Freedom of Information Act
The Freedom of Information Act is a law that gives any citizen of the United States the authority to gain access to information that they may need from the federal government. To most people, it is described as the law that keeps people in the know about their government. Through the law, you are able to ask for certain information regarding government business or activities that you need and access it. The Freedom of Information Act has been viewed by many as one of the vital parts of American democracy.
The Freedom of Information Act was enacted and signed into law by President Lyndon B Johnson on July 4th 1966. However, it only took effect one year later. Despite the freedom that this law gives citizens to obtain federal records on request, there is an exemption that should be keenly noted. The freedom is restricted to certain information or records of the federal government that are protected from public disclosure. In case it is just part of the records that are protected, the particular agency that is issuing the records shall punch that section out and provide you with the rest. In fact, there are nine exemptions to this statute that one is required to know of.
Since there are various agencies that are charged with handling federal government records, it is always required that you know the particular one that can provide you with the information that you need. It is important to be sure of the agency that deals with the information that you need in order to make it much easier for you. According to the Freedom of Information Act, agencies have a mandate to disclose any information that is requested provided that it is not protected. Besides, the law also requires that agencies automatically conduct disclosure of certain information, including those that have frequently been requested.
The administration of the Freedom of Information Act is by the Executive Branch under the command of the President. However, the Information Policy office at the Department of Justice is charged with making sure that agencies are compliant with the directives set out in the act. Through the Executive and this office, various federal government agencies are encouraged to always be very transparent when it comes to responding to requests by citizens to access certain records.
Freedom of Information Act sets out the procedures for obtaining federal government records from the relevant agencies. It is also important that you get to know these procedures to avoid inconvenience and any problems that may arise in the course of making a request. The law also sets out penalties that can be awarded to any agency that acts in a manner that hinders the process of obtaining federal government information. For instance, if an employee or staff at an agency acts in arbitration with respect to withholding the information that you need, the mater can be taken to court and in case he or she is found guilty, disciplinary action can be awarded.
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Freedom of Religion in Malaysia
Freedom of Religion is one of the fundamental human rights that are embodied in the Malaysian constitution. According to Article 11 of the Federal Constitution, ‘’every person has the right to profess and practice his own religion.’ Each person is accorded the right to propagate the religion that they choose; however, federal law may exercise control or restriction on the propagation of any religious doctrine or belief among Muslims.
The same constitution that allows freedom of religion in Malaysia points out that Islam is the religion of the nation but other religions may also be practiced in a peaceful and harmonious manner. Despite this, the subject of freedom of religion in Malaysia is one that has been dodged with lots of controversies over the years. The issue of Malaysia being an Islamic or secular state remains unresolved. This issue has brought contentions and even tried to tear apart the relationship that exists between the various races present in Malaysia.
The Malaysian government generally supports Islam and religious establishments that conform to the Islamic faith. However, Sunday that is considered as the traditional Christian holiday is officially the weekend holiday in ten of the thirteen federal states. This is contrary to what happens in the Muslim countries especially in the Middle East. Having Sunday as a weekend holiday is a deviation from the traditional practices of Islam that were existent in the colonial era before non-Muslim immigrants started coming into the country.
Muslims exercise protection over their freedom of religion through Sharia law and Islamic courts. This makes it challenging and almost next to impossible for adherents to denounce the religion. However, there are no restrictions when it comes to converting Christians or people of other religions to Islam. In public schools, religious studies are mandatory for all Muslim children according to a curriculum that is approved by the government. Homeschooling is allowed in Malaysia but primary school is compulsory to all children who have attained the recommended age.
Despite the confusion that exists in freedom of religion in Malaysia, there are various religious holidays that are officially recognized like Hari Raya Haji (Muslim), Hari Raya Puasa (Muslim), Wesak Day (Buddhist), Thaipusam (Hindu), Deepavali (Hindu), Good Friday (Christian), Christmas (Christian) among others. With all these, one can be easily convinced that there is freedom of religion in Malaysia. However, there are more underlying issues that also need close scrutiny before that declaration is made.
