Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a common term in the business world. It is synonymous with leading corporations and multinationals worldwide. CSR allows a company to embrace ethical practices, and adhering to existing laws, which regulate domestic and international business transactions. Corporate social responsibility further advocates for motivating employers, and treating consumers with dignity by creating an environment that appreciates all stakeholders (Cuvilceva, 2012).
Corporate social responsibility report gives details on an organization’s programs, governance, economic model and social undertakings. It enhances internal processes to create an environment recognizable by all stakeholders (Cuvilceva, 2012). In this report, companies demonstrate their transparency, compliance and traceability.
Every organization must give CSR report to show programs, which it is undertaking as a way of giving back to the society. It also depicts organizational governance in maintaining a good relationship with other stakeholders. It captures massive information including risk management issues and plans to engage other stakeholders in the market. As owners of the firm, stakeholders have the right to know current and future plans of directors (Cuvilceva, 2012). Through this report, it is possible to know ethical issues and awareness on other social factors like killer diseases.
The Emirates Group operates in six countries and flies to 134 destinations in the world. With its global presence, it works towards acting sustainably regarding its business interests, consumers and the natural environment (Emirates, 2013). It embraces eco-friendly environments through economic consumption of resources and minimum pollution. To achieve this, Emirates Group uses eco-efficient technology in manufacture of planes, engines and equipment.
Additionally, Emirates Group is working towards reducing its carbon emission percentage. To realize this, it uses modern technology, which reduces noise, low fuel consumption and minimum carbon emission. This goes a long way in protecting the environment alongside effective service delivery. The company further adheres to the regulations of EU ETS, the global emissions reduction scheme. Today, about 24% of Emirates’ cargo and passenger operations are in EU air space (Emirates, 2013).
Over the years, Emirates remains committed towards cutting down emissions. It has acquired low-emission planes, adopted waste reduction strategies, recycling and conservation of resources. It also engages in wild life conservation and protection of natural habitats. Through emitter-pays principle, Emirates bears emission cost without passing it to consumers. Its employees are also in the forefront in championing environmental conservation like cleanups, recycling of materials and tree planting. With the introduction of a new metro station, the company has successfully handled emissions to the environment besides putting up priority parking facilities for car poolers.
Emirates Group also exercises CSR by paying electricity, waste and water service bills for its employees. It focuses on reducing the consumption of water and electricity. At its headquarters, it collects and recycles waste products for efficiency. This has played a major role in manufacturing materials for refurbishment (Emirates, 2013).
The company also has plans to introduce biofuel technology for business operations. With Boeing 747-8 F Emirates Group will have solved the problem of air pollution and fuel efficiency. Beside this, Airbus A350-XWB equally has a host of advantages for the airline (Emirates, 2013). Emirates Group uses flex tracks to determine routes that are effective in terms of time, fuel, emissions and weather conditions. Their airplanes use a single engine taxing to avoid excessive fuel consumption. With rerouting en route technology, Emirates is able to avoid routes with unfavorable weather conditions owing to the unpredictable weather patterns for long distances.
It also uses fixed power supplies to power air conditioning and electrical systems. This plays a major role in cutting down fuel costs for the airline. Most of its fleet has an average of six years in operation as compared to its competitors, which have over fourteen years (Emirates, 2013). With its commitment to environmental conservation, Emirates has a 1600-hectare resort in Australia and conserves the Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve.
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC)
Besides securing its future, ADNOC supports the society in various ways. The company was established in 1971 to provide oil and gas in Abu Dhabi. In ten years, the company has reduced burning hydrocarbons to about 76%. It also recycles its water and reuses it in various operations (ADNOC, 2011). To conserve the environment, it plants mangrove trees in areas of its operations, promoting it to establish a mangrove nursery.
ADNOC has over 31,000 employees and 37,000 contractors. As part of its CSR, 66.5% of its governance opportunities go to Emiratis. To nurture competent and ethical staff, the company has spent 930000 in training. There are no records of its history showing child labor or forced labor (ADNOC, 2011). It was the first to establish women graduate under its Petroleum institute.
ADNOC considers support for its local suppliers to be a crucial element of its CSR. Over 77% of its procumbent opportunities go to local suppliers. It supports community donations, sponsors schools and various events. To prove its commitment to supporting environmental conservation efforts, ADNOC has set aside AED 602 Million to deal with pollution.
ADNOC further has a clean development Mechanism, CDM, which is registered with the United Nations Kyoto Protocol. The company produces healthy products because it values the welfare of its consumers. It observes the health, safety and environment (HSE) and UAE policies and regulations. To encourage employees adhere to HSE policies, ADNOC rewards its best performers. It further embraces the use of renewable sources and energy efficiency through its green house gas programs (ADNOC, 2011). It also regulates its water consumption. It has measures in place to deal with oil spills by training personnel and acquiring the right equipment for prevention.
ADNOC further enhances environmental conservation through low use of oil-based mud by reusing drilling mud and disposing it properly. To keep pace with changing international laws and practices in the oil industry, ADNOC attends various global and local seminars (ADNOC, 2011). It also collaborates with the government in executing strategic plans and interacting with all stakeholders. Through this, stakeholders are always aware of the current and future plans of the corporation. It also organizes company tours and displays to enhance transparency in serving its customers. It fosters supplier development through financial risk management and HSE assessment.
In conclusion, corporate social responsibility remains an integral part of any organization. CSR reports show a company responsibility towards its customers, employees, suppliers and all stakeholders. From the analysis, Emirates Group and ADNOC have a range of CSR initiatives, which largely grant them good public images.
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ADNOC. (2011) Abu Dhabi National Oil Company 2011 Sustainability Report. Retrieved 4 October 2013 from: http://www.adnoc.ae/publications/hse_reports/ADNOC_Sustainability_Report%202011_English.pdf
Cuvilceva, M. (2012). The importance and significance of Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
Emirates. (2013). The Environment- Our Environmental Leadership. Retrieved 4 October 2013 from: http://www.emirates.com/ke/english/environment/environment.aspx
Mobile Technology and Its Impact on e‐Commerce
E-commerce plays a major role in the world. However, applications and technologies are shifting towards mobile computing and the wireless web. While this is the case, the advancements have also brought into play a host of challenges, especially concerning wireless electronic commerce. Because of varying preferences of customers, development of these applications is a continuous process to satisfy the market. Mobile electronic-commerce, which uses portable devices to transact business, has become a major part of people’s lives. Common portable devices include laptops, mobile telephones, and vehicle-mounted interfaces among others (Lamersdorf 243).
The only requirement for mobile electronic commerce is to have access to mobile wireless, which is Web or WAP enabled (Lamersdorf 255). It is worth noting that phones and other hand-held gadgets have limitations, including low memory, small screens and few input devices. They do not have traditional computer keyboards and have limited text lines and character entries. To the contrary, laptops support many devices, have huge data storage capacity, have traditional keyboards and have large screens.
The main concern for manufacturers is deciding the most effective way individuals to use apps to access information through the gadgets. For this reason, there is need for manufacturers to go back to application software and operating systems for a range of platforms. Portable devices can support apps including Palm’s PalmOS, Microsoft’s Pocket PC OS, WAP, SMS, Web and I-node (Nickerson & Warkentin 446). While some of these apps meet the needs of most users, they have limited functionality. Thus, manufacturers and app developers have the task of improving functionality of these devices to enhance their capabilities (McConnell, Merz, and Maesano 370).
