Difference between First and Second Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution era means a lot to every human. Whether born during the first or second industrial revolution, there are great innovations made that changed lives for better. However, there are number of similarities and differences that define these eras of industrial revolution. Both First and Second Industrial Revolution saw great development in the world that changed the way humans perceived things. They opened ways for many innovations taking place today.
Without these two industrial revolution eras, the great innovations in the transport, agricultural, economy and technology sector would never exist. All in all, both First and Second Industrial Revolution have vast differences that make it easy to understand what industrial revolution was all about and they include;
- First industrial revolution was the change to new and exceptional manufacturing processes and took place between 1760 and 1870 while the second industrial revolution or technological revolution that corresponded to the latter half of the 19th century until the World War I that is between 1870 and 1960.
- The transition experienced during the first industrial revolution included going from hand production methods to machines, iron production processes, use of steam power and new chemical manufacturing. It also entailed change from use of wood and bio-fuels to coal. In the second industrial revolution, it was characterized by the extensive building out of railroads, far-fetching use of machinery in manufacturing, immense use of steam power, large scale production of steel and iron and electrical communications.
- The industrial revolution started in United Kingdom and spread to Western Europe and North America while second industrial revolution spread to other areas like Russia, japan and Germany and all developed in respective areas of interest.
- During the first industrial revolution developments were made in textile industry where mechanized cotton spinning powered by steam or water took place. Steam power became the main source of power industries as they were more efficient. The use of coke for charcoal during this era lowered the cost of iron making and even allowed vast blast furnaces to be used. On the other hand, during the second industrial revolution iron making was improved by the use of Hot Blast technique as it reduced fuel use. Mass production of steel also took place and better techniques were used.
- At the beginning of the first industrial revolution, inland transport was effective by navigable rivers and roads. Railways and wagon were used for conveying coal to rivers for shipment. Animals were used to motive power to land and sails aided on the sea. Britain transport infrastructure with canal and waterway network, railway network and turnpike road network. When it comes to the second industrial revolution, great changes were made on the existing means of transport due to the advent of electricity. Road transport was also improved through the advent of automobiles making it faster to move from one place to another.
- Lastly, communication became easy during the second industrial revolution due to the invention of telegraph system that was improved to other means of communication like telephone and radio. During the industrial revolution era, many people relied on messengers or other application means.
A lot of economic changes were experienced during these two distinctive eras. There was expansion of factor system, increased unemployment due to eradication of man power, industrial capitalism and led to mass production of goods. Social, industrial revolution increased leisure time, led to development of more cities and increased population. Above all, these eras led to increased power of the industrialized countries.
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