PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
The Home Depot is an American private listed company. It is one of the leading retailers in the United States, specializing in a wide range of products and services. The Home Depot’s main segments are home improvement products and construction equipment. Its product line are building materials and guarding equipment coupled with related products and services. The chain has more than 2,000 stores operating in the US and in other parts of the world. The firma embraces a range of practices to adjust to emerging market trends and cutthroat competition in the industry. This PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot shows how political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors affect the operations of the company and its future.
Politics in PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
For The Home Depot to experience business growth and maintain good relationships with the political class, the firm takes part in a range of activities and initiatives. This safeguards its interests and those of its customers. This is necessary because the decisions by the local, federal or state governments can have far-reaching effects on the profitability of the company.
The Home Depot complies with government regulations and makes political contributions and interactions. In addition, the company allows its employees to participate in politics as long as they do not use it resources to pursue their ambitions. Through the Home Depot Political Action Committee, PAC, the firm offers financial support to politicians who back the retailer and its business line.
Economic environment at the Home Depot
PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot affirms that the company thrives because of a stable economic environment. With the US economy showing signs of stability, the company remains optimistic to scale profitable heights in future. The fate of the Home Depot therefore depends on economic conditions in the United States.
Importantly, many Americans today have limited purchasing power because of economic down town. Potential customers therefore prioritize other products, which are more essential than Home Depot’s collection. This is causing the market to shrink and cause harm to its business associates too.
Social factors in PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
Besides making profits and improving its annual revenues, the company also believes in improving the welfare of the communities within its neighborhood. For example, it runs societal programs to promote education, healthy work practices and assurance of job opportunities to people.
PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot further illustrates how the firm values CSR. Through its Home Depot foundation, the chain has invested huge amounts of its resources in improving the living standards of people by delivering affordable options to a better life. It also works towards having a safe and healthy working environment.
In alleviating the lives of communities within its reach, The Home Depot focuses on four different areas, including building and maintaining playgrounds for children, safeguarding community-gathering venues, constructing affordable transitional housing and emergency preparedness.
How Technology is changing The Home Depot Business
The Home Depot is on the forefront in keeping pace with emerging technological trends in the market. This is because of the enormous role of information technology in driving any business. In recent years, the company has invested in state of the art systems and equipment to facilitate its staff and enhance smooth business operations. This is expected to augment customer satisfaction.
The Hope Depot has acquired electronic devices at a cost of $60 million to counter competition from key players in the market like Lowe, which has used wireless technology in its stores since 1995.
Environmental Factors – From this PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot, the company is committed to having a safe environment by cutting down on carbon emissions into the atmosphere. To achieve this, the organization offer conservation minded and products that are environmentally friendly to its customers. In the end, the company seeks to offer green products to all its customers.
Legal Factors – The company complies with a range of rules imposed by local and international governments, governing food production, manufacturing, safety and packaging among others. The firm also observes laws that govern disposal of waste to the environment in order to mitigate environmental pollution. Lastly, it works towards addressing health and safety of its staff.
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How to Write an Expository Essay
As a student, you should know how to write an expository essay because teachers and professors ask students to write expository essays for different courses in college. Among the courses that involve expository essay writing include English, social sciences and history. An expository essay is an essay that explains a given concept, investigates a specific idea or presents evidence for a specific opinion.
Most exams and in-class assignments entail the use of the format of expository essays. This is because this essay uses a style that does not entail deep research. While developing an expository essay, you can use different patterns to organize it depending on the writing prompt, topic or assignment. Example of an expository essay is an essay in which the prompt requires the student to study and analyze a given work, expose or explain a topic or describe a given process.
What you should know even before knowing how to write an expository essay
An expository essay has certain characteristics that distinguish it from other essays.
- An expository essay is written to describe, inform or explain
- The writer of an expository essay acts like a teacher
- This essay presents information on the chosen topic exhaustively
- It is written in third person
A guide on how to write an expository essay in six steps
Step One: Organize your thoughts
Once the instructor, teacher or professor has given you the expository essay writing prompt or assignment, the first thing that you should do is to read it carefully and organize your thoughts. You will most probably have something to say about any topic that the instructor assigns you. Even if you do not know much about the assigned subject matter, you will realize that there is something you have read, heard or experienced about it. It is important that you brainstorm or consider what you already know about the topic. This will enable you to sort out your mind before you start writing.
To organize your thoughts, you can do one of the following:
- Free write: This entails writing what comes from your mind quickly without editing, stopping or self-correcting.
- List clustering: This entails allowing ideas to flow freely on the topic. The main topic is at the center of a circle with its associations linked to it.
- Subject tree: This involves a tree form in which the related ideas are connected to the main topic.
- Outlining: This entails the use of an essay framework in which the main points are included and sub-points’ breakdown.
While organizing thoughts, do not evaluate your ideas but outpour ideas on what you already know about the topic. With ideas on a paper, organize them into groups of ideas then identify the most important areas.
Step Two: Research the topic
At this step, you can conduct online research or visit a library. Conduct a research of current events but be careful to adhere to the time frames set by your instructor. Use acceptable sources such as books, scholarly articles and reference works. If you use a web site as a source, evaluate it first for reputability and timeliness. It is also important that you consider the purpose of a website, reliability of the sponsors and author’s credibility.
Step Three: Develop a thesis statement
To be effective, your thesis statement should express the major focus of your expository essay while stating an arguable claim. A thesis statement acts like a bridge of your essay. This is because it has a claim and its supporting details. Being able to develop a tentative thesis is an important step of a guide on how to write an expository essay. Therefore, come up with a claim or sentence that takes a stance on the given topic, debatable, and based on generalization. Ensure that your thesis statement tells readers the point that you will be making in the essay. Also include supporting details to reinforce your claim.
Claim: Depression as a condition is complex.
Supporting details: It can be caused by different factors including environmental, genetic and biological factors.
Thesis statement: Depression as a condition is complex because it can be caused by environmental, genetic and biological factors combined.
Step Four: Write the introduction
The introduction of your expository essay should reveal or introduce your topic while establishing a context for your essay to the readers. It is important that you consider your audience while writing the introduction. Make them excited or curious to read your essay. Give readers background information about your topic to enable them to understand the key point in your essay. Use the introduction to establish a roadmap for the analysis or discussion of the essay.
