Unauthorized Practice of Law
While evaluating the basic comprehension of the notion of law practice, it is possible to draw sense from aspects that fundamentally involve provision of legal advice and assisting clients in drafting legal documents, representing them during court proceedings as well as legal negotiations or legal intercessions which include lawsuits. This evaluation may also include expert services that are offered by barristers, lawyers, solicitors, notaries in civil law and law attorneys. Nevertheless, law practice concept and other occupations that involve representation of customers in various situations by agents overlap.
These professionals can include the agents in real estate firms, insurance agents, bankers and those in the accounting industry. Additionally, there exist several services that traditionally were provided by lawyers as well as worker paralegals. Some of these services are now offered by the legal document assistants (LDAs). However, every state is responsible for limiting or regulating the law practice concept in the US. Therefore, there are variations in the definitions of law practice (American Bar Association, 2003).
“Unauthorized practice of law” as a phrase is usually considered as a variable. In several instances, it is considered conclusive and tautological. Thus, it is a non-lawyer person doing a lawyer’s or a counselor’s work in order to get monetary compensation (Garner, 2004). It is agreeable to some levels that practicing law without authorization entails appearing in a court that has been constituted lawfully in the proceedings of a legal case while representing a client especially when one needs monetary compensation (Garner, 2004).
Nevertheless, there are relevant variations that can apply in this definition depending on conflicting regulation and interpretation especially when defining the breadth and extent of the prohibiting act of law practice. According to the definition of the Black’s Law Dictionary, practicing law without authorization is law practice by an individual who is typically not a lawyer, without licensing and admission which would allow them to practice law within a specific jurisdiction (Garner 2004, pp.1191-1192). Therefore, these variables may be used while determining whether a non-licensed person’s action comprises an illegal or legal law practice.
Application to a Case Study
Fact of the Case
Mr. Stan Smith makes a call to Polly Paralegal, his friend for whom he sends a message inquiring this, ‘is adultery one of the divorce grounds in North Carolina?’ Later in the day, Mrs. Stan Smith makes a call to Polly Paralegal leaving a message that inquires, ‘Are there divorce grounds in North Carolina? I have just realized that Stan has committed adultery.’
Questions that need answers
- If the question of Mr. Smith is answered by Polly Paralegal, does that amount to unauthorized practice of law?
- If the question of Mrs. Smith is answered by Polly Paralegal, will that amount to unauthorized practice of law
Evaluating these scenarios, it ought to be noted that Mrs. and Mr. Smith reside in North Carolina. This state is situated in the United States of America. The questions aim at determining the situations under which advice of Polly Paralegal to Mrs. or Mr. Smith may amount to unauthorized practice of law. Therefore, it is important to give a clear and precise definition of “Unauthorized Practice of Law” or the meaning of law practice in North Carolina (American Bar Association 2013). Essentially, this will determine the scope within which this action constitutes a contravention of the established law or practicing law illegally in North Carolina which is a state in the United States rather than in other states since the definition of law practice differs between states.
Just like in other states in the US, North Carolina has its own statute which defines unauthorized practice of law. The provision of the North Carolina’s law statute is that:
“It shall be unlawful for any person or association of persons, except active members of the Bar of the State of North Carolina admitted and licensed to practice as attorneys-at-law, to appear as attorney or counselor at law in any action or proceeding before any judicial body, including the North Carolina Industrial Commission, or the Utilities Commission; … to maintain, conduct or defend the same,… or, by word, sign, letter or advertisement, to hold out himself, or themselves, as competent or qualified to give legal advice or counsel, or to prepare legal documents, or as being engaged in advising or counseling in law or acting as attorney or counselor-at-law, or in furnishing the services of a lawyer or lawyers and it shall be unlawful [for any such unlicensed person] to give legal advice or counsel, perform for or furnish to another legal services, or to prepare directly or through another person, firm or corporation any will or testamentary disposition, or instrument of trust, or to organize any corporations or prepare for another person, firm or corporation, any other legal document (N.C. Gen. Stat. § 84-4 (2005)).”
The definition of “practice of law” by the General Statutes of North Carolina includes:
- Aiding in the preparation or preparation of mortgages, deeds, trust instruments, wills, contracts and legal documents which secure legal rights (N.C.G.S 84-2.2),
- Helping in the preparation or preparation of orders or petitions in a court proceeding or probate (N.C.G.S 84-2.1),
- Passing or abstracting on titles (N.C.G.S 84-2.1),
- Filing and preparation of petitions to be used in the court which include administrative tribunals as well as other quasi-judicial and judicial bodies (N.C.G.S 84-2.1),
- Helping with counsel, advice or otherwise with legal work (N.C.G.S 84-2.1).
This excerpt clearly indicates that advice that qualifies to be an act of unauthorized practice of law or UPL would recommend or explain the action that needs legal judgment as well as one that affects legal obligation or right of one of the involved parties. Mr. Smith wants Polly Paralegal to offer a more general advice. The aim of Mr. Smith is to know what the legal document states and this does not need legal interpretation. Essentially, the question requires a reference to the governing laws of North Carolina. These are statutes that already exist in the state. Therefore, the advice does not have legal impact on Mr. or Ms. Smith’s rights. Actually, what Mr. Smith wants to know may be categorized as general knowledge.
