Gene expression refers to the process through which genetic instructions are used for purposes of synthesizing gene products. The purpose of genes is information storage as such, each gene contains information that is needed to make a protein or in other cases, RNA non-coding. Genes are expressed in order to produce functional protein molecules and RNA in the cells.
Gene expression can occur in two stages which include transcription and protein synthesis:
In this case, the gene is copied so it can produce RNA molecule (primary transcript) with basically similar sequence as the gene. In most cases, human genes can be divided into introns and exons. Only exons carry information needed for protein synthesis. The most primary transcripts are consequently processed through splicing in order to remove intron sequence and as such, generate mature messenger RNA (mRNA) or transcript that is comprised of exons only.
This is the second stage and it is also known as translation for the simple reason it does not have any direct correspondence between the sequence of amino acids in the protein and nucleotide sequence in DNA (RNA). As a matter of fact, there are three nucleotides which are needed in order to specify one amino acid. The amino acid chain must also fold up in order to generate final tertiary structure of protein.
All genes in human genome are not expressed in the same manner. There are those that expressed in all cells at all times and they are known as housekeeping genes. They are essential for the purposes of carrying out basic cellular functions.
There are other genes that are expressed in specific cell types or at particular development stages. For instance, genes that encode protein muscle like myosin and actin are expressed in muscle cells only not in brain cells. Still, there are other genes that are inhibited or activated by signals circulation in the body like hormones.
Differential gene expression is achieved through regulation translation and transcription. All genes are also surrounded by DNA sequences that control expression. Proteins known as transcription factors bind the sequences and can switch genes off and on. As such, gene expression is controlled by activity and availability of different kinds of transcription factors.
Note transcription factors are in themselves, proteins as such, they must be produced by genes as well and the genes should be regulated through other transcription factors. In such a manner, all proteins and genes can be linked into regulatory hierarchy starting with transcription factors in the egg at the start of development. There are some diseases that are caused by malfunction or absence of transcription factors as such, they cause gene expression interruption.
At Essays Experts, you can buy an essay paper that is well written and perfectly referenced at an affordable price. As leaders in the field of academic writing, we have a support team that is available 24/7 to take in your orders. This makes it easy for you to buy your paper at any given time with great convenience.
We also have a quality assurance team that passes each paper through plagiarism checker to ensure it is 100% unique. What is more, the editors check the papers for typo and grammar errors. All these factors ensure the paper you buy is written according to your academic standards.
Trust us with your writing tasks today and we assure you that it will be the best decision you ever made!
How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis of a Speech
Having the right guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech helps you to carry out your analysis efficiently. Note that a rhetorical analysis essay is a paper that deeply explores the goals of an author, tools or techniques used, give examples of those techniques and states their effectiveness.
Therefore, when writing your essay, you are not stating whether you agree or disagree with the argument. You are making an in-depth analysis and discussion of how the rhetorician makes that claim and whether the approach he or she employs is successful.
How to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech critically
There are a number of things you should focus on to help you understand how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. It includes the tasks you should carry out when writing your essay. The tasks include
- Determining how rhetoric operates in a speech or text
- To explore deeply how a specific analysis unit operates to achieve the purpose of the speech
- To take a close reading of one key statement or passage
- To answer an important research question about the function and nature of the rhetoric
Being a research question, your rhetorical analysis should therefore focus on finding out more about rhetoric by studying the speech. The research question will therefore, guide your text analysis. For this reason, you should write an essay that contributes to your understanding of how a rhetorical analysis processes work and your understanding of the speech itself.
Therefore, to carry out effective rhetorical analysis of a speech, it is wise that you choose one unit of analysis. It is always your responsibility to choose a unit that reveals the most about the rhetoric speech you are analyzing. The units include
- Logos- appeals to the audience’s logic and reason
- pathos –appeals to the emotions of target audience
- ethos-this includes techniques that make target audience believe that what is said is because of their trust towards the nature of the rhetor revealed in the speech
- metaphors and other comparison modes including similes and analogies
- Tone including sarcasm, academic, irony and sentimental tone and
- Types of evidence used by the speaker and their effect
Procedure on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
Writing a rhetorical analysis is a process and you have to focus on the research question to have a better understanding of what you are expected to do. As a result, it is essential that before you read the speech, go through the research question and have an idea of what to write about in mind
- Find anything that is rhetorical in the text or something that puzzles you
- Take a close look into all units of rhetorical analysis in mind
- Read the speech carefully, note the appeals and illustrate them clearly
- Go through the speech again and list down all metaphors used by the speaker
- Categorize the metaphors depending on what the speaker compares them to
With a list and categories of metaphors in mind, explain them to your readers because they will simply ask the question, so what?
The next rhetorical analysis step to carry out is to discover the effect that the unit of analysis you have chosen has on the meaning. Talk about the effect of the whole speech and how it helps you to address your research question.
