Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. It is also grouped together by the national statistics with childhood mortality which is the death of a child before the child can celebrate his or her fifth birthday. There are ten millions of infants and children who died on annual basis in the globe and this is usually before their fifth birthday. 99% of these deaths are known to occur in developing countries.
Infant mortality rate [IMR] is the number of deaths of children who are less than one year of age and as per 1000 live births. It is easy to calculate the IMR of an area or region. Here, experts have to take the number of children dying under the age of one year and divide by the number of live births during the year and multiply it by 1000. There are different forms of infant mortality that you need to be well-versed with. This includes neonatal mortality which is the newborn death occurring within 28 days of postpartum and it is attributed to lack of adequate health care during pregnancy or after delivery.
Postneonatal mortality is the death of children age 29 days to one year and it is attributed to malnutrition, environment problems and infectious diseases. Perinatal mortality is the other form of infant mortality. It is the late fetal death [within 22 weeks gestation to birth] or the death of a newborn within one week of postpartum. These deaths are usually used a way to measure the well-being and health of a nation. Factors that affect the health of a country can also impact the mortality rate of newborns. Factors such as age, race and ethnicity also create differences in infant mortality in globe.
There are factors that are cited as the core causes of infant mortality. In many occasion newborns grow and thrive, but for every 1000 babies born, six die within their first year. Many cases of infant deaths are because of the fact that some babies are born with serious birth defect, born too small or too early. There are other infants who are victims of sudden infant death syndrome, injuries or affected by maternal complications of pregnancy. Environmental or social barriers are the other common causes of increased infant mortality. 86% of the deaths that occur in developing countries are due to infections, premature births and perinatal asphyxia.
With the improving economy and advancing technology, it is easy to prevent and reduce the high cases of infant mortality. With improved health and well-being of the people in the globe, it is easy to enjoy every moment in life. Through the Millennium Development Goals [MDGs], it has been easy to reduce the number of mortalities within the infants and childhood population by two-thirds.
This means that the set goals are to decrease mortality from 95 to 31 deaths per 1000. With such goals in mind, it is a great strategy for the involved countries to abide and reduce the infant mortality rate within the set period. Granting women employment and education is another great way to reduce the mortality rates in our countries. Availability of modernized and affordable medical care and facilities will also help reduce death of infants and children.
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