Causes and Effects of Chinese Civil War
China is one of the great nations that have gone through a lot of revolutions. By the half of the 20th century, politics had dominated the nation and everything was chaotic. The revolution of 1911 led to the fall of the Manchu dynasty and the new state could not prevent China from exploitation by the foreign nations. Conflicts between the Chinese nationalist and communists over power led to the famous Chinese Civil War.
This struggle for power and control over china took place from 1927 to 1937 and commenced again in 1946 to 1949 when the Sino-Japanese was culminated and the civil war and major impact on China. In the event of a civil war, there are many factors that may have led to the start of the war. These factors may be long-term or short-term but all have horrendous impacts on the affected countries or individuals. In the case of the Chinese Civil War, there are several factors that instigated the conflict, and they include;
- Socio-economic factors- The vast majorities of the people in China were peasants and had to work harder on ways to eradicate poverty. Taxes imposed on the peasants were used to support the Manchu imperial court. Population increased rapidly on daily basis, but there was no enough to feed these large families. Many lost their lands, there were no jobs as machines replaced human labor and most cities were languishing in poverty.
- Political weakness and foreign power influence- The inability of the China central government to protect its people and humiliation from prompted the war. The Britain had defeated the Chinese in the Opium wars and the great empire was divided due to the influence of Americans, Europeans and Japanese. China had been forced to sign many treaties that made it easy for the imperialist to control trade the only source of revenues. Missionaries were also interest in the country and flooded to spread Christianity. Due to increased corruption and inflation, the Manchu dynast was weak to defend and take care of its people.
- Overthrowing of the Manchu empire- The defeat of the Manchu dynasty during the Double Tenth revolution also caused the Chinese civil war. A new republic was formed in 1911. With no real democracy and most of the imperial officer maintaining their positions, an all Chinese revolution was imminent.
- Mao Zedong influence- Mao had great influence on the Chinese and as the leader for the communists he came up with great strategies such as use of guerrilla, the long march, to rule the Nationalists into communists’ zones and propaganda. Many peasants joined his troops making it clear that they were set for a winning battle.
- Support from communist allies- China’s transition to communism build relationships with other nations. After Russia followed the suit, other opportunistic nations feared a revolution from the rest of Asia in case of similar transition. China received financial support and weaponry industries were constructed to aid in mass production of artillery.
The Mao dominance in the war and victory led to globalization of the cold war which spread for Europe to Asia and it was not easy for the superpowers to control Asian countries anymore. The war also inspired revolts in Malaya, Indonesia, Thailand and Indochina. It also led to the Korean war of 1950 to 1953. A treaty between china and USSR was also signed, but the relations worsened later. Mao victory also terrified the USA as many in the USA never believed of Chinese could emerge victories.
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