How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
It is always recommended that you know how to write a scientific research paper in order to enhance your performance in science assignments and term papers. Science is a discipline that is quite vast and writing standard research reports or papers is one of the best ways through which you can be able to effectively understand its various elements. Contrary to what some students may think, you can easily know how to write a scientific research paper by just following the simple guidelines and steps discussed herein. Besides, you will also find sample scientific research papers for motivation in writing good reports.
A scientific research paper is just like other academic papers when it comes to writing, despite a few key aspects that should be highlighted therein. A scientific research paper is mainly used to explore and identify issues regarding science. This means you are required to clearly explain a particular study, focusing on materials used, processes involved, results, suggestions, challenges and relevance to the subject of the paper.
The skills on how to write a scientific research paper can be applied in various areas where writing is involved, apart from just assignments and term papers. In fact, knowing how to craft a good scientific research report will also enhance your general writing skills.
Tips on How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
In high school, college and university, writing scientific research papers is a common assignment for students. Therefore, you should know how to create a unique and high quality paper in order to attain the best results. Besides, writing a good scientific report also entails focus on the study, proper organization and planning. The following tips will guide you on how to write a scientific research paper.
Choose a topic
In some cases students are often given topics to discuss in science papers. However, there are also others whereby you are given the freedom of choosing one for yourself. If asked to pick a topic or subject, always go for something that you can easily discuss into detail.
A good topic should be one that others can also research on and get information. Besides, it would also be advisable to go for a subject that you and your readers are interested in. Writing about something that you love would be enjoyable and also much easier. In case you are unable to pick an ideal topic, try seeking suggestions from others.
Do your research
Having settled on a topic for the paper, you can now get into finding information about it. There are various sources that you can obtain information from including website pages, articles, interviews, blog posts among others. In fact, you can do the research from both primary and secondary sources.
It is advisable that you research from a wide range of sources in order to get various views or perspectives of the research topic. Try to find sources that are reliable and can offer valid insights into your study. Scientific journals, articles or papers written by experts in the field could offer great ideas for writing research reports.
Note down the basic elements of the research
In writing a scientific research paper, there are certain key aspects that you will be required to clearly bring out in every report. Therefore, it would be ideal if you highlighted them while doing the research for easy reference. Some of the main points to be noted include:
- A description of the study, including statistics, facts and figures
- Methods used in conducting the research
- Interpretation of the outcomes
The ideas that you have identified for the above aspects should not be generated from just one source, instead, developed through a proper analysis of information from various sources. However, you can also add your own comments or opinions for use in writing the paper. Also remember to mark the sources of your information for easy reference.
Identify the goal of the report
A scientific research paper can either be argumentative or analytical depending on the given instructions. Knowing the particular type of research paper that you will be writing is important in determining the approach to take. It is also important that you consider the audience or target readers in order to come up with an argument and points that they can easily understand and relate to.
Create a thesis
Also known as hypothesis, a thesis statement is the basis of the report that tells readers about the specific focus of the paper and what they should expect. It is the key argument that your study will be looking towards proving. Made up of just about two to three sentences, an ideal thesis should highlight a unique view about the topic. However, it must be an argument or claim that you are able to effectively prove with evidence, in the paper.
Pick your main points
The thesis is to set the stage, so you can easily identify the key points to be mentioned and discussed in the body and conclusion paragraphs. Go through the information obtained from the research, and choose the outstanding points to support the thesis.
When determining the key ideas for the paper, you should also mark the evidences that will be used to further explain the given point. These can include facts, figures, and quotations among others.
Develop an outline
An outline is important in organizing your points for every section of the paper. Creating one will give you an easy time in writing since all the references can be made from it. The outline should clearly show your main points for the introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion in brief.
Steps on How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
Generally, a scientific research paper has three main sections; introduction, body and conclusion. The following procedures will direct you on how to write a scientific research paper.
Include a short and clear title that describes the discussion of the study as will be presented in your report.
Start writing the paper by giving a general overview of the topic of study so readers can know where your discussion is coming from. This should only be a bout two or three sentences long. Towards the end of the first paragraph, you should also write the thesis and give readers a plan on how the paper will be handled in the next paragraphs.
This is the ‘meat’ of the report and should comprehensively discuss the research in a way that your audience can read and understand. It is the point whereby you are required present a logical explanation of the study with regards to the main argument.
Use a new paragraph for a fresh idea or point to support the thesis. Besides, you should also give examples to back up every argument presented in each paragraph. Always make sure that every remark made in the paper is supported by facts from the study.
A good body paragraph should not simply give points or facts but proceed into fully explaining each and making a commentary. Try to be creative in writing the body paragraphs so the paper does not sound blunt and boring.
The last paragraph of a scientific research paper should summarize the study and bring the discussion to a close. The three basic elements of the conclusion include restatement of the thesis, a recap of the key points covered in the paper and emphasis on the implications of the results of the study.
For clarity, you can choose to use sub-titles to highlight the different aspects of the study in the paper. This implies after introduction, you can include sub-headings highlighting the methods of the study, materials used, outcomes and discussion.
Examples of Scientific Research Papers
Reading well written sample scientific research papers can also offer you more ideas on how to write a scientific research paper. Below are some examples to refer to:
Sample Research Paper, ‘’Running on Empty: The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Perseverance’’
‘’Many things interrupt people’s ability to focus on a task: distractions, headaches, noisy environments, and even psychological disorders. To some extent, people can control the environmental factors that make it difficult to focus…’’ Read the rest of the sample paper here.