Structure of how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech
The structure of a rhetorical analysis of a speech should follow the right structure and use specific headings. Each section should be written in a coherent manner to unify the essay. Most importantly, write each section and state its purpose but do not evaluate the speech in the analysis sections. The sections or parts of your analysis should include an
Introduce the author and text or speech you are analyzing
Explain a rhetoric situation and focus on original audience, occasion, context and where the speech was delivered in the first place
State your rhetorical analysis question
Summary of speech
Write a brief summary of the text and explicitly state the purpose of the speaker
Write down the thesis and major points of the speech (always use the terms, thesis, texts purpose and major points in your writing.
The purpose of writing a summary is to help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech and give a sense of rhetor’s points. Your summary doesn’t give audience a complete list of all minor points and examples. In this case, it is imperative that you are specific in your writing.
For instance, instead of saying, he comments on the global situation, it is good to say, he denounces enemies of freedom and applauds new democracies.
This is a major part of a rhetorical analysis and it has two sub-sections
- Unit of analysis- choose and define the unit of analysis you will employ and briefly explain why you settled for it. Go an extra mile to demonstrate that you have a command of the concept to efficiently write your rhetorical analysis. It is also imperative to give quotations as evidence to support your thesis.
- Close reading- this is a skill that a person who knows how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech has mastered. You therefore need to choose one important or key passage in the speech and quote it in full. Re-read it and give it a proverbial fine tooth comb.
-remember to evaluate all appeals including pathos, ethos, logos, stylistic techniques and appeals to the needs of audience as well as values. It is essential to organize this part of your analysis based on the manner in which the speech sentences appear.
Insight into rhetoric
Give an explanation of the speech and explain what it reveals to you about the rhetoric. Here, you need to answer the research question efficiently. How did you analysis support or prove your argument? What is next diachronic or synchronic significance of the speech?
In this section, respond to the text and implications expression your point of view on issues that the speech raises. This enables you to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech that is thoroughly explains your argument. Explain your thoughts about the author’s argument, did it work, give reasons why or not. What is the significance of the text to your work and in your intellectual life?
Analytical techniques to use when writing a rhetorical analysis of a speech
There are different techniques that will help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech. They include
Use of a rhetorical canon of invention to develop your ideas- this focuses on a rhetorical situation that a rhetor faced
Use tenor and vehicle rhetorical terms if you find similes and metaphors in the speech
Image analysis is also another technique that helps you to focus the elements of a vehicle and choose the best that matches your speech.
Additional tips to writing your rhetorical analysis of a speech
- Learn to advance your argument by stating your thesis clearly and supporting
- Always make an original argument and reflect on your unique perception of the speech
- Focus on what the speaker said and how he or she said it
- Always choose the most relevant and significant appeal that matches your reading of the speech. It helps you to write an effective rhetorical analysis, make an original argument and write a very compelling thesis
- Read, edit and proofread your paper to eliminate possible errors
Examples of rhetorical analysis of a speech
I Have a Dream- Martin Luther King
I have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, has a simple context. The author, Martin Luther King, is known for his great work in Civil Rights in the 1960’s. the purpose of his speech is to instill or inspire change in both black and white citizens of the United States of America during the Civil Rights era………………………………………………………………..
Borrow more ideas on how to write a rhetorical analysis of a speech from this essay analysis.
Fight them on the Beaches: Churchill
I myself have full confidence that if all carry out their duty, if nothing is neglected, and is the best preparations are made, as they are being made, we shall prove ourselves once again more than able to defend our island home, to ride out the storm of war and to outlive the menace of tyranny for years. If necessary, alone, at any rate, that is what we are going to try to do…………………………………………………………………
This is a sample of a rhetorical analysis of a speech. Visit the link and see how the author highlights different parts of the speech and use of appeals therein.
Bush 911 Bullhorn Speech
Thank you all. I want you all to know, it that bullhorn can’t go any louder. I want you to all to know that American today, America today is on bended knee, in prayer for the people whose lives were lost here, for the workers who work here and for the families who mourn. The nation stands with the good people of New York City, and New Jersey and Connecticut, as we mourn the loss of thousands of our citizens………………………..
This is a rhetoric analysis of the Bush Bullhorn speech. Read it and learn more on how to do write your analysis.
If you need professional assistance with your rhetorical analysis essays, assignment writing or you are in need of essay samples, contact us today. We have the best assignment writing solutions for you.
Ship of Theseus
Also known as the Theseus’ paradox, Ship of Theseus is a philosophical puzzle about personal identity. The paradox is derived from a story in Plutarch and commonly used in giving illustrations of problems that revolve around the identity of composite objects. In the puzzle, a story is told about Theseus who had a ship, and in the way of things parts often require constant replacement. There reaches a point whereby all the original components have been replaced. The question is, can the ship still be the same? Besides, if someone went around collecting the discarded parts of the ship and used them to make another ship, which one would be the better candidate for being the original ship?
In order to understand this puzzle, it is important to note that the Ship of Theseus is not what it is by the individual parts that make it up. The ship ceased to be known as the Ship of Theseus the minute the first part was removed from it. Besides, the individual atoms in the parts are forever changing, therefore, the ship is never itself.
Another concept to this paradox is that the Ship of Theseus is what it is because of its structure. If the ship remains the same ship throughout the changes in parts, the result is contradictory because we will now have two ships. Thus, you will end up with the result that both of them are the Ship of Theseus. This means that two discrete things are one numerical thing.