Step Five: Write the body
The body of an expository essay is a detailed part in which you present or address your supporting details in fully-developed, separate paragraphs. It is important that you include relevant information or evidence as gathered from research. Introduce the supporting details of your essay using a topic sentence to open each paragraph.
Generally, the body of an expository essay should have the following:
- A topic sentence
- Specific details and their explanation
- An example such as a quotation
- A transition paragraph that links one paragraph to the next
A good expository essay should have at least two body paragraphs with each having a minimum of 100 words.
Example of a topic sentence:
There are several factors which cause depression.
Step Six: Write the conclusion
The conclusion should bring your expository essay to a close. Though a conclusion ought to be like an introduction, it should be worded differently. Using the conclusion, you should summarize and reiterate your main points.
A good conclusion should have the following:
- Relevance: It should repeat the topic’s importance.
- Review: It should reiterate the main points of the essay.
- Summary: It should summarize the conclusions made in the essay.
Relevance: Thousands of women, children and men are affected by depression each year and majority of them do not get help.
Review: The focus of this essay was on causes, symptoms and the available depression treatments.
Summary: There are many devastating consequences of depression apart from its effects on the sufferers and those living with them. Through education however, people affected by this painful condition can be reached.
The conclusion should be like an introduction but it should restate the stated thesis statement using different words. Note that no new information should be included in the conclusion. Leave readers with a feeling that your expository essay has come to an end logically by wrapping up the main thoughts while reviewing the main points.
Five bonus tips on how to write an expository essay
- Structure your expository essay properly
Regardless of the pattern that you choose for organizing your expository essay, include an introduction that has a defined, clear thesis statement at the end. Have body paragraphs that cover your main points. Have a clear topic sentence for each body paragraph. Additionally, make sure that the information that you include in the body paragraphs is factual, statistical, anecdotal or logical. Finally, end your expository essay with a conclusion that reflects your thesis statement and main points of your body paragraphs. To know how to structure an expository essay, use an expository essay sample. Click here for an example of an expository essay.
- Write about something good
When allowed the freedom to choose the topic of your expository essay, choose something good. For instance, if you are required to write about a short story, read and understand before you start writing your expository essay. While reading, ask yourself questions that will enable you to understand the story better. For instance, what you would do if you were a character in the story? Do you like or hate the characters and why? Such questions will enable you to synthesize the story before you start writing.
- Make your essay informative
Remember that expository is the same as informative. Therefore, an important tip on how to write an expository essay is to flood readers with ideas or knowledge. However, make sure that they are relevant. Visit the library, read magazine and conduct online research to get detailed information. Be prudent and sensible while conducting research and reference your sources accordingly.
- Ensure that your brain is a roaring and seething idea-generator
Combine different techniques to generate ideas for your expository essay. Use graphical presentation and clustering to generate ideas. Ask meticulous questions and be self-inquisitive throughout the process of writing an essay.
- Revise your essay
Once you have written your essay, revise it and rewrite where necessary to ensure coherent flow of ideas and paragraphs. Make sure that each paragraph is developed properly with ideas flowing logically. Make sure that the main thesis statement is supported by the paragraphs of the body directly. The conclusion should match the essay.
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PESTEL Analysis of Sears Canada
A PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada indicates the numerous external factors that affect the operations of this company. These factors constitute the external environment within which this company operates. PESTEL analysis can be defined as a marketing principles’ concept that companies use in tracking the environment within which they operate. PESTEL analysis is very important when it comes to planning the launch of a new service, product or project.
Sears Canada is a retailer with headquarters in Toronto, Ontario. This company, established in 1952, offers consumers in Canada a wide range of shopping options with specialty and department stores. The operations of this company are in all territories and provinces in Canada with 167 networked corporate stores, 197 Hometown stores, 85 Sears Travel offices, 38 Home-improvement showrooms and a countrywide home maintenance, installation and repair network.
Comprehensive PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada
The political expenditure policy of this company allows it to engage in the process of political campaigns in electing candidates for political parties that the company believes they support the entire retail industry as well as believe in a system of free enterprise. Using corporate funds, the company contributes for the candidates at state level and in the political actions of committees at state retail association level. Such political activities have an impact on the operations of the company.
Since the global economic crisis of 2008, the economy of Canada has been experiencing recession. The consumers’ purchasing power, unemployment rate and outstanding credit quality has been affected by this economic downturn. As such, consumers are more careful when spending and this has led to unsatisfactory performance of Sears Canada and a decrease in its revenue to $4300.7 million in 2012 from $4613.9 million recorded in 2011.
Due to the economic crisis and its impact on the Canadian economy, Canadians have become more averse to risk especially as it is seen from their attitudes towards environmental and financial concerns. Canadians are also concerned about living cost and assets’ safety. These social factors affect the operations and performance of Sears Canada.
The internet is one of the major technological factors that affect the performance of Sears Canada. Online shopping is gaining increasing popularity among countries all over the world. Retailers are working very hard on online stores in order to give shoppers the best online shopping experiences. However, online spending in Canada has not reached optimum levels. This means that online market in Canada has a potential that Sears can exploit.
Canadians are concerned about environmental issues like environmental degradation and climate change. Although these factors are faced by people across the world, Sears Canada needs to know these factors because they influence the consumption habits of Canadians. Canadians look for environmental friendly and ethically sourced products. Sears Canada must be aware of this while marketing its products to Canadians.
There is a comprehensive legal system in Canada which includes a Competition Act, Canadian Tax Law and Labor Law. These government regulations and documents protect employers and workers’ rights while facilitating efficiency in business operations within Canada. Although to abide by this system a business must incur costs, Sears Canada must follow them in order to avoid confrontations with Canadian legal authorities which can damage its reputation and ruin its operations.
Why PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada is important
A PESTEL analysis of this company gives the management a bird’s eye view or insights into the entire environment within which this company operates from different angles. It is important for the management to consider these external environment factors in order to plan properly or to implement certain ideas. After conducting a PESTEL analysis, Sears Canada can come up with a more comprehensive or detailed SWOT analysis version.
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Writing an Argumentative Essay
An argumentative essay is an essay that requires you as a writer to defend a position on the subject or topic matter based on personal experience, historical or literature examples as well as research to support your point of view. When writing an argumentative essay, you can use different arguments to prove your point.
