains why gender pay gap has been hard to close both in developed and developing countries. Direct discrimination is also common because of the effectiveness of national legislation and effectiveness of the European Union.
Undervaluing the work of women
Undervaluing the work of women is also a leading cause of gender wage. Women earn less because of the value of the work they do. This affects their competitiveness because they cannot put their skills into practice fully.
Additionally, jobs that require similar skills, experience and qualifications pay poorly. Such jobs are often designed for women. Such jobs include cashiers in supermarkets among other low paying jobs.
Similarly, evaluation of employee performance is often biased. It favors men when it comes to the level of pay as well as career progression. In cases where men and women are qualified, you will realize that more value is attached to men’s responsibilities.
Labor market segregation
Segregation in the labor market also causes gender wage. Women and men are offered different jobs even on the same sector. As a result, women are known to predominate low paying and less valuable jobs.
Additionally, women are offered jobs that pay low even in sectors that are known to be profitable. This includes health, public administration and education sector. For instance, in the health sector, there are many nurses and up to 80 percent are women.
Similarly, women are often under represented in senior and managerial positions. Women only represent 17 percent of board members in big public companies in the European Union.
Segregation linked to stereotypes and traditions are also one of the reasons behind gender wage. Women may take up certain educational paths because of stereotype. There are also careers that are believed to be best suited for women than men.
There are a minority of women in computing, engineering and mathematics among other related fields because of stereotype. As a result, women work in less valuable and less paying jobs because these traditions and stereotypes reduce their working hours. This often occurs so that women can provide elderly or childcare services.
The need to balance private and work life
The need to balance private and work life also causes gender wage. Women experience difficulties when balancing work and private life.
What’s more, family care, domestic responsibilities and the freedom to enjoy a more private life is not equal between men and women. Women are often expected to stay home and take care of kids among other household chores. Men on the other hand have all the time they need to hang out with friends.
Women also have more interruptions on their careers compared to men thus, negatively impacting their pay.
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Wage Gap in America
Wage Gap in America addresses many issues. Over the past years, there have been many questions surrounding wage gap in the states including why men are often paid more than women, whether women work part time hence the wage gap and whether women have the sole responsibility of taking care of their children that’s why they earn less.
The truth is that all the above questions can be answered by understanding wage gap in America. Research shows that wage gap in the US affects many women of all ages. It also affects women despite their educational level. This is why the state has been trying to find the most ideal solutions to address or close wage gap.
Wage gap in America has not been budgeted over the past years. Therefore, women suffered a great deal and they were paid only 77 percent of what men were paid in a decade. This included women who worked whole year and full time.
Wage gap in America also affects women in every state. However, some states are worse compared to others. Women in Washington DC are paid well, 90 percent of what men are paid especially in the past decade. The worst state where the effects of wage gap are greatly felt is Wyoming where women are only paid 64 percent of what men earn.
The wage gap in America is also worse depending on the color of women. Even though it affects all women in the states, Hispanic and Black women are greatly affected. It is also worse on Asian American women as they receive 87 percent of what white men are paid in the country.
Hispanic women earn 53 percent of what white men earn. This means that whites are used in the states as a benchmark because they cover the largest demographic group.
Wage gap in America-occupation
Wage gap in America affects women in all professions. It doesn’t discriminate against the type of work that a woman handles year in year out. Middle and elementary school teachers are paid less compared to their male counterparts. This is also common in female dominated, male dominated and gender balanced workplaces.
Wage gap also affects women without children. Those that work full time earn up to 82 percent of what men earn.
Educated women are not an exception. Even though many women have advanced in education, they stand a chance to earn good salaries. However, wage gap affects them negatively leading to low salaries compared to what men earn. This means that education cannot be used as an effective tool to close wage gap in America.
Changes that can help close wage gap in America
Over the past years, the US has been looking for effective tools against wage gap. This includes
Carrying out salary audits in companies to monitor the earnings of men and women because it helps to find the difference and pay women well.
For individuals, the states suggest that women should learn to bargain for good salaries.
Policy makers on the other hand can use executive order to promote women’s earnings.
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Difference between First and Second Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution era means a lot to every human. Whether born during the first or second industrial revolution, there are great innovations made that changed lives for better. However, there are number of similarities and differences that define these eras of industrial revolution. Both First and Second Industrial Revolution saw great development in the world that changed the way humans perceived things. They opened ways for many innovations taking place today.
Without these two industrial revolution eras, the great innovations in the transport, agricultural, economy and technology sector would never exist. All in all, both First and Second Industrial Revolution have vast differences that make it easy to understand what industrial revolution was all about and they include;
- First industrial revolution was the change to new and exceptional manufacturing processes and took place between 1760 and 1870 while the second industrial revolution or technological revolution that corresponded to the latter half of the 19th century until the World War I that is between 1870 and 1960.
