Annotated Bibliography

Sample Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Bollati, V., & Baccarelli, A. (2010). Environmental epigenetic. Heredity105(1), 105-112.

Bollati and Baccarelli in their article environmental epigenetic describe epigenetic as the study of changes, which take place as a result of heritable variations that occur not necessarily with DNA involvement. In the article, the two authors depict how genomic under exogenous offer a mechanism for the continuity of gene activity. They agree that two epigenetic can be inherited together with chromosomes, including DNA methylation and and histone modification. They underline several environmental factors like metals, poly hydrocarbons and phytoestrogens among others, which could cause heritable epigenetic factors. Additionally, epigenetic disease results from the interaction between environmental factors and individual genetic make up. In any gene-environment interaction, the effect of variation follows the channel dominant, co-dominant and recessive. For mammals, DNA methylation is important for embryogenesis when methylation order changes to align with embryos to allow further differentiation.

 

Smith, G., & Ritchie, M. G. (2013). How might epigenetic contribute to ecological speciation? Current Zoology59(5).

The two writers argue that speciation takes place because of adaptation of different population to environmental Image 2conditions and the concurrent evolution of isolation, which contributes to higher compatibility. In particular, ecological speciation needs a range of selection from abiotic and biotic environmental conditions. Speciation involves several processes like phenotypic plasticity, which refers to the change of an organism because of environmental conditions. From the two writers, this may encompass hierarchical levels and phenotypic classes, including history, learning, morphological, and behavioral. Importantly, phenotypic plasticity allows speciation. Secondly, epigenetic mechanism and evolution denote the capability from a steady phenotype that is heritable, which stems from variations in the chromosomes within the DNA sequence. However, epigenetic marks are not always heritable since they could emanate from environmental induction. These marks lead to normal development despite the fact that changes could occur through phenotypic plasticity. They are also important in adaptive evolution.

Baranowski, E., Ruiz-Jarabo, C. M., & Domingo, E. (2001). Evolution of cell recognition by viruses. Science292(5519), 1102-1105.

The authors of the article, “the evolution of cell recognition by viruses” argue that specific receptors are responsible for the entry of viruses and bacteria in animals. These receptors are proteins, liquid families or carbohydrates and some of the families are used in signal pathways and cell unity. However, some of these families lack any function. In this case, it is hard to determine the function of any receptor molecule though two receptors enhance mediation of cells. The editors agree that though structures behind immune responses are not obvious, they are subsets of molecules that occur on the cell surface and activate virus uptake. Viruses only get in when there is uncoating and genome replication. In most cases replacement of amino acids in the capsid or surface protein influence how receptors are recognized, cell tropism and pathogenesis. From genome and complete cellular, it is clear that viruses change through the cellular world. With some minimal variations in the cell genome, receptor sage for virus entry may shift.

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References

Baranowski, E., Ruiz-Jarabo, C. M., & Domingo, E. (2001). Evolution of cell recognition by viruses. Science292(5519), 1102-1105.

Bollati, V., & Baccarelli, A. (2010). Environmental epigenetic. Heredity105(1), 105-112.

Smith, G., & Ritchie, M. G. (2013). How might epigenetic contribute to ecological speciation? Current Zoology59(5).

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