However, good argumentative essay writing should be based on three qualities including
- Being precise in the argument and in use of terms
- Grounding in evidence you provide
- Being clear and concise in prose
Therefore, it is imperative to follow a clear outline for writing the essay and follow a step by step process to help you write a successful essay
Writing an argumentative essay outline
An argumentative essay should have a
- Body paragraphs including paragraph 1 (topic sentence, main argument of the paragraph and specific examples supporting the main or topic sentence) and paragraph two and three……
- Conclusion which is a brief summary of the thesis and muses on the implications of the thesis
The Title– offer a brief and catchy summation of the main argument. The title should tell the reader what you will argue about in the essay and it depends on your stance.
The introduction– open your essay with a hook to grab the attention of readers. You can pose a question or puzzle that you the essay will later resolve. Whatever strategy you use, keep it brief, clear and ensure it offers a solid bridge to your thesis statement.
It is imperative to avoid general statements that make unsupportable and sweeping claims in the introduction. Warm up sentences are also not necessary in the introduction because they do not contribute anything important to your argument.
You should additionally include a thesis statement in the introduction. This should be one or two sentences long presenting your main idea to target audience. Ideally, you need a brief thesis that explains to readers your main reasons behind your stance or statement. Therefore, you need to brainstorm in length before you start writing an argumentative essay.
Body– each body paragraph should begin with a topic sentence. This is because it announces the argument of the paragraph and how the paragraph will support the overall argument of the essay. The other paragraphs should go ahead to present and explain evidence supporting the topic sentence.
When writing an argumentative essay body paragraphs, avoid putting everything in one paragraph. Have each idea in a paragraph to develop one distinct idea clearly. Squeezing all ideas in one paragraph makes your essay boring to read.
The conclusion-provide a simple summary of your main idea or argument in the conclusion. Note that a good argumentative essay will always have an established core argument by the end of the essay body. Therefore, it is essential to use the conclusion to raise sum up the paper and raise ideas that flow from your argument and evidence.
You can also use the conclusion to offer lessons that people should draw from your argument in today’s age and era. You will realize interesting parallels to another time, issue or place or you will have found interesting emotional or personal reaction to the material.
It is therefore important to be thoughtful and speculative in your conclusion. Note that after presenting solid evidence supporting your claim in the body of the essay, you will have earned the right as an author to share your ideas in broad with target audience in the conclusion.
The process of writing an argumentative essay
Start by reading and identifying the big questions and issues that the assignment focuses on. Your tutor or professor might have focused on the same during your course. Therefore, take clear notes on your readings and identify relevant examples in regards to the theme and issue of the paper. With a main theme, drafting your essay becomes an easy task
Ensure that you understand the argumentative essay question and follow the outline for writing an argumentative essay
Gather solid evidence to support your argument and build your outline. Review your readings and notes to include only relevant evidence to your assignment. Create an ideal spatial environment to allow you to develop each with evidence.
Write a rough draft by starting with a short introductory paragraph, body and conclusion. Do not forget to start each paragraph with a topic sentence that conveys the main argument therein.
More advice on drafting
When writing an argumentative essay rough draft, do not aim for perfection. This is just a piece that helps you to have a clear picture of main and compelling ideas from your outline. It is also a prewriting process that tests your examples and ideas and you can always make adjustments.
If you get stuck with a rough draft, sit back and reflect on the handout of your assignment or outline. Check for relevant and irrelevant statements and delete those that do not add any value to your essay.
Quickly revisit the introduction and ensure that your thesis statement is strong enough and corresponds to what the body of the essay argues about. In many cases, arguments will evolve in the drafting process hence the need to adjust it to reflect your ideas in the main essay.
Create your title – consider titles that are interesting
Revise the rough draft and determine whether the introduction is clear and explains the main argument of the essay and answer the following questions
- Do the body paragraphs flow in a logical manner to help readers understand your overall argument?
- Do the paragraphs start with topic sentences and have enough evidence supporting the main idea?
- Are your sentences clear and grammatically correct
- Have you trimmed unnecessary statements?
- Are your quotes long and needs to be shorted?
- Have you cited your sources accurately and correctly?
Most importantly, use passionate language; provide facts, evidence and accurate statistics to support your argument. You need good and enough reasons to enhance your claim. It is also good to address the opposing side when writing an argumentative essay and refute their claims as well.
It is also good to ensure logical transitions in your statements as you support your argument. Note that an argument is always two sided and as you pick your thesis and develop your argument, the ideas should flow well. Therefore, concisely present your ideas to the reader and make a fair judgment for or against your claims.
For the conclusion, you need a very good summary. Do it with energy by wrapping up and revisiting the thesis statement.
What to avoid when writing an argumentative essay
- Choose interesting topics, stay away from irrelevant subjects and avoid writing on subjects that are not double sided
- Avoid any unattributed statements
- Avoid passive voice statements
- Use past tense when writing about past statements or events
- Avoid the use of slang and casual language in your writing
- Do not end a body paragraph with a sentence introducing the main idea of the next paragraph
- Write with a parallel structure i.e. the same word patterns especially when making a list of abstract things or things
Examples of argumentative essays
Example 1: Cigarette Smoking
Cigarette smoking and packet branding are some of the issues by a lot of controversy. Many people question moral understanding and legality of the government in regards to allowing smoking of cigarette, considering that the cigarette packets are clearly branded with indications that they can cause harm to human health. Most of the cigarette packs bear the signs; Smoking is injurious to health.’ The greatest concern is why the state has failed to ban cigarette smoking…………………………………………………………….
Read this essay here and see how the author argues his stance.
Should government invest more money in building shelter house?
Shelter is a basic need for the survival of humans and no one can contentedly live without a good house. Many of the non-governmental and state institutes go through a wide range of operations to protect their citizens from the effects of being homeless (Australia, 2012, p.93). Nonetheless lack of good housing is still a major issue for many states across the globe as well as forces itself into various social systems of the community. Essentially, there are different types of shelters and they include permanent and semi-permanent shelter………………………………………..
Go through this essay and get more ideas on how to write an argumentative essay.
Financial Education and Management Curriculum
Financial management involves the effective use of the available limited resources in different plans. Normally, this is realized through incorporation of development projects that seem viable. This management goes ahead to ensure accountability through effective management of resources that are available via regular audits and record keeping activities. Therefore, it is an important field in the entire economic sector that involves making financial decisions.
Get more ideas on how to write and organize an argumentative essay by reading this piece.
With the above information, you should be able to write a good argumentative essay. If you still experience difficulty in writing your paper, you can always contact us for professional help and essays that stand out.