Sample Scientific Research Paper
‘’Just as animals around the world have evolved to better survive in their environments, botanical life everywhere has also been forced to grow and adapt to their habitats. Every plant, from the smallest strain of seaweed to the tallest redwood is the result of billions of years of competition for optimal growth conditions…’’
Follow this link to continue reading the sample.
Sample Research Paper for a Science Fair Project, ‘’Which Battery Is Better?’’
‘’Batteries come in many shapes and sizes. Some are no longer than a pill while others are too heavy to lift, but most batteries have one thing in common-they store energy and change it into electrical energy. The cell is the basic unit that produces electricity…’’
Continue reading the sample here.
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Nicotinamide Adenine DinucleotidPhosphate
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is a coenzyme form of vitamin niacin. The enzyme also known as NADP is needed for many biochemical reactions to take place. Protein catalysts including trypsin and lysozyme catalyze different reactions by themselves. However, many other catalysts require metal ions as well as ribonucleic acid to carry out a reaction.
Niacin is a component of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and NAD. These enzymes are very crucial in catabolism, and in the production of energy as well as biosynthesis of sugars and fats.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is therefore very important and plays a crucial role in ensuring that biochemical reactions take place. Redox reactions for instance cannot take place without NADP. This is a reaction in which oxidoreductase enzymes transfer hydrogen.
Redox reaction is catalyzed by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or the oxidoreducrase enzyme. During the process, two electrons and two hydrogens are removed from an ethanol molecule. A hydrogen atom and two electrons will then be transferred to generate an active NADP+.
Enzymes that require NADP to carry out different reactions
- Alcohol dehydrogenase requires NADP to metabolize alcohol
- Glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze an important step in glycolysis
- Lactate dehydrogenase also requires NADP to catalyze reactions in liver and muscle cells
- Pyruvate dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze any reaction connecting to glycolysis to the Krebs cycle
- a-keto-glutatarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase also require NADP to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation reactions
- Hydroxyl-acyl-sCoA dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation reactions
- Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is also needed to catalyze reactions in pentose phosphate pathway, in the Calvin cycle and in fatty acid synthesis.
Additionally, biosynthetic and energy producing functions of Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase also come in handy. The enzyme act as an electron acceptor in oxidoreductase catalyzed reactions. It acts as an electron donor to ensure successful reactions in different cycles and metabolic processes.
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase can also act as a side enzyme in different reactions. This depends on the side of NAD molecule that the enzyme acts on. For instance alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes an alcoholic reaction. NADP therefore acts as a side enzyme by ensuring sufficient transfer of hydrogen from ethanol and to the position that is required to produce quality alcohol.
Similarly, nicotinamide group can be used with dehydrogenase enzyme unexpectedly to complete a catalytic reaction. It is also important to note that NADP has a very distinctive signal in ultra-violet spectroscopy. The enzyme is used by scientists to monitor a wide range of enzyme catalyzed reactions.
Who established Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase?
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that has been proven to be very important in a wide range of metabolic reactions. This is an enzyme that was first established by Hans von Euler. He was the first to realize the structure of the enzyme. In 1929, Hans shared a Nobel Prize with Arthur Harden in medicine and in physiology for the discovery of the enzyme as well as NAD.
Later on, Euler proved that NAD contains two phosphate groups including one adenine, one nicotinamide unit and ribose sugar. These are important compounds that offer a positive charge on the enzyme and nitrogen atoms in different reactions.
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Where to Find a Reflection Paper Example
When asked to write a reflection paper for the first time, the first question that you might ask is most likely about where to find a reflection paper example. A reflection paper can be defined as a paper that gives you a chance to illustrate your comprehension of a given material and its effects on your ideas as well as possible future practice. While writing a reflection paper, you are allowed an opportunity to reinforce what you have learned through lecturers, personal experience and coursework. A reflection paper may focus on your personal experiences and feelings. However, it requires you to use concrete examples and multiple sources. Reflection papers are invaluable to students who engage in capstones or experiential classes which include internships because they enable them to synthesize theoretical knowledge via applied experience.
Importance of knowing where to find a reflection paper example
If you do not have a clue about how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper example will give you vital ideas on where to start the process of writing this paper. Even when you have ideas on how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper sample will give you fresh ideas. This makes approaching your reflection paper writing assignment easier. Generally, there are two major reasons why you need a sample reflection paper.
- To fine-tune ideas
While writing a reflection paper, you do not want to confine your writing to only what you know. A good reflection paper sample will enable you to fine-tune your current ideas so that you can present them in the most appropriate way and even get hints on new ways of presenting your ideas.
- Know how to format your reflection paper
Your instructor will give you different instructions on how to write your reflection paper. However, the instructor might or might not specify the style to adapt in your paper. The instructor can ask you to write the paper in APA, MLA, Harvard or Chicago style. A good sample written in a specified style will give you vital ideas on how to format your reflection paper.
When you know where you can find a good reflection paper sample, you do not have to worry or panic when asked to write this paper because you can always reach for a sample to act as your writing guide any time. You can also read the sample in advance especially if you are certain that your instructor will ask you to write one at some point.
Why use a reflection paper example?
Although writing a reflection paper may sound easy, it is not. While writing a reflection paper, you should stop, think and reflect about yourself. This paper gives you an opportunity to collect your thoughts before you write them and view things in an entirely new perspective. What you include in a reflection paper should come from your thoughts. The final reflection paper that you present should be based on your feelings and thoughts whose basis is your past life experiences, desires and beliefs.