In contrast, Mrs. Smith needs advice that needs legal interpretation. This has the potential of affecting the legal obligations or rights of Mr. Smith who is her husband. In reference to the question, her interest is to file a divorce against Mr. Smith on the basis of committing adultery if Polly Paralegal confirms the quest. Thus, this indicates that there is a possibility of filing a case which is likely to affect Mr. Smith negatively. Therefore, if Mrs. Smith gets advice from Polly Paralegal, he will have participated in unauthorized practice of law since it involves conveyancing. This is illegal according to the definition of the Supreme Court of North Carolina in In re Duncan Case (In re Duncan, 83 S.C. 186, 65 S.E. 2010).
Need a reliable place to have your assignments done for you to achieve better results?EssaysExperts.net
is the place.Our services reflects what the customer must get.We do not compromise the best.
Garner, B. A. (2004). Black’s law dictionary. Texas: West Publishing Co.
American Bar Association. (2013, January 7). “State Definitions of the Practice of Law.” Retrieved February 02, 2014 from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/cpr/model-def/model_def_statutes.authcheckdam.pdf
In re Duncan, 83 S.C. 186, 65 S.E. 2010.
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 84-4 (2005).
Natural Gas Fluidized Combustion
Fluidized bed combustion was first commercially applied in the early 80’s and has seen rapid growth to become a well established heat generation technology today (Johnsson, 2007). This technology originated from attempts to come up with combustion processes that checked emission of pollutants without the necessity of having external emission controls like scrubbers (U.S Department of Energy, 2013). Coal and natural gas are the two main fossil fuels that are employed in Fluidized-bed combustion systems for heat and electricity generation. The design, operating features and environmental performance of coal and natural gas fluidized bed combustors differs substantially. While coal operated fluidized bed combustors are the most widely applied technologies, there are increasing efforts focusing on the development of natural gas operated fluidized bed combustors due to their environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness when compared to coal based systems. This paper focuses on contrasting the design, operating features and environmental performance of natural gas fluidized bed combustor conventional pulverized coal unit.
Conventional pulverized coal fluidized-bed combustor is designed to use coal as the main fuel for generation of heat and electricity, whereas natural gas combustors employ various forms of gas producing biomass such as wood, crop remnants, wood pulp and chips, and municipal solid waste (Crawford, 2012). Regarding the Fluidized combustion technique, the bubbling fluidized bed (in which air is injected at a slightly higher velocity than the fluidization velocity) method is preferred in coal combustion units, natural gas on the other hand is processed using the circulating fluidized bed technique (here a very high air velocity in relation to the fluidization velocity leads to elucidation of particles from the bed and circulated back to the reactor via a cyclone). A more contrasting feature in the design of coal and natural gas fluidized bed combustors is in the turbine system; whereas coal operated systems are designed to use water-based turbines to produce steam, Fluidized-bed combustors that use natural gas relies on gas turbines for production of steam that is used in the generation of electricity.
The natural gas fluidized bed combustors are mostly designed to use relatively low amounts of heat in the disintegration of biomass particles as compared coal-based combustors that require large amounts of heat to operate. Limestone is the main catalyst that is employed in the operation of fluidized bed combustors using coal for speeding up the process, on the other hand, catalytic reactions in natural gas based systems are made possible by use of a range of alkali metals. Natural gas systems essentially do not require large Sulphur Oxides (SOx) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) chambers due to the low levels of production of these toxic gases. Coal operated systems on the other hand require substantial efforts in their design and operation features to curb release of these toxic gases.
Absorption of Sulphur IV Oxide in a conventional pulverized coal combustion chamber is made possible by the presence of Limestone on its bed, on the contrary fluidized bed natural gas combustion units are surfaced with calcium and sand that are responsible for SO2 absorption. In terms of the amount of het required, pulverized coal combustion require large amounts of heat to disintegrate coal due to its nature. On the contrary, natural gas combustion systems are laced with relatively low heating features since only relatively low degrees in terms of temperature are necessary for natural gas combustion.
In comparison to coal-based combustors, natural gas-based combustors are more efficient and environmental friendly, this is majorly due to a number of reasons;
- Production and release of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) gas to the environment can be put under check at a relatively low cost. Further more, NOx emission can be further reduced using add-on control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction (Pembina Institute, 2001).
- The emission of particulate matter in biomass operated systems is relatively low, this implies that there is only a small amount of waste to be dumped and thus requires a small dumping space (Pembina Institute, 2001). Coal produces a large amount of solid waste in form of ash in contrast to natural gas whose level of ash-waste is usually low. Coal combustion is therefore costly due to the costs involved in the storage and proper disposal of the solid waste.
- Biomass systems are more capital efficient due to the elimination of the steam cycle in their combustion process.
- Natural gas driven fluidized bed combustors are more environmental friendly in term of green house gas (CO2) emission into the atmosphere. Research has proven that presence of large amounts of Carbon IV oxide in the atmosphere lead to the depletion of the ozone layer and an increase in global temperatures as a consequence. Natural gas contains a smaller amount of Carbon IV Oxide gas as compared to coal. Pulverized coal fluidized bed combustion therefore requires stringent measures to curb emission of the green house gases in order to reduce the green house effect.
- Coal occurs naturally in a solid form, unless the combustion is done at the site of occurrence, transportation of coal to the processing plant is necessary. Due to its nature, coal is very heavy and requires road transport from site to factory. On the other hand, the gaseous nature of nature of natural gas allows it to be transported via underground and overhead systems making this a fast, cost effective and convenient form of transportation compared to road transportation of coal. Additionally, large storage space is required to store the raw materials in the case of coal compared to natural gas which is in most cases a valve-turn away and does not require storage space.