Based on some of the events and revelations that have transpired in Malaysia, it cannot be justified that there is freedom of religion. Take a look at some below:
- The High Court in Malaysia in 1999 ruled that only the Islamic courts have the jurisdiction to decode on the religious conversion of Muslims.
- In April 2000, a sharia law subjecting those who defy the Islamic faith to one year of ‘rehabilitation’ was passed by the State of Perlis.
- Many Muslims who have opted from the faith to Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism among other religions are currently leading ‘double lives’ for fear of segregation and neglect from family and friends.
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Freedom of Religion in the United Arab Emirates
The constitution of the United Arab Emirates provides for the freedom of religion in accordance with the established customs, and the Government is said to generally respect this right in practice. However, there have been restrictions. The Government of the United Arab Emirates exercises control over all Sunni mosques and prohibits any acts of proselytizing. It has established restrictions on the freedom of assembly and association. As a result of this, the ability of religious groups without designated buildings to worship and carry out their businesses is significantly limited.
According to the Federal Constitution, Islam is the official religion of all the seven emirates that make up the federal union. However, the Government can permit de facto recognition of a few Christian denominations for the construction and running of churches. It is believed by most people that the Government operates on a policy of tolerance towards the non-Muslim population and causes very little interference in their religious activities.
Those who belong to other religious groups apart from Islam are allowed to own their own houses of worship. In such houses, they are allowed to practice their religion freely by requesting for grants for land and permission from the local leader to construct a compound, however, the title of the land remains to the leader who has authorized the grant. Those who possess land grants are not asked to pay rent. Besides, those who stay in the Emirate of Sharjah also get waiver of utility for houses of worship.
Rulers of each of the emirates exercises autonomy when it comes to making choices on whether to grant access to land and permission for the construction of places of worship. Religious groups that do not have designated places of worship often use the facilities of other groups or conduct their activities in private homes. This is a common practice that has not been faced with government interference over time.
Today, there are quite a number of Christian churches spread across the United Arab Emirates. These are built on lands that were donated by the ruling families in the emirates who are of Islamic faith. Besides, there are also three Hindu temples that are run in rented buildings in Dubai. Among the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, four have got parochial Christian schools. Besides, Christians and Hindus have even been given land by the rulers to construct cemeteries and cremation facilities.
Practically, the United Arab Emirates support a moderate interpretation of the Islamic religion. Since it is the state religion, it is favored over other religious groups. In fact, conversion to Islam is viewed in a more favorable light and the government even goes as far as publishing a list of names of Muslim converts annually. Even prisoners who attest to the Muslim faith are awarded more lenient punishments, some even end up being pardoned. However, there have not been significant cases of religious detainees in the United Arab Emirates.
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Freedom of the Press
Also referred to as Media Freedom, the Freedom of the Press is a law or rule that gives the media practitioners or journalists an opportunity or right to undertake publication of news stories in both print and electronic media without any interference from the government, organizations or even individuals. The reason for this is because; the media is viewed as the ‘mirror’ through which the society is able to get unbiased information about what is happening around them and even beyond the borders.
The Freedom of the Press is one of the fundamental constitutional provisions that are almost similar to all nations across the world. Besides, it is also one of those that have been faced with mixed reactions and challenges globally. Considering the advancement in media; introduction of the internet and more robust ways of sharing information, freedom of the media has been faced with numerous challenges regarding the way in which it should be applied. With these advancements, it has not been very easy to draw the lines on the extent to which the media can be allowed to conduct their activities.
While the freedom of the press has the implication that the media should not be interfered with at an overreaching state when discharging its roles, the question on whether to uphold that provision or not can be sought through the constitution or any other legal procedures. With regard to government information, any government may give directions on which materials should be protected and those that can be shared with the public. In that respect, the media can be held in contempt if the particular information that has been marked as secret or protected finds its way in the public domain.
As much as freedom of the press accords media practitioners the right to publish information on print or electronic media without interference, that right can at times be cut short. There are occasions when it is justified and other situations when it is not. For instance, if the media is broadcasting information that is deemed to cause hatred or ethnic clashes, the freedom of the press can be suppressed. On the other hand, the provision is justified when the media publishes information that is unbiased and
As much as the freedom of the press emphasizes on the independence of the media, a lot of responsibility and high level of professionalism is always required on the part of journalists. This is because, there are certain journalists who may take advantage of the provision and use the opportunity for personal gains and in the interest of only a few individuals who are able to buy air time and space on media platforms. While exercising this freedom, media practitioners are required to avoid biased kind of reporting. Publication of information should be in the sole interest of the public or society.
