Ethics Assignment Paper on UVA Professor Questions Purpose of Code of Ethics in Engineering Profession
UVA Professor Questions Purpose of Code of Ethics in Engineering Profession
The main ethical issue in this case study is the instruction given to engineer A by his supervisor to alter the process of testing the wafers manufactured by their contractor company. The altering of the testing process results in a decline in the quality of the wafers, which causes the contracted company to charge less for the wafers. This is likely to result in the Dicers company improving the profit margins after reducing the cost of procuring the wafers. There was an agreed process of the testing the wafers between the two companies, and this is stated in the contract. Not using that process to test the wafers is a breach of the contract on the part of Dicers company. According to the AIC code of ethics, the engineer should not get involved in deceptive practices that are likely to give any party an undue advantage over the other. Further, the engineer should not injure the professional reputation of others, whether directly or indirectly.
The directive given by Engineer A’s supervisor to alter the testing process of the wafers is the origin of the problem. There is no way of determining whether the supervisor was instructed by his seniors to make that request to the engineer. The alteration of the testing process of the wafer will lower the cost of procuring the wafers from the external contractor. The management of Dicers company is the most likely beneficially of this alteration in the testing process. This is because the contractor for the wafers will demand less money for the wafers supplied, reducing the cost of the procuring done by this company. On the face of it, the supervisor is the root of the problem. However, there is also the possibility of the management of the company being the cause of this ethical problem.
The engineer should consult higher level management at Dicers to get clarification on the instructions that he has been given by his supervisor to alter the testing process. This is the best course to take, as opposed to divulging that information to persons not within the organization. The engineer should also state his reservations regarding the alteration of the testing process and give the higher-level management the opportunity to investigate the matter and the contractual agreement that the company has with the external contractor. Taking this step is in line with the AIC code of ethics which states that the engineer should not divulge any confidential information gathered in the course of professional activities to any firm, individual or company that is not authorized to access such information.
Canon 6 in the ASCE Code of Ethics states that an engineer should not act in a manner that compromises the honor, dignity and integrity of the engineering profession. The engineer is expected to stay clear of practices that involve bribery, fraud and corruption. The practice of altering the testing process is a form of fraud, and it is for this reason that the engineer should be concerned about going ahead and implementing it. This course of action is also backed by Canon 4 of ASCE Code of Ethics that stating the engineer should act in the best interest of the employer or client and act as a faithful agent and trustee of the information gathered on the job and at the same time try and avoid incurring conflict of interest. Engineer A should hold this information that is considered internal to Dicers in trust and not divulge it to outside sources.
The option of approaching the managers of the other companies and informing them of the suspicious activities taking place at Dicers is not advisable. This is because it goes against the duty of the engineer to hold information in trust for his employer. Further, this is likely to result in a dispute that would cost both companies a lot in terms reputation and the possible lawsuits that would follow. The engineer does not have the authority to communicate with the management of the other company, as he is not designated as the contact person for Dicers as far as the other company is concerned. It is unethical for the engineer to leak out such information to an entity that is external to Dicers.
It is also not advisable to inform news agencies of the
activities taking place in the company. This
could put the company in conflict with the engineer and make him lose his job.
There is also the possibility of Dicers getting a bad reputation amongst other
players in the industry and also the
clients (Ferris, par 5). This can have a
prolonged negative effect on both the
engineer and the company. This is not a
preferred outcome for either the company or the engineer. The engineer is
supposed to clarify with the senior level management of the firm regarding the
instructions given by the instructor in order to
make an informed decision. As at now, there is not enough information to decide
whether the supervisor is acting alone or whether this is a decision that has
been made by management of Dicers.
Ferris, Elyse. “UVA Professor Questions Purpose of Code of Ethics in Engineering Profession.” University WireMar 13 2017. ProQuest. Web. 21 Oct. 2017 .
The Economic Times defines risk as the uncertainty in future concerning the shift from expected revenue or the outcome expected by an individual or company. Further, risk denotes the uncertainty measures investors willingly take in their hope to realize profit from investment in a venture. In taking the risks, the investors hope to gain revenue and reputation as well as experience in the given field. Risk is therefore the apprehension and gain investor look to get from a venture.
Risks inherently carry uncertainty and in extreme cases can lead to loss. It is for this reason that many organizations have safety programs within which there are modalities on the management of risks. Ivensky (2016) contends that safety programs ensure there are no disagreements among members particularly in risk-averse industries such as aviation. In management of risks, such safety programs have models for the assessment and management of risk. One such model involves a process that starts by the assessment of risk level, removal of hazards, a reassessment of the risk levels, adding safety factors, reassessing the risk levels, and a final process that involves a bail out. In such as safety program the management of risk also involves grading risks at different levels, and using the levels to factor in countermeasures in the event that such risks may actually come to fruition.
The risk-averse nature of the aviation industry is perhaps a direct consequence of its highly volatile nature and especially its sensitivity to shocks in international fiscal markets. Additionally, fuel prices are a great risk given the huge role jet fuel plays in the operation costs of airline companies. Air Canada, one of the biggest airlines in the world, has an intricate risk management and assessment strategy to cushion it from the volatile industry. According to Fernando (20016), the company employs financial derivatives in the management of its exposure to jet fuel prices changes as well as those in interest rate and foreign exchange. Thus, in the management of the interest rate risk inherent in its route of operation, Air Canada enters into forward interest rate agreements. The agreements have a maturity limit of 18 month. On the other hand, in the management of foreign exchange risk volatility, the company enters foreign exchange forward contracts as well as currency swaps.
In addition to risk management, Air Canada performs risk assessment. The company’s assessment of risk follows an extrapolation of the trends in the exchange rates and jet fuel prices. After performing the assessment, the company then implements a series of strategies, including systematic fuel hedging strategy that conveniently increases its hedge position for its 24-month consumption (Fernando, 2016). Additionally the company hedges its fuel consumption in mid and long-term in crude oil. Alternative invests for the company includes financial institutions, major corporations and the government, all of which collectively reduce its exposure to substantial credit risk (Fernando, 2016).
Conclusively, the fact that jet fuel prices, exchange rates and interest rates volatility are among the major risks airlines face means that staying afloat requires a program to manage the risks—all integrated within the company’s operations. To manage the risk, the program needs integration within the general company operations by making it a part of the general operation program. For the management of exchange rate risk, entering into exchange agreements presents a viable option especially for largely frequented destinations. Further, given the importance of jet fuel, the price volatility and the risk presented by the volatility, hedging agreements present a viable option for the management of the volatile market risks. Hedging particularly presents a viable option given its potential for future gains.
Fernando, S. (2016). Risk Management Practices in the Airline Industry. Simon Fraser University. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjg7aPWtJvWAhWLaRQKHShLCekQFggsMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsummit.sfu.ca%2Fsystem%2Ffiles%2Firitems1%2F3430%2Fetd2415.pdf&usg=AFQjCNH-re-_0eDVqJIhrF0Id8dcAj_qLw.
Ivensky, V. (2016). Managing risk perceptions: Safety program supports outcomes. Professional Safety, 61(8), 7-14. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306106928_Managing_Risk_Perceptions_Safety_Program_Support_Outcomes.
Discuss and apply one change management theory to this case on Ashland. How did they eventually use this process to implement change? What was the change?
Ashland Inc. is one of the major companies that have been experiencing a remarkable level of success. Since the time it started, the company has consistently registered an increase in a number of sales as well as expansion in terms of its new ventures. Despite its huge success, Ashland Inc. has had its struggles in adapting positive change. In 2002, the operations of the company were strained due to the usage of incorrect change management strategies. According to the management of the company, there was no competence or capability of handling change. This led to the introduction of a new program aimed towards helping the employees to better understand the change process as well as its implementation. One change management theory on Ashland Inc.’s case was the Kotter’s Change Model.