Mobile e-commerce therefore denotes business to consumer moneymaking activities, conducted sing mobile devices. With wireless technology, there is hope for mobile sub-net in the e-commerce world. Today, most people in the world own mobile phones, which largely rely on wireless technology. Other devices allow voice communication while others concentrate on non-voice functionalities like watching videos, Geo-location data, reading emails and accessing internet (McConnell, Merz & Maesano 378). This has led to change in purchaser payment market. With these devices, e-commerce is simpler and convenient around the globe. Because of developments in mobile e-commerce, there is massive manufacture of handsets, improved technology and affordable data prices. These have encouraged more usage of mobile data than in previous years.
Mobile e-commerce has also led to the rise of consumer benefits and protection to consumer issues. They include mobile payment and banking, premium services, mobile shopping and mobile marketing, just but a few. With premium services, users buy digital content and electronic information via text messages, where the costs add up to the mobile phone expenditure (Tsalgatidou 252). Examples of SMS free-based services are horoscopes, SMS voting system, flight status alerts and dating chat sites among others. Because of development of wireless networks, there is enhanced data transfer and better display capabilities by portable devices. They also have good processing power, which promote internet-enabled services (Tsalgatidou 276). Today, there are content portals, which offer a range of free services like downloading games, videos and ringtones. It is therefore clear that mobile content has massively evolved to meet the changing needs of the market. With mobile payment and banking, financial institutions offer text banking to online clients. Through this platform, a customer can view account balance and recent transactions on phone. On the other hand, mobile payment software allow customers to text their payments, where companies offer traditional trust services via the internet by expanding the functionality of the device. Oftentimes, they improve privacy through encryption and public key management (Nickerson and Warkentin 440).
Besides the advantages above, wireless apps and technologies have a range of demerits in mobile e-commerce worldwide. The absence of mobile device standardization all over the world is a major concern. Mobile devices differ from country to country and even within a particular country. The inequality in acquiring and access wireless web technology also affects mobile e-commerce in the world. It is clear that some countries have low demand for mobile device capacity. For example, Japan and Europe have higher demand for mobile devices than the U.S (Tsalgatidou 268). Very few Americans use wireless devices compared to people living in Europe and Asia. Americans also have lesser usage rates than Asians and Europeans. Experts observe that there will be lower demand for 3G internet to hit critical levels, hindering development of e-commerce within affected countries.
In conclusion, technology development has played a major role in mobile e-commerce development. Today, millions of people all over the world depend on this technology to transact businesses. With rapid advancement in wireless devices, there is need to ensure that the devices function properly. There is also need for development of wireless communication with high bandwidth to meet the demands of mobile e-commerce and wireless apps.
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Lamersdorf, M. Trends in Distributed Systems for Electronic Commerce. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, NewYork, 1998: 220-298. Print.
McConnell, M. Merz, L. & Maesano, M. An Open Architecture for Electronic Commerce. OMG/ECDTF/OSM Response, 1997: 315-387 Print.
Nickerson, R. and Warkentin, M. Wireless/Mobile E-commerce: Technologies, Applications and Issues. Seventh Americans Conference on Information Systems, 2001: 420-477 Print.
Tsalgatidou, A. Business models and transactions in mobile electronic commerce: requirements and properties. Computer Networks, 2001: 221-289. Print.
Tourism in Kenya
Kenya is a leading tourism destination in the world. It has fascinating wildlife, biodiversity, and culture. Kenya stands out with its tourism features, like the tropical beaches, savannahs, coral reefs, snow-capped mountains, and dense equatorial forests (Busch 45). As a leading tourism destination point, Kenya attracts adventurers and explorers from all over the world.
Kenya has witnessed massive growth in tourism in the last two years. It has registered higher volumes of tourists, owing to increased movements across the country. The tourism sector accounted for 11% of the country’s GDP. It offers 18% of employment opportunities in the country. With stiff competition in air travel, Kenya’s leading carrier, Kenya Airways, KQ, has improved its efficiency and customer satisfaction. Kenya’s target is to among top ten tourist destination sites in the world (Busch 47). In recent years, Kenya has stepped up its international flights, with plans underway to have direct connection from Nairobi to New York. Today, many locals and tourists have access to air travel in Kenya. The government is also expanding air travel infrastructure nationwide to meet the ever-increasing demand for airlines. Upon realization of this dream, local and international tourists will access different parts of the country with ease.
Current Issues Affecting Tourism in Kenya
While Kenya remains a major tourism player, it faces a range of challenges. The first problem is massive destruction of wildlife. Cases of poaching are rampant in Kenya. Most poachers kill wild animals for their meat, horns and hides. Illegal trade of ivory remains a threat to rhinos and elephants in the country (Gatimu 56). This issue is thicker owing to the fact that some top politicians in the country have been linked to the illegal trade in wildlife products.
The second problem is inadequate investment capital. Kenya has limited resources like labor and land to expand the tourism sector. In addition, the government does not support the industry fully, making it hard to grow. Over the years, the government has not taken a front lead to woo locals to invest in tourism (Kimathi 56).
Poor infrastructure furthers hinders tourism development in Kenya. For example, some attraction sites in the country are inaccessible because of poor roads (Kimathi 56). Besides this, Kenya’s political landscape is delicate yet tourism thrives in a politically stable environment. A case in point, the 2007 disputed presidential elections hit the country’s tourism sectors as visitors avoided the country because of violence. However, the government has stepped up efforts to win back tourists from other parts of the world.
Natural disasters like hurricanes and floods also affect Kenya’s tourism. Most tourists shy off and avoid Kenya whenever there are such calamities. The country also suffers tribalism, which creates a volatile environment, characterised by violence and high tension. These ethnic clashes add no value to the country’s tourism sector as other countries regard Kenya as insecure (Jones and Claire 65).
Kenya also suffers shortage of social services like modern hospitals, sports and other recreational facilities. Since most tourist attraction sites are in remote areas, they are far from available services. This discourages tourists from touring such places (Laws, Bruce and Chon 43). According to Country Report (45), Kenya is technologically challenged to compete with global tourism leaders. Most of the remote tourist attraction sites lack internet, mobile network, TV and radio coverage, which put off visitors. High population also weighs negatively on Kenya’s tourism sector. Because of high population, there is competition of resources like land, leading to encroachment of reserved areas like forests and grasslands. As a result, Kenya registers high level of Human-wildlife conflict in the world.
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Busch, S. “Mall Attack another Blow to Kenya’s Tourism Industry” CNN, 24 Sep 2013.
Country Report. “Travel and Tourism in Kenya” Travel and Tourism, 22 Dec 2012: 44-47.
Gatimu, Simon. N. N. Tourism in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda: Grounded Theory Development. New Jersey: ProQuest, 2007.
Jones, Eleri, and Claire Haven-Tang. Tourism SMEs, Service Quality, and Destination Competitiveness. London: CABI, 2005.
Kimathi, Teddy. My personal critical Review concerning Slum Tourism in Kenya. London: GRIN Verlag, 2013.
