Neolithic revolution is also called the Neolithic Demographic Transition. There are also people who called it the Agricultural Revolution. It refers to the first verifiable revolution in history of Agriculture. The revolution was wide scale involving different human cultures from the hunting and gathering lifestyle to settlement and agriculture which supported the increasing population.
There is archaeological data that shows that domestication of different animals and plants evolved at different locations across the world. The starting point of these domestications is indicated by the data to have been the geological epoch in Holocene at around 12,000 years ago.
Nevertheless, Neolithic Revolution entailed more than adoption of limited techniques in producing food. In the following millennia, the revolution transformed the mobile and small groups of people who were initially hunters and gathers who had until that time dominated the human history into the sedentary societies that were based in the built-up towns and villages.
The sedentary societies modified the natural environment that they were used to radically through specialized cultivation of food crops. They engaged in activities like deforestation and irrigation in the production of food. Different technologies that included food storage were employed by these societies which enhanced food production while making surplus food available.
Developments brought about by Neolithic revolution provided a basis for increased population and more settlements. Specialization as well as trading economies and divisions of labor all started with the Neolithic revolution. Non-portable art development and architecture, political structures, centralized administrations, depersonalized knowledge systems such as writing and hierarchical ideologies as well as private ownership of property all have their basis on Neolithic revolution.
The first and full-blown Neolithic complex manifestation is seen in the cities of the Middle Eastern Sumerian. The emergence of these cities marks the end of prehistoric Neolithic era. Relationship of the Neolithic characteristics and the onset of agricultural activities, sequence of their emergence and the empirical relations in different Neolithic sites is still a subject of research and academic debates. The characteristics also seem to differ in different places instead of being the result of the universal social evolution laws.
Before Neolithic revolution, people lived with their extended families in a nomad life without staying at one place for more than few months. People always lived in temporary shelters and searching for food through hunting and gathering. Before Neolithic revolution people never owned anything because they could easily pack and leave where they were living any time. Neolithic revolution marked the end of this and the start of a settled way of life.
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