Looking into the challenges the company was facing in comparison to Kotter’s model, there is a clear match. Firstly, there was the need for urgency. Ashland’s earnings graph was heading to the negative side hence the need for urgency for change. Secondly, the program was designed to be inclusive of all the teams in taking up the training. It is also evident that the new program was hierarchical in nature to ensure sustainability and inclusivity of all employee levels (Buchanam & Huczynski, 2010). Fourthly, the program attracted a huge number of employees aiming towards a common goal.
During the implementation of the change program at Ashland Inc, all barriers, such as inefficient hierarchies and processes were shed off. Employees obtained the freedom of working with the aim of being more impactful. More energy needed to be generated during the implementation of change. With this, the management team introduced short goals which acted as motivators for change. In the seventh step, the CEO insisted on the sustainability of the change introduced by being relentless in consistently insisting on its implementation. Finally, in relation to Kotter’s change model, the management team articulated the connections between the new habits and the success of the company. This acted as a motivation for all the employees towards accepting the outlined changes (Buchanam & Huczynski, 2010).
Research Ashland, Inc. and find out how well the company is doing today. Do you think the changes “stuck”? Why or why not?
Today, Ashland Inc is considered to be one of the most successful companies in the world. From the case analysis, it is clear that change management in this company has ensured consistency in its growth. The failures that had been experienced in the past are no longer a bother to this company. For instance, the adaptation of new technology is no longer a hindrance towards higher productivity. In my view, the changes applied during the 2002 crisis stuck. This is because Ashland has been able to detach from Valvoline re-launching itself as a global company that specializes in chemistry. Unlike the past, the company concentrates on making its customers highly successful.
Secondly, before the implementation of change for Ashland, the company experienced resistance and high staff turnover. As a result, the company registered a huge reduction in productivity levels reducing its profits. Due to effective change management, the company now enjoys increased productivity as well as zero redundancy. It is also known to offer profitable products that ensure maximum benefits to their customers. The changes implemented in the production section have worked well in ensuring improved products for the market. As a result, the annual sales are approximated at $5 billion as at 2016. The company has also been listed in the S&P MidCap 400*.
Buchanam, D. & Huczynski, A. (2010). Organizational Behavior with CW Gradetracker Student Access. London, U.K: Pearson Education publishers.
The internet has become a significant part of the current generation. It has been a baseline for today communication from instant emails and messaging to travelling, shopping, studying, and banking (Abraham L. Newman). The internet has touched every life aspect. With the increasing application of the internet, protecting valuable data is considered a necessity. A computer system which does not have necessary security controls can be infected by logic which may be malicious hence resulting in loss of the information. There numerous infected websites which can allow hackers to access computer systems illegally.
Network outages, hacking of crucial information, computer viruses and other associated cyber-attacks have enormous impacts on people’s daily lives. The causes of cyber threats can be unintended accidents, vulnerabilities, or negligence. However, they can also be intentional or planned, for instance, the access or hacking of the computer systems by the illegal operators (Salsabeel Shapsough). The primary goals of this kind of system attackers or hackers are to destroy, manipulate data, make illegal financial transactions, or to steal confidential information. The system attackers can either be recreational hackers, terrorists, or crackers. These individual have different tools that they use and which can harm the computer. In most cases, they apply virus or malicious logic to get unauthorised access to computer systems.
System attackers can be terrorists, crackers or recreational hackers. The most common ways in which computers can be accessed and information stolen is through downloading dangerous programs, clicking on malicious websites or links or opening malicious email attachment (Salsabeel Shapsough). The chances of cyber-threats are highly increasing with an increase in the number of mobile and internet users, data networks, and digital applications. In fact, a simple mistake of bad social networking or data security can be extremely fatal. In instances that accounts are not secured properly, it becomes easier for unauthorized users or hackers to spread engineered attacks or viruses that are designed to destroy information or steal money. Such kind of issues brings about the need for cyber security as a basic approach in providing prevention and protection of data.
Information technology security or cyber security refers to the protection of networks, information, data, and programs from unintended access, alteration or destruction. It can also be used to refer to activities and operations that are taken to reduce any vulnerabilities and threats, and formulating policies for data assurance, and other operations related to cyber securities (Caitriona Heinl). It comprises all processes and mechanisms that protect records, digital equipment, and information from unintended or illegal destruction, access, or manipulation.
In the current dynamic setting, internet security is crucial for organizations families and individuals that collect and keep a variety of information that is confident on the computers and transfers that information to other computer networks. Protecting children against malicious online activities have become an important aspect for the majority of the families. For individuals, the provision of protection to data that could have effects on personal finance and social life is highly relevant. Though there are very many benefits of the internet on learning opportunities, there are also very many risks that are associated. The kind of data shared on the social media such as Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, etc. can be misused leading to incidents that may be life threatening. Social networking sites are the most popular channels for the exchange and connection of people through the sharing of information (Abraham L. Newman). However, these sites have come up with diverse opportunities encouraging cyber misconduct which has comprised personal identities leading to leakage of information. It is, therefore, imperative for people to know the significance of protection against cyber threats, and understand the difference between real and virtual world. People must know how to guard their computers and private information from hackers and exercise proper online behaviour, by doing these they will be able to eliminate cyber threats hence encouraging an online environment that is safe.
Several business organisations, majorly medium and small -size undergo critical challenges in the protection of data. Limited technological and financial resources are the main reasons which are making it difficult to enhance their security systems and stay updated with technology. However, through cyber security awareness and appropriate planning, improvements that are beneficial to those business organisations will enable their information to be protected and avoid disclosure of trade secrets. The majority of small businesses are have started taking steps to protect against malicious access to their information. This study will discuss major internet security issues and how to provide solutions to secure computer systems and data.
INTERNET SECURITY ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS
Many managers dealing with system framework are interested in an “old school” approach mostly referred to as animal constraining (Abraham L. Newman, p. 1). Bearing in mind the end goal, which is to make the system security catchphrase defenselessness, there has been a development of a “CAPTCHA Technology.” A normal type of CAPTCHA technology needs the clients to key in numbers or letters from a picture that pops up on the computer screen. This image is essential in protecting the computer system from unwanted, robots. The managers of the security systems have been convinced with this kind of innovation to provide the safety of the internet system.
The solution for this kind of a problem is to have a new secret key that is sophisticated. To make a private and secure password, there is a need to mix numbers, letters, and symbols and ensure that unauthorised person does not access it (Caitriona Heinl, p. 1). In an organisation perspective, the heads of the security should make sure that their clients develop complex secret keys that cannot be duplicated easily and remind them that they should be in a position to change their passwords on a regular basis. To make these changes easier, the management can provide guidelines as to when it can be changed. Also, apart from changing, the users should also use passwords that they can easily remember.
Regardless of the fact that treats do not transmit infections and that they are not able to bring about malware on the host computer, monitoring of them is very significant. These are because they are mostly used as techniques to access the cumulative records of surfing histories. The reason why decode treats is considered, as peculiar security system issue is that they are capable of opening the user’s framework to Cross Site Scripting (XSS) ineffectiveness. As such it is one of the major security concerns. Any individual can access to any login information treats on any system in situations of Open Cookies. The mitigation for this kind of security concern is to ensure that the greater part of the system treats has encoded close time and that they are also scrambled. The system managers or experts should make sure that clients re-login when they get touch indexes in the system.