The other side to the puzzle is that the Ship of Theseus is what it is because of its history. The ship remains similar due to its particular role in the world’s history. Parts are changed quite often but the actor remains the same. Each of the two ships shares a relevant history with the original ship.
Away from the ships, this paradox can be applied by individuals to be able to exactly evaluate themselves. We know that there are certain parts of us or things about us that keep changing from time to time, but we still think we are the same people. The ship has been used figuratively to represent us. Thus, there are quite a number of conclusions or lessons that can be driven from the paradox as indicated below:
- We are who we are because of our parts or the individual mater that makes us up
- We are us because of our structure for example, we lose a limb or even cut our hair, we are no longer the same.
- With regards to our history, if we were to be duplicated, we would either have a existential twin or even cease to be.
- If we lose any spiritual part like memories, we are no longer the same. Or if we even have a radical change of heart, the person we used to be is gone.
Instead of struggling all alone with academic research papers, simply acquire professional help from us at Essays Experts. By placing an order with us, you are always guaranteed only original and top notch papers. We handle all niches and are always at your service at any time that you may be in need.
Instrumental variable is a very important technique that is applied in statistics and econometrics. However, it can be a bit confusing to most people. The technique is used in the estimation of casual relationships when controlled experiments are not feasible or when a treatment is not is not delivered successfully to each unit in an experiment that is not randomized. There are various instrumental variable methods that can be applied in obtaining results. These methods allow for consistency in estimation under conditions that explanatory variables are correlated with the error terms of a relationship of regression.
How instrumental variable operates
The estimation of causal impacts is often faced with difficulties. In fact, even trials that are randomized are imperfect, partly because we can often not be able to carry out true experiments. However, it is important to note that experimental design still remains the gold standard of statistical research. Instrumental variable is among the quasi-experimental methods of impacts estimations that are too compelling. The reason for this is because the assumptions required for the justification of instrumental variable method are usually more plausible than those that are required to justify other methods like regression.
In order to estimate an instrumental variable model, one should begin by identifying a variable or certain variables that impact the key independent variable, but only affect the results through the main independent variables. For instance, you can assume that month and state of birth would have no impact of a person’s income later in life, except that state laws establish when one is able to begin and end his or her K-12 education.
It is important to note that the models of instrumental variable are often conceptualized as two different equations. One of them specifies the relationship that exists between the main independent variable and the result. The other equation specifies the relationship between the instrumental variables and the result. Despite linear regression being considered to generally produce biased and inconsistent estimates, accurate results (consistent estimates) can still be obtained if an instrument is available. An instrument refers to a variable that does not itself belong in the explanatory equation, and has got a correlation with the endogenous variables.
There are two main requirements for using instrumental variable in linear regression. One is that the instrument must be correlated with the endogenous explanatory variables, limited to other covariates. Besides, the instrument cannot be correlated with the error term in the explanatory equation; the instrument cannot be left to face the same problem as the original predicting variable.
Instrumental variable methods are mostly used in the estimation of causal effects in contexts whereby controlled experiments are not available. However, the credibility of the resulting estimates is based on the choice of suitable instruments to use. Good instruments are often developed from policy changes. For instance, when a federal student aid scholarship program is cancelled, it may give a revelation of the effects of aid on the outcomes of some students.
At Premium Essays, we can professionally help you with essays and other academic research papers at all times that you have an assignment. By simply choosing our academic research writing services, you are always guaranteed authentic, high quality papers.
US Electoral College
The United States constitution specifies the United States President and Vice President are to be selected every four year by a small group of people. These people are individually known as ‘presidential electors’ and collectively as the ‘Electoral College’.
Therefore, the Electoral College is not a place but rather a process. It was put into place by the founding fathers and the constitution specifies that every state is entitled to have one member of its U.S Representatives and U.S Senators.
Today, the total number of electoral votes is 538 and it corresponds to the 435 United States Representatives from the fifty states plus the 100 United States Senators from the 50 states plus another 3 members of the Electoral College that the District of Columbia became at liberty to under the 23rd Amendment that was ratified in 1961.
After every ten years, the 435 United States Representatives get reappointed among the state according to the latest federal census as such reapportioning membership of the Electoral College among all the states.
The US Electoral College was based on several anticipations and assumptions of the constitution Framers. Some of these include the following:
- Candidates wouldn’t pair together on a similar ticket with assumed placements towards each office of the Vice President and the president
- Every state would choose a district system of choosing the electors
- Each presidential elector would employ or exercise their own judgment independently when voting
- The system as it was designed would rarely produce any clear winner as such, election would be sent to Congress.
Based on the facts stated above, some scholars argue that the Electoral College is intended to nominate candidates and from there, Congress is mandated with the task of choosing the president and vice president. Each state government also is free to have its own strategy or plan for selecting its electors.
The theory behind the constitutional indirect election of the President and Vice President of the US is that while Congress is generally elected by the people, the President and Vice President are elected as executives of a federation of states that are independent. James Madison in Federalist No.10 argued the constitution was designed to serve as a mixture of population and state based government.