When you know where to find a reflection paper example, you can reach for it while writing your paper for hints on the ideas, thoughts and information to include in your paper. Reading a good sample of a reflection paper will also enable you to generate ideas and organize them properly in your paper to ensure proper presentation. This is very important because the ability to write a good reflection paper depends on your ability to express your ideas, thoughts, experiences and desires in a way that opens your mind to an entirely new level.
Tips on where to find a reflection paper example
A good reflection paper sample should be based on the reflection of a particular event, a place or a person that has impacted on the life of the writer profoundly. Writing a reflection paper is more of writing a typical story and it usually leads to the establishment of important creative writing skills. However, when asked to write this paper for the first time you will find yourself struggling because you will not know which elements to put where. In that case, you should turn to the right places to look for a reflection paper example.
- Ask your teacher or professor to give you a reflection paper sample
If you do not know how to approach a reflection paper writing assignment or where to get a sample of a reflection paper, it is a good idea to ask your teacher or professor to give you a sample. You can visit the professor or teacher after the class or when you are sure that he/she is in the office to find out whether they can give you a reflection paper sample that you can review before you start writing your paper. There is a high chance that your teacher or professor has reflection paper samples written by former students. Once the professor or teacher gives you a sample, study it carefully to get insights on what the professor or teacher expects you to include in the paper. Pay close attention to the comments that the professor or teacher has included in the reflection paper sample.
- Ask a friend to give you a sample
You most probably know a friend whose papers are always excellent. You can seek assistance from such a friend. You might as well know a friend who is no longer at school but they scored high grades in academic papers. Ask them because they might have a sample that they keep at home. Such a friend can even tutor you on how to write a reflection paper as they give you the sample.
- Buy a reflection paper example online
There are companies that offer academic writing services online. If you are wondering about where to find a reflection paper example because your friends, teachers or professors do not have one, enlist the services of such companies. A reflection paper sample from a professional writing company is one of the best sample papers to use because it is written and edited by professionals. Therefore, order a reflection paper sample in advance so that you can use it as a guide for writing your reflection paper.
- Check the websites of professional writing companies
Several professional writing companies have websites where they post free academic paper samples. You can visit the blogs of such companies to find out whether they have a free sample reflection paper that you can use as your guide. You can find such a reflection paper example here.
- Check the websites of different colleges and universities
Some colleges and universities have websites where they post the best papers and essays written by their students. These are aimed at serving as samples to guide students when writing papers and essays in different disciplines. Visit the website of your college or university to find out if there is a reflection paper that you can use as your writing sample. If you cannot find a sample at the website of your college or university, check the websites of other learning institutions. Such a sample reflection paper can be found here.
How to use a reflection paper example
Now that you know where to find a reflection paper sample, it is important that you know how to use a sample reflection paper. Remember that you should use a reflection paper example just as the name suggests; as an example. You should not plagiarize the sample paper or part of it because that amounts to a serious offence for which you can be punished. As such, make sure that you only review the reflection paper example to get ideas for writing and formatting your paper then keep it away before you start writing your reflection paper. If you use ideas from the sample paper, make sure that your reflection paper has citations and footnotes that are properly referenced at the end of the paper.
It is also important that you use credible sources while writing your reflection paper. There are many books, academic journals and online sources where you can get information to guide you in writing your reflection paper. Make sure that you use and reference credible sources only. For your reflective paper to be credible, it should indicate that you consulted different sources including the internet, magazines and encyclopedias among others. After writing your paper, edit it properly, review the reflection paper sample and then reread your reflection paper to determine whether you have written it as the sample that you were using.
Get a unique reflection paper sample online now
You should use a unique reflection paper example from a credible source to come up with a great reflection paper. If you are having difficulties in identifying a place where to find a reflection paper example, get in touch with us right away. You can also visit our website’s home page for additional information about our academic writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to write a reflection paper as well as sample papers on our blog.
Oxidative phosphorylation refers to a metabolic pathway where cells’ mitochondria use their enzymes, structure and energy that is released by nutrients’ oxidation in reforming ATP. Oxidation phosphorylation is simplified as OXPHOS. Despite different life forms in the planet earth using different types of nutrients, ATP is the sole molecule that offers energy to the metabolism process. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in almost every aerobic organism.
As a pathway, oxidative phosphorylation is perhaps, so pervasive since it allows for a highly efficient way via which energy is released as compared to the alternative processes of fermentation such as the anaerobic glycolysis. Electrons transfer takes place during the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
Electrons transfer occurs when electrons are moved from the electron donors to the electron acceptors such as redox reactions and oxygen. Redox reactions that take place during oxidative phosphorylation release energy. This energy is used in the formation of ATP. Redox reactions in the eukaryotes are performed by several protein complexes in the intermembrane wall mitochondria of the cell. In the prokaryotes, the proteins are situated in the inter-membrane space of the cells. The linked protein sets are known as the electron transport chains. In the eukaryotes, there are five major protein complexes that are involved. On the other hand, prokaryotes have various enzymes that use different electron donors as well as acceptors.
Energy that is released when the electrons flow via this process of electron transport chain is basically used in the transport of protons across inner membrane of mitochondria in a process known as the electron transport. This process also produces potential energy in pH gradient form. It also generates electrical potential across the membrane. This creates a store for energy that is tapped by letting proteins flow back across mitochondrial membrane downing this gradient via large enzyme known as ATP synthase. This process is called chemiosmosis.
The energy is used by the enzyme in generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate in the phosphorylation reaction. Proton flow drives this reaction which in turn forces rotation forces of the part of enzyme. ATP synthase acts as the rotary mechanical motor of the process.