Secure Web Hosting
First, it is important that to note that Shared Hosting is not a right approach especially for users who are keeping a legal business and have a website, which has access to the inner system. A standard website that facilitates administration is an avenue where one server hosts numerous sites. Each site is allocated its server or space that keeps it separated from various destinations. This is one of the most cautious options of facilitating since individuals can share the expenses of the server (Abraham & Newman, p. 1). For instance, shared hosting can be compared to sharing a house with a friend and each has a room, in situations that someone breaks in the house and the room of your housemate, there are high chances of also your room being robbed. The same idea is the actual picture of Hosting that is shared. In the same situation, if a hacker is inside the territories of shared server, it will take less effort for the hacker to enters in each website. Therefore, the best option and solution for this kind of a problem is to have a secure cloud hosting and a server hosting that is committed to protecting the data of its clients.
Any person who is conversant with the internet tools can decode unsalted Hash. Hashing is mostly used to recover files from the databases. Additionally, Plan Hashes are applied as one of the many encryption computations (Abraham & Newman, p. 1). Salt, which refers to another type of encryption, is added to Hashes with an ultimate goal of making Lookup Table Helped Directory Attack (LTHDA) also known as Brute Force, to a substantial problematic extent, given that the salt is sufficient. Most importantly, a cyber criminal may not have the potential to apply a pre-registered table to tamper with the system of the user, which comprises an essential multifaceted level in nature to the user’s security framework system. Therefore, irrespective of the reasons that the attacker may have access to the user’s database, it will be a big challenge for the hacker to recover and use that data or information. Hence, an ideal solution that can guarantee the safety of the data of the user on Hashes is the concealment of the encryption key (Salt).
Proxy for the security and internet safety purpose
Application of proxy is one of the widely recognised techniques for internet activities that are anonymous (Abraham &Newman, p. 1). By large extent, people are applying traditional intermediaries. Different intermediaries are used for various reasons. For instance, remailer is used for sending messages; web broker is used for scanning, etc. It is important to note that though remailer is not intermediary, it functions the same way as the intermediary. Also, some intermediaries such as SOCKS intermediary allow working with various internet protocols since they are widespread.
The advancement of the web is based on its security. In fact, the agreement that provides the basic underlining of the internet is not known intrinsically. Majorly, it is the PCs concerns of demanding to communicate with each other for the sake of sharing their content. For instance, the user’s Internet Protocol address (IP address) can be identified by any web server (Abraham & Newman, p. 1). The server can identify various qualities of the users from the website the user is using to connect to the internet, also known as the user referrer, the user’s working framework, and the project applied by the user to surf the web also referred to as client operators.
Online intermediaries are facilitated by virtual products that are considered to be server side. Examples of these virtual products include intermediary scripts that are customized, Glype, GGIprox, and PHProxy. A network program connects these intermediaries. In normal instances, what happens is that the user IP address is shrouded so that one can enter the website address and open the website page in the highlighted structure. It is not mandatory to reconfigure the user’s computer, introduce a program, or download it. A web intermediary needs to direct the archive asked by the user and the components or articles related to archive. There is a possibility of suspicious activities taking place in the presence of an intermediary; this is so because not all the intermediaries have the same efficiency. Some of the internet administrators may make errors when executing numerous types of website page code. Nonetheless, these codes are simple to execute and use.
Open proxies are commonly referred to as public intermediaries. They are SOCKS or HTTP intermediary server that are deliberately or accidentally left open and are readily available online (Salsabeel Shapsough, p. 23). They have the advantage of being compatible with most of the websites because when transporting data, they are not required to alter the pages of the websites. Apart from these advantages experienced by using open proxies, there are some disadvantages associated with these intermediaries. This is because the public intermediaries do not provide security and at such, the use of them may bring about more dangers.
organizations have constantly pushed the legal
structures to adapt quickly to the security scene that is rapidly changing. It
is of great value that these structures are robust but versatile regarding
their accommodation. Leaders qualified
are very important in this mathematical statement. Also, it is of great essence
that powers in the oversight and regulations are comprehended to assist in the
advancement of security concerns, innovation, and apparatuses. It is also important to teach the general public the value of
this mystery. Regardless of the fact that this mystery is occurring, it
does not have sufficient support from the key players to make it simple to
encourage more support and trust. The mystery is that more engagement, more
deceivability, and more openness with other different parts is generally what
will assist knowledge organizations in advancing into another security time.
Abraham L. Newman, & David Bach. Privacy and Regulation in a Digital Age. California, 2015. <https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/07/can-you-have-both-security-and-privacy-in-the-internet-age/>.
Caitriona Heinl, & Eugene EG Tan. “Cyber Security: Emerging Issues, Trends, Technologies, and Threats in 2015 and Beyond.” RSiS (2016): 17-117.
Salsabeel Shapsough, Fatma Qatan, Raafat Aburukba, Fadi
Aloul, & A. R. Al Ali. “Smart Grid Cyber Security: Challenges and
Solutions .” 2015.
Internet security and privacy are one of the many things that can be learnt from this project. Currently, cyber security is a big problem, and hence, this project has tried to recommend possible solutions and several approaches pertaining these problems. PC security, also known as IT or cybersecurity safety is the protection of information systems from robbery or damage of the equipment, the product, and the information in those systems, and from confusion or interruption of the administration they offer.
Another important aspect that one can consider when dealing with this field is big data, and cloud computing or one can also study privacy and security concerns. Cloud computing is a discipline that empowers organisations to distribute figure assets such as utility – just like power – unlike building and continuously registering bases in-house. Distributed computing offers several advantages to the final consumer and organisations. The following are the three top benefits of distributed computing:
• Provision of self-administration: Distributed computing enables the end users to turn up and register assets for a workload depending on their interest.
• Elasticity: Organization has the capability to scale up depending with the registering needs growth as well as downsize as requests diminishing.
• Pay per use: Clients are only permitted to pay for workloads and assets they have utilized since computing assets are estimated at a granular level.
Therefore, it is important to note that emerging technology needs a high concern for privacy and security.
Outsourcing is a good business strategy when used in the right manner. This is because the strategy is cost effective. For example, Dell Company that deals with the manufacture of computer outsources some of the components from rival companies instead of manufacturing them internally. This gives it an edge in the market.
Some of the ways through which outsourcing has been carried out in the recent past is offshore contracting. Multinational companies such as Coca-Cola prefer foreign contracting by relocating business operations to foreign countries that present lower rates in form of labor and capital. Another company that has applied this kind of strategy is general electric company based in the United States but shifting its operations to china due to the reduced cost of power and low labor costs (Haugen, Musser, & Lovelace, 2010). In addition, large corporations engage in outsourcing because of higher corporate taxes that are charged in the United States than other countries such as china. Ethical issues are prevalent for those companies that engage in this kind of an endeavor. This happens because of business mistakes. An example of a real situation is when solid works corporation; a United States Software Company reported misconduct by one of its employees who tried to make a deal with the company’s competitors. The Indian company was an outsourced partner of the parent company. Thus, business secrets are not in save hands when outsourcing.
There are several risks associated with outsourcing that includes loss of business strategy and knowledge, failure by the venders to deliver to the expected standards, non-compliance with government regulations and low turnover by these institutions as well as business personnel. This puts businesses at risk of losing its customers and operations.
Haugen, D. M., Musser, S., & Lovelace, K. (2010). Outsourcing. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Importance of internet to college students’ research proposal
Today, internet is a tool that is used by virtual everybody in the world today. As such, this research proposal is aimed at finding the best reasons why college students should utilize internet in order to excel in their studies. Furthermore, the research would also look at the impact of social networking sites like facebook and twitter have contributed towards acquisition of knowledge by college students. Therefore, this research is of importance because internet access and usage is significantly used by tutors and students in most schools, colleges or universities today.