- The transition experienced during the first industrial revolution included going from hand production methods to machines, iron production processes, use of steam power and new chemical manufacturing. It also entailed change from use of wood and bio-fuels to coal. In the second industrial revolution, it was characterized by the extensive building out of railroads, far-fetching use of machinery in manufacturing, immense use of steam power, large scale production of steel and iron and electrical communications.
- The industrial revolution started in United Kingdom and spread to Western Europe and North America while second industrial revolution spread to other areas like Russia, japan and Germany and all developed in respective areas of interest.
- During the first industrial revolution developments were made in textile industry where mechanized cotton spinning powered by steam or water took place. Steam power became the main source of power industries as they were more efficient. The use of coke for charcoal during this era lowered the cost of iron making and even allowed vast blast furnaces to be used. On the other hand, during the second industrial revolution iron making was improved by the use of Hot Blast technique as it reduced fuel use. Mass production of steel also took place and better techniques were used.
- At the beginning of the first industrial revolution, inland transport was effective by navigable rivers and roads. Railways and wagon were used for conveying coal to rivers for shipment. Animals were used to motive power to land and sails aided on the sea. Britain transport infrastructure with canal and waterway network, railway network and turnpike road network. When it comes to the second industrial revolution, great changes were made on the existing means of transport due to the advent of electricity. Road transport was also improved through the advent of automobiles making it faster to move from one place to another.
- Lastly, communication became easy during the second industrial revolution due to the invention of telegraph system that was improved to other means of communication like telephone and radio. During the industrial revolution era, many people relied on messengers or other application means.
A lot of economic changes were experienced during these two distinctive eras. There was expansion of factor system, increased unemployment due to eradication of man power, industrial capitalism and led to mass production of goods. Social, industrial revolution increased leisure time, led to development of more cities and increased population. Above all, these eras led to increased power of the industrialized countries.
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Causes and Effects of Battle of Plassey
There many battles that have been fought and won or lost since time age-old. The battle of Plassey was one of the greatest battles ever written in the ancient texts. It was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the ruler of Bengal and his French partners on the 23rd June 1757. The battle took place at Plassey on the banks of Bhagirathi River which was approximately 150 kilometers north of Calcutta and south of Murshidabad capital of Bengal.4
The British had come up with a great strategy of befriending themselves with various princes and rulers of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to triumph. They would promise security against the rebels and usurpers. In return the Nawabs would promise them concessions for security. A lot took place during this era, but here are notable causes of the battle of Plassey, and they include;
- The British wanted to establishment themselves administratively, politically and economically in India and over Bengal and make it easy to wage war against the Nawabs.
- The British wanted to dethrone Sirajuddaula [The last sovereign Nawab of Bengal] after he began to follow their every move and wanted them to stop their activities, but failed and support Shaukat Jang. Siraj relatives later opposed his undertakings against decided to get rid of him.
- The British had no respect for the Nawab although he wanted to strike a compromise, but hatred has already settled between the parties.
- The British knew that there were traitors within the Sirajuddaulua army despite the power and efficiency he possessed. Hence, they considered a secret treaty with Mir Jafar on 4th June1757. The army was too strong to defeat but their friend Mir Jafar disclosed Sirajuddaula.
- Sirajuddaula believed in the French and thought they were more trustworthy than the Englishmen. He was also devastated by the loss of Chandernagar and his defeat by the British. The war became more imminent as Sirajuddaula was pressurized by the British not to allow the French from India to continue with trade in the nation. Some of the Frenchmen were serving the Nawab and so he could not forbid them from trading India.
- Robert Clive, the colonel in-charge of the British army had overpowered the Indian army twice and felt that it was weak and scared. He felts safe and victories because he had two traitors close to Sirajuddaula; Mir Jar [the commander of the India army] and Durlabh Rai and other military personnel. Hence, he had all the Sirajuddaula move or strategy watched.
With strong desire and confidence to win the war, Clive searched for an opportunity to attack the Indians. He accused Sirajuddaula of violating the term of the treaty of Alinagar and he sent an army through. The battle began! Mir Jar two-timed his leader and sent a message to Clive of a pending attack anytime of the day. On the other hand, Durlab Rai floated a rumor that the English are winning and the soldiers of Nawab are fleeing for their lives. Nawab was defeated and retreated and Mir Jafar took over after Sirajuddaula was killed by his confidants.
As a result of the battle of Plassey, the French were no longer a force to reckon in Bengal as they were later defeated by the British and the Northern Circars was secured by Clive. Things went bad for Mir Jafar and he spurred the Dutch to attack the British and banish them from Bengal. However, Robert Clive used is mastery and artillery and defeated the Dutch. Mir Jafar was unseated and Mir Qasim to lead Bengal. About 18 British men were lost and estimated 500 Nawabs were known to have dead. The British also got a lot of wealth and valuables from after securing every station.
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