The Congress therefore would have two houses which include the Population based and State Bases Senate House of Representatives. At the same time, the President would be elected based on the mixture of two modes.
With help from writers at Essays Experts, you can buy a well written essay paper that is formatted to match your academic standards. We don’t make promises we cannot keep thus, each paper you buy from us is guaranteed to be 100% original.Timely delivery, affordable prices, money back guarantee and free revisions are some of the guarantees we have to offer. We understand you want to get value for your money hence we hire the best writers to join our team. They are all masters and PhD degree holders from the best universities in the world.
Leave your difficult writing tasks with us and we will help you get that elusive A+ grade. Contact our support team today and place your order to enjoy peace of mind and premium quality essays!
United States Fiscal Cliff
The United States fiscal cliff came into existence in 2013 January whereby, a series of laws previously enacted came into effect simultaneously. The 2001 Bush tax cuts which had received a 2 year extension by the Tax Relief Act of 2010 and were to expire on 31st December 2012 as well as planned spending cuts under Budget Control Act of 2011 at that time also came into play.
In the past, the term ‘fiscal cliff’ has been used for purposes of referring to various fiscal issues. The use of the term came into context with the 2010 expiration of the Bush tax cuts. In 2011, the term started been used to refer to deficit reductions that would occur in 2013 under fiscal cliff scenario. Ben Bernanke, the chairman of the United States Federal Reserve in late February 2012 popularized use of the term for the upcoming tax reduction deficits.
He described the massive fiscal cliff of tax increases and large spending that would take effect on 1st January 2013 before the House Financial Services Committee. Majority of the analysts were not in agreement with the choice of words and argued it should have been called fiscal hill or slope.
They reasoned that such options would have been appropriate since while the cumulative economic effect of 2013 would be substantial, the same would not be felt immediately but gradually with advance in the weeks and months.
There are some key laws that lead to the cliff and some of these are as highlighted below:
- Bush tax cuts expiration as part of the 2001 Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act and the 2003 Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act as extended by the 2010 Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization and Job Creation Act.
- Spending cuts across the board to most of the discretionary programs directed by Budget Control Act of 2011
- Reverse of Alternative Minimum Tax threshold to the 2000 tax year levels.
- Expiration of 2percent Social Security Payroll tax cut extended most recently by MCTRJCA
Without any new provisions, the provisions were to go into effect automatically on 1st January 2013. There are some provisions that raised the taxes while others reduced spending. Some of the lawmakers had intentions to attach bipartisan extension to expiring wind-power tax credit.
There were proposals to avoid the fiscal cliff which involved passing new legislation or repealing legislation that contained some of the provisions in order to extend the provisions that were about to expire. There were also different proposals aimed at including changes to all or some of the provisions.
At Essays Experts, we are a team of expert essay writers backed by years of professional writing experience committed towards ensuring that you buy an essay that is 100% unique. No one understands better than us the importance of submitting original papers.
Precisely for this reason, we have a quality assurance team that passes each paper through plagiarism checker to ensure it is 100% original. We also have a team of editors who counter-check papers to confirm they are written according to your guidelines.
We guarantee timely delivery, affordable prices and value for your money!
United States Debt Ceiling Crisis
The United States did not have any debt ceiling prior to 1917. Before this period, Congress either allowed Treasury to issue certain debt instruments or it authorized specific loans. There are instances when Congress authorized Treasury to use its own discretion to decide the type of debt instrument to be issued.
First, the United States instituted a debt statutory limit with the Second Liberty Bond Act of 1917 setting limits on aggregate amount of dent that could be accumulated through any individual debt categories like bills and bonds. Congress, in 1939 instituted its first limit on the overall amount of debt accumulated over all types of instruments.
Prior to the 1974 Budget and Impoundment Control Act, the debt ceiling played a very important role for the simple reason Congress did not have many opportunities to hold debates and hearings on budgets. Dick Gephardt noticing the potential problems of the debt ceiling hitting a default in 1979 imposed the ‘Gephardt Rule’.
This was a parliamentary rule that deemed when a budget gets passed then the debt ceiling can be raised. It resolves the contradiction that was associated with voting for appropriations and not voting in order to fund them. The rule was effective until in 1995 when it was repealed by Congress.
The debt ceiling in the United States has faced crisis not one or twice but three times. These are as highlighted below:
1995 Debt Ceiling Crisis
The 1995 debt ceiling crisis led to a major showdown on the federal budget. During this time, the budget did not pass and it resulted to US federal government shutdown of 1995 and 1996. Eventually, the ceiling was increased and the shutdown resolved.
2011 debt crisis
The Republicans Congress in 2011 used debt ceiling as the leverage for deficit reduction. Because of the debt ceiling debacle and credit downgrade, the Dow Jones Industrial Average resulted falling two thousand points in late July and August. After the downgrade, the DJIA has its worst days and on August 8th, it fell 635 points. The contention that resulted from this was resolved in August 2nd 2011 by the 2011Budget Control Act.
2013 debt ceiling crisis
Following increase of debt ceiling in 2011 to $ 16.394 trillion, the US reached its debt ceiling on 31st December 2012 and treasury started taking extraordinary measures. The passage of the 2012 American Taxpayer Relief Act helped resolve the fiscal cliff but there was no action taken on the debt ceiling.