2008 Financial Crisis
The 2008 financial crisis is considered by many economists across the globe as the worst recession after the Great Depression of 1929-1930. It was a serious economic state despite efforts by the Treasury department and the Federal Reserve to prevent it and the US banking system from collapsing.
Due to the crisis, housing prices fell by 31.8percent more than that of the Great Depression. Two years after the 2008 financial crisis, the recession ended but the rate of unemployment was still high. Many people had given up looking for jobs and they were no longer counted amongst the jobless. The number was alarming.
What caused the 2008 financial crisis?
According to economists and researchers, signs of a financial crisis were evident from mid-2007. The first cause was linked to a fall in housing prices in 2006. Many realtors by 2006 were however relieved because, they thought housing prices and housing market would normally resume or rise to a sustainable level.
The realtors however failed to realize that many homeowners had a questionable credit rating. Many homeowners had loans for more than 100 percent of their home’s value. A large number of financial institutions and mortgage lenders had also resold mortgages in packages. This was part of mortgage backed securities.
Initially, Federal Reserve always thought a subprime crisis would affect other sectors but would always be isolated to housing market. However, financial institutions across different parts of the globe and hedge funds owned most homes in form of mutual funds, pension funds and corporate assets.
It is also good to note that original mortgages had been resold in pieces and the remaining actual derivatives were impossible to price. The value of the mortgages plummeted and investors across the globe started to panic.
Many pension funds institutions bought risky assets thinking that they would be protected from downsides risks. As a matter of fact, many owned insurance in the form of credit default swaps but it could not help to prevent the 2008 financial crisis.
After a short span of time, financial institutions began to panic. They realized that they were the only ones to absorb losses as a result of poor credit by many homeowners. No one wanted to be caught up in the crisis. Banks started to exercise caution and avoided lending money to each other. They tried to avoid situations where they could get stuck with worthless mortgages as their collateral. Inter-banking costs or interbank borrowing costs rose in the end aggregating the situation.
What was the cost of the 2008 financial crisis?
The Treasury department spent up to $150 billion to subsidize the economy and to finally take up Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. Federal Reserve on the other hand had to use $85 billion and eventually $150 billon to bail out the AIG. Federal Reserve had to pump liquidity into the banking but it was not enough.
In March 2008, many investors went for Beas Stearns because it was rumored to have the worthless assets. Bear later approached Morgan Chase to bail it out from the situation. In September 19, 2008, the crisis led to run on Ultra Safe Money Market Funds. Within a short span of time, businesses moved to safer Treasury bonds.
Safer Treasury bonds sustained many businesses. Later on, $350 was used to buy automotive company stocks because the prices were depressed. By 2010, banks had picked up and paid back $194 billion.
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Systemic risk is the vulnerability to unpredicted events including major catastrophes and earthquakes among others. These events affect the distribution of resources and the amount of resources in the market.
Systemic risk can also be defined as risk inherent to the entire market segment. It usually affects the overall market and not only the industry and stocks. Undiversifiable risk, market risk or volatility risk is caused by events that cannot be avoided completely. What’s more, it cannot be mitigated through diversification but only through the use of the right asset allocation strategy.
Putting assets in bonds and assets in stocks can easily mitigate a systemic risk. This is based on the fact that interest rates often shift and makes bonds less valuable to make stocks more valuable and vice versa. As a result, it limits the overall change in the portfolio value from systematic changes.
Interest rate changes, recessions, wars and inflation can also cause systemic risk. These factors affect the entire market. Systemic risk is one of the risks that underlie all other market and investment risks across the globe.
The Great Recession is one of the best examples of systemic risk. It is a risk that affected many businesses across the globe. Any person who had invested in the market in 2008 suffered a great loss. The value of many investments changed because of the Great Recession. It was a market wide economic event that affected investments regardless of the type of securities that one had held.
The Great Recession also affected different asset classes in different ways. Even so, investors with broader allocations were affected less than those with stocks only. To understand how much systemic risk a portfolio, fund or security has, it is always essential to take a closer look at its beta. This helps you to measure how volatile an investment is in the market compared to others.
A beta that is more than 1 means that a fund is more volatile in the overall market and less than one means that a fund has a less systemic risk. If a beta is equal to one, this means that a fund has the same systemic risk as the market itself.
The federal government often uses systemic risk as a clear justification for it to intervene in the economy. The main basis for intervention by Fed is to ensure the ripple effect from a company level in any event through targeted regulations is reduced. For instance, Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 was put in place with an enormous set of new laws aimed at preventing another event of the Great Recession from occurring. The laws regulate financial institutions and firms by limiting systemic risk.
According to researchers and economists, the size of Lehman Brother’s size and its integration in the US market or economy has made it a great source of systemic risk, when the firm collapsed; the US witnessed a lot of problems in the country’s economy as well as the financial system. Additionally, capital markets froze up, consumers could not access any loans and businesses could only get loans only if they were creditworthy. Those that posed minimal risks to the lender could also access loans.
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How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
It is always recommended that you know how to write a scientific research paper in order to enhance your performance in science assignments and term papers. Science is a discipline that is quite vast and writing standard research reports or papers is one of the best ways through which you can be able to effectively understand its various elements. Contrary to what some students may think, you can easily know how to write a scientific research paper by just following the simple guidelines and steps discussed herein. Besides, you will also find sample scientific research papers for motivation in writing good reports.
A scientific research paper is just like other academic papers when it comes to writing, despite a few key aspects that should be highlighted therein. A scientific research paper is mainly used to explore and identify issues regarding science. This means you are required to clearly explain a particular study, focusing on materials used, processes involved, results, suggestions, challenges and relevance to the subject of the paper.
The skills on how to write a scientific research paper can be applied in various areas where writing is involved, apart from just assignments and term papers. In fact, knowing how to craft a good scientific research report will also enhance your general writing skills.
Tips on How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
In high school, college and university, writing scientific research papers is a common assignment for students. Therefore, you should know how to create a unique and high quality paper in order to attain the best results. Besides, writing a good scientific report also entails focus on the study, proper organization and planning. The following tips will guide you on how to write a scientific research paper.
Choose a topic
In some cases students are often given topics to discuss in science papers. However, there are also others whereby you are given the freedom of choosing one for yourself. If asked to pick a topic or subject, always go for something that you can easily discuss into detail.
A good topic should be one that others can also research on and get information. Besides, it would also be advisable to go for a subject that you and your readers are interested in. Writing about something that you love would be enjoyable and also much easier. In case you are unable to pick an ideal topic, try seeking suggestions from others.