Laws, Eric, Bruce Prideaux, and Chon, Kaye. S. Crisis Management in Tourism. New York: CABI, 2007.
Martin, Gill. “Wildlife, wonder and why tourism can help Kenya emerge from the shadow of terrorism Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-2451320/Wildlife-wonder-tourism-help-Kenya-emerge-shadow-terrorism.html#ixzz2jgBLao5x Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook” Mail Online 14 Oct 2013.
Benefits and Retirement Plans
Employee benefits are divided into two. Required benefits are those protected by law and must be compulsorily issued to employees without fail whilst optional benefits are those given by employers based on their personal initiative and decision. The following are some of the benefits that are required and compulsory by law:
Social security: Every employer is required to pay social security taxes to the government. This amount must be similar to what is paid by the employee and currently the rates stand at 6% for the employees and employers. In addition, social security is also encompassed in medicare and this is an extra 1.5% for both employer and employee.
Unemployment insurance: This is an employment benefit that is compulsory and is paid at state level. In order to pay up for this tax, one must register their business with the owner’s nation’s workforce agency (Beesley 45) and pay the tax to the location they are situated at.
Workers’ compensation: Also referred to as disability benefit, this mandatory benefit is normally paid by employers to employees who become disabled due to injuries or illnesses that are caused by occupational hazards or accidents. Different countries offer different mandates and regulations regarding this benefit. Currently, employers are required to purchase disability benefits if their workers are situated in New York, Rhode Island, Hawaii, California and Puerto Rico. Nevertheless, employers can opt to offer private benefits if their employees are from other countries and areas other than those mentioned above.
Family and medical leave: Even though regular vacation leave is usually not a compulsory benefit, employers who hire more than 50 workers are compelled to offer leave in accordance with the Family and Medical Leave Act. This mandates that employers provide 12 weeks of work protected, in addition to unpaid leave in any 1 year period to every eligible and covered employees. Such leave can be provided on grounds such as personal healthcare, child care, birth, or immediate family care.
Optional employee benefits
The following benefits are optional and provided depending on the employer’s discretion:
Leave benefits: The federal law does not compel employers to offer most of the common leave benefits. Employers choose to offer these benefits including vacation/holiday, funeral leave, sick leave and personal leave as part of compensation plans. However, the Family and Medicare Leave Act makes it compulsory for employers to provide leave (not leave benefits) to employers.
Healthcare insurance: Again, federal law does not stipulate that employers must give health and life benefits for their employees. Although, some employers at their own discretion may grant full provision of health care benefits, most prefer the co-payment basis that are paid by both employees and employers (Mikhitarian 12).
Paid holidays: While this type of benefit is not enforced by federal laws, it is offered to employees depending on the employer. It basically entails offering full payment for employees who do not work during holidays and full pay premium pay for those employees that work during holiday. Employers who offer paid holidays choose the periods within which the holiday is given.
I regard health care insurance as the most important optional benefits because it indemnifies one during unpredictable circumstances and also helps people to access medical care that can help them improve their health. There is assurance of obtaining relevant treatment in case of health concerns. in particular it is important for children to get both preventive medical care such as immunization and actual treatment for different ailments. By getting access to preventive medical care, adults can also be able to detect health problems early and arrest them before they escalate. Health insurance can guarantee access to both preventive medical care and treatment of actual ailments. It is advisable for people who work in construction jobs, factories, driving jobs and other hazardous jobs to take health insurance because they tend to be susceptible to accidents and health problems (Boutwell 23).
Organizations usually provide their employees with varied forms of retirement plans and these are the fringe benefits that help to retain employees. In some cases, these retirement benefits come with extra tax benefits and offer retiring employees income after retirement. Retirement benefits vary with each organization and are dependent on diverse factors such as the size of the organization and the age of the workers on average. Retirement plans can include any of the following:
The 401 (k) is retirement plan through which employees are allowed to make pre-taxed payments towards a viable retirement savings plan which earns them interest. However this interest is not constant until when withdrawn and in most cases, the employer usually matches up what the employee pays. Saving options under this retirement plan may range from company stock, mutual funds, money and bond market funds, with options for the employee to change the distribution frequencies and plans of his or her savings at selected intervals (Shah 59).
This is a retirement plan which organizations such as public schools and churches prefer. Although it is similar to the 401 (k) in one way, it offers more tax exemption. Employees make tax deductible payments which are then matched by the employer to a specific percentage. The money grows on a tax deferred basis just as is the case in 401 (k) retirement plan. an organization can offer a 403(b) plan that works in similar way to a 401(k).
In the profit sharing plan, employees save up for retirement by investing part of the organization’s profits and sharing this wealth. The employer decides on the amount of funds that can be contributed by the company towards the savings plan but this is determined by the income of the workers. On their part, employees do not make any contributions towards this plan.
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Beesley, C. Employee benefit plans: what law and what’s optional. 7 May, 2009. Web 4 November, 2013.
Boutwell, S. Fixing broken retirement plans under the new IRS procedures. Journal of financial services professionals (2013): 67-23.
Mikhitarian, C. & Wukitsch, J. Revisiting contributory defined benefit plans. Retirement security journal (2001): 57-12.
Shah, G. Incorporating employee heterogeneity into default rules for retirement plan selection. The journal of human resources (2012): 199-57.
Origin of Complex Societies along Nile River
Human civilization is a continuous process that can be traced back to the origin of man. Traditional societies initially used gatherings and hunting as their sources of livelihood. Farming, industrialization and agriculture however set in to offer rise to complex societies gradually. The process was indeed gradual in different communities spreading over the years.
For instance, by the year 3000 B.C complex societies had set up along River Nile in Egypt, Africa. The societies included the Axum and Kush. Dense populations, political and economic power, creativity and spiritual organizations characterized the societies (Bernal 58). This paper therefore analyses the origin of complex cultures along River Nile until 3000 BC.
Civilization along River Nile also took the form of populated cities in the valley of the river. Initially, communities along the valley employed gathering and hunting in the wild as the only resources. Fresh water from the river was sufficient to feed the people that settled on the river bank. Early settlers therefore had more than enough water and food for their survival, and it was during Ice Age.
Ice Age however gradually came to an end leading to more rainfall, increased temperatures and lower sea levels in different parts of the world in 15000 BC. Climate change made it essential for man to domesticate desirable and edible plants and animals to ensure constant flow of food. Man gradually adapted to this kind of life, leading to agriculture and farming. Man, also over time became dependent on this kind of livelihood leading to waning of gatherings and hunting (Burstein 27).
River Nile area is no doubt extremely fertile based on its proximity to water for irrigation as well as its rich nutrients. As the settlers opted for farming, they also cleared more land to enhance their source of livelihood. This was additionally successful based on the fact that new desirable plants grew thus, feeding the community along the bank. The success however led to intensified farming and agricultural practices (Bernal 58).
The valley of River Nile was also cleared even more and by the end of 6000 BC, man settled for more innovative ways of increasing agricultural surplus for economic purposes. As farming became more of an economic venture, many people also settled along the river to clutch the opportunity. It is an opportunity that led to increased populations along the valley of the river by the year 4000BC.