Since its introduction, fluidized bed combustion technology (a technology for reacting suspended fossil fuel particles with high velocity air) for heat and electricity generation have gained widespread acceptance. Coal, petroleum and natural gas constitute the main fossils utilized in electricity and heat generation.. Initially coal was the most widely used fossil fuel in fluidized bed combustion technologies, natural gas is rapidly gaining appreciation over mainly due to its non-bulky nature, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Coal based fluidized combustors are designed to allow feeding of solid coal of reduced size while natural gas systems are designed to only allow injection of raw materials in form of gas. Both coal and natural gas systems emit SOx and NOx gases as waste produce, the mode of absorption of these gases in the chambers however differs significantly. Although coal is the most commonly used fossil, natural gas producing substances such as biomass have been proved to be more effective, environmental friendly and cost effective.
Get academic papers at EssaysExperts.net.Do not let your assignments trouble you anymore.We offer our services at affordable rates keeping at close eye the quality and success of our clients.
Crawford, M. (2012, September). Fluidized-Bed Combustors for Biomass Boilers. Retrieved January 28, 2014, from ASME.org: https://www.asme.org/engineering-topics/articles/boilers/fluidized-bed-combustors-for-biomass-boilers?cm_sp=Boilers-_-Feataured%20Articles-_-Fluidized-Bed%20Combustors%20for%20Biomass%20Boilers
Johnsson, F. (2007). Fluidized Bed Combustion for Clean Energy. the 12 International Conference on Fluidization- New Horizons in fludization Engineering (p. 16). Goteborg: Engineering Conferences International.
Pembina Institute. (2001). Appendix 4: A Comparison of Combustion Technologies for Electricity Generation. Power for the Future , 12.
U.S Department of Energy. (2013). Fluidized Bed Technology – Overview. Retrieved January 28, 2014, from Energy.Gov: http://energy.gov/fe/fluidized-bed-technology-overview
Hinduism Views on Marriage and Divorce
In Hinduism, marriage is viewed as a sacred and lasting bond that brings together two individuals for a lifetime. Hindus believe that it is through marriage that spouses are able to pursue dharma (duty), artha (possessions), kama (physical desires) and moksa (ultimate spiritual release). When a man and a woman come together in marriage, the two are joined into one entity to secure the above highlighted aims as one. Hindus are joined together through a ceremony called Vivar Samkar that marks the start of a new stage in life known as Grihistha Ashrama. The ceremony marks the commitment of man and wife to start up a new family.
According to Hinduism teachings, marriage is an important duty or both men and women to fulfill. The choice to stay alone or lead a celibate life is not encouraged in Hinduism. In most occasions, arranged marriages, have been very common with parents sourcing for brides and grooms for their children since marriage also brings together two extended families. Weddings in Hinduism are scheduled according to the horoscopes of the two partners.
For a man and woman to be marriage in Hindu tradition, the ceremony has to be presided over by a priest. To show that the two are joined in holy matrimony, the priest lights a fire in honor of the god Agni and recites mantras in Sanskirt (a holy language of the Hindu scriptures). The groom then presents offers to the fire and asks for blessings to descend upon the marriage in the form of children. Besides, the two also perform other rituals while offering prayers asking for blessings of food, strength, wealth, good health, friendship, wisdom and happiness.
One thing that should be noted about marriage in Hinduism is that there are strict guidelines over status and class regarding who can marry whom. Only members of the same caste system are allowed to get married. However, women of a lower caste system can marry men in the upper castes.
Based on the seriousness with which marriage is taken in Hinduism, divorce is not considered to be an ideal option in the event that the couple has issues. According to Hindu traditions, there is no concept of divorce. Hindus consider marriage not as a choice but destiny. The two are regarded to have deep a deep connection, in this life as well as the past and future, hence divorce is almost viewed as a taboo. Divorce in Hinduism comes with stigma that can be very difficult to escape. However, democratic principles of religion allow a man and a woman who are married to pursue divorce in the event that they can never live as one.
Just like it is in other religious communities, Hinduism encourages spouses that are considering divorce to first sit down and find a way of solving their issues to avoid breaking the holy matrimony, marriage. If the two are unable to reach a consensus, divorce should be the last option. However, just like at the time of marriage, both parties must formalize the separation in writing.
At EssaysExperts.net , we offer very professional and reliable academic research writing services to suit your needs in all disciplines. At any time that you have an assignment, do not hesitate to place an order with us for authentic high quality papers.
Hinduism Views on Homosexuality
The terms lesbians and gays have been making news on daily basis. Whether there are apologists all over in the streets in many parts of the world or its news penalties on individuals who have violated certain rules has become a way of life. Homosexuality has always been seen as a sin from the religious perspective. Hinduism is one of the common religions that have contributed a lot on how many cases of homosexuality should be handled. Views on homosexuality have also differed among many people in the world.
The issue of homosexuality in Hinduism is quite contentious among Hindus in countries where sexual behavior towards partners of same sex and gender is generally accepted. The Hinduism views on homosexuality are diverse and vary greatly because the accepted Hindu religion writings do not clearly mention homosexuality. Because of the many types of religious life, homosexuality matter has become quite complex among Hindus. For instance, the twice-born Hindus are forbidden from any homosexual acts.