Following tax cuts from ATRA, the government wanted to raise the debt ceiling to $ 700 billion in order to finance its operations for the remaining fiscal year of 2013. It was expected that by February 15, extraordinary measures would be taken.
The Treasury however said it was not set to prioritize payment and it was not clear whether it was legal to do so. The crisis started in January 2013 and came to an end on 17th October 2013 when the 2014 Continuing Appropriations Act was passed though the debate continues.
With help from writers at Essays Experts you can buy an essay paper that is well formatted and tailored to match your academic standards. We pride ourselves in being leaders in this field as such every paper we deliver is 100% unique.
We assure you our writers are masters and PhD degree holders from the best universities in the world. As such, they can handle essays on any academic or difficulty level. Leave your writing tasks with us and we guarantee you will get value for your money!
United States Debt Ceiling
The United States debt ceiling also known as the debt limit is a legislative mechanism that limits the amount of national debt issued by the Treasury through limiting the amount of moey the government can borrow. Debt ceiling therefore is an aggregate figure that’s applied to gross dent which also includes the debt in the intra-government and public accounts.
Around 0.5 percent of the debt isn’t covered by the debt ceiling. There are separate legislations that authorize expenditures as such debt ceiling does not limit government deficits directly. The only thing that it can do is restrain the Treasury from paying the expenditures once the limit is reached but it must have been approved and appropriated already.
Once the debt ceiling is reached and still there is no limit enacted, Treasury resorts to ‘extraordinary measures’ in order to finance the government obligations and expenditures temporarily until a resolution is reached.
So far, the Treasury has not arrived at the point of exhausting extraordinary measures, resulting in default. While this is the case, there are instances when it has appeared like the Congress would allow defaults to take place.
The debt ceiling has been in effect since 1917 when the Second Liberty Bond Act was passed by the United States Congress. Prior to 1917, no debt ceiling was in force though there were parliamentary limitations on the possible debt level that a government could hold. The financial history of the US has been one of government indebtedness and the same applies to most of the North American and Western European countries in the last two hundred years.
- Every year the United States has been in debt except in 1835
- Debts that were incurred during the American Revolutionary War and Articles of Confederation led to the first yearly report on amount of debt
- Since Herbert Hoover, every president has added to national debt which is expressed in absolute dollars. Since March 1962, the debt ceiling in the US has been raised seventy four times. This includes eighteen times under Ronald Regan, 8 times under Bill Clinton, 7 times under George W. Bush and under Barack Obama, 5 times.
Since 1950s, the vote to increase debt ceiling has been a matter of legal budgetary formality between the Congress and the President. It has not been a political issue that would make any elected government unable to pass its yearly budget. Reports made from congress though in the 1990s stated repeatedly that debt limit is an ineffective means to restraining dent growth. The redundancy of the debt ceiling has also led to suggestions that it should be abolished.
As leaders in the field of academic writing, every paper you buy at Essays Experts is tailored to meet and exceed your academic standards. We hire experienced writers after they have gone through numerous tests to prove they are great researchers and writers. Precisely for this reason, every paper we deliver is 100% unique as it is written from scratch. Every paper you buy is also carefully evaluated by our editors and quality assurance team to ensure it is in line with your expectations.
We guarantee with us, your papers will be delivered on time without any grammar or typo errors!
Pension Obligation Bonds
Personal obligation bonds are financing maneuvers that make it possible for local governments and states to ‘wipe out’ pension liabilities that are unfunded by borrowing against future tax revenues. Once this is done, it is followed by investing proceeds in equities and other cases, high yield investments.
The reasoning behind this is that the investments will lead to higher returns than the interest rates on the bonds thus earning money for the pension fund. While it is a gamble, it is one that most governments are ready to take. Pension obligations bonds:
- Are debt securities that are used to fund ‘unfunded accrued actuarial liabilities’ in pension public plans
- Are always, almost issues as taxable debt
- Are issued as fixed term or fixed rate securities or as fixed term, variable securities.
- Typical security is in the form of the issuers general fund pledge.
Pension plans mostly face major losses and it is because of the local revenue and dearth of state that pension obligation plans are viewed as the most favorable tool for fixing pension woes. Some of the major issuers of pension obligation bonds include Illinois, New Jersey, Oregon, California and Connecticut.
In the recent past though, these bonds have taken on some form of notoriety when 2 California cities San Bernardino and San went bankrupt. Generous pensions that were propped awkwardly and with pension obligation bonds that were ill times contributed to the debacle. Also, over the years, the returns made on pension obligation plans often fall below the interest rate the locality or state paid in order to borrow the money as such, digging deep into the liability hole.
Despite this fact, these bonds still remain a favorite among many politicians in revenue pinch. It is easier to politically borrow money in order to pay the cost of pensions rather than squeeze a budget that is already stressed. Many policy holders and economists view pension obligation bonds as risky gimmicks and they even question the high market growth assumptions that make them appear viable.