Despite being an important metabolism part, oxidative phosphorylation produces reactive species of oxygen including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide which then leads to the propagation of the free radicals which damage cells and facilitating diseases and senescence or aging. Many poisons and drugs that inhibit activities of the enzymes that carry out oxidative phosphorylation target them.
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Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide simply called NAD refers to a coenzyme that is found in every living cell. This compound is the dinucleotide and since it has two nucleotides that are joined via phosphate groups. One of the nucleotides has a nicotinamide and the other an adenine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually found in two forms. These are the reduced form and in the oxidized forms abbreviated as NADH and NAD respectively.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually involved in the redox reactions in metabolism. It carries electrons across different reactions. Therefore, the coenzyme is found in two different forms in the living cells. These are the oxidizing agent NAD+ which accepts electrons from the other molecules becoming reduced. The reaction forms the NADH with is then possible to reduce as the reducing agent that donates electrons.
The electron transfer reactions are the major role of the NAD. Nevertheless, NAD is also used in cellular processes with enzyme substrate being the most notable that removes or add chemical groups from the proteins in the posttranslational modifications. Due to the crucial role of the functions of NAD, the enzymes that are involved in its metabolism are the targets of drug discovery.
In living organisms, synthesis of NAD can result from the simple building blocks the de novo. This is from amino acids aspartic acid and tryptophan. In the alternative fashion, complex components of coenzymes are usually taken up from the food in form of a vitamin known as niacin.
There are similar compounds that are released by the reactions that break NAD’s structure down. The preformed components pass via salvage pathway recycling them into an active form. There is also NAD that is converted to Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, simplified as NADP. Chemistry of the coenzyme is like that of the NAD. However, its roles in the metabolism process are different.
Despite NAD+ being written with the sign of superscript plus due to its formal charge in a certain nitrogen atom, for most part at the physiological pH is a singly-charged anion. The charge is that of minus 1. On the other hand, NADH is doubly-charged anion. For Haemophilus influenza growth, NAD is considered as the V factor. Just like other dinucleotides, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has the two nucleotides that are joined by phosphate groups as their bridge. They also have ribose rings with one having adenine that is attached to first atom of carbon while the other is with the nicotinamide.
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Multidrug Resistance Protein 3
Multidrug resistance protein 3 is a protein belonging to the ABC subfamily C [ABCC]3) and it plays a significant role in the protection of hepatocytes as well as other tissues through extreation of different toxic organic conjugates of anion including the bile salts. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 3 or ABCC3 increases in a liver of individuals who are cholestatic but this molecular mechanism of the up-regulation stays elusive.
Basically, multidrug resistance protein 3 is a member of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette, the ABC transporter super-family. It expresses itself in different tissues including kidney, liver, adrenal gland, bladder and intestine of rodents and humans. Multidrug resistance protein 3 is localized in the basolateral membrane of the cells and it excretes sulfated, taurine-conjugated bile salts, glycine and bilirubin glucuronides, leukorienes, 17 x- glucuronosyl, and several drugs.
Hepatic multidrug resistance protein 3 expression under normal physiological circumstances is low. However, this expression is up-regulated significantly as adaptive and protective response when an individual is suffering from cholestasis. The up-regulation is also observed in the liver of a patient during the advance stages of primary biliary cirrhosis. It is also the case for parient with the extrahepatic cholestasis that is caused by pancreatic malignancy. However, it is not the case with patients in their early stages of progressive familial intra-hepatic cholestasis or PBC.
According to these revelations, it has been concluded that the distribution of multidrug resistance protein 3 and the basolateral position that it occupies in polarized cells suggests that the protein play an important role in metabolism when it comes to intestinal uptake of the organic anions as well as removal of the organic acids from liver cells and bile under cholestasic conditions.
The study revealed that multidrug resistance protein 3 up-regulation is high in the liver of the rats that were made cholestatic through litigation of the bile duct. It is also the case in the cholestatic liver of humans. Multidrug resistance protein 3 is also present in adrenal cortex in high levels. This has increased the possibility of multidrug resistance protein 3 being responsible for the secretion of certain hydrophilic steroid home derivatives including the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.
Despite being a member of the MRP subfamily that is involved in the development of multi-drug resistance, specific function of multidrug resistance protein 3 is yet to be determined. Nevertheless, it has been proven to play a significant role in the intestinal organic anions excretion and biliary transport.
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Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1refers to a protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene in humans. The protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene is part of the genes that belong to a super-family of the ATP-binding cassette or ABC transporters. ABC proteins are responsible for the transportation of different molecules across the intra and extra-cellular membranes.
There are seven divisions or distinct subfamilies of the ABC genes. These are the ABC1, MRP, MDR/TAP, OABP, ALD, GCN20 and White. Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is a full transporter belonging to the MRP subfamily that is involved in the multi-drug resistance activities. The function of this protein is to act as multi-specific organic anion transporter with the oxidized glutathione, activated aflatoxin B, and cysteinly leukotrienes as the substrates.
The protein is also responsible for transporting sulfate conjugates and glucuronides of the steroid hormones as well as bile salts. Different splice variants result from alternative splicing of the exon deletion but original reading of the open frame in all the forms is maintained.
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is among the major obstacles when it comes to treatment of cancer. This is because it not only hinders treatment, but also proper prognosis of cancer patients. It transport different therapeutic agents and a wide range of physiological substances and it can also play a significant role in development of resistance to drug in different forms of cancer including prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and childhood neuroblastoma.
Many patients of neuroblastoma in the current world disseminated this disease during diagnosis. Despite undergoing intensive treatment, prognosis of such patients remains dismal. Evidence that shows that multidrug resistance associated protein 1targets the genes that are involved in multidrug resistance in the neuroblastoma is increasing rapidly. Considering the significance of multidrug resistance associated protein 1overexpression in the neuroblastoma, its inhibition can be an important approach clinically in improving the patient outcome in the disease.