Surprisingly, the legendary Kama Sutra asserts that homosexuals should engage and enjoy the act for their own sake and as one of the arts. Hence, Hindu evaluation of homosexuality depends on the context. All in all, there is a complex history on homosexuality in India. The ancient texts like Rig Veda [1500BC], effigies and vestiges clearly depict sexual acts between women as revelations of a feminine world where sexuality was based on fertility and pleasure.
There have been unmatched variances between Hindus as to where homosexuality is an accepted behavior. The debated has always been immense and based on the background of Hinduism’s teachings on love, marriage and sex. In Hinduism, love is depicted as an external force, devotion between two people whether romantic or nonsexual. On top of this, erotic desire of kama in Hinduism was believed as one of the most legal pleasures of the world. Notably, this did not allow Hindus to engage on lustful behaviors.
Premarital sex is disregarded in Hinduism while extramarital sex is illegal. Sex is promoted in the context of heterosexual where a couple is able to express its desires without any societal shortcomings. In today’s India, transgendered men “Hijras” are known to have sex with men. They are religiously identified as a separate third sex where many have to undergo ritual castration. In India, a man who penetrates a Hijras is not seen as or defined as gay. In Kama Sutra, sexual acts involving homosexuals are acceptable in some backgrounds and not in others.
Many opponents of homosexuality in Hinduism argue that romantic love is only natural between opposite sex and it is not possible for two men or women to experience similar kind of love. Since romantic love is experienced between men and women, any acts of homosexual are due to lust and lust is wrong. Marriage in Hindu community plays great roles and Prajaa [the offspring of perpetuation of one’s family] is one of great roles. For homosexuals, it is hard to procreate after marriage. Premarital and extramarital sex is wrong and so homosexual cannot marry and so they should not engage in any sexual acts.
For the supporters of homosexuality they argue that nowhere in Hindu sacred texts is romantic love excluded to all but man and woman. There are no religious grounds to make a statement to the contrary. Due to the fact that homosexuals can experience romantic love, homosexual relationships are all not products of covetousness. Supporters of homosexuality also argue that Prajaa is not a key factor in Hindu marriages; it can also be interpreted in ways that do not involve procreation. At last, proponents also argue that, sexual expression within a loving affiliation is spurred by Hinduism as it is not an expression of lust. Hence, homosexuals should be allowed to enjoy and express their love sexually.
Indeed, homosexuality is a conflicting issue in Hinduism, but the involved parties should come up with great ways to tackle this issue at hand. Both Hindu leaders and religious leaders need to lay proper framework on solving this issue on Hindu perspective but not by following social customs blindly and copying the other religions.
Are you struggling writing sample essay on Hinduism views on homosexuality? Take time and find out what we have in store for you at EssaysExperts.net. We have satisfied the needs of many clients globally!
Sikhism Perspective of Life after Death
Sikhism perspective of life after death holds that people should live their lives without worrying about afterlife. Instead, they should focus on their ethical actions as well as piety in the current life. Mukti or liberation is a metaphor for best results that are achievable in afterlife. Sikhs envision this as the finding of unification with creator in his court.
Being ethical or doing well in a cycle of death and birth or going and coming or even reincarnation has led to human life that has to use this opportunity in reaching divine court. This implies that Sikh beliefs combine the idea of reincarnation that brings life to human with that of afterlife or paradise-like divine court of the creator. As such, since death offers this opportunity, individuals should not fear death.
Conception of Guru Nanak was that regardless of religious allegiances, worldly actions will be accounted for through a divine process that is beyond the understanding of humans. If an individual has lived a good life whether non-Sikh or Sikh has nothing to worry about or fear. The exact location or picture of divine court is just a moot point in the thought of a Sikh, for pious and ethical living, itself is an end. Worldly court of Guru was compared to Court of Kartar by the writers of the time of Guru. Individuals who sought protection of Guru selflessly got shelter in the current world and life after.
Liberation cannot be achieved by renouncing early pleasures of the world. It can only be achieved by simply seeking Kartar by living a societal and productive life. This implies that family life is important feature in achieving liberation because it is a commitment to social and ethical living. The soul will be liberated by divine grace. This comes with performance of meritorious actions and ethical living which prepares an individual to welcome or receive this grace. This grace is the ultimate and it is bestowed by creator only.
A Sikh servant that lived in the early 1600s, Bhai Gurdas notes that there are actions that are particularly meritorious in the spiritual path. Meritorious implies literally faithful or saphal. While patronage systems in some religious traditions equate merit with the donations for the religious establishment, Bhai Gurdas notes that teaching another person or Sikh how they should read the scripture is meritorious just like funding golden temples, since holy congregations offer regular opportunities for Sikhs to listen to and apply the scripture, pilgrimages are not considered necessary.
Place an order for your essay on Sikhism perspective of life after death online
Maybe you are struggling to write an essay on Sikhism perspective of life after death. Perhaps, you have other things to attend to yet the submission deadline for your essay is fast approaching. Do not panic or write your essay hurriedly to score an unpleasant grade. Just place an order for your essay with us at EssaysExperts.net
and we will sort you out.
We guarantee you that once you order your essay on Sikhism perspective of life after death at EssaysExperts.net
we will deliver a supreme quality essay within the deadline that you set for us.
