Insulin-like Growth factor 2
Insulin-like growth factor 2 is also called IGF2. It is one of the three protein hormones whose structure is similar to that of insulin. Scientists define this hormone as a neutral peptide that is well-characterized and the liver is believed to secrete it and circulate it into the blood. Among the functions of this hormone include mitogenic, insulin-like and growth-regulating activities.
This growth factor hormone depends on somatotropin although not absolutely. Many scientists believe that it is a crucial growth factor for fetus unlike the insulin-like growth factor I which is a crucial growth factor for adults. Insulin-like growth factor 2 plays an important role in influencing cell division in fetus, mammalian growth, differentiation and also metabolic regulation.
There studies that suggest that this protein promotes proliferation and growth of cells in different tissues. Studies have also proven that this protein is highly active among fetus and it facilitates their development but it is less active in adults.
Individuals inherit most genes from parents. One copy of the gene is inherited from the father and the other from the mother. The two copies are turned on or typically activated in the cells. For Insulin-like growth factor 2 gene, the copy that an individual inherits from their mother is not active in most body parts. Scientists see this as a parent-specific variation in the activation of gene and it is caused by genomic imprinting.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 forms part of a genes’ cluster found on the short arm of the chromosome 11. This part is the one that undergoes genomic imprinting. A part of DNA called the imprinting center 1 or H19 controls genomic imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2.
A change in the insulin-like growth factor 2 due to genomic imprinting causes changes in another process known as methylation. This affects the imprinting center 1. In genes where genomic imprinting occurs, a mark or stamp is put on them during the formation of sperm or egg cells. The stamping process is what is known as methylation. It is a chemical reaction during which small molecules known as methyl groups are attached to some DNA segments.
In some individuals, this results in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. This syndrome is caused by the presence of a lot of methyl groups in the DNA segments. An increase in the activities of insulin-like growth factor 2 is also associated with some strains of cancer. This occurs when both maternal and paternal copies of the gene with this protein are active.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 amount increases the rate at which cells produce. Eventually, Insulin-like growth factor 2 stimulates tumor cells’ growth while preventing the destruction of damaged cells. Other diseases that are associated with insulin-like growth factor 2 include Russell-Silver syndrome, polymorphisms and Doege-Potter syndrome.
Apart from causing these diseases, insulin-like growth factor 2 also interacts with Transferrin and IGFBP3.
Order an essay on insulin-like growth factor 2 online
Insulin-like growth factor 2 acts as a hormone that promotes growth during gestation. However, it has other roles that you need to study before writing an essay on it. However, you can simply order your essay with us at Essays Experts to save time and resources.