The research will summarize books, articles and internet sources in order to gather adequate information needed for this research proposal. Some of the main benefits of internet to college students include. Research, communication, online education, entertainment, looking for jobs and news among others are some of the reasons why the internet is important to college students. Through the internet, students in colleges are able to do research work concerning assignments given or things not understood in class (Rahmawaty, “Advantages and disadvantages of internet as learning media”). They are able to do in-depth research in order to gather information needed by looking for topics of interest via the internet. Similarly, the tutors also use the internet to research on topics before and after lecturing. In relation to communication, students are able to exchange information using various avenues such as video conferencing, chatting, internet telephony and e-mail among others. Students are also capable of getting different types of entertainment through the internet. They can play games, listen to music or watch movies as a way of getting themselves entertained. Students can also get informed on the latest news happening around the world. They can also use this avenue to look for jobs that matches their career paths.
With the ever changing technology, this research will focus in providing an in-depth analysis based on information found from internet sources, books and data from business professionals
Rahmawaty, Rizty. Advantages and disadvantages of internet as learning media. Web. 4 May 2015.
Crisis in Yemen
Yemen is historically divided between Shiites, who live mostly in the northeast, and the majority Sunni population who live in the southeast is important to regional players and the United States. The Houthis are a Shiite rebellious grouping that battled the reign of President Saleh from 2004 to 2011 when he accepted to resign. Using Iran’s support, they influenced the surrender of the President Saleh’s successor, President Hadi. Saudi Arabia, which borders Yemen, is in support of President Hadi, who took refuge in their nation (THE NEW YORK TIMES, 2015). With the help of nine other countries, Saudi Arabia led a month long military operation to restore the Yemen government. Their leaders were worried about the Houthis because they were backed by Iran, which is a regional enemy.
Al Qaeda militants attacked the government freeing from prison its key leader among others, which became evident that the group has grown confidence, and the Yemen government is deteriorating. The Houthis began taking control of increasingly wider parts of the country, but this did not last for long since the Sunni militants of Al Qaeda retaliated with violence. The United States helped in backing Saudi Arabia in conflict resolution by warning Iran from equipping Houthis with better weapons. This forced the exit of 125 United States special operation advisers, who were meant to control the situation against the terrorist groups. However, Yemen partnered with America to counter terrorism mainly against Al Qaeda troops (THE NEW YORK TIMES, 2015). With the American help and intelligence, efforts to defeat the Al Qaeda militants became fruitful due to their brilliant methods. In conclusion, the United States in conjunction with Saudi Arabia through negotiations with the Yemen government, military deployment, and reinforcement, could successfully help in the crisis resolution. In today’s society, nations could help each other triumph over the rising conflicts.
THE NEW YORK TIMES. (2015). The crisis in Yemen: What you need to know. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/03/26/world/middleeast/yemen-crisis-explained.html?_r=1
The Effects of Socio-Economic Status (SES) to Language Acquisition
Socio-Economic Status (SES) is the social class of a group or individual. It is defined by the occupation, income level, and education attained (Hartas, 2011). In this paper, SES is defined in terms of parental occupation, parental education, and parental income. Low-SES refers to a socially disadvantaged group or individual with low education level and low income. Low income in this case refers to insufficient income to meet the needs of a dignified lifestyle. The information in the current literature shows a positive relationship between the socio-economic status of a family and the rate of language acquisition in young children (Hoff-Ginsberg & Tian, 2005; Enz, Vukelich, & Christie, 2008; Letts et al., 2013; Hartas, 2011; Hoff-Ginsberg, 1991). Children born and raised by parents with higher education level are more likely to have high language acquisition rate with rich vocabulary as compared to those born and raised by parents with low education levels (Hoff-Ginsberg & Tian, 2005). This paper examines how educational levels, parental income level, and parents’ jobs can affect language acquisition and vocabulary development in young children. The paper also reviews behaviorist and interactionist theories and their implications for language acquisition. The material of this paper can be used as a framework of reference for educators in developing effecting teachings methods for children with low language acquisition born from low socio-economic status families.
Behaviorist theory of language acquisition
According to behaviorist theory, language acquisition takes place the same way other human behaviors are acquired. The responses of caregivers (otherwise role models) to the behavior of young children serve as a motivation for the learning and retention of that behavior. According to Skinner (1938), a child is motivated to repeat and learn a new word if the effort is given positive attention by the parents. Thus, the parent’s attention and praise of the child’s effort in learning new words acts as a motivation for the child to repeat the same word (Enz et al., 2008). Subsequent sections of this paper applies behaviorist theory of learning in explaining how children acquire and develop language including complexity of their vocabulary and syntax
Interactionist language learning perspective
Interactionist perspective considers the relationship between one’s in-born ability and external factors in human behavior development. The basic idea of this learning approach is how the social interaction between young learners and their immediate environment affect their language acquisition. According to this theory, the experience of parents and interactions with children reinforces the children’s ability to learn new language vocabularies (Enz et al., 2008). Interactionist learning perspective can be used to explain the differences in the style of language seen and heard in young children coming from different social classes. According to Hart and Risley (2003), children at the age of three years do not have their own social experience outside their homes. Their view of the external world including language is acquired from the experience of their parents. Hoff-Ginsberg (1991) also observes differences in the language styles and complexity of vocabulary in children from different social classes. Children from a high socio-economic class use more developed vocabularies and complex sentences in their communication as compared to those from lower socio-economic class (Hoff-Ginsberg, 1991). Interactionist learning theory is used to explain the differences in the language of children from different socio-economic groups.
How SES of parents effect language acquisition
As pointed out earlier, the socio-economic status (SES) of parents or caregivers influence their children’s language acquisition rate. According to Hoff-Ginsberg (1991), a language is acquired through exposure to vocabularies and conversation between children and their caregivers. Young children do not have their own social experience of the world outside their homes. What they know about the world is learned from the experience of their parents (Hoff-Ginsberg, 1991).Through imitation process; they reproduce words and sentences heard from their parents. Therefore, a parent has an influence on language acquisition and social experience of his child. Children born and raised in low- SES families have language difficulties, are slow learners, and use few vocabularies in their communication (Hoff-Ginsberg, 2003; Letts et al., 2013; Parks & Smeriglio, 1986). One of the reasons for this observation is that high-SES families are more likely to engage in storytelling and reading with their children that helps to develop their languages as compared to low-SES families (Enz et al., 2008). Another explanation is the quality and quantity of time parents spent with their children. Hoff-Ginsberg (1991) observes that high-SES parents spent more time in child-directed conversation with their children as compared to parents from low socio-economic backgrounds. Child-directed helps the child to learn and acquire a language and new words. The effects of low-SES to the acquisition of language and vocabulary can be prenatal influence, parental care or environmental cognitive stimulation (Thomas, Forrester, & Ronald, 2013).
Low-SES and pre-natal care as a language acquisition factor
The work of Thomas and his colleagues (2013) links low socio-economic status with increased likelihood of impaired fetal growth, pre-mature birth, high infection rates, high stress levels and poor nutrition during pregnancy. The above listed factors affect the early brain development process, which also affects the learning ability a child in later years. The work of Wild et al. (2013) establishes a positive relationship between pre-term birth and low language acquisition at todler stage. Their work also shows that high stress levels and poor nutrition during pregnancy are the main causes of pre-term birth. Several factors can be cited for the cause of high stress levels as it relates to socio-economic status. Single parenting is higher in low socio-economic status groups as compared to high socio-economic groups. Single mothers experience a high strenious life working fo their needs and the needs of their children as compared to those who are married. Stress levels is even higher when the single parent is doing a hard low-skilled job. Mothers from low- SES backgrounds also have difficulties in getting diets with sufficient nutrients (Thomas et al., 2013). Coupled with parenting responsibilities, poor nutrition results in high stress that can result in pre-mature birth. Poor nutrition also impaires cognitive development of the child which causes slow and poor language acquisition.