However, defenders of these bonds believe that with proper timing, they can pay off. The first bond was launched in 1985 in Oakland, California and at that time, it appeared a reasonable strategy. This is because it qualified as a tax free bond and could be issued at low municipal bond rates.
A city or state could then pivot and invest the fund in securities that were safer but the strategy was ended by the 1986 Tax Reform Act that prohibited local governments and state from reinvesting for profits money from tax free bonds.
Writers at Essays Experts have great research and writing skills that make it possible for them to deliver papers that are of high quality and written from scratch. Known as the most reliable and competent academic writing service, we guarantee every paper you buy from us is 100% unique. We have a team of competent editors and quality assurance team committed towards ensuring that the essay delivered is in line with your requirements. We guarantee that you will buy a paper that is free from typo and grammar errors.
We also guarantee to make timely deliveries and ensure that the content is unique!
Spasticity refers to a feature of an altered performance of a skeletal muscle in the muscle tone that involves hypertonia. Some people refer to this condition as unusual stiffness, pull of the muscles or tightness. The term spasm is derived from spasms which is a Greek word meaning pulling or drawing.
In clinical terms, spasticity is velocity-dependent resistance to a stretch which if not inhibited results in an excessive contraction of muscles and ultimately leads to hyperflexia which is an exaggerated and deep reflex of a tendon upon stimulation with reflex hammer. It can also be defined as spontaneous firing of the deep reflexes of the tendon as in the clonus.
Basically, spasticity is a disorder of muscle control that is characterized by stiff or tight muscles and the inability to control muscles. Additionally, reflexes can persist for long and they can be extremely strong causing hyperactive reflexes. For instance, when an infant has a hyperactive grasp reflect they can keep their hand held in tight fist.
Spasticity is in most cases caused by imbalanced signals from central nervous system which comprises of the spinal cord and the brain to muscles. The imbalance is commonly found in individuals who have cerebral palsy, stroke, and traumatic injury of the brain, spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis.
Among the symptoms of spasticity include increased tone of the muscle, overactive reflexes, involuntary movements that can include sustained or brisk involuntary contraction of the muscles and a series of quick involuntary contractions. Patients also experience pain, decrease in functional abilities, delay in motor development, abnormal posture, difficulty with hygiene and care, joint and bone deformities as well as permanent contractions of tendon and muscle as a result of persistent spasms and stiffness among others.
Medical history of a patient is often evaluated to diagnose the condition. The medical history will be considered to determine muscular or neurological disorder of the patient and the family. There are tests that will be done to confirm diagnosis. The tests help in evaluating the leg and arm movements, active and passive motion, muscular activity and the ability of the patient to perform self-care tasks.
Spasticity treatment can include medication such as baclofen, dantrolene, tizanidine, Clonazepam, Diazepam and therapy. Physical therapy that is offered to patients entails stretching muscles and motion exercises. Braces can be used sometimes to help the patient prevent shortening of the tendons. Severity of the symptoms can be stabilized or reduced by rehabilitation.
We can write an essay on spasticity for you
Are you struggling to write an essay on spasticity? Do you need help of an experienced specialist to write and submit a descent essay within the set submission deadline? Then place an order for your essay with us at Essays Experts and we will help you. We are a team of highly specialized essay writers and our goal is to offer you the best and instant essay help when you need it.
Order your essay on spasticity at Essays Experts and rest assured that we will deliver a supreme quality essay within your timeline.
Single Strand Binding Protein
Single strand binding protein refers to a means by which the cells prevent opened DNA from re-establishing pre-opening of the double helix conformation at replication fork during the process of DNA replication. In simple terms, single strand binding protein binds to the single-stranded regions of the DNA preventing them from annealing prematurely in order to protect single-stranded DNA from nucleases digestion while removing the secondary structure from DNA allowing for effective functioning of the other enzymes on it.
Production of single stranded DNA occurs during every aspect of metabolism of DNA. This refers to recombination, replication and repair. It also helps in stabilizing the single-stranded DNA. This is because this protein binds to different proteins while modulating function of the involved proteins in different process.
Single strand binding protein has been seen in both organisms and viruses from the bacteria to the humans. The
only living organisms that do not have the single strand binding protein are the Thermoproteales. This is a group of the extremophile archaea. In these organisms, single strand binding protein is replaced by ThermoDBP which is also a protein.
Although many viral and phage SSBs function lime eukaryotes and monomers, the encode heterotrimetic RPA. This is a replication protein A and it is characterized by the SSB and it is also found in bacterial E. coli. Bacterial E. coli is like most SSBs that exist as tetramers. In its active form, E. coli SSS comprises of the four 19kDa subunits that are identical.
Single strand binding protein for DNA to a tetramer may occur in various modes in which SSB occupies different bases numbers of DNA on the basis of various factors such as salt concentration. For instance, there is the (SSB) 65 binding mode where about 65 nucleotides of the DNA are wrapped around SSB tetramer and they contact all the four subunits.
It is favored where there are high concentrations of salt in Vitro. Where there are low salt concentrations, (SSB) 35 binding mode there are approximately 35 nucleotides binding to two SSB subunits. More work is needed to elucidate functions of different binding modes of vivo.