Therefore, people worked and lived closely together than they did in the past years. The trend in the end, led to growth of cities that were characterized by dense populations (Connah 3). Dense populations were also a source of economic power and innovation. The settlers through Nile River opened up links to other regions across the globe creating more economic activities.
The activities included energy sources, housing, construction and manufacturing. Disruptions of natural environment also led to ecological issues creating more economic and social innovations in a quest for survival (Bernal 58). Some of the members of the community for instance took up specializations in different professions thus creating more wealth.
Trade in the form of exchange of goods and services also begun. The art of writing also became essential for record keeping purposes. Governance on the other hand took a more organized structure with more complex communities leading to leadership hierarchy. Hierarchy form of leadership was common in Axum and Kush kingdoms that had powerful political organizations.
By the year 3000 BC, the societies living along River Nile were complex because of such aspects. As a result, it led to civilization in this part of the globe (Connah 15).
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Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The Afro-Asiatic Roots of Classical Civilizations. London: Free Association Books. 1987. Print
Burstein, Stanley. Ancient African Civilizations: Kush and Axum. Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1998. Print
Connah, Graham. African Civilizations: An Archaeological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002. Print.
Feminist Response to Sex Work
Sex work is being embraced in many developed nations and it is being legalized. The countries have realized that sex work can generate a lot of revenue from taxes if legalized. This research is focused on exploring feminist views on sex work. In specific, the research will focus on feminist debates especially the role of law in regards to work.
Additionally, the paper will address the impact of feminist debates on anti-trafficking initiatives and sex laws. It will focus on American as well as international society. The research paper is also highly beneficial to American community and the entire world. By exploring the subject of sex work candidly, the research study will therefore highlight female workers plight and possible remedies to their problems.
Similarly, the study is of great significance to me and my family. Being an immigrant in the US, many of my relatives have fallen victims of sex trafficking just to earn money and send it home. I would wish to understand whether my relatives have any rights that oversee their sex work.
This paper will be based on internet articles. The articles will be extracted from different journals written by sex matters professionals. I am using National Institute of Justice journal for instance, to get recent and accurate information on the subject. The Chicago Tribune is additionally an online magazine I intend to use in exploring the subject. It is an updated magazine with recent updated details on many subjects. Laura (2014) will offer us an in-depth analysis of anti-trafficking campaigns.
She has gathered videos of seminars on trafficking for sexual motives. Sex Trafficking: Identifying Cases and Victims (2008) by Robert, defines sex trafficking as ‘‘recruiting, enticing, harboring, transporting, providing or obtaining either: (1) an adult for commercial sex by force, fraud or coercion, or (2) a juvenile for commercial sex, regardless of the means.’’ To add on to this description, Amanda offers an explanation of how effective war on sex trafficking has been.
She also delves into laws governing people’s movement from one country to the other as well as loopholes found in such laws. Robert and Amanda will also offer an expert opinion on the effects of trafficking. Melissa (2004) is opposed to the idea of making prostitution legal. She thinks of it as a way of degrading women.
She also believes that legalization of sex work is selfish based on the fact that it serves to earn the government revenue while degrading women. Her article will therefore offer a different perspective from that of feminists. Most of my content will be based on the web based on the nature of information: it is reliable compared to details found in journals written many years ago.
Discussion and Conclusion
The results of this research will be evaluated and restated in reference of initial hypotheses. If the results are predicted, the study will settle for the fact that sex work can help in reducing many cases of sex trafficking. How the results relate to previous studies and theoretical issues discussed in the introduction will also be highlighted.
Practical implications of results for the society will additionally be considered. Current research limitations will also be identified alongside how future research suggestions can base upon present case study.
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Amanda, M. (2010) Declaring WAR on human trafficking. Chicago Tribune Retrieved February
15, 2014 from http://articles.chicagotribune.com
Laura, A. (2014) Migration, Sex work, Trafficking and the Rescue Industry Retrieved February
15, 2014 from http://www.lauraagustin.com/
Melisa, F. (2004) ‘Bad for the Body, Bad for Heart’: Prostitution Harms Women Even if
Legalized or Decriminalized. Violence Against Women. Retrieved February 15, 2014 from https://humantrafficking.unc.edu
Robert, M. (2004) Sex Trafficking: Identifying Cases and Victims. National Institute of Justice
Retrieved February 15, 2014 from http://www.nij.gov
Women’s Equal Pay for Equal Work
Equal pay for equal work has been a topic of debate and women have been struggling for it in almost everything they do and for many years now. This paper will explore some of the causes of wage differences between women and men as well as Acts that have been put in place to deal with the issue. The article will also analyze the reasons as to why for many years now, there was disparity in wages.
It is now illegal to pay women and men different wages for the same. This follows the implementation of Equal Pay Act of 1963. There is no solid argument against payment equality for same work between both genders. It is also evident that men do some jobs better than women and in many cases, equal work is not solely considered a pay determinant (E.laws.gov.on.ca, 2014.p.1).
Traditionally in the American society, a woman was entitled with the responsibility of being a homemaker or being a caretaker. Even when they went against this kind of stereotype to do other jobs, they are given the same opportunity when it comes to settling for a specific job. Women are supposed to receive an equal pay just like men based on the fact that they are sole providers of their families.
In 1940’s men were also fully responsible for their families. The roles were however interrupted following the World War II when men went fighting. This forced many women to take up labor force duties and even though many of them did the same jobs as men, the pay was different. When determining pay rates, there are two factors that are considered. Supply of labor for a particular job is one of the factors.
For instance, if skilled labors are few, the pay will be high (Levine, 2004, p. 1). Secondly, the employer, government or trader unions can decide salaries and wages for their employees. It is a fact that women are paid low wages and salaries in many parts of the globe despite the fact that they did same jobs as the men. This is an indication that unions do not focus more on the duties carried out by women.
Similarly, the number of women is high and can comfortably work for a short period. Several arguments have also been raised against women’s equal pay. Single women for instance are not supposed to earn similar salaries like married men. It is argued that a married woman’s pay is extra and it is basic for the family of a married man on the other hand.
For this reason, we can reflect different ethnic and national customs of the Far East because we are focusing on western countries where real conditions like these exist for instance, in the United States of America as well as Europe.
Britain was one the first countries to be fully industrialized across the globe between 1733 and 1850. It’s thought about women was based on commercial and industrial flag of Britain overseas and it followed local discrimination of women. Even so, many women have expanded this legend with individual hard work and can now do the same jobs and duties just like their male counterparts.
Women presently cannot be prevented from doing what they wish or want to do. The source of the issue therefore can be traced to British background (Levine, 2004, p. 45). Women were also not supposed to earn any money between 1733 and 1914 in Britain. Lower class women were charged with the responsibility of assisting their men in mills, foundries and in fields.
Development of different factories also forced many people to settle in towns. This led to increase in prices but the pay for men remained constant forcing women to work and support their families. Many married women today work mainly to economically sustain themselves and to enhance their standards of living. There is no reason as to why women should not be given specific jobs and receive the rightful pay for the hob, not their gender.
It was also indicated that in a dollar that a man earns, women were entitled to 77cents. This is not good bearing in mind that women are supposed to earn same amount as men. Such figures were even worse for Latinas and African-American women who earned 55 and 64 cents respectively for each dollar that a white man earned.