Do your research
Having settled on a topic for the paper, you can now get into finding information about it. There are various sources that you can obtain information from including website pages, articles, interviews, blog posts among others. In fact, you can do the research from both primary and secondary sources.
It is advisable that you research from a wide range of sources in order to get various views or perspectives of the research topic. Try to find sources that are reliable and can offer valid insights into your study. Scientific journals, articles or papers written by experts in the field could offer great ideas for writing research reports.
Note down the basic elements of the research
In writing a scientific research paper, there are certain key aspects that you will be required to clearly bring out in every report. Therefore, it would be ideal if you highlighted them while doing the research for easy reference. Some of the main points to be noted include:
- A description of the study, including statistics, facts and figures
- Methods used in conducting the research
- Interpretation of the outcomes
The ideas that you have identified for the above aspects should not be generated from just one source, instead, developed through a proper analysis of information from various sources. However, you can also add your own comments or opinions for use in writing the paper. Also remember to mark the sources of your information for easy reference.
Identify the goal of the report
A scientific research paper can either be argumentative or analytical depending on the given instructions. Knowing the particular type of research paper that you will be writing is important in determining the approach to take. It is also important that you consider the audience or target readers in order to come up with an argument and points that they can easily understand and relate to.
Create a thesis
Also known as hypothesis, a thesis statement is the basis of the report that tells readers about the specific focus of the paper and what they should expect. It is the key argument that your study will be looking towards proving. Made up of just about two to three sentences, an ideal thesis should highlight a unique view about the topic. However, it must be an argument or claim that you are able to effectively prove with evidence, in the paper.
Pick your main points
The thesis is to set the stage, so you can easily identify the key points to be mentioned and discussed in the body and conclusion paragraphs. Go through the information obtained from the research, and choose the outstanding points to support the thesis.
When determining the key ideas for the paper, you should also mark the evidences that will be used to further explain the given point. These can include facts, figures, and quotations among others.
Develop an outline
An outline is important in organizing your points for every section of the paper. Creating one will give you an easy time in writing since all the references can be made from it. The outline should clearly show your main points for the introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion in brief.
Steps on How to Write a Scientific Research Paper
Generally, a scientific research paper has three main sections; introduction, body and conclusion. The following procedures will direct you on how to write a scientific research paper.
Include a short and clear title that describes the discussion of the study as will be presented in your report.
Start writing the paper by giving a general overview of the topic of study so readers can know where your discussion is coming from. This should only be a bout two or three sentences long. Towards the end of the first paragraph, you should also write the thesis and give readers a plan on how the paper will be handled in the next paragraphs.
This is the ‘meat’ of the report and should comprehensively discuss the research in a way that your audience can read and understand. It is the point whereby you are required present a logical explanation of the study with regards to the main argument.
Use a new paragraph for a fresh idea or point to support the thesis. Besides, you should also give examples to back up every argument presented in each paragraph. Always make sure that every remark made in the paper is supported by facts from the study.
A good body paragraph should not simply give points or facts but proceed into fully explaining each and making a commentary. Try to be creative in writing the body paragraphs so the paper does not sound blunt and boring.
The last paragraph of a scientific research paper should summarize the study and bring the discussion to a close. The three basic elements of the conclusion include restatement of the thesis, a recap of the key points covered in the paper and emphasis on the implications of the results of the study.
For clarity, you can choose to use sub-titles to highlight the different aspects of the study in the paper. This implies after introduction, you can include sub-headings highlighting the methods of the study, materials used, outcomes and discussion.
Examples of Scientific Research Papers
Reading well written sample scientific research papers can also offer you more ideas on how to write a scientific research paper. Below are some examples to refer to:
Sample Research Paper, ‘’Running on Empty: The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Perseverance’’
‘’Many things interrupt people’s ability to focus on a task: distractions, headaches, noisy environments, and even psychological disorders. To some extent, people can control the environmental factors that make it difficult to focus…’’ Read the rest of the sample paper here.
Sample Scientific Research Paper
‘’Just as animals around the world have evolved to better survive in their environments, botanical life everywhere has also been forced to grow and adapt to their habitats. Every plant, from the smallest strain of seaweed to the tallest redwood is the result of billions of years of competition for optimal growth conditions…’’
Follow this link to continue reading the sample.
Sample Research Paper for a Science Fair Project, ‘’Which Battery Is Better?’’
‘’Batteries come in many shapes and sizes. Some are no longer than a pill while others are too heavy to lift, but most batteries have one thing in common-they store energy and change it into electrical energy. The cell is the basic unit that produces electricity…’’
Continue reading the sample here.
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Nicotinamide Adenine DinucleotidPhosphate
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is a coenzyme form of vitamin niacin. The enzyme also known as NADP is needed for many biochemical reactions to take place. Protein catalysts including trypsin and lysozyme catalyze different reactions by themselves. However, many other catalysts require metal ions as well as ribonucleic acid to carry out a reaction.
Niacin is a component of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and NAD. These enzymes are very crucial in catabolism, and in the production of energy as well as biosynthesis of sugars and fats.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is therefore very important and plays a crucial role in ensuring that biochemical reactions take place. Redox reactions for instance cannot take place without NADP. This is a reaction in which oxidoreductase enzymes transfer hydrogen.
Redox reaction is catalyzed by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or the oxidoreducrase enzyme. During the process, two electrons and two hydrogens are removed from an ethanol molecule. A hydrogen atom and two electrons will then be transferred to generate an active NADP+.
Enzymes that require NADP to carry out different reactions
- Alcohol dehydrogenase requires NADP to metabolize alcohol
- Glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze an important step in glycolysis
- Lactate dehydrogenase also requires NADP to catalyze reactions in liver and muscle cells
- Pyruvate dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze any reaction connecting to glycolysis to the Krebs cycle
- a-keto-glutatarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase also require NADP to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation reactions
- Hydroxyl-acyl-sCoA dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation reactions
- Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is also needed to catalyze reactions in pentose phosphate pathway, in the Calvin cycle and in fatty acid synthesis.
Additionally, biosynthetic and energy producing functions of Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase also come in handy. The enzyme act as an electron acceptor in oxidoreductase catalyzed reactions. It acts as an electron donor to ensure successful reactions in different cycles and metabolic processes.