Freedom of the press is a fundamental provision for media practitioners and the society at large but can also be very poisonous if not exercised with caution.
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Freedom of Worship
Freedom of worship gives an individual the right to choose how to showcase his or her belief regarding religious maters. Today, there are quite a number of religious organizations that one can always choose from based on their faith. Each of these religious organizations has got its own beliefs and ideologies that adherents must conform to. When it is said that one has freedom of worship, it means that he or she can choose how to express these beliefs and ideologies since it is the activities that contribute to worship. Worship can be done in a variety of ways, for instance, the Muslims’ belief in praying five times a day is their way of worship.
In most countries across the world, freedom of worship is a constitutional right that every citizen is given. However, there are also certain nations that do not recognize this and have restrictions on what citizens should believe in as far as religion is concerned. Freedom of worship gives people the right to choose to either be part of a religious group or not. It gives one a choice of being a believer or a non-believer depending on what suits them. This also means that you can either decide to change your religion at will.
In most countries, Freedom of worship is viewed as one of the fundamental human rights that every person needs to possess. This is because it gives every individual the opportunity to possess the faith that he or she feels is right and comfortable with them. With freedom of worship, one is free to manifest his or her faith in public or private. However, it must be noted that this freedom does not advocate for interference with others. This means that even if you are free to worship, it must not be manifested in a way that prejudices the peace and comfort of others who do not possess the same faith as you.
Freedom of worship, as liberal as it may sound also has limits. There are instances when a person’s freedom of worship can be breached. The freedom should only be manifested in the context of worship; it should only apply to the believers or particular people who possess the same faith. Freedom of worship can be breached when it is deemed to pose threats to others who do not possess the same faith. For instance, a government or concerned authorities may breach a person’s freedom of worship if by so engaging in the activities outlined in that particular religion, other people’s lives are put in danger.
An example is the case where a particular religion for instance requires believers to make human sacrifices. In such a case, the authorities have the right to deny the believers the freedom of worship on grounds that it is aimed at hindering other people’s right to life. As much as freedom of worship gives people the right to engage in religious practices that they deem fit, the consequences of such activities must not have an impact on others who are not of the same faith.
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Human Rights in the United Arab Emirates
According to the Human Rights Watch, the United Arab Emirates has continued to carry out crack down on freedom of association and expression that are some of the fundamental human rights. The authorities have in the past and even to date continue to arbitrarily detain several individuals who are suspected of having links to local and International Islamist groups. In July 2014, 69 dissidents were convicted by a UAE court after a manifested unfair trial whereby there was even evidence of systematic torture at the state security apparatus.
Over the years, the United Arab Emirates have made no reforms to a system that is viewed to facilitate forced labor on immigrant workers. Besides, the working conditions for female domestic workers are way below the standards that are outlined in the convention on domestic workers that was adopted in 2012 by the International Labor Organization. In fact, the UAE has made very dismal progress towards the protection of the rights of migrant workers and women’s rights. In May 2013, after several workers went on a strike protesting poor working conditions and pay at a site in Dubai, the immigration officials responded by issuing 40 deportation orders.
IN 2012, THE United Arab Emirates introduced restrictive cybercrime decree for the arrest of journalists and conviction of amateur filmmakers of interfering with national security. One Abdulla al-Hadidi is one of the many victims who were caught in this trap. He was sentenced to ten months in prison by an Abu Dhabi court in April 2013 for posting comments on social media about a public trail that he had attended.
The labor laws of the United Arab Emirates do not cater for domestic workers with an almost exclusive focus on migrant women. The laws deny domestic workers basic protections like weekly days off, limits of hours of work among others. A unified contract that has been drafted by the UAE for domestic workers and expected to be approved in 2014 has been criticized to fall far much below the minimum requirements that are outlined in the International Labor Organization’s 2011 Domestic Workers Convention.