There are also many reasons that explain the reason as to why women earned less than men and also ways in which individuals considered a determinant for men and women pay. Many attempts have also been made to solve the inequality issue. There two schools of thoughts that can explain the gender issue including the human capital theory mainly focused on personal characteristics of women and men.
Sex segregation is also another theory that explains issue. It focuses on demand side and job features in which women and men work typically. Additionally, it deals with decisions that women make, for example, barriers that women face (American Civil Liberties Union, 2014. P. 1).
The human capital theory also explains why women earn less compared to men. According to Levin (2004, p. 4), women earn less than men because of division of labor in the family and it leads to productivity disparity between the genders. Probable family chores are believed to influence women’s decision on the type and amount of investment in training and education. It is also indicated that women are more likely to spend less time in labor force compared to men thus, contributing to their low income levels.
According to the theory, women also invest in smaller human capital, thus lowering their productivity and making them earn low pay compared to men. Irregular employment history of the women is also another cause for low wages amongst them. It is debated that women who expect to be irregular in their jobs often opt for jobs that can easily accommodate them (Thinkprogress.org, 2014, p. 1).
It is therefore an indication that women can easily settle for jobs that do not necessarily tally with their skills. The theory however does not explain low pay for women but also disparities in occupational distribution of both genders. Sex segregation is also an issue that explains wage differences between women and men. It takes a look and women and men in different types of work.
Work related segregation of genders has to some extent reduced because males took over jobs that were considered to be for the women for example social workers, nurses and librarians. There was also a reduction of sex segregation in the 1970’s because women and men were joining neutral jobs.
Additionally, the number of women who took over male dominated jobs such as administrative, managerial and professional work in the 1970’s increased significantly. Job distribution amongst women and men has also converged continuously at a low pace in the past decades. Research also indicates that there are measures that have been put in place to reducing women pay and enhancing a woman’s ability to move from one job to the other, thus lessening family burden for the woman.
This is an indication that woman can accept a lower pay just to enjoy a flexible timetable. There are different factors that can make a person quit a job for instance illness, the need for emotional assistance and participation in different activities. The way in which women are portrayed in the media also has an effect on job discrimination. Many individuals wouldn’t want to relate to the media with a woman’s paycheck but plays a crucial role than they possibly thought.
Choice of job is additionally another reason for wage differences. The American Association of University carried out a research study and indicates that women account for 78 percent and 18 percent education and engineering majors respectively. Many of the women do not want to be engaged it dangerous jobs, which in most cases pay high. Such decisions have also impacted many statistics regarding pay inequality.
The issue of pay inequality has also been highly debated and motherhood penalty is one of the reasons that would explain the scenario. There are mothers who would settle for low paying careers to be able to combine them with parenting. Additionally, mothers earn less because of their children’s needs making them less productive in their workplaces.
The effect of Glass ceiling is another cause for wage disparity. This effect shows that a person’s gender offers significant limitations towards the kind of job one can engage in and it becomes highly challenging as one advance in his career. The effect also prevents women from getting promotions and such obstacles exist despite educational qualifications and achievements.
President Obama recently stated that he has two daughters and he doesn’t want them to earn lesser than men. He supported Lilly Ledbetter Act that tried to bridge the gap between women and men pay. There have been many attempts to close the salaries gap over the years and Equal Pay Act of 1963 is one of the acts that required equal pay for both genders for equal jobs in same establishment.
After the passing of the Act, the US government established the U.S Equal Employment Agency to put into effect national regulations and rules that makes it unlawful to differentiate job applicants or employees. The Equal Pay act therefore plays a crucial role in preventing inequality by law.
Later on, the Paycheck Fairness Act was implemented to help workers secure equal pay for equal work for all Americans (American Civil Liberties Union, 2014, p. 1). The law would lead to significant changes to the law including under the Act, employers are expected to demonstrate wage differences based on many factors other than gender, enhancing penalties for employers who violate the Act, preventing workers against retaliation especially those that want to offer information on their personal wages, directing labor department to help employers gather wages details and allowing them to compare salaries in defined geographical areas.
Gender wage differences in conclusion still exist even though in low rates. However, with implementation of many acts, men and women are likely to earn equal pay. Women are charged with the responsibility of taking care of their homes and their children in many American families. Even so, the trend is changing because there are many opportunities for women in labor force market.
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American Civil Liberties Union. (2014). Equal pay for equal work: pass the paycheck fairness act. [Online] Retrieved from: https://www.aclu.org/womens-rights/equal-pay-equal-work-pass-paycheck-fairness-act [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].
E-laws.gov.on.ca. (2014). Pay equity act, r.s.o. 1990, c. p.7. [Online] Retrieved from: http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/statutes/english/elaws_statutes_90p07_e.htm [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].
Thinkprogress.org. (2014). How states are leading the way on equal pay for women. [Online] Retrieved from: http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2013/05/17/2030071/how-states-are-leading-the-way-on-equal-pay-for-women/ [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].
Levine. (2004). The Gender Wage Gap and Pay Equity: Is Comparable Worth the Next
Step: CRS Report for Congress. The Library of Congress
Affordable Healthcare USA
The Affordable Care Act, also known as the Obama Care is a famed US statute introduced into law by the President of the United States. The Act became increasingly a crucial regulatory tool in the US healthcare system, particularly following Medicare Medicaid system introduction (Richard, 2011). It was also specifically enacted with the only intention of ensuring affordability of medical cover while also reducing uninsured medical costs and coverage in private and public systems.
Therefore, it introduced different mechanisms including subsidies and mandates that would enhance medical cover affordability (Dipika, 2014).
Affordable Healthcare in the United States
The debate on affordable healthcare has been continuous since President Obama approved Affordable Care Act integration in 2010. While it saw the introduction of different insurance reforms, that would drive the healthcare system in the United States for the next four years, it has also generated endless arguments that consist of criticism and praise.
According to Christopher (2012), the Act was also primarily designed to help lower economic constraint level among the citizens of the US by ensuring affordability of medical insurance. The Affordable HealthCare Act has however proven to have significant impact on the economy and it can low the progress of the economy. As clarified by Lyle (2012), many subsidies offered in the Act do not apply to full time employees because their salary packages are above the category eligible for provisions in the Act.
Therefore, projections indicate that many people will settle for part time jobs while others consider self-employment as a way of gaining eligibility for the subsidies. This will in the end have significant effect on the economy because it reduces productivity level significantly. The Affordable Healthcare Act will also affect individual and family expenditure as many people will be likely to buy different insurance covers aiming to tap the benefits while growing subsidy coverage on the other hand for families.
The trend will increase enrollment rate as many people seek to enjoy comprehensive benefits and in return, it will affect premium insurance rates that may also raise healthcare costs in the long run (Richard, 2011). With many people receiving medical coverage through the government or their employers, a small number will purchase personal covers and they will be forced to settle for healthcare coverage with provisions similar to that offered by the government or employer.
Eventually, it will be more costly than having healthcare policies that many people today do not have and increase family and individual expenditure (Dipika, 2014). The Affordable Healthcare Act has also proven to be detrimental to the society and its effects will in the cause some implications in social work field.