The Glorious Revolution took place in 1688 and is sometimes referred to as the 1688 Revolution. The revolt ended the rule of James II, ushering in the sovereignty of William III and Mary II. It occurred after James II declared his intentions to reinstall Roman Catholicism as the national religion. Many people remember the constant dislocation of the English Civil War owing to the stability of Charles II at the time. During this time, most people were not willing to see the country in unstable state of turmoil and endless military conflict.
Because of James II policies and leadership style, there was enough discontent in the Tory and Whig parties. This displeasure forced main politicians to invite William of Orange, a Protestant to come and take the leadership of the country by dethroning James II. Important to note, William’s wife, Mary was the daughter of James II and granddaughter of Charles I. Following the invitation by leading politicians, William arrived in Devon in November of 1688, forcing James to fly to France on December 23, 1688. James’ departure left a leadership vacuum and in January 1689, William convened parliament, which passed necessary laws to recognize the success of the revolution. Most politicians who were against the leadership of James II saw him as a source of instability for the country. They believed that by ousting James II, they would take back the society where it belonged in the days of status quo and when Protestant faith was guaranteed without political interference.
In a bid to acknowledge his rule, parliament passed the December 1688 Bill of Rights, which decaled that James had resigned and the crown passed to William and his heirs. However, this unity to overthrow James and install William and Mary was not to last forever. There was disagreement on the procedure to run the monarch, leading to the splitting of politicians who were previously united under James II. One faction of the divide recognized Mary as the only legal heir to the throne since she was of the same lineage. Even though many years had elapsed after the rule of Charles I, there are people who held him with high regard as the monarch even though this was not as an individual. On the other hand, strict legitimists opined that William was the only recognized family member as he was ruling in the absence of the monarch.
William from Holland was a staunch and respected Protestant leader. He was also unhappy with the discontent and threatened to go back to Holland if he was denied full royal powers. Because of the turmoil and the fear of experiencing military rule in England, no one welcome the idea as it would have created a political vacuum, which no one supported. However, a few leaders from the Whig party argued that it was necessary to give the people a chance to choose who to become the monarch, without dividing the nation along political ideologies and leadership inclination. However, the Bill of Right, which empowered William in December 1688, forbade the monarch from being a Catholic and from marrying a Catholic too. The legislation further handed excess power to power, a turning point that historians view as the origin of constitutional monarchy. For instance, prerogative courts like the Ecclesiastical Commission were abolished. The law further recognized parliament as the only authority allowed to raise taxes.
At EssaysExperts.net, we handle all types of referencing styles. Do not panic whenever you meet complex and unfamiliar formats. Leave the burden for us and we will fix every problem. Here, we specialize in APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, and Oxford. We recommend that you specify your preferred citation format when placing an order with us.
Will to Believe
The Will to Believe asserts the adoption of a belief without prior evidence of its truth. The philosophy is mainly about defending the rationality of religious faith even lacking sufficient evidence of religious truth. It aims at the justification of faith, a defense of our right to adopt a believing attitude in religious matters, in spite of the fact that our merely logical intellect may not have been coerced. According The Will to Believe is a lecture that was first published by William James in 1896.
The central argument of William James in this lecture touches on the idea that access to the evidence for whether or not some beliefs are true depends on crucially upon first adopting the those beliefs without evidence. For instance, James urges that it can be rational to have unsupported faith in one’s ability to accomplish tasks that require confidence. Importantly, James points out that this is the case even for pursuing scientific inquiry. Besides, he further argues that like belief in one’s own ability to accomplish a difficult task, religious faith can also be rational even if one at time lacks evidence for the truth of one’s religious belief.
In the opening statements, James points out that most free thinking people do not usually believe that one should have religious faith since it cannot be rationally demonstrated. James believes differently. One is that faith is sensible, though not rationally demanded. He argues that one does not choose his or her beliefs but just has them. He further defends this this claim with a series of examples focusing on how we could not choose to believe things which we know to be false, such as that Abraham Lincoln did not live or that you are not sick when you are not sick when you are.
According to James, we often look towards leaders and the authorities, and model our beliefs after theirs. We believe and do not know why; we often accept what we have been told. Despite the length to which he discusses free will, but he is not too clear on this point. It should be noted that there are passional tendencies and violations which can come before and after a belief. Most importantly, James argues that like belief in one’s own ability to accomplish a difficult task, religious faith can also be rational even if one at the time lacks evidence for the truth of one’s religious beliefs.
In order to understand well the Will to Believe, James proposes that one needs to apply abstract and concrete way of thinking. In terms of abstract, we have the right to believe at our own risk any hypothesis that is alive enough to tempt our will. In a concrete way of thinking, the freedom to believe can only cover living options which the intellect cannot through itself resolve; and living options never seem absurdities to him who has them to consider. On conclusion, James points out that whether we choose to believe or not to believe, or wait to believe, we choose our own peril, our own fate.
At EssaysExperts.net, we are always ready to offer you professional help with academic papers for all disciplines. By simply placing an order for academic research writing services with us, you are guaranteed original, top notch papers.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban missile crisis refers to a dangerous and direct confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States during the era of the Cold War. This crisis marked the closes moment during which the two countries were almost engaging in a nuclear conflict. This crisis has been considered unique by most analysts for various reasons.
It featured miscommunications, secret and direct communications between the two countries. Its main characteristic was that it was played out primarily in the Kremlin and White House level with little input from respective bureaucracies’ involvement in the foreign policies of the two countries.