In July 2013, the media were awash with the report of a Norwegian woman who was sentenced to 16 years in prison in the United Arab Emirates for engaging in extra marital sex after she reportedly went to seek justice from the police after a rape incident. Domestic violence remains a pervasive problem in the region. Men are given the authority to discipline their wives and children, including the use of physical violence by the penal code.
The latest and also considered to be a clear indication of the United Arab Emirates’ disregard for human rights is the case where the authorities denied a Human Rights Watch official access to the country. On January 24th 2014, the Human Rights Watch Middle East and North Africa Director, Sarah Leah Whitson was denied entry into the UAE. Besides, the country also went ahead to cancel a Human Rights Watch conference that was scheduled to take place in the UAE.
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Torah is a concept in the Judaic tradition that can be very confusing based on the numerous definitions that many people have of it in various concepts. However, the simplest definition of Torah is that it refers to the five books of Moses. These books include Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. In English, Torah is known as Pentateuch. The word Torah can also be used to refer to the whole Jewish bible that non-Jews call the Old Testament. To the Jews, it is known as the Written Torah or Tanakh.
According to the Jews, the New Testament that is found in the bible is non-existent. In fact, they are not part of the Jewish scriptures. What the Christians today refer to as the Old Testament is called the Written Torah in Jewish culture. It contains a list of books with Jewish translations. The texts of these books in Jewish translations are more or less similar to what you see in the Christian bibles today. However, there are some occasional and slight differences that exist in the way the verses are numbered.
The five books of Moses that refer to Torah are as follows in Jewish translations:
To the Jews, the concept of Torah is much wider than just the books themselves. Apart from the written Torah, there is also the oral Torah also known as the Talmud. This refers to a tradition that explains what is meant by the scriptures in the above books, how they should be interpreted and application of the laws. Orthodox Jews believe that the Oral Torah was passed on to Moses by God who further taught it to other people whom he mandated to pass it down to the coming generations. The tradition was only kept in oral form until around 2D century when its compilation was done in writing in a document called Mishnah.
Both the written and oral teachings and laws that are contained in the Torah were given to Moses by God. Moses received part of the Torah at Mount Sinai while others at the Tabernacle. He is the sole author of all the teachings that are contained therein. Going by the Hebrew translation of the word Torah, it means to teach or guide. Thus, it was established for the purpose of offering lessons to Christians in the Jewish culture.
The Torah gives a documentation of God’s creation of the world, how the family of Abraham and Sarah grew with regards to their relationship with God in the land of Canaan, exile and also how the redemption from Egypt occurred. It gives an account of how the family grew to become Israel. Torah also contains the rules that God gave to Moses for the governing of a just society and establishment of appropriate worship.
Torah still remains a significant part of the Jewish culture and a centerpiece of their Sabbath, thus, its laws, stories and poetry are still held in high regards.
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Causes of Hurricanes
Hurricanes are areas of extreme low pressure that normally appear over warm water. Mostly these areas appear during specified seasons of, early fall and summer. Water vapour fuels hurricanes by releasing the latent heat of condensation. This normally occurs when the water vapour condenses and warms the area around and also forms clouds and the rain. The two most important things that bring about the occurrence of hurricanes are moist warm air and warm water. This is majorly the reason why hurricanes begin in the tropics.
The lay man will notice a hurricane when a whole process has already occurred. Hurricanes start to form when warm air that is moist begins to rise from the surface of the ocean. The rising of this warm air happens very rapidly. The warm air gets in contact with cool air and that causes condensation to take place. The condensed warm water vapour forms clouds that turn into rain drops.
The condensation process also brings about latent heat. The latent heat heats up the air above making it to rise and hence allows room for the warm humid air from the ocean to rise. The cycle is now picking up moment as the hurricane is now taking form.
More and more of the moist is now attracted to the atmosphere. As the heat increases and is transferred from the ocean’s surface, the great storm starts developing. The water in this area starts spiralling form one central point. This central part where the swirling storm starts from is referred to as the eye of the hurricane. This rhythmic exchange of heat brings about a pattern in which the hurricane swirls.