When DNA is converted from the double-stranded form to the single-stranded form, it is said to be denatured. Single strand binding protein prevents renaturing of the denatured DNA strands. This happens either between DNA strands being replicated or in the individual strand being replicated. In the individual strand the concern is with lagging strand.
We can write an essay on single strand binding protein for you
Are you struggling to write a descent essay on single strand binding protein? Do you need online help of an expert to write and submit a supreme quality essay? Then place an order for your essay with us at Essays Experts and we will help you. We are a team of highly professional essay writers and our goal is to help you in writing your essay assignments.
Place an order for your essay on single strand binding protein at Essays Experts and we guarantee you that we will deliver a supreme quality essay within your timeline.
Retinol Binding Protein
Retinol binding protein or simply RBP refers to a proteins’ family that has different functions. These proteins act as the carrier proteins whose role is to bind retinal. Assessment of the retinal binding protein is usually used in determining the mass of visceral protein in nutritional studies that are related to health matters.
Retinoic acid and retinol play significant roles in gene expression modulation and the overall embryo development. However, excess or deficit of retinoic acid or retinol can cause developmental malformations or early mortality of an embryo. Regulation of the metabolism and transport of retinol that is necessary for the successful pregnancy is usually accomplished through retinol binding protein.
Retinol binding protein has been identified in the embryo, extra embryonic tissue of bovine, uterus, porcine and ovine. This is a clear indication of the crucial role that is played by proper exposure of retinol to embryo as well as successful transportation during maternal-fetal interface. However, additional research needs to be done to determine exact effects of the poor expression of retinol binding protein on pregnancy as well as the threshold levels of the said expression.
Retinol binding protein is mostly synthesized in the liver. However, there are indications that this protein can be synthesized in peritubular, sertoli cells of testis, epithelium of the retinal pigment, and kidneys before it is circulated to the rest of the body via the blood stream. Retinol binding protein is not found alone in blood. However, it is filtrated easily due to its small weight molecules.
Retinol is also a fast-soluble vitamin that plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal development and growth, reproduction, immunity and vision among other crucial physiological processes. Retinal can be supplied to the body through diet and nutrition. RBP7, RBP5, RBP2 and RBP1 are cellular. RBP is linked interstitially while RBP4 occurs in the blood plasma. Although each of these retinol binding proteins differ slightly they are all alike sufficiently such that it is possible to study all of them by simply focusing on one. Many studies focus on RBP4 due to the fact that it is the most studied and extensively understood.
Despite being identified in placental tissues of bovine and ovine which suggests the high involvement of RBP in the retinal metabolism and transport during pregnancy, exact timing of the expression has not been identified yet. This implies that further studies on retinol binding protein need to be done.
Order an essay on retinol binding protein online
Have you been asked by your teacher or lecturer to submit a descent essay on retinol binding protein or related topics and you are finding it difficult to write? Do you need help of a veteran essay writer to submit a quality essay within the set submission deadline? Then place an order for your essay with us at Essays Experts and we will help you with your essay.
We guarantee you that we will deliver a supreme quality essay on retinol binding protein once you place an order for your essay with us at Essays Experts.
CREB Binding Protein
CREB binding protein is also called CREBBP or simply CBP. It is a protein that is encoded by CREBBP gene in humans. CREB binding protein performs its roles through the activation of transcription. In this process, CREB domains manage the interaction with the transcription factors.
These are the interaction of nuclear receptor and (RID) domain, domain (KIX) interaction with MYB, and CREB interaction with nuclear receptor, regions TAZ2/CH3 of the histidine/cysteine interaction with MYB and domain (IBiD) that binds interferon response.
CREB protein domains TAZ1, KIX and TAZ2 bind to the sequence that spans both the transactivation domains 9aaTADs of the transcription factor p53. Genes are expressed ubiquitously and they are involved in transcriptional co-activation of various transcription factors. At first, they are isolated as the nuclear protein used in binding to the CAMP-response of element-binding protein (CREB).
The isolation plats a crucial role in the development of the embryo, control of growth as well as homeostasis through coupling of the remodeling of the chromatin to the recognition of transcription factor. The protein that this gene encodes has an intrinsic activity of histone acetyltransferase. It is also acts as the scaffold that stabilizes interactions of additional protein with transcription complex.
The protein acetylates non-histone proteins and histone proteins. It shares the high-sequence similarity regions with the protein EP300 in the bromodomain, histone acetyltransferase domain and regions that are rich in acysteine-histidine.
Studies reveal that CREB binding protein and p300 play an active role in hundreds of various transcription factors. There is a latest model that suggests that binding of the co-activators to the activation domains of transcription factor positions the histone acetyltransferases close to specific nucleosomes that are in the target of regions that promote gene. Interactions with the components of the machinery of general transcription such as the TFIIB, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II have been suggested to have a role in the function of CREB binding protein function.
Simultaneous interaction of different transcription factors with the CBP/p300 is also suggested to have a contribution in transcription synergy. Conversely, CBP/p300 binding competition has been said to mediate some instances of transcriptional repression that is signal induced.