According to Christopher (2012), new Affordable Healthcare law makes provisions enabling a high number of people to qualify for Medicaid. It is an indication that growing number of patients will be looking for social services in the healthcare system thus, increasing healthcare and social workers workload.
It is so, because new laws on the law mandates insurance providers to offer coverage to people with pre-existing and extreme conditions while organizations with more than 50 staff members are expected to offer medical coverage for all their workers (Lyle, 2012).
The Affordable Care Act has raised significant debate since its creation into the new Obama Care Law in 2010. The law was specifically attributed to different social and economic effects included reduced efficiency in national economy, high influx of patients in different healthcare facilities and increased family expenditure which, increases social workers workload.
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Christopher, R. (2012). Dynamics of Healthcare Reform: Bitter Pills Old and New, Vanderbilt Journal of Transformational Law, 45(5):11-31.
Dipika, J. (2014). Gene-Patenting and Access to Healthcare: Achieving Precision, Houston Journal of International Law, 36(1):22-41.
Lyle, B. (2012). Transforming Healthcare, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(7):67-80.
Richard, K. (2011). Older Americans, Medicare, and the Affordable Care Act: What’s Really in it for Elders, Generations, 35(1):45-60.
Supplemental Security Income
Supplementary security income (SSI) is a program that pays monthly checks to people with limited resources and income and it is run by the social security. The people are often the disabled, the blind and those aged 65 and above years. Children to the disabled or the blind also get the checks. A child under SSI is defined as under the age of 18 or if in school or training in preparation of a job is between the ages of 18-22.
Those who get SSI and leave the US for a month are no longer entitled to the program. Even so, there is a specific act covering the children of military personnel where a child can continue receiving the benefits even when overseas. This is however applicable to a child if he or she is a citizen of the United States of America. It is also applicable if the child is living with an US armed forces parent assigned permanent duty outside the U.S District of Columbia, U.S territories and Puerto Rico and was entitled to SSI remuneration before the parent left for duty overseas (United States, 1975).
To qualify for the program according to Daly, Burkhauser, & Federal Reserve of Francisco (2001), individuals must be at least 65 years of age or above, disabled or blind. Their assets and income must also be below specific limitations. For applicants to qualify as disabled, they must not be in a position to engage in significant gainful task (SGA) because of an impairment that is expected to last for at least a year or lead to death.
Individuals may also need to have combined income that is greater than the present maximum $ 494 ( $741 for a couple) or have resources more than $ 2000 ($3000 for a couple) to meet financial necessities. A person with more resources is required to sell some of his or her countable resources. They include real assets such as land or house that is not occupied or personal property, stamp collection or jewelry.
One can also receive SSI while trying to sell the assets, for nine months and on the other hand, an individual can receive SSI payments for up to 3 months while trying to sell private assets (United States, 1976). Individuals during the initial application process are expected to provide any details that can affect eligibility of their benefits.
Once they receive SSI benefits, individuals are also required to report any timely events including marital status, changes in resources or income and living arrangements to Social Security Administration field office staff. The benefit rate for a person as reviewed in 2013 is $ 710 for an individual and for a couple, $ 1066). Even so, the benefits vary based on the income of a person and living arrangements among other underlying factors (United States, 1976).
The SSI is funded by general tax revenue and not Social Security trust fund. The benefits are usually in cash form and they assist the eligible to meet basic needs including clothing, shelter and food. Income is essential in SSI. The more you earn, the less SSI you are entitled to and if your income is over the required limit, you cannot receive the payments.
The congress in recent years has been apprehensive that individuals who are ineligible can receive disability benefits. This is a major concern especially in cases where abuse of program, waste or fraud allegations is common. For example, it was proved that non-English speaking applicants were getting SSI benefits illegally using mediators who offer translation and related services at a fee to enable them apply for the program (United States, 1975).
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Daly, M. C., Burkhauser, R. V., & Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. (2001). The supplemental security income program. San Francisco, Calif.: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
United States. (1975). Administration of the supplemental security income program: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Oversight of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, September 8, 1975. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
United States. (1976). Problems in administering supplemental security income for the aged, blind, and disabled, Social Security Administration, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Report to the Congress. Washington: U.S. General Accounting Office.
Widespread Epidemics in Africa
In Africa, AIDS continues to be one of the most widespread epidemic and single most reported case worldwide. Lack of knowledge continues to be the leading factor of spread of HIV/AIDS. It is of great importance for campaigns against the disease to be encouraged in order to educate people regarding prevention measures and also prevent them from getting the disease.
As the fertility level increases and the rate of mortality decreases in Africa, the African populace is expected to reach the peak of 1.7 billion people in 2050 up from 767 million in 2006 (Ashford 1). With the tremendous population increase in Africa, it is of great importance that people be educated on how they can fight the disease in the continent which is by staying faithful to their partners, abstaining from sexual activities and using protection. In most parts of Africa, the number of people living with the disease will continue to increase since a large percentage of the population lives in poverty and tends to engage in sexual activities as a means of earning a living. It also means that more children will become orphans as a result of death caused by the disease and more will be infected if the sex workers continue engaging with more people for purposes of money and if the governments of those countries fail to put effort on educating people about HIV/AIDS.
People who live with the disease are also prone to develop other kinds of infections and illnesses like tuberculosis and malaria, due to their low immune systems and therefore this will further fuel AIDS epidemic (Ashford 2). With spread of such a disease, especially in children, the level of death because of poor health facilities and assistance caused by poverty will also increase in the African countries.
In the story map ‘The naked games’, I have learnt during the ancient times, both men and women were allowed to take part in the Olympic games in the nude but with certain conditions. For men, the conditions were they had to be free in order to participate in the games nude while for women, they had to be married in order to participate nude in the games. However, this happened at different events. During those days, the events were held separately as it was believed that participation in games is for men only.
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Ashford, Lory. How HIV and AIDs affect populations. Washington: Bridge, 2006. Print.
Equador’s capital town and the world’s highest city housing both judicial and legislative activities is none other than Quito. With its strategic location in the Northern section of Equador, Quito serves as the capital town of Pichincha province. The historic sites of the city comprise of the most highly preserved and attractive tourist attractions in America. Also, it has been ranked among the cultural avenues that are most attractive in the world. Quito has a central square situated about twenty five kilometers towards southern section of the equator (Gauderman 55).
Quito has a very large population of over 2, 29, 191 people according to the national census of 2010. In regard to population size and economic advancement, the city ranks second after Guayaquil and it has also been ranked as most developed city in terms of cultural and political affairs, which are the major developmental factors upon which power of political elites, company executives, bankers and wealthy families is reflected. The population of the city therefore comprises of executives who are wealthy and some indigenous eye catching people that make up the largest percentage of the population (Leona 9).
The unique experience of the city which is what every tourist searches for is ranked as the major motivator for the destination. Though the city is built upon historical remains of Incan city, it is well maintained and offers a unique yet modern experience that every modern traveler is searching for. While Quito remains as an historic site that is least distorted in Latin, America, it offers an experience that is realistic to different categories of tourists. Among people likely to travel to the city include, cultural tourists pursuing to enjoy an experience that is unique to the region. Equally, the dental care offered in the city is unique and has continued to attract a large number of dental tourists who visit the city to have their teeth fixed (Robert 11).