The speed of the hurricane gets faster as the speed of wind gets faster and faster. This happens due to the high pressure being drawn into the low pressure areas. The high pressure area by this time is at high altitudes 30,000 feet. The storm is now building in strength and size and it will soon become a massive hurricane.
First, the tropical depression forms. These are winds that are at a speed of over 61.15 kilometres per hour. The tropical storm then forms. At this point winds are blowing at a high rate of up to 117.48 kilometres per hour. Finally at this very high speed the hurricane is formed.
Scientist are still carrying out research and debating on the exact causes of hurricanes. Different experts in the field have diverse views regarding the causes of hurricanes. Some suggests that human activities that negatively affect the environment are the cause of global warming that cause hurricanes. The occurrence of hurricanes have been on the increase in the recent past and the scientists claim that this is a true indicator that hurricanes are caused by the negative human activities.The occurrence of hurricanes has also been attributed to temperature changes and an increase in the salinity of waters in the oceans.
It is common for people to confuse financial management and accounting. Financial management is a decision making process that entails the use of theories, concepts and tools to make better financial decisions. Accounting simply provides a way to gauge the financial performance of a business as well as budget for its functions. From these two definitions it is quite overt that financial management is very crucial in the healthcare sector.
Initially financial management was viewed in a very simplistic manner. In an organisation, the project’s financial demands would be made for goods and services. The management would estimate the amounts that should be spend on the project. Finally the accounting department will see how the funds would be raised to meet these needs. However, with the advancements in the study of financial management, other factors are now considered including: planning for, acquisition and utilizing funds to improve the efficiency of the organisation.
Every organisation must have their own set of financial management goals. These goals and objectives will depend on the line of business that they are involved in. For example for organisations in the healthcare business, they need to come up with financial management objectives that target their specific functions with reference to their mission and vision.
Financial management has various benefits to an organisation in the healthcare sector including:
Evaluation and planning
Financial management is all about gauging the financial effectiveness of the present activities. The organisation also has to forecast and see where the financial position will be in the near and far future. This kind of planning entails considering all the activities and initiatives of an organisations against the supposed value.
Future investments and expansion is in the future of every organisation. Financial management ensures that decisions like acquisition of fixed assets like equipment and facilities are made strategically. This way the organisation is able to make calculated risks and avert disappointments in the future. Wrong investments that are not well thought through can be the beginning of the end of an organisation.
Organisations working in the healthcare sector deal with a lot of contracts. For example the issuing of contracts to drugs manufacturing companies. This function is normally in the docket of a few of the executive managers. Such decisions have to be made based on specified criteria.
Working capital management
When the working capital of a given organisation is not handled properly, then the organization is bound to experience unnecessary losses. In order to be effective, financial management principles have to be applied when handling the working capital. This is where financial management becomes a function of not just a few but all the managers within the organisation.
Financial risk management
It is important to be proactive as a healthcare organisation. Being proactive is demonstrated when an organisation comes up with initiatives that avert financial risk instead of coming up with fire fighting measures when they are already in trouble.
Importance of Procurement Management In Public Sector
Procurement is applied so as to increase the profitability of a given organisation. Profit in this context is not necessarily defined in monetary terms. Procurement in the public sector entails streamlining processes, reducing the prices and costs of raw material and finding better supply sources. This function of reducing the bottom line is placed in the docket of high executives in the public sector. The executive board is responsible with handling procurement functions in the public sector.
Perhaps the fact that the procurement function at an organisation is in the job description of a selected few is why it is one department that is mostly marred by corruption. Especially in the public sector, it is common to find that money exchanges hands in order for the procurement process to go in the favour of particular people. This is normally a source of a lot of conflict in most organisations. However, when handled in the proper way, procurement management normally works to the advantage of the organisation and its clients.
Since there are no stakeholders passé when we are looking at procurement management in the public sector, it is necessary to focus on the gross output. In this case the public sector can come up with strategies to maximise this output. For example they can focus on training their staff in order to make them more efficient and in the long run make their services better and hence improve their output.