After a failed attempt by the United States to overthrow the Cuba regime of Fidel Castro through the invasion of the Bay of Pigs as well as the planned Operation Mongoose by the Kennedy administration in July 1962, the premier of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev reached an agreement secretly with Fidel Castro, the premier of Cuba to place nuclear missiles of the Soviet Union in Cuba. The missiles were aimed at deterring any possible invasion attempt in the future.
Late in the summer, construction of missile sites started in Cuba but the intelligence of the United States discovered that there was evidence of the Soviet Union arms being built in Cuba. These included the IL-28 Soviet Union bombers. The discovery was made during the regular surveillance flights.
On 4th September 1962, the U.S president Kennedy warned against the public that offensive weapons are being introduced in Cuba. On 4th October, the U-2 aircraft of the United States took pictures that clearly shown the sites of intermediate range and medium range ballistic nuclear weapons or missiles as well as IRBMs that were being constructed in Cuba. The images were presented to White House after processing in the following day. This precipitated the start of the Cuban missile crisis.
President Kennedy called his advisers so that they consider the right action to take and the available options. The aim of summoning the advisers was to resolve this crisis. Among the advisers involved were the Joint Chiefs of Staff who argued that an air strike would destroy these missiles and then followed by Cuba invasion by the U.S. however, there were advisers who suggested issuance of a stern warning to the Soviet Union and Cuba.
The president ordered a naval quarantine in Cuba on 22nd October. This quarantine distinguished the move from blockade legally. It also enabled the U.S to get support from the American states organization. Kennedy also sent Khrushchev a letter in the same day declaring that the U.S would not allow delivery of offensive weapons in Cuba. He demanded that the missile bases under construction or already constructed in Cuba to be dismantled. Nevertheless the crisis continued with the response from the Soviet Union and at some point it reached virtual stalemate.
Order an essay on the Cuban missile crisis now
Have you been asked to write an essay on the Cuban missile crisis and you are finding it difficult to write? Do you need online essay help? Then place an order for your essay at EssaysExperts.net
and we guarantee you the best help with your essay online.
The Zulu war is widely remembered for the bloody attacks on Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift. This war took place in 1879, where over 15,000 British troop invaded Zululand, the modern day Republic of South Africa. However, the build up to the Zulu war began in 1877, when Sir Henry Frere landed in South Africa from Britain to unite the colony under the British Confederation. Upon arrival, Frere realized how hard it was to unite the Boars, independent blacks and other British colonies. He therefore embarked on how to defeat the Zulu Kingdom as the only pathway to success.
However, the move by Frere to assault Zulu proved to be a tough one as London did not approve of it. He therefore sought the support of Sir Theophilus Shepstone, with convincing reasons for the attack. Shepstone saw the sense in attacking Zulu. He argued that there had been increasing cases of incursions on the border with Zulus, which was affecting the stability of his territories. He also took issue with increasing firearms in the wrong hands of the Zulu, which was fueling cases of war. Following this development, Frere sent an ultimatum to the King of Zulu, Cetshwayo, requiring him to dissolve his army with immediate effect. However, Frere knew that Zulu would not bow to him. He organized an attack under the commander of Lord Chelmsford.
It is worthy noting that before the Zulu war, Tugela River was the border between the British colony of Natal and the Zululand. King Cetshwayo had an army of between 40000 and 60000, which was prepared to face external aggression by the British forces. Lord Chelmsford attacked Zulu in January 1879, after the ultimatum for Cetshwayo to disband his army expired. However, the tall grasses in Zululand weighed negatively on the British forces, causing them to advance into the land without taking recommended precautions. Following this blunder, the Zulu army triumphed over British at Isandhlwana, resulting into the death of about 800 British solders. The Zulus also took approximately 1000 riffles with ammunition.
However, upon the arrival of British reinforcement, Cetshwayo fled. In April of 1879, a French Prince, arrived in South Africa in search of adventure. This was a setback to the British fighters. Napoleon III’s son joined the British mission to conquer Zululand. He significantly undermined the enemy and was killed in May, following a surprise attack by the enemy. This was embarrassment to the British army in Zulu, which proved its inability to protect him. Nevertheless, British victory continued and in July, they overpowered Cetshwayo at Ulundi. This led to the annexation of Zululand to Natal in 1887, making it formally under British rule.
In understanding the Zulu war timeline, it is paramount to underscore that the ultimatum, which Britain gave Zulu carried thirteen points, to none of which the addressee responded to, prompting an assault that was later repulsed. Besides the disbandment of the military, king Cetshwayo was also required to surrender three sons of Sihayo and his brother for trial in the Natal Courts. Cetshwayo was also to pay 100 heads of cattle as fine for the ills committed by those to be tried and his delay to surrender the offenders to face justice.
We are confidential. At EssaysExperts.net, we guarantee you total security. When you contact us for essay help, we engage all our gears to shield you from online threats. We have state of the art security system and IT gurus to ensure that you are safe whenever you contact us. We do not disclose your personal information with third parties.
It is needless to mention that the Byzantine Empire survived, centuries after the fall of Rome. It also grew to become the largest and most powerful European State at that time. During this time, it emerged that Byzantines found it hard to contain people from the West. This is because they found pleasure in fighting and were good in trade. Because of this, Byzantine Empire developed a diplomatic system, to allow signing of agreements with towns Venice, which was highly favored for allowing traders from different friendly cities in the region.