Low-SES and Parental care as a factor in language acquisition
Parental care is seen in terms of discipline, parental sensitivity to the child’s needs and verbal communication between a child and a parent (Hoff-Ginsberg, 2005). According to Hoff-Ginsberg (2005), the quality of parental care given to young children has an influence on their language acqusition. The education level of the parent (caregiver) (Parks & Smeriglio, 1986), income level (Hoff-Ginsberg, 1991), parent’s job and the general social environmental are positive influencers of the quality of care given to children (Hoff-Ginsberg , 2003). In this section SES is broken down into its dimensions to capture its effects on the quality of parenting and how it affects language acquisition in leaners.
Low level of parental education: The level of education attained by a parent (usually a mother) affects the quality of care given to children (Parks & Smeriglio, 1986). The level of education affects the parent’s knowledge about parenting. Parks and Smeriglio (1986) shows that low level of parental education causes poor parental care of the children. Parents (especially mothers) with low education levels have little knowledge about their role in the language acquisition of their children. They do not initiate a parent-child verbal communication and if any, then it is mainly for purposes of giving directions to the child and not asking questions for the sake of developing a learning conversation with the child (Parks & Smeriglio, 1986).
Hoff-Ginsberg (2003) establishes a relationship between the mother’s level of education and the vocabularies used by the child. Children born and raised by mothers who have college education use a language with complex vocabularies and complex sentences as compared to children born and raised by mothers with low education level. This is because of the vocabularies used by educated mothers in when talking to their children. According to Huttenlocher and his colleagues (2010), children raised by parents with college education have highly developed vocabularity because they often hear long and complex utterances from their parents as compared to children born and raised parents with low education level. Huttenlocher et al. (2010) observe that educated parents have a high diversity in their life experiences and this experience is easily copied by their children in normal child-parent interactions. According to behaviorist and interactionists learning theories, children acquire languages and vocabularies through interaction with their caregivers and thus, hearing complex utterances helps them expand their vocabularity and complex sentences.
The level of education attained by the mother is related with the complexity of the language used by a child. A child raised by a mother who uses many complex sentences in child-parent conversation has a high likelihood of developing and using a larger variety of complex sentences (Huttenlocher et al., 2010). According to Huttenlocher and his colleagues (2010), structural complexity of a parent’s language depends on the level of education attained. Educated parents use a variety of complex vocabularies to describe things for their children either to create emphasis or to clarify meaning. On the other hand, parents without formal education are blunt in their communication and mostly use straight instructions that causes their children to have few vocabularies and simple sentences in their communication.
Environmental cognitive stimulation
Environmental cognitive stimulation is concerned about the relationship between socio-economic status and the availability of things that aid in language acquisition and development. Such things include books, electronic computers, trips and communication between a parent and a child (Hoff-Ginsberg, 2003). Exposure of children to the above listed learning things depends on the income and education level of the parent.
The research work of Hart and Risley (2003) reveals a shocking statistics about the relationship between socio-economic status of parents and children’s language acquisition. According to their research, at four years, children from professional families would accumulate an average of 45 million words experience as compared to those children from average working-class families at 26 million words (Hart & Risley, 2003). This findings contrast sharply with a 13 million words experience of an average child in a welfare family. Several factors play out in the 30 million words difference between a child raised in a professional family and a child raised in a welfare family. Before children gain their social experiences of the world outside their homes, they copy their parents’ experiences including language and vocabularies. Therefore, just as a professional parent is likely to have a high and vocabulary-rich language than his average working-class counterpart, so are their children.
Professional parents have a high exposure to different experiences of life than those parents in welfare families. When with their children, professional parents initiate parent-child conversations about many different topics and aspects of life that equip the children with complex vocabularies and sentences as compared to parents on welfare programs. According to the work of Hoff-Ginsberg (2003), low-income parents spend less time for mutual play and conversation with their children than high-income parents. The difference in the amount of time spend in mutual conversation between professional high income parents with their children and average income working-class parents with their children explains the difference in word experience of the two groups .
According to the work of Scott (1996), a person’s occupation in life depends on the level of education acquired. Low-income jobs are largely low skilled menial tasks that require low or no educational qualification. Such jobs are demanding and leave the involved parents with less or no time with their children. High income professional jobs cause low physical stress levels when compared to the low income occupations which are menial at best (Scott, 1996).The low stress levels of high income professional jobs leave parents in question with sufficient time to engage in child-parent conversations required in language acquisition and development. According to Parks and Smeriglio (1986), parents with high education levels have high parenting knowledge and would respond to the children’s learning sensitivity. Despite occupation pressure, an educated parent with a high parenting knowledge knows the importance of appreciating a child’s effort and would try to give the child an attention.
The second argument is based on income as a means of buying language learning aids for the children. High income parents can afford to buy computers and books for their children which are instruments for learning and language development (Huttenlocher et al., 2010 ;Hoff-Ginsberg, 2003). High income educated parents are also likely to guide their children through story telling and home reading as compared to low income parents without formal education. Home-based reading and story telling causes the different between the rate of language acqusition in children from low SES and High SES families (Parks & Smeriglio, 1986).
Exposure of a child to different enviroments is also helpful in language acquisition and development. High income parents have the means to take their chidren out for trips and outdor acvitities that allow them to meet and interact and learn from other children. This exposure plays an important role in language and vocabulary acquisition. Exposure to different environments also help children to ask and and engage in child-directed conversations with their parents (caregivers), an act that improves their language acquisition and vocabularity.
Another argument that explains the differences in vocabularity and language complexity of young children from low SES and high SES backgrounds is the type of social conversation between a child and a parent/caregiver. Pre-school children are generally inquisitive and would inquire on various aspects of their parents’ lives including education. In this case, a high income parent with college education would more likely talk to his child about his/ her career and various other careers out there than the low income parent without formal education. Hart and Risley (2003) found out that children from professional families are able to explain the careers and occupations of their parents as compared to those children from welfare families. Similarly, children from professional families were more likely to explain their career interests in life and other available options as compared to those from low SES backgrounds (Hartas, 2011). This explains that the type of child-parent conversation influences the vocabularity and language complexity of the children.
Socio-economic status is an important influencer of the language acquisition and vocabulary development in young children. Two theories, behaviorist and interactionist perspective explains how socio-economic status influences the way children learn languages. According to these theories, the language is acquired in a similar way other human behaviors are learnt through interaction with the social environment. Described in the paper are evidences in literature that links socio-economic status to language acquisition and development in young children. There are three factors through which socio-economic status influences language acquisition: prenatal influence, parental care, and environmental cognitive stimulation. Prenatal influence as a factor of language acquisition is based on the relationship between low socio-economic status with impaired fetal development and pre-term birth that affects the cognitive development of children. High stress levels and poor nutrition during pregnancy are associated with low socio-economic status.
Parental care as a factor in language
acquisition is based on the arguments that low education level, low income
level and occupations affects the quality of parental care given to young children
that consequently influences their language acquisition. High income is a means
of acquiring learning aids such as computers and books, which are influencers
of the language and vocabulary of young children. Similarly, parental education
level determines the complexity of child-parent conversations. Through social
interactions, children imitate the language of their parents. College parents
are more likely to use a complex and high vocabulary language in mutual
conversation with their children as compared to parents without formal
education. This aspect of parent-child communication influences the vocabulary
of the infants’ language.
Enz, B. J., Vukelich, C., & Christie, J. (2008). Helping Young Children learn Language and Literacy:Birth Through Kindergarten. New York: Allyn & Bocon.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (2003). The Early Catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3. American Educator, 27 (1), 4-9.