The stakeholders at the public sector level are the taxpayers. The finds that the public sector carries out its functions with is basically gotten from the taxpayers. The taxpayers therefore expect that the public sector will carry out all its functions accordingly and be accountable. Procurement management procedures are done according to the law of the land and high levels of transparency and accountability are applied. For example, issuing of government tenders normally follows an elaborate procedure. The companies awarded such tenders have to meet certain criteria that are already described by law. This structured procurement management wards off a lot of disputes and even court charges on the claim that the taxpayers’ funds are being misused or unfairly distributed.
The law of the law also greatly affects how all other functions of procurement management are undertaken. For example, these functions lie in the docket of procurement officers in a given sector. Government officials are not supposed to influence these processes in any way. Using their political influence control the procurement functions is illegal. Therefore, proper procurement management ensures fairness, openness and accountability in the public sector. When a truly deserving company is issued a tender then the public sector flourishes because they will not be paying high prices for substandard services or goods.
In a sense, procurement management in the public sector is important because it ensures that the sector is getting value for money.
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Importance of Strategic Management in Healthcare
Strategic management entails the coming up with a mission and vision for an organization. It deals with the strategic planning of activities and initiatives so that they are in line with the goals and objectives of the organisation. Strategic management largely involves the understanding of the cultural, political and demographic changes that affect the functions of a given organisation. These changes are both those experienced locally as internationally that affect the organisation in the long run.
Organisations that are in the healthcare business like any other organisation need strategic management. This is because, regardless of the kind of initiatives a given organisation does, they must have a mission, vision, goals and objectives. Without clearly stating these factors, the organisation may find itself being irrelevant. Lack of or poor planning of an organisation that deals with healthcare will cause the organisation to become ineffective in its product and service delivery.
In the healthcare sector, strategic planning entails coming up with long term and short term initiatives that are aimed at meeting the organisations’ goals and objectives. These functions are usually privy to the executive members of an organisation.
In a sense, healthcare facilities are also businesses. They are in the business of helping people but not for free. Although they may be rather unique, the hospital still faces challenges like any other business. They also have a market to grab a share of. For high end health facilities have defined a certain niche to whom they have designed their products and services. to achieve their desired end, they must apply strategic management techniques in their plans.
Carrying out strategic management in the healthcare sector is important because the management will ask themselves the three critical questions that every business must think of including:
Where are we?
In order to solve any problem in a business one has to understand it in its totality. In hindsight, every health organisation must analyse their present situation by considering their plans and achievements in the past that has go them to where they are. At this stage the company has to consider their strengths and weaknesses.
Where do we want to go?
Secondly, every organisation must have a vision. Without a desired destination, how will you even know when you get there? It is important for the management to paint a clear picture so that the employees can understand that what they are working towards. Have major long-term goals and then break it down to short term goals that are time bound. This way, you will be able to easily monitor and evaluate your progress according to the time frame you have set aside to achieve every single one of them.
How will we get there?
Come up with clear initiatives and activities that will user you to your desired goal. You must have very clearly laid out plans.
Infant Mortality in Africa and America
Infant mortality refers to the deaths that occur during infancy and especially in the first year of life. Infant mortality rate varies from one continent to another. In essence, infant mortality rate is the widely used health status of a country and it is helpful when it comes to international comparisons. Africa and America are two widely known continents that have high infant mortality rates and there are few similarities and differences that come up when looking at this issue.
Globally, infant mortality rate has declined between 1960 and 2001 in both less developed countries [LDCs] and more in developed countries MDCs]. In both Africa and America, this has been possible due to the health and mortality reduction initiatives in each continent. In 2008, America ranked 29th globally in infant mortality according to CDC reports. The report further stated that nearly seven babies in U.S die out of 1000 live births and this is more than 28, 000 American babies who die before their first birthday. When it comes to Africa, a report by WHO showed that 63 per 1000 live births occurred in many parts of Africa. This rate was six times higher than in the American regions.
Globally, the infant mortality rate has decreased from an estimated rate of 63 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 35 deaths per 1000 live births in 2012. In the case of American, birth defects and low birth weight were cited as the leading causes of increased infant mortality. This was a survey conducted by National Center for Health Statistics. Babies born to teenage mothers were the most likely to weight too little as report said.