Following these arrangements, the Italians spread expansively, even though they hardly accepted that Byzantines belonged to a different religion. This was because at that time of Crusades, the Greek Orthodox Church would easily become a target for attacks. Since the separation of West and East and been initiated by the former, it had significant leadership influence. For example, monarchs from the west ruled the Byzantine Empire for almost half a century. While this was the case, it was never possible to gain total control of the region. There were local rulers who spread the Byzantine traditions, under the western rule. This largely contributed to the decline of Byzantine Empire. It continued to lose it territories until when Ottoman Empire overpowered Constantinople in 1453 CE and oust the government. Following these developments, Trapezus surrendered after eight years.
It is important to note the Byzantine Empire face a wide range of external enemies. Nonetheless, its poor internal organization largely contributed to its decline and collapse. Even though the empire registered political and economical stability by 1000AD, this was later to become Byzantine Empire’s downfall. The stability led to the emergence of joint feedback cycles, which destroyed the empire, taking away its success and glory. Firstly, the government of the day depended on free peasantry, for taxes and recruits.
During the days of constant battles and invasion, there was poor investment in farming, making land less productive. With the return of political stability during the eighth century, many nobles went for farmlands, which were under free peasantry. This led to endless battles between the nobles and peasants, who were not ready to part with their lands. Seeing that free peasantry was the pillar of the government, it did everything to protect it from greedy nobles. Basil II is remembered for steering this campaign, even though he could not overcome the powerful nobles, who were determined to end free peasantry.
Another factor that led to the decline of the Byzantine Empire is that not all leaders that rose to power were interested in protecting peasantry. This was much evident in 1025, after the death of Basil II who had the interests of farmers at heart. Because of the stability of the empire, many people did not see the essence of having a strong military. This saw weak rulers succeed Basil, some of whom had no military experience. Consequently, greedy nobles took the advantage and always attacked peasants during hard times like famine. Because of this, free peasantry declined, weighing heavily on the size of the army, since it was largely supported by peasant taxes. To remain strong and stable, Byzantine Empire resorted to employing the services of foreign mercenaries. The result was a weakened economy, which could not even support the military, resulting into its collapse.
We are RELIABLE writing company. With us, you do not have to worry about short deadlines because we are available 24/7. At EssaysExperts.net, we do not know day and night since you are in different time zones. With our online platform, you can place an order at anytime from any country worldwide.
XYZ Remote Access Policy
This XYZ remote access policy is designed and written specifically for XYZ Healthcare Provider.
The XYZ remote access policy is designed and written with the main objective of describing the standards for people who use or connect to XYZ Healthcare Provider’s network from any host. These regulations and standards have been designed so as to minimize possible risks and damages that XYZ may incur as a result of unauthorized utilization of the enterprise services. Such potential risks and damages may include the destruction of important internal systems, loss of confidential and sensitive information as well as intellectual property and even a dent on public image, among other things.
XYZ remote access policy affects all persons that may connect or use the XYZ network including the company personnel, contractors, suppliers, agents, patients and vendors or any other individual or groups of people. In addition, the policy also applies to remote access connections that perform varied tasks on behalf of the XYZ company including sending or reading emails and scanning through intranet web resources.
XYZ remote access policy will cover remote access implementations which will include ISDN, VPN, SSH, DSL, cable modems, dial-in modems, frame relay, cable modems and any other channels that can connect remotely, with the exception of those that connect through web interfaces.
- There will be strict control of the secure remote access and this will be enforced by using a single password verification system combined with private keys with complex pass-phrases.
- All the people who access the XYZ remote connection including the staff, contractors, patients, agents and vendors will be prohibited from sharing their login details with any other persons, including their family members.
- The company will explain and help each member of staff, contractor, patient, agent and vendor who has access to the remote connections, either through company or privately-owned computers or workstations that are connected to XYZ internal network, should not be connected to any other network simultaneously.
- The company will prohibit all members of staff, contractors, patients, agents and vendors with remote access concessions who possess company or privately owned computers or workstations that can be connected remotely to XYZ internal network from sharing these hardware with anyone.
- XYZ will further require that frame relay meet minimum verification preconditions of DLCI standards.
- Prerequisite authentication processes of CHAP must be met by all the routers for ISDN lines that are specifically built for access to the XYZ network.
- It is compulsory for every remote hosts that can connect to XYZ’s internal network via remote access technologies to use updated antivirus software in addition to operating system security patches.
- Each person affected by this policy will be given a detailed report on how implementation and enforcement will take place. Training will also be carried out beginning next week at department level to provide knowledge on how to fulfill these regulations. Policy review will take place every three months.
Given that this policy is new and has never been implemented by the institution before, it is expected that employees may have difficulty adhering to certain regulations especially those appertaining to sharing login details or hardware with family members. However, violations of any regulation will be punishable and persons found to be in violation will be suspended or denied remote access privileges.
Risks of using Public Internet for Remote Access
- Private networks can be risky in terms of spreading viruses and worms because they do not guarantee full protection of remote devices from configuration and software vulnerabilities.
- Exposure to worms and malware may compromise the company’s system resulting in illegal access of the remote access connections. This may lead to the introduction of malicious codes into the organization network (Ballad et al., 2011).
