Theorists give different explanations of the virtue of moral reasoning, including care based feminist writings, social contract, virtual moral, and utilitarian theories. This is because many people believe that moral spark passions, which either prevent or allow actions. Thus, moral intuitions depend on human nature via conscious reasoning (Mikhal 150).
Utilitarian theory denotes the concept of perpetual and avoidable war in the society. This theory proposes that human beings are rational and any actions entirely depend on the assumed consequences. In this theory, the choice of between right and wrong depends on human experience (Bucciarelli 156).
The world regards Jeremy Bentham as the father of classical utilitarianism. He argues that humanity is always under pressure and pain, which he refers to as ascetics. According to Bentham, utilitarianism is a universal norm that is based on maximum happiness and should not result into negative effects to other people (Mikhal 148).
On the other hand, social contract theory views the moral obligation of a person as directly linked to the contract signed. In platonic discussions, Thomas Hobbes elucidates and defends the theory by using psychological egoism (Bucciarelli 158). He believes that everything in the universe came into being because of the moving matter. It implies that some virtues such as love and hate depend on the nature of normative thoughts because of tastes and preferences (Mikhal 150).
According to Hobbes, a person can take political obligation because of their personal vendetta in the cause (Bucciarelli 156). However, they end up submitting to the authority because of the rational nature to realize a good environment to sign a social contract and succeed under existing common laws. With the existence of the sovereign, rational applications are necessary for the contract to thrive (Bucciarelli 160).
Additionally, Hobbes argues that human nature is reasonable and people have the power to explore their desires efficiently (Bucciarelli 156). Thus, rationality is essential as it determines the results of intended actions. Through refined categories, he includes human beings and animals in the law (Bucciarelli 160).
Immanuel Kant (1724-1802) emphasizes on standard rationality. He supports goodwill as the top common sense any person should have since it makes you good or obsolete (Mikhal 150). This undermines one’s intention to forego moral goodness to realize desirable results. Additionally, people with certain desirable traits like passion and courage are forfeitable in some cases (Bentham 345). He adds that human beings need respect and professionals ought to adhere to the moral standards of their job (Mikhal 152). The theory disallows some human practices like prostitution, terrorism and pornography.
Theorists who support Feminist care ethics Neil Nodding and Carol Gilligan argue that some theories, traditional moral practices and policies are retrogressive as they limit women empowerment (Bentham 344). In their research, they adopted a range of approaches, which support gender equality. They offered epistemological presuppositions, which are considerably strong and emotional on how people view the world. Parents and teachers ought to be compassion on kids to pass on the theory in an informal sense through daily roles (Bucciarelli 164).
Virtue ethics theory focuses on individual virtue and character. It explains core virtues, which a person needs to develop. They include patience, kindness and correct emotions. However, one attains these moral traits over time to acquire stable tendencies. To achieve these virtues, one must have the zeal and be in right environment (Bentham 352).
According to research, these theories are invalid in the absence of the right environment. Morality calls for maximum positive action to realize societal benefits. Thus, hedonic calculus ought to be conducted using ethics like certainty, purity and the need to maximize pleasure and reduce pain on the society.
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