The city attracts different kinds of tourists such as single individuals, children, men, women, senior people, families and married people. The city also receives both international and local visitors. While majority of the visitors are from the US, Quito equally receives visitors from other regions of the globe and especially those looking for dental care. Majority of people who into the city are low-income earners opting for the destination because it is favorable and affordable. According to Kathia (47), the city has a potential but ethical tourism that has remained postponed for years though it has an expansive range of educational and teaching instruments for students. Equally, there is also a high demand for cultural and dental tourism that currently is delayed by the ongoing projects that are related to infrastructural facility construction which is inclusive of airport, roads and an electrical system. The physical features of Quito are attractive and include a cool climate, volcanoes, financial districts as well as high class resident facilities. Additionally, it has cultural resources which include the language, customs, etiquette and Krakow historic site (Smith 67).
The tourist attractions in Quito are expansive as well and include beautiful sceneries such as waterfalls, rivers, volcanoes and different kinds of exotic orchids and birds. Equally, the city has a cultural heritage that is attractive and characterized by beautiful historic sites, sports, theater performances and museums. With the rapid development of infrastructural facilities, forecasts indicate there is potential expansion in the sector of tourism in Quito (Robert 13). Equally, the city has taken some commendable steps in promoting business, trade and cultural relations with other cities and eventually, this will expand tourism within the city. Rapid changing market demands and the need of pursuing affordable services has also seen a large percentage of people diversify in tourism sector within the country as majority of people enter into the city easily (Leona 12).
Quito is a tourist destination that is unique with a large variety of physical and cultural resources attracting both international and local tourists. The city is also known for maintenance of non-altered historic sites, which motivate tourists from different walks of life to choose the location. Rapid infrastructural facilities expansion and the impact of globalization indicates there is potential expansion of the tourism industry.
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Gauderman, Kimberly. Women’s Lives in Colonial Quito: Gender, Law, and Economy in Spanish America, University of Texas Press: Austin, TX, 2003.
Kathia, Porter. “Ayni in the Global Village: Building Relationships of Reciprocity through International Service-Learning”, Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 8.1(2001):45-56.
Leona, Martin. “From Guayaquil to Quito: Three Nineteenth-Century Travel Narratives”, MACLAS Latin American Essays, 2001.
Robert, Hook. “Review: Plazas and Barrios: Heritage Tourism and Globalization in the Latin American Central Historico”, Electrical Green Journal, 1.23 (2006):11-23.
Smith, Mick. The Ethics of Tourism Development, Routledge: London, 2003.
The two major fossils man uses in production of energy for industrial and domestic purposes is natural gas and oil. These fossils availability is often restricted to specific areas and often occurs in the form of underground deposits. This leads to the necessity of directing them to the surface to ease production and processing of end products. While some natural gas and oil flows to the surface naturally due to underground pressure, such occurrences are extremely low and amounts extracted fail to meet the demands of consumers. A couple of extraction and mining techniques, top on the list hydraulic fracturing is embraced in order to response to the rising demands for energy. This paper closely focuses on Hydraulic fracturing as a technique for the extraction of natural gas and oil.
Hydraulic fracturing refers to a type of simulation where pressure gets transmitted through means of gas or fluid with the purpose of widening cracks in existence or creating cracks in underground rocks that contain hydrocarbons. Mainly, the technique is applied in the industry of gas and oil and is often referred to as ‘fracing’, ‘hydrofracking’ or ‘fracking’ (AASG). It often involves propelling a combination of chemical additions, sand and water with high pressure in order to create small intersection cracks that are aimed at increasing permeability in the underground formations targeted. Once cracks are formed, they get ‘propped’ open by the sand particles thus allowing under pressure oil or gas to flow to the surface wells for purposes of collection (Chesapeake Energy, 2012). It is worth noting that drilling of wells involved in this kind of fracturing is done in 2 distinct ways which include horizontal drilling, vertical drilling or a combination of these two (Hall, 2011). It is also worth noting that hydraulic fracturing is only carried out once to a well.
Natural gas and oil occurs in small pores within sedimentary rocks. The ability of the fossils to find its way to the surface is dependent on interconnectivity of the pores. In rocks that have low permeability, interconnection of the pores never permits natural flow of fossils to the surface making it necessary to use hydraulic fracturing in order to enlarge pores and increase interconnectivity for ease of flowing to the surface. Hydraulic fracturing is not new it was applied for the first time in 1947 in the oil industry in the US and from that time over a million wells have already been drilled through use of the technique. It is considered economical compared to the traditional applications since it uses water as its main solvent.
Since water is an important part of the process and a fundamental component of waste, there is a potential effect posed on the environment and drinking water (Office of Research and Development, 2010). Chemical additives used in the process usually are toxic since they have radioactive and heavy metals elements. The heavy metals and radioactive elements can sip into underground freshwater reservoirs due to the numerous cracks which are part of the process (Dachille, 2011). Seeping of such wastes into clean water sources causes contamination of drinking water. These chemicals are not only found in waste material but they are a hazard to the environment. During the process of fracking, toxic gases can be released into the atmosphere leading to pollution and contamination. Following environmental impacts of the process, there is urgent need for federal regulation in order to control the amount of chemicals used in the process of drilling by companies and to regulate the process of hydraulic fracturing (Burford, 2012).
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(AASG). Hydraulic FracturingTexas. Texas: The Association of American State Geologists (AASG).
Burford, E. (2012). The need for federal regulation of hydraulic fracturing. The Urban Lawyer, 44(3), 577-588. Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com/docview/1266035798?accountid=1611” http://search.proquest.com/docview/1266035798?accountid=1611
Chesapeake Energy. (2012). Marcellus Shale Hydraulic Fracturing . Oklahoma : Chesapeake Energy.
Dachille, K. (2011). Environmental Impacts Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing. The Network for Public Health Law.
Hall, K. B. (2011). Hydraulic fracturing–a primer. The Enterprise, 41(11) Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com/docview/903903264?accountid=1611” http://search.proquest.com/docview/903903264?accountid=1611
Office of Research and Development . (2010). Hydraulic Fracturing Research Study . U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Florida Forever Act
Funding by the state under Florida Forever Act ought to be used in obtaining isolated, small habitant remnants that lack connection to the larger conservation area land. The program is very important because it offers protection to the environment as well as the habitats. The aim of this program is to eliminate land fragmentation while protecting the endangered animal.
The wildlife is given refuge by the Florida Forever Act which allocates lands for them so that they can move more freely. This act aims at ensuring that biological diversity, integrity and refuge system of a healthy environment are maintained (Chapin et al. 34). The state should acquire small lands since the wildlife relies on such environments.
According to a study done in the peninsular state, Florida, where geographical connectivity was discretely limited, every increasing sprawling and population led to a high rate at which open space, wildlife territory and landscapes disappeared (Chapin et al. 38). The areas that naturally are undisturbed are increasingly becoming fragmented. More and more species are being endangered. In solving this problem, researchers in Florida use ecological Greenways.
Funding by the state under Florida Forever Act is important for the conservation of habitats and land. However, this task is not just challenging but costly as well. Other organizations must support it. How small lands are acquired is another problem. It cannot be proven that justice is administered in the acquisition of these lands. No assurance to show that the owners of these lands are paid when they offer to sell them.
