The Ottoman Empire was a very powerful military and political entity of the Turks established in the middle ages and which lasted into the twentieth century. It all started with a small state comprised of a handful of Turks believed to be Seljuk Turks descendants. The timeline of the empire can be broken down as follows:
Growth, rise and fall
- 1299-The empire is founded and the reign of Osman I’s begins
- 1389-Battle of Kosovo results to the capture of a big portion of Serbia
- 1396-Bulgaria conquest in the Nicopolis battle
- 1444- Varna crusade comes to an end on Ottoman victory of the Varna battle
Subsequent Growth of the Empire
- 1453-Mehmed II captures Constantinople. During battle, Constantine (Christian emperor) dies and Mehmed II claims the title Caesar of Rome as Roman Byzantine Empire yields to Ottoman force finally.
- 1460-Mehmed II conquers Morea
- 1461Mehmed conquers Trabzon bringing to an end the Trebizond Empire.
- 1463-Bosnia is conquered
- 1473-Uzun Hassan of Akkoynlu Turkmens is defeated by Mehmed II in the battle of Otlukbeli.
- 1475- Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Caffa and Crimea is declared Ottoman Empire vassal state.
- 1478-Albania conquest
- 1480-Otranto, the southern part of Italy is conquered by Pasha as a strategic move for creating a base to orchestrate further conquest of Italy.
- 1481- Mehmed II dies and the Ottoman Throne goes to Bayezid II’s
- 1498-Montenegro conquest
- 1514-Safavid Persia’s Ismail I is defeated by Selim bringing East Anatolia under Turkish rule in Chaldiran Battle.
- 1566-The reign of Suleiman comes to an end
- 1590-Istanbul treaty
- 1610-Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppresses Jelali revolts with the Turkmens suffering the greatest loss
- 1612-Nasuh Pasha treaty
- 1615-Serav treaty
- 1683-At the Battle of Vienna, Ottomans are defeated
- 1686-Hungary evacuation
- 1687-Mehmed IV dies
- 1699-Karlowitz treaty
- 1718-Passarowitz treaty and beginning of Tulip Era
- 1730-The revolt of Patrona Halil brings to an end the Tulip Era resulting to dethronement of Ahmet III
- 1739-Belgrade treaty
- 1774-Kucuk Kaynarca treaty
- 1807-Kabakci rebellion results to Selim III’s dethronement
- 1821-Start of the Greek independence war
Fall of the Ottoman Empire
- 1830-Algeria surrenders to French rule gradually
- Greek sovereignty is established officially as a result of Greek War of Independence
- 1831 to 1833-Ottoman-Egyptian War
- 1853-Crimean war
- 1881-Tunisia gets converted into a French colony
- 1885-Eastern Rumelia is taken under the jurisdiction of Bulgaria
- 1913-The Ottoman Empire, save for Istanbul and a small surrounding region is erased completely from the political map of Europe.
- 1914-Ottoman Empire joins World War I and sides with Central Power. At about the same time, Britain annexes Cyprus.
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