In the United States for instance, an infant is counted if she or he exhibits any sign of life as alive regardless of the month of gestation. It also differs when it comes to African. The American rates of infant mortality were due to high rates of premature babies as compared to other European countries. Other factors that were termed to lead to high rates of infant mortality included obesity or poor prenatal care.
In the case of Africa, infant mortality is inversely related to war, corruption in health related institutions and political unrest. In most cases, war has been the key cause of increased infant mortality in Africa. A war that takes place where a woman is planning to have a baby is quite stressful. Such a case does not affect the woman, but also the fetus. Countries such as Somalia, Angola, and democratic republic of Congo have all reported high cases of infant mortality.
The good news in both infant mortality cases in Africa and America [South and North America] every nation is trying hard to reduce the infant mortality rate. The establishment of the Millennium Development Goals [MDGs] is one of the great initiatives aimed towards reducing infant mortality. Unfortunately, Africa is not likely to meet the goals by 2015. WHO is also focused on reducing the effects of malaria, HIV/AIDS and provide family planning solutions.
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Chandra Bahadur Dangi
A lot of incredible information is available in the Guinness Book of World Records. This is a reference book published annually, containing a collection of world records. This includes both human achievements and the extremes of natural world. One of the interesting extremes of nature is the case of Chandra Bahadur Dangi. Dangi is the shortest man in the world and he measures 1.ft 9 inch [0.546 m].
A doctor and a Guinness official measured Dangi to confirm that he is actually the smallest person in the world. He had travelled from Kathmandu in order to be measured by the officials and this marked the first time he had travelled away from his home village. Chandra Bahadur Dangi lives with his nephews in a remote village of Nepal.
He broke a record that was held by Gul Mohammed [1957-1997] the then shortest adult who stood at 1 ft. 10 inch [0.57 m]. He also takes the record of the shortest man in the world from Junrey Balawing of the Philippines who is 23.5 inches [60 centimeters]. Dangi came into the news highlight of the local media when a wood contractor saw him in his Nepal village.
He lives in the isolated Nepalese village of Reemkholi in Dang district. The village has 200 homes, no television and a few solar panels that provide the online electricity. Dangi is looked after by his immediate older brother and his family. He is the seventh sibling and three of his brothers were less than four feet tall, whereas his two sisters and two brothers are of an average height.
Chandra Bahadur Dangi was born on November 30, 1939 and he is a primordial dwarf. This is a form of dwarfism that results in a smaller body size in all stages of life starting from birth. Despite his age, Chandra Bahadur Dangi claims that he has never taken any kind of medication. In addition, he says that he has never been examined by a doctor. He has a normal sized head and regularly shaves, but his body is abnormally small. Moreover, he can walks and climb small stairs. On daily meals, Dangi eats mainly rice and vegetable and occasionally meat and in small portions.
Dangi managed to escape being discovered and his condition exposed for more than 70 years before Guinness found him in the remote areas of Nepal on the Nepalese mountain village of Rhimkholi. According to Guinness, and he spends most of his time making placemats and head straps for villagers. He also helps look cows and buffalos in his village.
After his worldwide recognition, Chandra Bahadur Dangi has been able to travel across Nepal and to foreign countries. He said that he does not want to get married or have his own children. In 2012, Chandra Bahadur Dangi met the world shortest woman, Jyoti Amge of Nagpur, India. In 2013, Dangi and Jyoti posed together for the 57th edition of the Guinness World Records. Chandra Bahadur Dangi is happy to be recognized in the book of records, and hopes good things will come his way and family.
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An epileptic spasm is one of the widely known disorders affecting human beings. Epileptic spasms can also be referred to as juvenile spasms, west syndrome or infantile spasms. This is a rare epileptic condition that affects infants, children and sometimes adults. It is one of the catastrophic childhood epilepsies this is simply because it is difficult to control seizures and mental retardation.
Epileptic spasms is one the epilepsy syndromes and most enigmatic because of its symptoms and its effects. The syndrome is called “west syndrome” after Dr. William James West. Dr. West described the condition after studying his own four month son in 1841. This is an epilepsy type that affects about one in 2000- 3000 children. In the UK about 350-400 children will develop epileptic spasms. In essence, there is a rich history out there about infantile spasms [IS].