Although an overview of cellular growth of CBP/p300 and differentiation has been published, there are several questions regarding the role of CREB binding protein in transcriptional regulation that are still not answered. For instance, there is no strong evidence to indicate that CBP as well as p300 have different functions and that they are regulated by phosphorylation.
Order an essay on CREB binding protein online
Are you struggling to write a descent essay on CREB binding protein? Do you need online help of a veteran essay writer to submit a descent essay on this or related topics? Then place an order for your essay at Essays Experts and we will assist you. We are a team of highly specialized essay writers and our goal is to help you with essay writing assignments.
Order your essay on CREB binding protein at Essays Experts and we assure you that we will deliver a supreme quality essay within the deadline that you set for us.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Childhood disintegrative disorder refers to a condition where a child develops normally during the age of 3 or 4 and then they lose language, social, motor as well as other skills that have already been learned over the first months. Childhood disintegrative disorder is also called the Heller’s syndrome or disintegrative psychosis. The cause of this disorder has not yet been found.
Childhood disintegrative disorder has several similarities with autism. In some cases it is considered as a low-functioning form of autism. It was described originally by an Austrian educator called Theodor Heller in 1908. Earlier, Autism had been described by Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner. Previously, Heller had described the syndrome with the term dementia infantilis.
Some researchers consider childhood disintegrative disorder as a part of autism. However, this disorder differs from autism because people with childhood disintegrative disorder depict serious regression after some months of normal development. The loss of the learnt skills is also more dramatic than that of people suffering from autism. Additionally, childhood disintegrative disorder tends to develop at a later stage than it happens with autism.
Despite the fact that the cause of this disorder remains unknown, there are studies that link childhood disintegrative disorder to the nervous system and the brain. This is because children who suffer from this disorder lose communication skills, nonverbal behaviors and other skills that were learnt earlier. All these are related to the nervous system and the brain.
Among the symptoms of childhood disintegrative disorder include lack or delay in spoken language, impairment of nonverbal behaviors, inability to maintain or start conversations, failure to play, loss of bladder and bowel control, loss of social and motor skills, loss of communication and language skills and problems or difficulties in forming relationships with family members and other children.
Once detected to suffer from this disorder, the child is examined by a health provider to determine whether they are suffering from it. Proper examination is very important because the disorder can be confused with others such as pervasive developmental disorder or childhood schizophrenia. The most significant symptom of childhood disintegrative disorder is loss of the developmental milestones. Diagnose is generally made when the child loses functions in about two developmental areas.
Childhood disintegrative disorder is treated just like autistic disorder or autism. This is because these disorders are the same. Steroid medication is an experimental treatment that helps in slowing the rate at which the condition progresses.
Buy an essay on childhood disintegrative disorder online
Are you struggling to write and submit a supreme quality essay on childhood disintegrative disorder? Do you need online help of a veteran essay writer to submit a descent essay on this or related topics? Then place an order for your essay with us at Essays Experts and we will sort you out. We are veteran essay writers and our goal is to offer you the best essay help. Order your essay on childhood disintegrative disorder at Essays Experts and we assure you that we will deliver a supreme quality essay within your timeline.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder refers to one of the common disorders that occurs in early childhood and may continue to adolescence and then adulthood. This disorder is the same as hyperkinetic disorder according to ICD-10. It is defined as a psychiatric disorder of neurodevelopment category. In this disorder, there are serious problems of hyperactivity, acting impulsively and attention that are inappropriate for the age of a person.
For an individual to be diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder they must depict the symptoms at the early age of 6 to 12 and they must also depict them for over 6 months. In the school going children, attention symptoms usually result in bad performance.
Despite being one of the most studied disorders that is diagnosed among adolescents and children, the cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown in most cases. It usually affects approximately 6 to 7 percent of children that are diagnosed through DSM-IV criteria and about 1 to 2 percent of the children diagnosed through ICD-10 criteria. The rates are the same between different countries and it depends mostly on the way the disorder is diagnosed. In boys, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is diagnosed about three times more than in girls.
Studies indicate that about 30 to 50 percent of individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder in their childhood continue showing symptoms in their adulthood. About 2 to 5 percent of adults suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
This disorder has three main sub-types. These are:
- Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
- Predominantly inattentive
- Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
Among the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include difficulties in paying attention and staying focused, hyperactivity and difficulty in controlling behavior. Some scientists suggest that the disorder may be caused by genes. Just like some illnesses, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be caused by a combination of different factors. Apart from genetics, studies are being done to determine a possibility of environmental factors playing a role. There are studies that indicate that nutrition, social environment and brain injuries might be some of the other causes.
It is important to note that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be mistaken for other medical conditions. This is why it is important to consider the symptoms of the child carefully and seek professional medical help immediately. Treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that are currently available focus in symptoms reduction and improved functioning. Treatments include psychotherapy, medication, training or education and a combination of different treatments.
Buy an essay on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder online
Are you struggling to write a quality essay on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Do you need online help of an expert to write and submit a descent essay on this or related topics? Then place an order with us at Essays Experts and we will help you. We are a team of highly professional essay writers and our goal is to offer you the best essay help online. Order your essay on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at Essays Experts now and rest assured that we will deliver a superior quality essay within your timeline.