In a nutshell, the small lands that are acquired promote land and habitats conservation. Their management eliminates the problem of land fragmentation. This has created recreational centers which are very attractive.
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Whitepaper Plastic Waste Recycling
Plastics’ recycling is a sophisticated approach designed to help in the reduction of environmental pollution in the campus (Ross and Evans 570). Additionally, there are improper ways demonstrated by students that they use to dispose polythene plastics and bags. This innovation entails the establishment of a small-size plant for recycling plastics in the campus. Among the activities of this plant will be melting plastic materials which will then be used in producing plastic poles and manila threads as the final products.
Additionally, there will also be bins for collecting waste in different locations around and within the campus. Such locations include busy paths, classrooms, and hostels. Several people will be responsible for collecting this waste on daily basis. Once the waste gets into the plant, separation of plastics from the other wastes will be done manually.
The Chosen Whitepaper Topic
Plastics’ recycling is viewed as an ideal topic in this paper since it entails an innovation whose aim is help in solving environmental problems that plastic wastes cause in the campus. Actually, plastics’ recycling ensures that the environment is free of waste materials while utilizing waste plastics in the production of new products. This creates additional space in the landfills (Ross and Evans 570).
Demand for the limited resources is reduced through recycling. This is because recycling materials reduces the cost of their production substantially (Dubey et al. 33). Recycling processes consume low energy when compared to the process of using raw materials to produce similar products. This means that recycling is a cheaper approach because melting plastics requires less energy or heat due to the fact that the melting points of plastics are low. This will be an eco-friendly innovation and it will promote low costs and a clean environment. Economically, students will be able to raise funds which can be used to finance tuition charges ad meet other financial needs.
Reason for the Selected Innovation
The selection of this innovation was aimed at countering the disadvantages that plastic wastes have when disposed inappropriately. Additionally, there are many plastic items lying all over the university as waste. These include packages of refreshment drinks and shopping bags. Poor disposal of plastics is harmful to human health and the environment. Naturally, plastic are non-biodegradable. Thus, poor plastics disposal leads to environmental pollutions. In addition, plastics stay in the environment in form of waste for a long period.
Consequently, this can be a great and long term risk to the environment and the health of the people (Mudgal et al 11). Plastics’ recycling has been chosen as the best option that will help in addressing this challenge. This is because other methods of disposing plastics effectively are very costly. As such, an innovative plastics’ recycling technique will help in dealing with the environmental problems caused by plastics at a reasonable rate. In most cases, students do not follow the proper guidelines for disposing plastics. This has always caused environmental pollution (Michael 1).
This proposal has presented a detailed analysis of a new innovative method that can be used to conserve the environment and to protect the health of the people in the university. Innovation here entails the setting up of the recycling plant in the campus. Plastics’ recycling will take place in this plant where new products will be produced. The ability of this idea to curb environmental pollution makes it an ideal choice. It is also affordable because it requires less energy as compared to the production of new products with raw materials. The development of this idea follows the wayward act of students who dispose plastic wastes in a wrong way.
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Dubey, Ashutosh, Tewari, Anurag and Chaturvedi, Marie. Plastic Waste and its Recycling. VSRD-TNTJ International Journal, 1.1(2010):30-34.
Michael. Mayor. “The City’s Dirty Recycling Secret” Crain’s New York.Com. The Insider, 25 Nov.2013. Web. 13 Feb.2014.
Mudgal, Shailendra, Lyons, Lorcan, Dias, Debora, Johansson, Linda and Faninger, Thibault. Plastic Waste in the Environment. European Commission Final Report 7.4(2011):1-171.
Ross, Stuart and Evans, David. The Environmental Effect of Re-using and Recycling a Plastic-Based Packaging System. Journal of Cleaner Production 11.1(2003):561-571.
‘’A More Perfect Union’’ Sample Speech by Barack Obama
In March 18th 2008, a dark man with an African father, President Barack Obama took to the stage at the Nationwide Structure Center in Chicago and gave a speech that would add more glamour to the national scenery of the old Obama administration. In the conversation, Obama uses three rhetorical techniques to strengthen his overarching statement that unity is necessary for the generation of equal rights in the country. Foremost, he begins with a personal and traditional requirement that involves highlighting the prevalent exigency and cerotic time. He further attracts pathos using several illustrations of national disfavor to elaborate the need for such modifications. At last, he uses his attracts ethos in recommending, instead of legislating models for white and black Americans. To many people, this was a rhetorical and governmental level conversation in the 2008 presidential strategy (Niven 11).
Obama begins his conversation with his personal national record of the United States to showcase the significance of oneness in the expectations of his election. He gives the revelation through the preamble to the United States structure, the points out that although this was the unique objective of the early dads, ‘’the papers they created was gradually developed into finality but gradually incomplete (Mieder 13).
While Obama shows his involvement in and interest towards the national US cosmetics, the main objective of this rhetorical conversation which is the exigency is not clearly brought out until he makes reference to his former preacher, Jeremiah Wright. In the weeks before the speech, Wright who is a frank Chicago pastor blamed the government of giving inferior responsibilities to the blacks in America. Conservatives criticized Wright as a militant dark extremist, and because he used to wish t his cathedral, Obama was also looked at from a similar perspective. In an effort to save his face, while giving a much wider discussion about completion in America, Obama had to show action. Thus, while the feedback from Wright provided the exigency for the discussion, the emergency to all the scenarios place him in the range of his former minister and contact for national unity in the US played the roles of the cerotic time. With that goal, Obama strongly quotes, ‘’we have no alternative but act if we were to make progress on the avenue of a more ideal leadership’’ (Obama, Maureen & Steve Gilbert 27).
With the recognition of the exigency and presentation of the cerotic time, the presenter attracts pathos through the introduction of illustrations of national disfavor that are prevalent in the United States. Through artwork as an example of national disparity- as well as its long term impacts, Obama is successful in attracting his viewer’s feelings, the entire American population to highlight the need for national unity in the country. This enables Obama to attract pathos as he acts the feelings of his viewer to enhance contact for oneness on the eve of his election (Mieder 13).
To conclude, the enticing ethos that is used by Obama brings in the fact that he has strategically positioned himself as a personality to reckon with in America. His origin is of a mixed-race and he grew up under a state of national inequality. Yet while he has the authority of creating these statements, his recommendations do not bear much support. Thus, he avoid going over his limitations, while still being sensible in his speech. This is a show of excellence in the rhetoric speech. Obama applies his entice ethos to portray the need for modification, and make the recommendation for greater changes without overstepping his power with special values (Sharpley-Whiting 18).
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Obama, Barack, Maureen Harrison, and Steve Gilbert. The Great Speeches of Barack Obama. Mumbai?: Jaico Pub. House in arrangement with Excellent Books, 2009. Print.
Sharpley-Whiting, T D. The Speech: Race and Barack Obama’s “a More Perfect Union”. , 2010. Internet resource.
Mieder, Wolfgang. “Yes We Can”: Barack Obama’s Proverbial Rhetoric. New York: Peter Lang, 2009. Print.
Niven, Steven J. Barack Obama: A Pocket Biography of Our 44th President. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.