Developing a resistance to different cytotoxic drugs is the main cause of failure for treatment in different types of infections and malignant diseases. Thu, despite making significant advancement in the treatment of cancer, multidrug resistance associated protein 1is still a major problem in the medical or clinical field.
It causes poor outcome for patients and limitation of therapeutic options in different cancers. As such, having a better understanding of mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance associated protein 1is very important. It can help in improving the existing regime of chemotherapy in treatment of cancer and neuroblastoma.
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Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chain refers to several compounds that are responsible for transferring electrns from the electron donors to the electron acceptors through redox reactions while coupling the electron transfer process with protons (H+ ions) transfer across the membrane. This results in the creation of the electrochemical proton gradient responsible for driving synthesis of ATP or chemical energy generation in form of ATP or adenosine triphosphate.
The electron transport chain is used in energy extraction through redox reactions during photosynthesis from the sun or such as the case of sugars’ oxidation, cellular respiration. In inner mitochondrial membrane in the eukaryotes, there is a crucial electron transport chain that serves as the main oxidative phosphorylation site via the use of the adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast in the photosynthetic eukaryotes also has an electron transport chain. Electron transport chain is also found in the cell membrane of bacteria.
Light drives water conversion into NADP+ and oxygen to NADPH with H+ ions being transferred across the chloroplast membranes in the chloroplast. Oxygen conversion into water, NADH to the NAD+ and a succinate to fumerate required for the generation of proton gradient takes place in mitochondria. Electron transport chain is a major site where leakage of premature electron to oxygen and generation of superoxide with potential result of an increase in oxidative stress occurs.
Catabolic processes have FADH2 and NADH as their byproducts. These are in reduced forms. FADH2 and NADH are used by metabolic processes in transporting electrons in form of the hydride ions (H–). The electrons are then passed from FADH2 or NADH to electron carriers that are membrane bound which then passes on to the other carriers until when they are delivered to oxygen which result in water production.
During the process of passing electrons from one carrier to the other, hydrogen ions transfer also takes place in the inter-membrane spaces at the three points in electron transport chain. Hydrogen ions transportation results in greater hydrogen concentration in inter-membrane spaces than in matrix that can be used in driving ATP synthase and production of ATP which is a high energy molecule.
Energy that is obtained via electrons transfer is used in pumping protons from the matrix of the mitochondria into inter-membrane space which creates the electrochemical proton gradient found across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electrochemical proton gradient enhances ATP synthase to use H+ flow via enzyme back to the matrix generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate and the inorganic phosphate.
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Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] or ATP-binding cassette sub-family C members 2 is a protein that in humans is programmed by the ABCC2 gene. The MRP2 is a known member of the ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporters. ABC transporters are members of protein superfamily that is one of the largest and oldest in the families with members from extant phyla from prokaryotes to human beings. The term multidrug resistance has been used to elaborate the mechanism of resistance that cells [Eukaryotic and prokaryotic] have in response to the many chemotherapeutic drugs.
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven unique subfamilies that include ABC1, MDR, TAP, MRP, GCN20, OABP and White. The ABC protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The protein is also exceptionally exhibited in the canalicular [apical] section of the hepatocyte and aids in biliary transport. The known substrate include anticancer drugs such as vinblastine. Thus, the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] appears to contribute to drug resistance in mammalian cells.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein was incorporated into the drug resistance scene in 1992 when Susan Cole and Rodger Deeley cloned the Multidrug resistance-associated protein gene, the MRP1. The Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] followed in 1996 and more MRP members followed. The MRP2 was characterized as the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter [cMOAT] from its cloning. Homology is also high in MRP2 as it is in the Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 [MRP1] 3 and 6. On top of this, these MRPs also share the characteristics of TMD0L0 segment. They are also seen in glutathione-drug conjugate [GS-X] and aid pump from eukaryotes like leishmania and yeast.
Within the ABC transporters in mammalians, the MRPs form a group that is clearly defined from the other known groups. MRP2 are able to transport methotrexate. MRP1,4 AND 5 RNAs are widely spread in the body while for MRP2, 3 and 6 mainly appear to function in kidney, liver and gut. While gathering more information on Multidrug resistance-associated proteins, there are a few problems encounter in the study. For instance;
- The MRPs are characterized and so they are organic anion transporters. Most of the substrates for these transporters are extremely charged and do not penetrate the cell membrane.
- Antibodies that work against MRP are often cross-react with another member of multidrug resistance-associated protein family. This issue can be solved by generating monoclonal antibodies against the non-conserved parts of the MRP family.
- The body cells chosen for drug resistance often overexpress multiple transporter genes. The use of certain inhibitors or transfected cells has helped solve this problem.
- It is challenging to get the multidrug resistance-associated protein transfectants giving high expression and products channeled to cell membrane. Most of the cells contain organic anion and this result to background transport activity.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 is helpful in protection against exogenous toxic compounds. The presence of many ABC transporters available offer defense against toxic compounds. The discovery of MRP family has improved the study of MDR in tumor cells and led into interest in the functions of the MRP family members in normal metabolism.
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ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter
Transport of specific molecules across the lipid membranes is quite essential when it comes to living organisms. There are numerous transporters that have evolved to carry out most of these functions. ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABC] is the largest transporter gene family that aids perform some of the crucial function in living organisms. ABC transporters are the core members of a protein superfamily made up of one of the largest and oldest families with representatives in extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.
ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABC transporters] are transmembrane proteins that utilize the energy of the ATP [adenosine triphosphate] binding and hydrolysis to carry out biological processes. These processes include translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport-related process such as the translation of DNA and RNA repair. The proteins aid translocate a wide variety of substances that may include sugars, metal ions, amino acids, proteins and peptides and large amounts of hydrophobic compounds.
The ABC transporters genes are quite vital for many processes in the cell and mutation of these genes is harmful. Mutation of the responsible genes can cause or contribute to several human genetic complications that include cystic fibrosis, neurological disease cholesterol and bile transport defects, anemia and drug response. The ABC transporters make use of energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to transport numerous substrates across the cellular membranes.
These transporters are divided into three main functional categories. The prokaryotes, the importers mediate the uptake of nutrients into the cells while the substrates can be transported into amino acids, sugars, peptides and hydrophilic molecules. For the eukaryotes, they do not possess any importers. The exporters or effluxers which are both present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes aid as pumps that push out toxins and drugs available in the cells of living organisms. In the case of gram-negative bacteria, the exporters help transport lipids and polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm.
Understanding the mechanism of ATP-binding cassette transporter makes it easy to comprehend how these active transporters can be aid the human cells. These active transporters require energy in the form of ATP to translocate substrates across the cell membranes. These proteins are able to harness the energy of ATP binding or for hydrolysis to drive conformational changes in the transmembrane domain and effectively transport molecules. Alternating-access model is the mechanism that described the conformational changes associated with binding of substrate.
The general mechanism for the transport cycle of the ABC transporters has been fully interpreted. However, the biochemical and structural data has accumulated to support a model through which ATP binding and hydrolysis has been made possible. ATP-binding cassette transporters also aid in the development of multidrug resistance [MDR]. In the MDR, patients who are on medication develop resistance not only to the drug that they are taking but also to several different types of drugs.
Excretion of the drug from the cell b ABC transporters is one of the factors that cause this resistance. Unfortunately, it is not clear how these proteins can translocate many drugs in the cell. ABC transporters are also expressed in the membranes of healthy cells, where they can easily facilitate the transport of numerous endogenous substances as well as substances remote to the body. ABC transporter interactions can be detected through assay types and they are membrane assays and whole based cells allays.
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Body Paragraph Examples
Professionally crafted body paragraph examples are among the best reference materials that are recommended for writing academic papers. In fact, all academic papers including essays, research papers, dissertations, reports among others require you to write strong body paragraphs for the best results. This implies you should know how to select the best body paragraph samples and also where to easily get well written ones. Read on for insights on how to accomplish all these.
Body paragraphs contribute the greatest percentage in an academic papers since they present the discussion of your main points. Therefore, it is very important that you know how to always deliver assignments as well as term papers with logical and compelling arguments. The best way to achieving this is by choosing the best body paragraph examples to refer to.
When you know where to find top notch body paragraph examples with ease, getting the right examples for reference will not be a problem. Besides, it will also save you time that would have been spent searching for samples to use when writing body paragraphs. In fact, you will also not spend a lot of time on research and other related processes since the examples contain several ideas on how to develop strong body paragraphs.
Tips for choosing body paragraph examples
Finding body paragraph examples to refer to when writing assignments and term papers may seem easy to many students. However, you should not just rush into using a particular sample for writing your paper without making sure that it is the right one. The following tips will assist you in choosing the best examples of body paragraphs to use when writing.
Consider the authenticity of the sources
When looking for sample body paragraphs to refer to, it is recommended that you always go for those that are offered by reliable sources. Obtaining sample papers from acknowledged sources is one the best ways of getting high quality examples.
Authentic sources are those with proper references such as website links, which you can easily provide when asked. Besides, it is also required that you provide your sources when writing academic papers, thus, always check the authenticity of the source before using any example.
Know the type of paper that you will be writing
There are various kinds of academic papers that you can be asked to write for example essays, research papers among others. Although there is a general writing format for all academic papers, there are slight differences based on the specific one that you are working on.
In order to have an easy time in writing, always go for examples of body paragraphs for a similar paper to yours. For example, if you are writing an essay paper, do not use research paper body paragraph samples, instead, go for sample of essay body paragraphs.
Narrow down to the subject of your paper
Examples of body paragraphs can offer you lots of ideas on how to craft this section of your paper. In order to acquire relevant ideas, find samples of body paragraphs for papers that are based on the same subject as yours. In this way, you will not be pressed with a lot of research for the body paragraphs of your paper.
Check the style of writing
There are various kinds of formats for writing academic papers including APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard among others. In the assignment sheet, you will be instructed on the particular style to use in writing the paper, which will apply to the body paragraphs and other sections. Therefore, you should always know the particular style for your paper and find an example that is written in the same format to use.
Look into punctuation, grammar, flow of ideas
Although many students ignore checking grammatical and punctuation mistakes, it is very important if you want to deliver a paper with flawless paragraphs. A good paragraph should be free from such mistakes and present a logical discussion with well explained points or ideas. Using examples with even simple mistakes like spelling errors can be misleading and badly taint your final paper, so be very keen when selecting the samples.
The organization of the body paragraphs is also another element that you should look into. An ideal body paragraph should be organized in a way such that, readers can easily identify the topic sentence or main point, evidence or example and also how the writer has presented his ideas.
When choosing examples of body paragraphs online, it is also important that you take time to read and understand the terms of using the samples.