Hartas, D. (2011). Families’ Social Background Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children’ s Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes. British Educational Research Journal, 37 (6), 893-914.
Hoff-Ginsberg, E. (1991). Mother-Child Conversation in Different Social Classes and Communicative Settings. Child Development,62 (4), 782-796.
Hoff-Ginsberg, E. (2003). The Specificity of Environmental Influence: Socioeconomic Status Affects Early Vocabulary Development Via Maternal Speech. Child Development, 74 (5), 1368–1378.
Hoff-Ginsberg, E., & Tian, C. (2005). Socioeconomic status and cultural influences on language. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 271-278.
Huttenlocher, J., Waterfall, H., Vasilyeva, M., Vevea, J., & Hedges, L. V. (2010). Sources of Variability in Children’s Language Growth. Cognitive psychology, 61(4), 343–365.
Letts, C., Edwards, S., Sinka, I., Schaefer, B.,& Gibbons, W. (2013). Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children’s performance on the new Reynell Developmental Language Scales. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 48 (2), 131-143.
Parks, P. L., & Smeriglio, V. L. (1986). Relationships among Parenting Knowledge, Quality of Stimulation in the Home and Infant Development. Family Relations, 35 (3), 411-416.
Scott, J. (1996). Class: Critical Concepts, Volume 1. London: Routledge.
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.
Thomas, M. S., Forrester, N. A., & Ronald, A. (2013). Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development. Developmental Psychology, 49 (12), 2325-2343.
Wild, K. T., Betancourt, L. M., Brodsky, N. L., & Hurt, H. (2013). The effect of socioeconomic status on the language outcome of preterm infants at toddler age. Early Human Development, 89 (9), 743-746.
Does God really exist? What is the cause of his existence? If he does not exist, what is the cause of the existence of the universe? Better still, does the order in the universe suffice to conclude that God exits? These are some of the questions, which float on the floor whenever there is a debate on the existence of God. Among these are teleological arguments, which base the existence of God on the design and order of the universe. They are also called arguments to design.
Teleological argument is derived from a Greek word, ‘telos’ which means purpose or end. Thus, these arguments speak about the existence of the universe based on some end or purpose. It is therefore to conclude that the universe must have been created by an intelligent being, making it ordered for the sake of accomplishing a certain purpose. This annuls the opinion that the universe may have com into existence by chance. According to history, St Thomas Aquinas used this argument as one of his ways of determining the existence of God. However, the argument of William Paley is most cited one. On his part, Paley compared the universe to a watch, which has many ordered parts that work together harmoniously to achieve a particular purpose. Just as the order, complexity and purpose of the watch, which implies the existence of an intelligence being its development, so is the order, complexity and purpose of the universe. Beside this universal order and design, there is an intelligent being called God. This argument however, is from an analogy.
However, with time, modern positions slightly differ from teleological stance held by Paley. For Paley, his order and complexity was inclined towards biological systems like animas or the eye. On the other hand, today’s teleological arguments put weight on physics. Their focal point is always on fine-tuning, which exists in the universe. According to these theorists, the universe exists in a fine-tuned state to support life to the fullest. The greatest advantage of this argument is that it less prone to attacks from public attacks stemming from the evolution theory as compared to Paley’s argument. The modern teleological argument also rejects Paley’s opinion that evolution is enough to explain the existence of biological designs.
Like many other arguments in the world, there are proponents of teleological arguments, which are sometimes called arguments from design. In his opposition to the argument, Antony Flew referred to the argument the argument to the design. Even though Flew is no longer the hardliner in critiquing the teleological argument, he still critics the common name, holding that it reads, “argument to.”
The basis of the teleological argument is the fact that the existence of a universal design is enough to prove then existence of a supreme God. This is by far better in explaining God’s existence compared to evolution theory. It can be compare to something being carried, which must have the carrier and a design, which must have a designer. However, those who oppose the argument question whether the order and complexity that is present in the universe is amounts to design.
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SWOT Analysis of Nordstrom
A SWOT analysis of Nordstrom can enable this company to carve a clear, sustainable niche in its market. SWOT analysis refers to a useful technique that is used to understand the strengths as well as weaknesses of an organization or a person while identifying the opportunities to explore and threats to face.
When and how SWOT analysis of Nordstrom has been useful or important
Nordstrom has always used SWOT analysis in uncovering opportunities that are possible to exploit. This framework has also enabled this company to understand its weaknesses and to eliminate threats that may catch up with it unawares. Additionally, by looking at itself and its competitors via SWOT framework, this company has always crafted strategies that have enabled it to distinguish itself from competitors in order to compete successfully in the market.
Perhaps, it is by using SWOT analysis that Nordstrom has continued to grow since its establishment in 1901 by John W. Nordstrom in Seattle Washing as a small store selling shoes. In 1963, the company ventured into clothing market and it is currently one of the leading fashion retail stores in the U.S. It has more than 49,700 full time employees and it operates indirect selling which includes catalogs and e-commerce as well as credit operation.
Comprehensive SWOT analysis of Nordstrom
Since mid 1980s, Nordstrom has been striving to ensure diversity in its workforce. 15.7 percent of the managers of this company were color people in 1988. 23.9 percent of the entire workforce comprised of the color people. Today, the company comprises of 30.5 percent managers as color people and 71.6 percent of the workforce is made of women. This company also has a diversity program for suppliers which provides an opportunity for women and minorities companies to supply it with the products that it needs. Additionally, the company has diversity of operations. It has restaurants, cash operations and spa service. It is by ensuring diversity of employees and operations that Nordstrom has won the support of people from different races and backgrounds in the society.
Nordstrom has always striven to achieve uniqueness in its services and products. To achieve this, the company has employed workers from different backgrounds so that they can contribute in the production of products and services that are superior to those of competitors.
- Society support
Nordstrom also participate in the activities of non-governmental organization and Fair Labor Association. It has been active in supporting universities and colleges. This has enabled it to obtain the support of the society and to expand its business more.
- Slow growth
The growth of Nordstrom is very slow especially in other continents. This can be attributed to the competition that it faces from similar stores which makes its market share stagnant.
- Huge operational costs
Due to its large employee base, Nordstrom spends a lot of money in paying salaries and wages. This has led to a decrease in the money that is available for investment in new ventures. This has contributed to a slow growth rate as compared to other retailers like Kohl’s.
- Further growth
When compared to other retailers like Dillard’s and J.C Penney, Nordstrom is the sole retailer with operations in Europe. With this strength and consideration of the fact that the company has not explored all markets, Nordstrom has an opportunity for further growth in Europe and other continents.
- Better utilization of technology
Through the use of modern technology, Nordstrom can expand its business and enhance efficiency. In fact, this is one of the key initiatives of this company. An example of this initiative is the cooperation with IONA technologies in building its internet retailing system. This has enabled the company to manage its inventory control while reducing response time for physical distribution management.
- Intense competition
Being a fashion retailer, Nordstrom faces intense competition from other retailers including J.C Penny, Dillard’s and Home Retail Group among others.
- Economic change
Economic changes are a threat to this company. The effects of economic changes can be seen in different ways including the cost of shipping products which compels it to set higher prices for its products. When the company offers free shipping, its profitability is affected negatively. Additionally, the company is affected by the cost of acquiring clothing merchandises that it sells from other countries due to changes in tariffs that arise from economic changes.
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United States Debt Ceiling
The United States debt ceiling also known as the debt limit is a legislative mechanism that limits the amount of national debt issued by the Treasury through limiting the amount of moey the government can borrow. Debt ceiling therefore is an aggregate figure that’s applied to gross dent which also includes the debt in the intra-government and public accounts.
