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Sample Essay on Origin of Complex Societies along Nile River

Origin of Complex Societies along Nile River

Human civilization is a continuous process that can be traced back to the origin of man. Traditional societies initially used gatherings and hunting as their sources of livelihood. Farming, industrialization and agriculture however set in to offer rise to complex societies gradually. The process was indeed gradual in different communities spreading over the years.

For instance, by the year 3000 B.C complex societies had set up along River Nile in Egypt, Africa. The societies included the Axum and Kush. Dense populations, political and economic power, creativity and spiritual organizations characterized the societies (Bernal 58). This paper therefore analyses the origin of complex cultures along River Nile until 3000 BC.

Civilization along River Nile also took the form of populated cities in the valley of the river. Initially, communities along the valley employed gathering and hunting in the wild as the only resources. Fresh water from the river was sufficient to feed the people that settled on the river bank. Early settlers therefore had more than enough water and food for their survival, and it was during Ice Age.

Ice Age however gradually came to an end leading to more rainfall, increased temperatures and lower sea levels in different parts of the world in 15000 BC. Climate change made it essential for man to domesticate desirable and edible plants and animals to ensure constant flow of food. Man gradually adapted to this kind of life, leading to agriculture and farming. Man, also over time became dependent on this kind of livelihood leading to waning of gatherings and hunting (Burstein 27).

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River Nile area is no doubt extremely fertile based on its proximity to water for irrigation as well as its rich nutrients. As the settlers opted for farming, they also cleared more land to enhance their source of livelihood. This was additionally successful based on the fact that new desirable plants grew thus, feeding the community along the bank. The success however led to intensified farming and agricultural practices (Bernal 58).

The valley of River Nile was also cleared even more and by the end of 6000 BC, man settled for more innovative ways of increasing agricultural surplus for economic purposes. As farming became more of an economic venture, many people also settled along the river to clutch the opportunity. It is an opportunity that led to increased populations along the valley of the river by the year 4000BC.

Therefore, people worked and lived closely together than they did in the past years. The trend in the end, led to growth of cities that were characterized by dense populations (Connah 3). Dense populations were also a source of economic power and innovation. The settlers through Nile River opened up links to other regions across the globe creating more economic activities.

The activities included energy sources, housing, construction and manufacturing. Disruptions of natural environment also led to ecological issues creating more economic and social innovations in a quest for survival (Bernal 58). Some of the members of the community for instance took up specializations in different professions thus creating more wealth.

Trade in the form of exchange of goods and services also begun. The art of writing also became essential for record keeping purposes. Governance on the other hand took a more organized structure with more complex communities leading to leadership hierarchy. Hierarchy form of leadership was common in Axum and Kush kingdoms that had powerful political organizations.

By the year 3000 BC, the societies living along River Nile were complex because of such aspects. As a result, it led to civilization in this part of the globe (Connah 15).

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Works Cited

Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The Afro-Asiatic Roots of Classical Civilizations. London: Free Association Books. 1987. Print

Burstein, Stanley. Ancient African Civilizations: Kush and Axum. Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1998. Print

Connah, Graham. African Civilizations: An Archaeological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002. Print.

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