The Wars of the Three Kingdoms
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, was a combination of conflicts, which took place in Scotland, England and Ireland from 1639 to 1651. This was after the three Kingdoms had been put under the leadership of a single monarch. One of these conflicts was the English Civil War, which saw English Parliament execute King Charles I for alleged treason in 1649. The Wars of the Three Kingdoms also include other uprisings that occurred through 1650s up to the time for English Restoration, when Charles II took the mantle of leadership after eleven years of no monarch.
It is important to note that The Wars of the Three Kingdoms stemmed from religious differences and tensions across the three Kingdoms as Protestants and Catholics fought for supremacy. The bone of contention in most cases was whether the monarch was to dictate the religion of individual citizens. While the monarch wanted to exert authority by presiding over the religion of the land, most people wished to make personal choices on matters of faith. They felt that the monarch was denying them the right of worship.
On the other hand, Parliament sought autonomy over the monarch by establishing laws that empowered it. Of great concern was if the King was allowed to raise taxes without seeking Parliament’s approval. This sent jitters among members of the House of Lords who failed the monarch was overstepping its mandate. The issue of taxation was closely related to the control over the military. For example, Parliament opined that the monarch was to seek the House’s consent before increasing the size of the troops. According to pro-parliament system, this was to eliminate cases of monarchs misusing power for self-gratification.
Besides religion and taming the powers of the monarch, The Wars of the Three Kingdoms was based on the sovereignty of individual kingdoms. For instance, Ireland and Scotland were pleased with the domination of England in various matters. They were not satisfied by the fact that they appeared to be underdogs. Importantly, the success of the English Parliament to oust and execute the King under Oliver Cromwell, played a major role in breeding a constitutional Great Britain, with powers over Scotland and Ireland. With its political power centered in London, it was evident that England had triumphed over the others in The Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
After The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Ormond arrived at Cork on September 30, 1648. He came along with his army, and he was funded by the French government. In December of the same year, Scotland moved to support King Charles II and Sir Charles Coote. The merger forced the governor to escape to join royalists, who came under siege until 1649. It is important to note that initially, Irish had an informal army, which was raised by the society. As a result, majority did not have skills and competence to engage in sophisticated battles. Veteran soldiers were in limited numbers, with deficiency work force following Spanish and French idea to take Irish men to reinforce their troops during the Confederation period. Between 1644 and 1649, France received about 7000 Irish men while Spain got about 4000.
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