Where to find top notch Body Paragraph Examples
Both online and offline sources can be used whenever you are looking for body paragraph examples. However, not all those sources can always offer the best samples of body paragraphs. The following are suggestions on some of the best sources that you can check out for high quality examples of body paragraphs for academic papers.
School Writing Centers
To help students write good assignments and term papers, many learning institutions including high schools, colleges and universities have writing centers. Quite a number of school writing centers provide their resources online, which means you can easily access them at any time and from wherever you are.
You do not have to only use examples from your school’s writing center but also others in order to get adequate information. Aims is one of the good online school writing centers you can visit for examples of body paragraphs to refer to. Besides, the site also offers tips on how to write body paragraphs as well as those for other sections of academic papers.
Academic paper writing services
Professional academic writing services are also among the best sources of body paragraph samples. The services are offered by experienced individuals with expertise in various areas and can always enable you to get the right examples to refer to. The best thing about academic writing service providers is that they can always create custom examples for you based on the given instructions.
There are various academic writers that you can obtain body paragraph samples from, but always go for one that is reliable and has a reputation of offering high quality papers and services. Custom Writing Service is one of the best service providers that you can contact for top notch examples and professional academic paper writing help.
There are also blogs and websites run by experts in various areas of academics that you can obtain examples of body paragraphs from. Since there are a number of them over the internet, choosing the best one to acquire samples from can be a bit tricky. However, you should always try to get samples from renowned academic blogs.
The Writing Café is an online platform that you can also visit for body paragraph samples and proper guidelines on how to develop good body paragraphs for academic papers.
Although both offline and online sources are recommended when looking for examples of body paragraphs, the internet is always the most idea considering its convenience and reliability. But this should not hinder you from visiting the library since it is also another good source of sample papers.
Examples of Body Paragraphs for Academic Papers
By reading well written body paragraph examples, you will be able to effectively know how a good sample should look. In this way, you can always easily choose the right example to use when writing a paper. The following are some examples of body paragraphs that you should read for illustrations on how body paragraphs should be developed.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’While there is little doubt that extracurricular opportunities at University of Texas are a positive and critical component of students’ overall development, providing students with time management skills is equally important. One only needs to look past alumni to see the validity of this claim. As famous alum George W. Bush states…’’ Continue reading the sample here.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’Students who learn how to write well will earn better grades in most classes. This is true because most instructors assign a variety of written assignments, and depending on the class, these written assignments often encompass a large percentage of a student’s final grade. For instance, all college students seeking a degree will be required to take a composition class…’’ Read the other parts of the sample on this link.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’Perhaps the cheapest and most efficient security method is a so-called Safe Traveler Card or national ID card. A Safe Traveler Card or national ID card would be about the size of a credit card, contain a computer chip, and cost little to produce. In some ways, these cards are like the E.Z Pass devices that enable people to drive on highways, bridges, and tunnels without having to stop and pay tolls (Dershowitz 590)…’’ Click here to read the rest of the sample body paragraph.
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Tumor Suppressor Gene
Tumor suppressor gene is also called antioncogene. It refers to a gene that offers protection to a cell from a single step on cancer’s path. If tumor suppressor gene mutates casing a reduction or loss in its role or function, this can cause the cell to progress into cancer. Usually, this occurs in combination with various genetic changes.
Losing these genes can even be important that oncogene or proto-oncogene activation for formation of different types of cancer cells in humans. Tumor suppressor genes may be grouped in different categories including gatekeeper genes, landscaper genes and caretaker genes. This classification changes as the fields of learning such as genetics, epigenetic, molecular biology and medicine advances.
Compared to oncogenes, the tumor suppressor gene generally follow two-hit hypothesis. This means that the alleles coding for particular protein has to be affected prior the manifestation of an effect. This is due to the fact that if one allele of the gene sustains some damage, the second allele will still produce correct protein. Thus, alleles that suppress mutant tumor are recessive while alleles for mutant oncogene are dominant.
A.G Knudson proposed the two-hit hypothesis for the first time for retinoblastoma cases. Knudson observed the age of the onset of the retinoblastoma and this was followed by the second order kinetics. This implied that it was important to have two genetic events that were independent.
Knudson recognized that two hit hypothesis was consistent with the recessive mutation that involved single gene. However, it required biallelic mutation. In contrast, oncogene mutations generally involve single allele since they are considered as gain-of-function mutations.
When it comes to two-hit rule, tumor suppressor gene has exceptions such as specific mutations in p53 gene product. The p53 mutations are capable of functioning as dominant negative. This implies that mutated p53 protein is capable of preventing function of a normal protein from un-mutated allele. Other tumor suppressors that are considered as exceptions to two hit rule include those exhibiting haploinsufficiency such as NF in neurofibroma and PTCH in the medulloblastoma.
More precisely, tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that either have repressive or dampening effect on regulation of cell cycle or even they promote apoptosis in some cases or they can do both. Functions of the proteins of tumor suppressor genes are usually classified into various categories. These include genes repression, coupling, and initiating apoptosis when damage is irreparable, cell adhesion which prevents dispersing of tumor cells, and DNA repair.
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Reproductive isolation is also called hybridization barriers. It refers to a collection of different mechanisms, psychological processes and behaviors that prevent members or organisms of two distinct species that mate or cross from generating or producing an offspring or ensures that the offspring that can be produced by the individuals is not sterile.
Reproductive isolation maintains integrity of species with time by directly impeding or reducing flow of genes between the individuals of distinct species. This allows the characteristics of each species to be conserved.
Reproductive isolation mechanisms have been categorized in different ways. For instance, Ernst Mayr, a zoologist classified reproductive isolation mechanisms in two different categories. These are the ones that act prior fertilization or prior mating in animals. These are known as pre-copulatory.