Around 0.5 percent of the debt isn’t covered by the debt ceiling. There are separate legislations that authorize expenditures as such debt ceiling does not limit government deficits directly. The only thing that it can do is restrain the Treasury from paying the expenditures once the limit is reached but it must have been approved and appropriated already.
Once the debt ceiling is reached and still there is no limit enacted, Treasury resorts to ‘extraordinary measures’ in order to finance the government obligations and expenditures temporarily until a resolution is reached.
So far, the Treasury has not arrived at the point of exhausting extraordinary measures, resulting in default. While this is the case, there are instances when it has appeared like the Congress would allow defaults to take place.
The debt ceiling has been in effect since 1917 when the Second Liberty Bond Act was passed by the United States Congress. Prior to 1917, no debt ceiling was in force though there were parliamentary limitations on the possible debt level that a government could hold. The financial history of the US has been one of government indebtedness and the same applies to most of the North American and Western European countries in the last two hundred years.
- Every year the United States has been in debt except in 1835
- Debts that were incurred during the American Revolutionary War and Articles of Confederation led to the first yearly report on amount of debt
- Since Herbert Hoover, every president has added to national debt which is expressed in absolute dollars. Since March 1962, the debt ceiling in the US has been raised seventy four times. This includes eighteen times under Ronald Regan, 8 times under Bill Clinton, 7 times under George W. Bush and under Barack Obama, 5 times.
Since 1950s, the vote to increase debt ceiling has been a matter of legal budgetary formality between the Congress and the President. It has not been a political issue that would make any elected government unable to pass its yearly budget. Reports made from congress though in the 1990s stated repeatedly that debt limit is an ineffective means to restraining dent growth. The redundancy of the debt ceiling has also led to suggestions that it should be abolished.
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How to find an Example of a Term Paper when you are in Need
Do you love writing? Well, whether writing it is your hobby or tops your list of things you hate in life does not matter. The underlying factor is that term paper writing is a compulsory assignment in college. Before your academic year ends, you will submit a term paper in your area of specialization. For your information, scoring high grades in your term paper can be an easy and impossible mission depending on how you prepare. A recommended way of overcoming these challenges is finding a good example of a term paper to help you master different elements, which tutors look for.
In this guide, you will find the following sections:
- Understanding Term papers
- Elements of a good term paper
- Examples of excellent term papers
- The don’ts of term paper writing
Do not rush reading this handout because it is the key to a successful term paper. Take your time and grasp every segment. Do not hesitate sharing these secrets with your pals and excel as a class. Are you ready? Let us go….
Things to look for in a good Example of a Term Paper
What to note about term papers
A term paper is any academic paper that is worth publishing. It is a common writing assignment for students in colleges. If you are a freshman in college, prepare to tackle several term paper be before you graduate in that field.
Term papers pose a range of challenges to students, who find it tasking to compile a sensible academic paper and present for grading at the end of an academic year. You can only write an appealing term paper if you have the right knowledge, skills, and experience.
In addition, good term paper writers are patient and persevering in order to hone their skills. A good starting point can be laying your hands on an example of a term paper to understand basic principles like format and style.
No matter how short your term paper is, you must include the following:
Parts of a good term paper
The introduction- This acts like the head of your paper. It shows the reader what you are discussing and contextualizes the issue at hand. Your intro should capture your problem and present a summary of solutions to the issue.
Length- The length of your introduction depends on the overall length of your term paper. However, a standard intro should be 10% of the total paper. Thus, a twenty-paged term paper will have two pages of introduction while short papers may have a paragraph or a few sentences as the introduction.
Functions of an introduction: A good introduction does the following things to your term paper:
- Provides background information – This is relevant information on the topic, which will help year readers understand what you are doing.
- Contextualizes the issue – Your introduction should put the issue into perspective. Tell the reader what you are discussing, giving them reasons why they should read your paper.
- Gives your thesis statement – a complete introduction has your thesis at the end. This is your main idea, claim or argument. It gives a roadmap of how you will defend your argument in the rest of the paper.
A paper whose introduction does not meet these needs then it is not a good example of a term paper to help you become a better writer.
State the problem – Your introduction should tell the reader more about the problem, including its significance. Here, you justify the need to conduct a thorough study on the issue. As you do so, propose ways of dealing with the problem and possible solutions.
Literature review – This is a detailed section. It shows the current findings, and approaches on the issue. Dig into academic sources and find out what different authors say about the issue at hand. Remember to cite your sources using recommended styles like APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard among others.
Important elements that every term paper must have
Besides a detailed introduction, your term paper should cover the following areas:
Let us look at these elements in details one after the other:
METHODS – This section shows the approaches you employed to gather information or relevant data on the topic. Common methods to apply in data collection include:
- Interviews – Talk to people, including experts on the issue and the public. Interviews help you get deeper knowledge on an issue as you can ask probing and follow up questions during the session.
- Questionnaire – Administer questionnaire to a sample of the population within which you are conducting your survey. A question is a list of question, requiring short answers, including YES/NO.
- Observation – Here, you go out in the field and document what you see. For example, if you are discussing how student utilize their free time, you will have to note the activities they undertake during this time.
RESULTS – If you are looking for an example of a term paper, settle for one that clearly shows the results of the research. With the results, you can convince the reader that you conducted the research.
Under results, you should capture all your findings. You can present your results in form of tables, graphs, statistics and charts among others.
In addition, tell the reader any problems with your findings. This can be a good chance to state your shortcomings and error margins in your numbers. Findings form a basis for you to recommend future researches changes to methodology for accuracy.
Discussing your results in a term paper
Bring out meaning. Once you have the results, discuss them. Discussion is important because it helps you give meaning to your findings. Remember that a table of results without an analysis makes no sense to the reader.
As you discuss, bring out any observable trends for your audience to understand the gravity of the issue.
Go for important results – Since you have limited time and space, focus on important results in your discussion. Spend time explaining figures that add value to your term paper or provide answers to your research problem.
Draw conclusions – Your conclusions should come from the discussion. Make conclusion based on the results and the research issue you are handling.
Link your results to the worldview – With your findings say how the issues relate to the broader society. This helps the reader to connect your survey with an issue in the real world.
Works Cited – As you search for an example of a term paper, get one from professional writers who do not plagiarize. Remember to acknowledge all the sources you use to develop your ideas.
Consider the following term paper examples. They should help you understand the basic elements of a standard paper:
Examples of term papers
More tips that will guarantee you a good example of a term paper
Good term papers are not easily available. The best option is developing good writing skills. The following hints should always be at your fingertips when handling term papers. Take a look.
Be complete – Your audience will enjoy reading you paper if you give complete information. For example, provide full bibliographical information about your sources, including name of the author, publisher, year of publication, editor, edition, etc.
Be consistent – Stick to one style of referencing. Do not mix citation styles as this is against the cardinal principles of academic writing.
Be kind to the reader – Provide all the information the reader will need. Make good use of footnotes and endnotes.
Number your work – A good term paper should have page numbers to guide the reader. Choose a good numbering system.
Are you looking for where to find an example of a term paper? Here are some the reliable sites that students are turning to for reliable solutions:
Example: Where to find term papers
Mistakes to avoid when working on your term paper
Here are common errors that students make when writing term papers. Do whatever it takes to avoid them.
Not following instructions – Read and reread the instructions and follow them to the letter.
No proofreading – Go over your paper to eliminate common mistakes
Poor intro and conclusion – Ensure you have a good first and last impression
Poor paragraphing – have coherent paragraph. Every paragraph should start with a topic sentence
No references – Unreferenced papers will earn you no mark
With these ideas, you should be able to find a good example of a term paper and also write your own. It is as simple as that. Godspeed.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Shifting Cultivation
Coniferous forests are mainly comprised of coniferous or cone bearing trees like pines, spruces, firs and hemlocks. Leaves found on these trees can either be needle like and small or alternatively scale –like and most of them stay green throughout the year. All trees found in this type of forest are also softwoods as such they have the capability to survive acidic soil as well as cold temperatures.