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase can also act as a side enzyme in different reactions. This depends on the side of NAD molecule that the enzyme acts on. For instance alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes an alcoholic reaction. NADP therefore acts as a side enzyme by ensuring sufficient transfer of hydrogen from ethanol and to the position that is required to produce quality alcohol.
Similarly, nicotinamide group can be used with dehydrogenase enzyme unexpectedly to complete a catalytic reaction. It is also important to note that NADP has a very distinctive signal in ultra-violet spectroscopy. The enzyme is used by scientists to monitor a wide range of enzyme catalyzed reactions.
Who established Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase?
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that has been proven to be very important in a wide range of metabolic reactions. This is an enzyme that was first established by Hans von Euler. He was the first to realize the structure of the enzyme. In 1929, Hans shared a Nobel Prize with Arthur Harden in medicine and in physiology for the discovery of the enzyme as well as NAD.
Later on, Euler proved that NAD contains two phosphate groups including one adenine, one nicotinamide unit and ribose sugar. These are important compounds that offer a positive charge on the enzyme and nitrogen atoms in different reactions.
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Mark to Model
Mark to model is one of the most popular accounting practices that have been used across the globe. It is a practice that involves sharing of assets based on a mathematical model as opposed to market price.
In many cases, the accounting model is used on assets whenever there is no active market. However, it is good to note that Level 3 assets are often valued depending on a financial model used in an economy. Therefore, mark to model is the opposite of mark to market model where asset values are recorded based on the last price recorded on public exchange.
Mark to model takes into consideration the payout for specific assets. It also takes into consideration the risks involved when trading in the assets as well as their expiration date. In addition, it has a wide array of inputs that are very subjective and have been often criticized for providing a value that is more of illusion than real value.
In mark to model, an insurer may provide a policy that covers oil refineries. Therefore, oil refiners will have to pay an insurer over a specified of time. The periodic payments will however be paid back by an insurer in the event of a major disaster. The contracts in mark to model may not be traded publicly as in the case of market to market.
Contracts in mark to model are also highly specialized. This means that it can be very hard to find the real value of assets. A model that will help traders to find the expected payout, probability of finding a market, premiums and the probability of a disaster will have to be created.
In the case of an insurance company, an insurer can report an asset or a liability in a balance sheet. An insurer will also have to record its real value based on mark to model rather than the asset’s real market value.
Why mark to model matters
Mark to model has been considered a risky method of finding the value of assets and liabilities by economists. It is even more risky if it is used to price assets that are traded in a liquid and the market is declining. This is based on the fact that the model is always subjective at an individual level.
Mark to model does not put into account the number of buyers and sellers in the market who are willing to value an asset. Individuals therefore, may not agree on the accuracy if the price of assets priced using mark to model method.
The system also matters bearing in mind that it was used during the credit crisis in late 2000s. Mortgages and securities lost a lot of their values within a very short time. Federal Accounting Standards Board suspended mark to market accounting in favor of the model only to provide way to financial institutions to put up a value for their mortgages.
With mark to model, financial institutions were also able to place a value on MBSs in an old and tumultuous market. The model is similarly used in private bond market whenever it goes liquid.
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Where to Find a Reflection Paper Example
When asked to write a reflection paper for the first time, the first question that you might ask is most likely about where to find a reflection paper example. A reflection paper can be defined as a paper that gives you a chance to illustrate your comprehension of a given material and its effects on your ideas as well as possible future practice. While writing a reflection paper, you are allowed an opportunity to reinforce what you have learned through lecturers, personal experience and coursework. A reflection paper may focus on your personal experiences and feelings. However, it requires you to use concrete examples and multiple sources. Reflection papers are invaluable to students who engage in capstones or experiential classes which include internships because they enable them to synthesize theoretical knowledge via applied experience.
Importance of knowing where to find a reflection paper example
If you do not have a clue about how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper example will give you vital ideas on where to start the process of writing this paper. Even when you have ideas on how to write a reflection paper, a good reflection paper sample will give you fresh ideas. This makes approaching your reflection paper writing assignment easier. Generally, there are two major reasons why you need a sample reflection paper.
- To fine-tune ideas
While writing a reflection paper, you do not want to confine your writing to only what you know. A good reflection paper sample will enable you to fine-tune your current ideas so that you can present them in the most appropriate way and even get hints on new ways of presenting your ideas.
- Know how to format your reflection paper
Your instructor will give you different instructions on how to write your reflection paper. However, the instructor might or might not specify the style to adapt in your paper. The instructor can ask you to write the paper in APA, MLA, Harvard or Chicago style. A good sample written in a specified style will give you vital ideas on how to format your reflection paper.
When you know where you can find a good reflection paper sample, you do not have to worry or panic when asked to write this paper because you can always reach for a sample to act as your writing guide any time. You can also read the sample in advance especially if you are certain that your instructor will ask you to write one at some point.
Why use a reflection paper example?
Although writing a reflection paper may sound easy, it is not. While writing a reflection paper, you should stop, think and reflect about yourself. This paper gives you an opportunity to collect your thoughts before you write them and view things in an entirely new perspective. What you include in a reflection paper should come from your thoughts. The final reflection paper that you present should be based on your feelings and thoughts whose basis is your past life experiences, desires and beliefs.
When you know where to find a reflection paper example, you can reach for it while writing your paper for hints on the ideas, thoughts and information to include in your paper. Reading a good sample of a reflection paper will also enable you to generate ideas and organize them properly in your paper to ensure proper presentation. This is very important because the ability to write a good reflection paper depends on your ability to express your ideas, thoughts, experiences and desires in a way that opens your mind to an entirely new level.
Tips on where to find a reflection paper example
A good reflection paper sample should be based on the reflection of a particular event, a place or a person that has impacted on the life of the writer profoundly. Writing a reflection paper is more of writing a typical story and it usually leads to the establishment of important creative writing skills. However, when asked to write this paper for the first time you will find yourself struggling because you will not know which elements to put where. In that case, you should turn to the right places to look for a reflection paper example.
- Ask your teacher or professor to give you a reflection paper sample
If you do not know how to approach a reflection paper writing assignment or where to get a sample of a reflection paper, it is a good idea to ask your teacher or professor to give you a sample. You can visit the professor or teacher after the class or when you are sure that he/she is in the office to find out whether they can give you a reflection paper sample that you can review before you start writing your paper. There is a high chance that your teacher or professor has reflection paper samples written by former students. Once the professor or teacher gives you a sample, study it carefully to get insights on what the professor or teacher expects you to include in the paper. Pay close attention to the comments that the professor or teacher has included in the reflection paper sample.