West syndrome starts between 3 and 12 months of age and may stop by the age of 2 to 4 years. This syndrome is quite rare and about 60% of infants affected have some brain injury or disorder before seizures start appearing. For some infants or children is different as they may not have injuries, but the condition may develop normally.
Young children having epileptic spasms usually experienced a number of symptoms. In all cases, infantile spasms occur in the first year of life and the attacks are brief and infrequent. This condition is characterized by epileptic seizures which can be observed as sudden, severe myoclonic convulsions of the entire body , convulsions of the throat and neck flexor muscles and as jackknife attacks or a rapid bending of the head and torso forward. Some children develop autism or develop other kinds of epilepsy.
The key mechanisms that cause epileptic spasms are still unknown. In many cases, it is imagined to be as a result of malfunction of neurotransmitter. More precisely, it is conjectured that Infant spasms is as a result of a malfunction in the regulation of the GABA transmission process. With ever growing number of medical researchers, it is believed that epileptic spasms may be as a result of the Corticotropin-releasing hormone [CRH]. Effects of certain medications administered to young children may also be the core cause of infantile spasms.
The epileptogenic mechanisms or infantile spasms is not well understood, but there are ways through which this condition has been diagnosed or treated. Compared to other types of epilepsy, epileptic spasms is difficult to treat. To increase the chances of successful treatment and be able to take care of any long lasting effects, it is wise to go for early diagnosis. The treatment should also start right away.
Treatment differs from one individual to another and depends on the cause of the West syndrome and the state of the brain development of the young child. Steroid therapy [Adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] injection or prednisone] can help greatly. It is also wise to go for a therapy with Vigabatrin [Sabril], Topamax [topiramate] or Valproate [Depakote] before steroid therapy. Noteworthy, as you seek treatment for epileptic spasms, make sure that you go for an experienced center and deal with professionals as a lot of caution is essential while administering these medications.
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Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. It is also grouped together by the national statistics with childhood mortality which is the death of a child before the child can celebrate his or her fifth birthday. There are ten millions of infants and children who died on annual basis in the globe and this is usually before their fifth birthday. 99% of these deaths are known to occur in developing countries.
Infant mortality rate [IMR] is the number of deaths of children who are less than one year of age and as per 1000 live births. It is easy to calculate the IMR of an area or region. Here, experts have to take the number of children dying under the age of one year and divide by the number of live births during the year and multiply it by 1000. There are different forms of infant mortality that you need to be well-versed with. This includes neonatal mortality which is the newborn death occurring within 28 days of postpartum and it is attributed to lack of adequate health care during pregnancy or after delivery.
Postneonatal mortality is the death of children age 29 days to one year and it is attributed to malnutrition, environment problems and infectious diseases. Perinatal mortality is the other form of infant mortality. It is the late fetal death [within 22 weeks gestation to birth] or the death of a newborn within one week of postpartum. These deaths are usually used a way to measure the well-being and health of a nation. Factors that affect the health of a country can also impact the mortality rate of newborns. Factors such as age, race and ethnicity also create differences in infant mortality in globe.
There are factors that are cited as the core causes of infant mortality. In many occasion newborns grow and thrive, but for every 1000 babies born, six die within their first year. Many cases of infant deaths are because of the fact that some babies are born with serious birth defect, born too small or too early. There are other infants who are victims of sudden infant death syndrome, injuries or affected by maternal complications of pregnancy. Environmental or social barriers are the other common causes of increased infant mortality. 86% of the deaths that occur in developing countries are due to infections, premature births and perinatal asphyxia.
With the improving economy and advancing technology, it is easy to prevent and reduce the high cases of infant mortality. With improved health and well-being of the people in the globe, it is easy to enjoy every moment in life. Through the Millennium Development Goals [MDGs], it has been easy to reduce the number of mortalities within the infants and childhood population by two-thirds.
This means that the set goals are to decrease mortality from 95 to 31 deaths per 1000. With such goals in mind, it is a great strategy for the involved countries to abide and reduce the infant mortality rate within the set period. Granting women employment and education is another great way to reduce the mortality rates in our countries. Availability of modernized and affordable medical care and facilities will also help reduce death of infants and children.
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