These trees are mainly found in northern hemisphere though there are others in southern hemisphere. Those forests found in the northern hemisphere are known as boreal or taiga forests and covers large regions of North America from the Pacific all the way to the Atlantic. In addition to this, they also range across Scandinavia, northern Europe and Asia through to Mongolia and Siberia to northern Japan and China.
The temperatures in coniferous forests are -400C to 200C while the average summer temperatures are 100C. The precipitation in the region is 300 to 900 millimeters per year. Coniferous forests are generally known as regions that have long, cold and snowy winters while the summers are humid and warm. In addition to this, they also have seasons that are well defined with at least 4 to 6 months that are frost free.
This type of forest thrives in regions that have cool and short summers with winters that are harsh and long. The forests also do well in regions that have heavy snowfall that lasts for as 6 months. The needlelike leaves of coniferous trees have an outer coat that is flexible and soft usually pointing downwards making it possible for snow to glide downwards. An example of coniferous tree that is found in one of the coldest regions is larches. The tree is however unusually for this type of tree simply because it is deciduous and sheds its leaves during winter. Coniferous trees like redwoods, cypresses and cedars on the other hand are found in regions that are much warmer.
Coniferous trees, though they are ever green also shed their leaves eventually to grow new ones. The needles therefore fall to the floor of the forest where they form a springy thick mat and they decompose or break down with the help of threadlike fungi. The fungi aids in ensuring that nutrients from decomposed needles are absorbed back to the roots of the trees but since pine needles never decompose easily, the soil tends to be acidic and poor.
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The two major fossils man uses in production of energy for industrial and domestic purposes is natural gas and oil. These fossils availability is often restricted to specific areas and often occurs in the form of underground deposits. This leads to the necessity of directing them to the surface to ease production and processing of end products. While some natural gas and oil flows to the surface naturally due to underground pressure, such occurrences are extremely low and amounts extracted fail to meet the demands of consumers. A couple of extraction and mining techniques, top on the list hydraulic fracturing is embraced in order to response to the rising demands for energy. This paper closely focuses on Hydraulic fracturing as a technique for the extraction of natural gas and oil.
Hydraulic fracturing refers to a type of simulation where pressure gets transmitted through means of gas or fluid with the purpose of widening cracks in existence or creating cracks in underground rocks that contain hydrocarbons. Mainly, the technique is applied in the industry of gas and oil and is often referred to as ‘fracing’, ‘hydrofracking’ or ‘fracking’ (AASG). It often involves propelling a combination of chemical additions, sand and water with high pressure in order to create small intersection cracks that are aimed at increasing permeability in the underground formations targeted. Once cracks are formed, they get ‘propped’ open by the sand particles thus allowing under pressure oil or gas to flow to the surface wells for purposes of collection (Chesapeake Energy, 2012). It is worth noting that drilling of wells involved in this kind of fracturing is done in 2 distinct ways which include horizontal drilling, vertical drilling or a combination of these two (Hall, 2011). It is also worth noting that hydraulic fracturing is only carried out once to a well.
Natural gas and oil occurs in small pores within sedimentary rocks. The ability of the fossils to find its way to the surface is dependent on interconnectivity of the pores. In rocks that have low permeability, interconnection of the pores never permits natural flow of fossils to the surface making it necessary to use hydraulic fracturing in order to enlarge pores and increase interconnectivity for ease of flowing to the surface. Hydraulic fracturing is not new it was applied for the first time in 1947 in the oil industry in the US and from that time over a million wells have already been drilled through use of the technique. It is considered economical compared to the traditional applications since it uses water as its main solvent.
Since water is an important part of the process and a fundamental component of waste, there is a potential effect posed on the environment and drinking water (Office of Research and Development, 2010). Chemical additives used in the process usually are toxic since they have radioactive and heavy metals elements. The heavy metals and radioactive elements can sip into underground freshwater reservoirs due to the numerous cracks which are part of the process (Dachille, 2011). Seeping of such wastes into clean water sources causes contamination of drinking water. These chemicals are not only found in waste material but they are a hazard to the environment. During the process of fracking, toxic gases can be released into the atmosphere leading to pollution and contamination. Following environmental impacts of the process, there is urgent need for federal regulation in order to control the amount of chemicals used in the process of drilling by companies and to regulate the process of hydraulic fracturing (Burford, 2012).
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(AASG). Hydraulic FracturingTexas. Texas: The Association of American State Geologists (AASG).
Burford, E. (2012). The need for federal regulation of hydraulic fracturing. The Urban Lawyer, 44(3), 577-588. Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com/docview/1266035798?accountid=1611” http://search.proquest.com/docview/1266035798?accountid=1611
Chesapeake Energy. (2012). Marcellus Shale Hydraulic Fracturing . Oklahoma : Chesapeake Energy.
Dachille, K. (2011). Environmental Impacts Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing. The Network for Public Health Law.
Hall, K. B. (2011). Hydraulic fracturing–a primer. The Enterprise, 41(11) Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com/docview/903903264?accountid=1611” http://search.proquest.com/docview/903903264?accountid=1611
Office of Research and Development . (2010). Hydraulic Fracturing Research Study . U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Jewish View on Marriage and Divorce
Torah is the fundamental source of all Jewish beliefs, and the point of reference that they always look up to in order to find answers with regards to maters touching on the aspects of life like marriage and divorce. However, it offers very little guidance regarding the procedures of marriage. Information on the method to be applied in finding a spouse, the form of the wedding ceremony, and the nature of the marital relationship are illustrated in the Talmund.
According to the traditional Jewish beliefs, marriage is regarded as a contractual bond that is commanded by God, whereby man and woman come together to form a relationship. God is directly involved in every marriage relationship. A Jewish marriage is expected to fulfill the commandment of child bearing through procreation. When a man and a woman come together in a union of marriage, they become one soul. In fact, man is considered to be ‘incomplete’ if he is not married, according to Jewish beliefs.
Jewish law requires that every marriage plan should begin with engagement (shidukhin). This refers to a contract between a man and a woman where the two mutually promise to marry each other sometime in future. Besides, the engagement also aims to set out the terms of the marriage. The promise may either be made by the intending parties or even their respective parents, or other relatives on their behalf. This promise is documented in a formal document known as the Shtar Tena’im (The Document of Conditions). It is then read, then the mothers of the bride and groom to-be break a plate.
The Jewish tradition and beliefs dictates that there are marriage rights and obligations that must be observed by both parties. These are clearly set out in the Holy Bible. Traditionally, the husband is obligated to provide for the wife and family. A detailed report of all the rights and obligations of the two are spelt out in the Ketubot in the Talmund.
Divorce is viewed as a spiritual amputation in Jewish culture. In the event that it takes place, the husband and wife are separated from the one soul that they became during their wedding. Based on how painful divorce is, it is considered as a last resort when issues between the two cannot be resolved. Even though it is not looked at favorably in Judaism, it is not prohibited and at times encouraged. Rabbis of the Talmund considered marriage to be a holy matrimony or contract, such that the decision to divorce would be an unholy act.
Regarding divorce, rabbis of the Talmund quote prophet Malachi, ‘’the Lord has been witness between you and your wife of your youth against whom you have dealt treacherously, though she is your companion, the wife of your covenant.’’ According to the Holy Bible, a husband has the right to divorce his wife, but a wife cannot begin the process of divorce. According to Jewish law, marriage is not dissolved until a bill of divorce; get is exchanged between the husband and wife.
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