What is antibacterial resistance? This occurs when an antibiotic can no longer control or kill bacterial growth effectively. In other words, the bacteria develop a mechanism not to respond to the drug and continue multiplying despite the presence of healing levels of the recommended antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance is one of the major challenges facing medics and pharmacists as the trend continues to escalate among the world population. In this essay, we explain the concept of antibiotic resistance, including global facts and trends, causes, and possible control measures.
According to the World Health Organization, WHO, antibiotic resistance is a threat to the health of people in the world as it affects effective prevention and treatment of infections, caused by microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Because of the magnitude of this problem, it requires the attention and efforts of every government through action-oriented measures. In addressing the issue of antibiotic resistance, it is worth noting that the problem cuts across the whole world and no single country is safe even though the levels of this kind of resistance may vary from nation to nation because of different factors. When new resistance mechanisms emerge, they quickly spread to the rest of the world, making it a global problem.
By the year 2012, there were about 450,000 new of multidrug-resistant TB, and Extensively drug-resistance TB has been identified in 92 countries of the world. Patients who develop MDR TB always require extensive and prolonged treatment as compared to those who do not have any resistance towards TB drugs. Resistance against anti-malaria drugs is highly prevalent across the globe especially in countries that are malaria stricken. This has forced the adoption of new drugs, different from what the past generation used to deal with scourge.
Unknown to most people in the world, antibiotic resistance occurs naturally. Normally, when an antibiotic is applied on bacteria, there are those that resist its effects and survive while others are highly susceptible and either die or their action inhibited. As a result, there is selective pressure on the survival of bacteria in a patient’s body. Importantly, not all antibiotic resistance cases are induced by human beings. For example, some resistance cases are natural as bacteria may generate and use antibiotics to attack competing bacteria in human body, leading to low level of natural selection for drug resistance.
Nonetheless, experts attribute the skyrocketing levels of antibiotic resistance to overuse and abuse of drugs in the market. In most countries of the world today, it is possible to purchase antibiotics over the counter without the prescription of a doctor. This is worsened by the massive use of the internet where the public can order drugs online without any prescription. In some cases, which could also be common and shocking on a large scale, patients use antibiotics unnecessarily to deal with viral infections like common cold. While this is the case, there are bacteria, which are naturally resistant to specific types of antibiotics. Other common ways of acquiring this resistance is through genetic mutation and acquisition of resistance from other bacterium.
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Neolithic revolution is also called the Neolithic Demographic Transition. There are also people who called it the Agricultural Revolution. It refers to the first verifiable revolution in history of Agriculture. The revolution was wide scale involving different human cultures from the hunting and gathering lifestyle to settlement and agriculture which supported the increasing population.
There is archaeological data that shows that domestication of different animals and plants evolved at different locations across the world. The starting point of these domestications is indicated by the data to have been the geological epoch in Holocene at around 12,000 years ago.
Nevertheless, Neolithic Revolution entailed more than adoption of limited techniques in producing food. In the following millennia, the revolution transformed the mobile and small groups of people who were initially hunters and gathers who had until that time dominated the human history into the sedentary societies that were based in the built-up towns and villages.
The sedentary societies modified the natural environment that they were used to radically through specialized cultivation of food crops. They engaged in activities like deforestation and irrigation in the production of food. Different technologies that included food storage were employed by these societies which enhanced food production while making surplus food available.
Developments brought about by Neolithic revolution provided a basis for increased population and more settlements. Specialization as well as trading economies and divisions of labor all started with the Neolithic revolution. Non-portable art development and architecture, political structures, centralized administrations, depersonalized knowledge systems such as writing and hierarchical ideologies as well as private ownership of property all have their basis on Neolithic revolution.
The first and full-blown Neolithic complex manifestation is seen in the cities of the Middle Eastern Sumerian. The emergence of these cities marks the end of prehistoric Neolithic era. Relationship of the Neolithic characteristics and the onset of agricultural activities, sequence of their emergence and the empirical relations in different Neolithic sites is still a subject of research and academic debates. The characteristics also seem to differ in different places instead of being the result of the universal social evolution laws.
Before Neolithic revolution, people lived with their extended families in a nomad life without staying at one place for more than few months. People always lived in temporary shelters and searching for food through hunting and gathering. Before Neolithic revolution people never owned anything because they could easily pack and leave where they were living any time. Neolithic revolution marked the end of this and the start of a settled way of life.
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The fall of the Soviet Union can be attributed to the Cold War. However, the collapse of Soviet Union was a gradual process that took almost half of the century. In around 1945 when the Second World War ended, the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a war that entailed fear and threats.
At that time, Cold War was a major concern in the international affairs. From the opponents of communism perspective, the purpose of Cold War was to ensure that communism was contained and that nuclear conflict was avoided. However, Soviet Union was determined to spread communism across the world including in the United States.
Both the United States and the Soviet Union disagreed over economic, cultural and political differences. In the United States, construction of retaliatory weapons started in preparation of the possibility of the need to use weapons. These weapons were known as the Strategic Triad. They included submarines, land based missiles and long-range bombers. This marked the start of nuclear arms race.
The governments of the two sides stockpiled more nuclear weapons to ensure that their governments are in line. Fortunately, nuclear was did not take place. This can be attributed largely to scare tactics embraced in the cold war. However, both the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in space race in the 1950s.
Both the Soviet Union and the United States wanted to beat the other in the space race for various reasons. The major reason was that their military and defense capabilities were to benefit from the establishment of a successful program of the space. The rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States was every intensifying which fueled the space race further.
However, 4 October 1957 marked a win for the Soviet Union because it launched a satellite Sputnik in the orbit. Nevertheless, the United States became the first country to land successfully on the moon.
Tension between the two sides continued with nuclear arms race and the space race being the major fields of competition. Over the years, crisis related to the cold war emerged including the Vietnam and the Korean wars as well as the Cuban Missile crisis. The economy of the Soviet Union became stagnant due to continued support of arms race.
However, Mikhail Gorbachev became a change advocate when he was appointed as the president of Communist Party. He started working with the United States’ president Ronald Reagan improving the relations between the two countries.
In 1989, the U.S president George W. Bush and Gorbachev declared the end of Cold War which marked the end of Berlin Wall and Communism end in the East Germany. In December 1989, communist governments in Romania, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia fell and the Soviet Union ended in 1991 when it split into different republics.
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