- Access of the network by outsiders may be used for wrongful purposes such as obtaining private information that may enhance susceptibility to phishing attacks and ultimately, loss of information, data or money if organizations are required to pay ransom by hackers (Gregory, 2010).
Need for Remote Access Policy
- The policy ensures that each staff is aware of where, when and how to use the company’s internet and don’ts accompanied by this concession.
- Reduces or eliminates altogether exposure of the organization’s network to worms, viruses and malware from external devices.
- It enhances accountability of internet usage in the organization (Eckel, 2006).
- It ensures that the resources of the company are used for organizational needs and not personal gains (Shoemaker & Conklin, 2012).
- It stipulates actions to be taken in case employees violate the codes of ethics on internet usage.
Ballad, B., Ballad, T., & Banks, E. K. (2011). Access control, authentication, and public key infrastructure. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Eckel, E. (2006, July 19). The importance of a remote access policy. Tech Republic. Retrieved 11 November 2013 from http://www.techrepublic.com/article/the-importance-of-a-remote-access-policy/
Gregory, P. (2010). CISSP guide to security essentials. Boston, MA: Course Technology.
Shoemaker, D., & Conklin, W. A. (2012). Cybersecurity: The essential body of knowledge. Boston, MA: Course Technology Cengage Learning.
U.S. v. Wade, 218 L. 2d 388 (87th Ct. 1967)
Type of action
A civil suit conviction in which the counsel is missing for the violation of the Sixth Amendment Right
The most important issue in this case is to obtain fair trial and judgment through civil suit. Wade is certain that the courthouse has stepped on his fifth and sixth amendment rights. He holds that he can only get justice through an appeal.Let us consider the case U.S. v. Wade, 218 L. 2d 388 (87th Ct. 1967).
Facts of the case
This case stems from a bank robbery that took place in Eustace on 21 September 1964. During the robbery, two of the bank’s employees were in and were able to recognize Wade as one of the robbers in the County Courthouse (Dimitrakopoulos, 2007, p. 331). The suspects were identified by being paraded, a method the defense considered infringement on Wade’s rights as outlined in the fifth and sixth amendments. The court appealed even though the trial court quashed the application before it was reinstated by the Fifth Circuit. The court is therefore inn court because parading of Wade for identification as one of the robbers was a violation of his sixth amendment right.
Contentions of the parties
Wade believes that the County Courthouse obtained facts about the case in a way that violated his Fifth Amendment right of self-incrimination and the sixth amendment on being paraded. According to Wad’s sixth amendment right, he was to be paraded in the presence of his counsel. However, the County Courthouse maintained that the accused was guilty of robbery following thorough investigations and submission of two eyewitnesses, who were employees of the bank.
The issue in this case revel that the Trial Court stepped on Wade’s rights by convicting him of robbery based on facts from eyewitnesses and through lineups in the absence of his counsel (Dimitrakopoulos, 2007, p. 333). On the other hand, the defense’s position that Wade’s Fifth Amendment was violated is untrue. The prosecution compiled evidence gathered through meticulous investigations to ascertain that Wade was one of the robbers.
The Chief Justice and the Justice at the Fifth Circuit held that based on the submissions by the defense on Fifth Amendment; there was no violation of Wade’s rights under the Fifth Amendment. The judges ruled that the previous decision by the court lacked proof. However, they ruled that the judged were required to observe the Sixth Amendment, as this amounted to violation of the convict’s rights. Parading of Wade was to be done in the presence of a counsel as it formed a core element of the prosecution.
Based on these circumstances, the absence of a counsel when the accused was paraded presented the risk of prejudice on the defense. Additionally, the defendant lacked an interactive session with the police during cross-examination.
Rule of law
It is clear that that County Courthouse violated Wade’s Sixth Amendment Rights, leading to a reversal of the previous ruling by the court. Nonetheless, because of the submissions made and evidence presented, the court could uphold the conviction of Wade as the bank robber (Dimitrakopoulos, 2007, p. 339). The case clearly defines the rule of law, which you have to follow to the latter. Every suspect has the right to a fair and just system, regardless of the court proceeding. Infringing on a suspect’s rights may put doubts on the court’s final judgment.\
Get more information at essaysexperts.net
Writing a Custom Essay
Many times, tutors ask students to handle different types of papers within a term. These papers will vary from essays, research papers, dissertation papers and many others. Actually, these papers contribute a certain percentage of student’s final grade. Thus, it is important to hand in high quality papers. Essay writing is complicated and there comes a time that you need to get custom essay. The good news is that, it is extremely easy to get the best custom writings nowadays.
Write your Personal Statement or Buy Essay
Writing a personal statement is captivating in the sense that you will try hard and let people know more about you. In the real sense, you have to talk more about your experiences and what you hope to achieve one day. To sell yourself to an academic institution is not that easy. Many people and especially students find it demanding and taxing to craft compelling personal essay. Thus, why, it is advisable to buy essay and save more time and get rid of any writing disappointments.
Why Seek Write My Paper Help When It Is Easy To Buy Essay
School or college life is usually one of the imperative periods in a person’s life. To succeed in the academic circles, you need to work hard and aggressively. Whether you are in high school or university doing your MA or PhD degrees, you will at all time have to sit for a term paper and ensure that you will get the best grades. Many times, you will find student asking ‘‘can you please write my paper’’? If you do not have time or not well versed with essay paper writing- you can invariably buy essay.