The other category comprises of those acting after fertilization or mating in animals. The mechanisms have been classified as pre-zygotic and the post-zygotic. Various reproductive isolation mechanisms are controlled genetically and this has been demonstrated using experiments that there can be an evolution in a species with overlapping geographic distribution or sympatric speciation or due to the adaptive divergence that usually accompany allopatric speciation.
In regards to population’s biological efficiency, pre-zygote isolation mechanisms of reproductive isolation are very economic. This is because resources are not lost or wasted on production of weak, sterile, or non-viable descendent.
There is also habitat or temporal isolation. This refers to any factor that prevents individuals that are potentially fertile from meeting reproductively isolating the members of that distinct species. Among the type of barriers that may cause this form of isolation include physical barriers, difference in time of flowering or sexual maturity and different habitats. Species often branch off when the factors change. This is commonly seen when physical barrier is altered.
Another form of reproductive isolation is sexual isolation through conduct or behavior. This includes different rituals during mating by animal species which can create extremely powerful barriers to reproduction. These are called behavior or sexual isolation and they isolate similar species in most groups in a specific animal kingdom.
Mechanical isolation can also contribute to reproductive isolation. This occurs when mating pairs are unable to successfully couple because they have incompatible genitals. Evolution which has resulted in the development of organs that are increasingly complex with divergent characteristics causes mechanical isolation among species. Other types of reproductive isolation mechanisms include gametic isolation, hybrid sterility, and fertilization isolation mechanisms among others.
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Inbreeding refers to the process of producing offspring by mating or breeding organisms or individuals that are related closely genetically. The opposite of inbreeding is out-crossing which is breeding or mating individuals or organisms that are not related. Analogically, the term inbreeding is used in reproduction in human although it commonly refers to genetic disorders as well as other consequences that arise from constanguinity and incestuous sexual relationships.
Homozygosity results from inbreeding. This can increase changes of the offspring suffering the effects of deleterious or recessive traits. Generally, this leads to decreased fitness biologically in a population. This is known as inbreeding depression and the ability of a population to reproduce and survive is greatly reduced.
Individuals that inherit the deleterious traits are called inbred. The main reason for selective out-crossing is avoidance of the deleterious recessive traits or alleles that result from inbreeding. For many years, inbreeding has been used as a technique for selective breeding. Breeders, for instance use inbreeding in livestock when they want to establish a desirable and new trait in their stock. However, they always watch for the undesirable characteristics in the offspring that can be eliminated later through culling or further breeding selectively.
Inbreeding is basically used in revealing the deleterious recessive alleles that can be eliminated via culling or assortative breeding. Inbred lines in breeding of plants are used as the hybrid lines creation stocks. This makes it possible to use heterosis effects. In plants, inbreeding occurs naturally in form of the self-pollination process.
In human beings, offspring of persons that are closely related are likely to suffer the effects of inbreeding including congenital birth defects. Chances of the disorders occurring are increased by the closeness of the relationships of biological parents. This can be attributed to the fact that pairing increases proportion of the homozygous zygotes being produced in the offspring, particularly, the deleterious recessive alleles that produce the disorders.
In populations, majority of recessive alleles are not common. It is highly unlikely for marriage partners who are unrelated to carry the alleles. Nevertheless, due to the fact that close relatives have a large portion of alleles, there is a dramatically high probability that such deleterious alleles will be inherited from common ancestor via both parents.
This is contrary to the common belief that allele frequencies are not altered by inbreeding but instead, it increases relative homozygote to the heterozygote proportion. However, its frequency decreases rapidly in an inbred population due to the increased proportion of the deleterious homozygote allele exposed to natural selection.
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Genetic drift is also called allelic drift. It is change that occurs in the frequency of gene variant or allele in the population. Genetic drift is caused by random sampling. Alleles that are found in an offspring are samples of the ones found in the parents. In addition, chance plays a role in determining if an individual offspring survives and successfully reproduces.
Allele frequency of a population refers to a fraction of copies of a gene sharing a particular form. Gene variants can disappear completely due to genetic drift. This reduces genetic variation. In cases where allele copies are few, genetic drift’s effect is larger. When allele copies are many, there is a smaller effect.
Vigorous debates have occurred over relative importance of the natural selection process versus the neutral processes such as genetic drift. Some scientists such as Ronald Fisher are of the view that the entire process of genetic drift plays a minor role in the evolution process. This has remained a dominant view over the years.
Motoo Kimura in 1968 rekindled this debate with the neutral theory of the molecular evolution. The claims are that most instances of genetic change spread across the population. However, these are not necessarily phenotypes’ changes. They result from genetic drift.
Many scientists view genetic drifts in statistical drift in a population over time due to the effects that random sampling have in successive generations’ formation. In a narrower sense, genetic drift can be seen as expected dynamics of a population of the neutral alleles. Neutral alleles are the ones that are defined as comprising negative and positive impact on the reproductive fitness. They are predicted to becoming fixed at 100 percent or zero frequency eventually in absence of other mechanisms that affect the distribution of allele.
Genetic drift can cause a loss of genetic traits in a population. A genetic trait can also become widespread in the population irrespective of the reproductive or survival value of the involved alleles. Random statistical effect of genetic drift can be seen in small and isolated populations where there is small gene pool that is sufficient to allow chance to change its makeup significantly.
In a larger population, specific allele can be carried by many individuals making it almost certain that it will be transmitted by some organisms of the population unless if it is unfavorable biologically. Nevertheless, genetic drift, mutation, migration and natural selection are the basic mechanisms that facilitate evolution.
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