- Ask a friend to give you a sample
You most probably know a friend whose papers are always excellent. You can seek assistance from such a friend. You might as well know a friend who is no longer at school but they scored high grades in academic papers. Ask them because they might have a sample that they keep at home. Such a friend can even tutor you on how to write a reflection paper as they give you the sample.
- Buy a reflection paper example online
There are companies that offer academic writing services online. If you are wondering about where to find a reflection paper example because your friends, teachers or professors do not have one, enlist the services of such companies. A reflection paper sample from a professional writing company is one of the best sample papers to use because it is written and edited by professionals. Therefore, order a reflection paper sample in advance so that you can use it as a guide for writing your reflection paper.
- Check the websites of professional writing companies
Several professional writing companies have websites where they post free academic paper samples. You can visit the blogs of such companies to find out whether they have a free sample reflection paper that you can use as your guide. You can find such a reflection paper example here.
- Check the websites of different colleges and universities
Some colleges and universities have websites where they post the best papers and essays written by their students. These are aimed at serving as samples to guide students when writing papers and essays in different disciplines. Visit the website of your college or university to find out if there is a reflection paper that you can use as your writing sample. If you cannot find a sample at the website of your college or university, check the websites of other learning institutions. Such a sample reflection paper can be found here.
How to use a reflection paper example
Now that you know where to find a reflection paper sample, it is important that you know how to use a sample reflection paper. Remember that you should use a reflection paper example just as the name suggests; as an example. You should not plagiarize the sample paper or part of it because that amounts to a serious offence for which you can be punished. As such, make sure that you only review the reflection paper example to get ideas for writing and formatting your paper then keep it away before you start writing your reflection paper. If you use ideas from the sample paper, make sure that your reflection paper has citations and footnotes that are properly referenced at the end of the paper.
It is also important that you use credible sources while writing your reflection paper. There are many books, academic journals and online sources where you can get information to guide you in writing your reflection paper. Make sure that you use and reference credible sources only. For your reflective paper to be credible, it should indicate that you consulted different sources including the internet, magazines and encyclopedias among others. After writing your paper, edit it properly, review the reflection paper sample and then reread your reflection paper to determine whether you have written it as the sample that you were using.
Get a unique reflection paper sample online now
You should use a unique reflection paper example from a credible source to come up with a great reflection paper. If you are having difficulties in identifying a place where to find a reflection paper example, get in touch with us right away. You can also visit our website’s home page for additional information about our academic writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to write a reflection paper as well as sample papers on our blog.
Oxidative phosphorylation refers to a metabolic pathway where cells’ mitochondria use their enzymes, structure and energy that is released by nutrients’ oxidation in reforming ATP. Oxidation phosphorylation is simplified as OXPHOS. Despite different life forms in the planet earth using different types of nutrients, ATP is the sole molecule that offers energy to the metabolism process. Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in almost every aerobic organism.
As a pathway, oxidative phosphorylation is perhaps, so pervasive since it allows for a highly efficient way via which energy is released as compared to the alternative processes of fermentation such as the anaerobic glycolysis. Electrons transfer takes place during the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
Electrons transfer occurs when electrons are moved from the electron donors to the electron acceptors such as redox reactions and oxygen. Redox reactions that take place during oxidative phosphorylation release energy. This energy is used in the formation of ATP. Redox reactions in the eukaryotes are performed by several protein complexes in the intermembrane wall mitochondria of the cell. In the prokaryotes, the proteins are situated in the inter-membrane space of the cells. The linked protein sets are known as the electron transport chains. In the eukaryotes, there are five major protein complexes that are involved. On the other hand, prokaryotes have various enzymes that use different electron donors as well as acceptors.
Energy that is released when the electrons flow via this process of electron transport chain is basically used in the transport of protons across inner membrane of mitochondria in a process known as the electron transport. This process also produces potential energy in pH gradient form. It also generates electrical potential across the membrane. This creates a store for energy that is tapped by letting proteins flow back across mitochondrial membrane downing this gradient via large enzyme known as ATP synthase. This process is called chemiosmosis.
The energy is used by the enzyme in generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate in the phosphorylation reaction. Proton flow drives this reaction which in turn forces rotation forces of the part of enzyme. ATP synthase acts as the rotary mechanical motor of the process.
Despite being an important metabolism part, oxidative phosphorylation produces reactive species of oxygen including hydrogen peroxide and superoxide which then leads to the propagation of the free radicals which damage cells and facilitating diseases and senescence or aging. Many poisons and drugs that inhibit activities of the enzymes that carry out oxidative phosphorylation target them.
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Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide simply called NAD refers to a coenzyme that is found in every living cell. This compound is the dinucleotide and since it has two nucleotides that are joined via phosphate groups. One of the nucleotides has a nicotinamide and the other an adenine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually found in two forms. These are the reduced form and in the oxidized forms abbreviated as NADH and NAD respectively.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually involved in the redox reactions in metabolism. It carries electrons across different reactions. Therefore, the coenzyme is found in two different forms in the living cells. These are the oxidizing agent NAD+ which accepts electrons from the other molecules becoming reduced. The reaction forms the NADH with is then possible to reduce as the reducing agent that donates electrons.
The electron transfer reactions are the major role of the NAD. Nevertheless, NAD is also used in cellular processes with enzyme substrate being the most notable that removes or add chemical groups from the proteins in the posttranslational modifications. Due to the crucial role of the functions of NAD, the enzymes that are involved in its metabolism are the targets of drug discovery.
In living organisms, synthesis of NAD can result from the simple building blocks the de novo. This is from amino acids aspartic acid and tryptophan. In the alternative fashion, complex components of coenzymes are usually taken up from the food in form of a vitamin known as niacin.
There are similar compounds that are released by the reactions that break NAD’s structure down. The preformed components pass via salvage pathway recycling them into an active form. There is also NAD that is converted to Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, simplified as NADP. Chemistry of the coenzyme is like that of the NAD. However, its roles in the metabolism process are different.
Despite NAD+ being written with the sign of superscript plus due to its formal charge in a certain nitrogen atom, for most part at the physiological pH is a singly-charged anion. The charge is that of minus 1. On the other hand, NADH is doubly-charged anion. For Haemophilus influenza growth, NAD is considered as the V factor. Just like other dinucleotides, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has the two nucleotides that are joined by phosphate groups as their bridge. They also have ribose rings with one having adenine that is attached to first atom of carbon while the other is with the nicotinamide.
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Multidrug Resistance Protein 3
Multidrug resistance protein 3 is a protein belonging to the ABC subfamily C [ABCC]3) and it plays a significant role in the protection of hepatocytes as well as other tissues through extreation of different toxic organic conjugates of anion including the bile salts. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 3 or ABCC3 increases in a liver of individuals who are cholestatic but this molecular mechanism of the up-regulation stays elusive.
Basically, multidrug resistance protein 3 is a member of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette, the ABC transporter super-family. It expresses itself in different tissues including kidney, liver, adrenal gland, bladder and intestine of rodents and humans. Multidrug resistance protein 3 is localized in the basolateral membrane of the cells and it excretes sulfated, taurine-conjugated bile salts, glycine and bilirubin glucuronides, leukorienes, 17 x- glucuronosyl, and several drugs.
Hepatic multidrug resistance protein 3 expression under normal physiological circumstances is low. However, this expression is up-regulated significantly as adaptive and protective response when an individual is suffering from cholestasis. The up-regulation is also observed in the liver of a patient during the advance stages of primary biliary cirrhosis. It is also the case for parient with the extrahepatic cholestasis that is caused by pancreatic malignancy. However, it is not the case with patients in their early stages of progressive familial intra-hepatic cholestasis or PBC.
According to these revelations, it has been concluded that the distribution of multidrug resistance protein 3 and the basolateral position that it occupies in polarized cells suggests that the protein play an important role in metabolism when it comes to intestinal uptake of the organic anions as well as removal of the organic acids from liver cells and bile under cholestasic conditions.
The study revealed that multidrug resistance protein 3 up-regulation is high in the liver of the rats that were made cholestatic through litigation of the bile duct. It is also the case in the cholestatic liver of humans. Multidrug resistance protein 3 is also present in adrenal cortex in high levels. This has increased the possibility of multidrug resistance protein 3 being responsible for the secretion of certain hydrophilic steroid home derivatives including the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.
Despite being a member of the MRP subfamily that is involved in the development of multi-drug resistance, specific function of multidrug resistance protein 3 is yet to be determined. Nevertheless, it has been proven to play a significant role in the intestinal organic anions excretion and biliary transport.
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Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1refers to a protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene in humans. The protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene is part of the genes that belong to a super-family of the ATP-binding cassette or ABC transporters. ABC proteins are responsible for the transportation of different molecules across the intra and extra-cellular membranes.
There are seven divisions or distinct subfamilies of the ABC genes. These are the ABC1, MRP, MDR/TAP, OABP, ALD, GCN20 and White. Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is a full transporter belonging to the MRP subfamily that is involved in the multi-drug resistance activities. The function of this protein is to act as multi-specific organic anion transporter with the oxidized glutathione, activated aflatoxin B, and cysteinly leukotrienes as the substrates.
The protein is also responsible for transporting sulfate conjugates and glucuronides of the steroid hormones as well as bile salts. Different splice variants result from alternative splicing of the exon deletion but original reading of the open frame in all the forms is maintained.
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is among the major obstacles when it comes to treatment of cancer. This is because it not only hinders treatment, but also proper prognosis of cancer patients. It transport different therapeutic agents and a wide range of physiological substances and it can also play a significant role in development of resistance to drug in different forms of cancer including prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and childhood neuroblastoma.
Many patients of neuroblastoma in the current world disseminated this disease during diagnosis. Despite undergoing intensive treatment, prognosis of such patients remains dismal. Evidence that shows that multidrug resistance associated protein 1targets the genes that are involved in multidrug resistance in the neuroblastoma is increasing rapidly. Considering the significance of multidrug resistance associated protein 1overexpression in the neuroblastoma, its inhibition can be an important approach clinically in improving the patient outcome in the disease.
Developing a resistance to different cytotoxic drugs is the main cause of failure for treatment in different types of infections and malignant diseases. Thu, despite making significant advancement in the treatment of cancer, multidrug resistance associated protein 1is still a major problem in the medical or clinical field.
It causes poor outcome for patients and limitation of therapeutic options in different cancers. As such, having a better understanding of mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance associated protein 1is very important. It can help in improving the existing regime of chemotherapy in treatment of cancer and neuroblastoma.
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Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chain refers to several compounds that are responsible for transferring electrns from the electron donors to the electron acceptors through redox reactions while coupling the electron transfer process with protons (H+ ions) transfer across the membrane. This results in the creation of the electrochemical proton gradient responsible for driving synthesis of ATP or chemical energy generation in form of ATP or adenosine triphosphate.
The electron transport chain is used in energy extraction through redox reactions during photosynthesis from the sun or such as the case of sugars’ oxidation, cellular respiration. In inner mitochondrial membrane in the eukaryotes, there is a crucial electron transport chain that serves as the main oxidative phosphorylation site via the use of the adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast in the photosynthetic eukaryotes also has an electron transport chain. Electron transport chain is also found in the cell membrane of bacteria.
Light drives water conversion into NADP+ and oxygen to NADPH with H+ ions being transferred across the chloroplast membranes in the chloroplast. Oxygen conversion into water, NADH to the NAD+ and a succinate to fumerate required for the generation of proton gradient takes place in mitochondria. Electron transport chain is a major site where leakage of premature electron to oxygen and generation of superoxide with potential result of an increase in oxidative stress occurs.
Catabolic processes have FADH2 and NADH as their byproducts. These are in reduced forms. FADH2 and NADH are used by metabolic processes in transporting electrons in form of the hydride ions (H–). The electrons are then passed from FADH2 or NADH to electron carriers that are membrane bound which then passes on to the other carriers until when they are delivered to oxygen which result in water production.
During the process of passing electrons from one carrier to the other, hydrogen ions transfer also takes place in the inter-membrane spaces at the three points in electron transport chain. Hydrogen ions transportation results in greater hydrogen concentration in inter-membrane spaces than in matrix that can be used in driving ATP synthase and production of ATP which is a high energy molecule.
Energy that is obtained via electrons transfer is used in pumping protons from the matrix of the mitochondria into inter-membrane space which creates the electrochemical proton gradient found across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electrochemical proton gradient enhances ATP synthase to use H+ flow via enzyme back to the matrix generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate and the inorganic phosphate.
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