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Asgrow Seed Co. V. Winterboer Patent Infringement
Many companies offering solutions to farmers in the globe have been established, but many have not been able to protect their inventions. Cases of patent infringement have been reported now and then, however, the case of Asgrow Seed Company against Winterboer was widespread and opened eyes of many corporations. The Plant Variety Protection Act [PVPA] of 1970 is a great act that many companies have relied on for many years. Asgrow is one of the widely acknowledged companies that have embraced the act by filling a patent infringement case against Winterboer.
Asgrow Seed Company held two plant variety protection act [PVPA] certificates protecting different variety of soybean seed. These two certificates act as patent presenting a great way to promote research on new varieties of plants and to protect the owners of the seed varieties from any unauthorized sales. There is an exemption for farmers who sell seeds to other farmers who core occupation is growing crops for sale. In 1990, Winterboer planted
Asgrow soybean variety and harvested 256 acres of land. Winterboer then sold the enough seeds to plant 1000 acres of land to many other farmers.
Asgrow did not take these actions by Winterboer as appropriate and claimed that the PVPA prohibits anyone from selling seeds more than would be needed to replant in his own land. This means that Winterboer sold what could not be planted in his respective land. Winterboer argued that the protections in the PVPA statute protect sales of unlimited amounts of seeds as long as both seller and buyer are able to grow crops primarily for “other than reproductive purposes”.
The case of Asgrow Seed Co. V. Winterboer was widespread and many people whether entrepreneurs or farmers want to see which side the federal court will rule in favor of in the case. The district court ruled in favor of Asgrow Seed Company; however the United State Court of Appeals for Federal Circuit reversed and disavowed Asgrow’s petition for rehearing of the case. If you are still wondering, whether the quantity of protected seed that a farmer can sell under the protections in the PVPA is limited to the amount of see the seller would require to replant on his own fields, then this case of Asgrow Seed Co. V. Winterboer offers exceptional solutions.
The best answer to your question regarding the amount of seeds to sell as compared to want to replant in your fields is; YES! In a decision authored by Justice Antonin Scalia, the court showed that a farmer may sell for reproductive purposes only such seed as he or she has saved for the purpose of replanting in his or her own land.
On the other hand, Plant Variety Protection Act [PVPA] statute allows farmers to save seeds to replant and then sell that saved seed to other farmers, it also bars growing protected seed as a “step in marketing” it as a seed for planting. The Federal court held the case because Winterboer’s planting and harvesting was conducted specially to market Asgrow’s protected seeds varieties. Winterboer surrendered eligibility for the PVPA exemption and infringed on Asgrow’s protective certificate patents.
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Importance of Empathy in Healthcare
Empathy is a term that is often underused and misunderstood yet it is completely important in the healthcare industry. It is through empathy that therapeutic effectiveness can be achieved and it also helps form a health relationship between the patient and healthcare provider.
The term empathy dates back to the 80s when Theodore Lipps, a German psychologist coined the term to describe emotional appreciation of another person’s feelings. It is also described as the process or ability to understand an individual’s subjective experience while maintaining the stance of an observer.
Empathy is ‘borrowing’ another person’s feelings so as to understand or feel them without taking them upon oneself. By becoming a participant observer, it becomes easier to understand the feelings of the other person. The importance of empathy in the healthcare industry cannot be overly stated. Without doubt, it builds a connection but in the healthcare sector, empathy is more than an emotional and clinical connection.
It is about letting patients know that healthcare providers care about their well being. Emotional connection makes it possible for these healthcare providers to understand how patients are feeling and this makes it possible for them to create more sense about their lives. Every patient has a story and behind the patients, there is also a life. Because of sickness, lives are put on hold while others are interrupted.
It is therefore important for healthcare providers to understand how patients are filling in order to foster great and flourishing relationships to enjoy better outcome. Beneath any diagnosis made on a patient lies a life put on hold. Patients are bound by hospital devices, machines and walls as such they need emphatic nurses and doctors. Healthcare providers should note that there is more to patients than the diagnosis they make.
Recognizing that a patient has an outside life, even for a minute is invaluable to patients. Empathy is however not that easily noted in the healthcare industry. Often, patients, family members and their caregivers are termed as ‘difficult’ whenever they ask questions. However, most of the time, they are not difficult but rather, afraid and they want to get the assurance that their concerns are heard.
What they want above all else is a connection. With empathy nurses and doctors are able to engage, empower and connect with patients. It makes it possible for these healthcare providers to understand the feelings and experiences of patients. By acknowledging the emotional state of patients and listening to them, patients become more proactive and it also fosters trust, partnership and it triggers the healing process.
The most efficient, powerful communication tool in the healthcare industry is empathy and it should extend to understanding the patient beyond their symptoms and history to include their feelings, ideas and values.
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Health Belief Model
Health belief model refers to a behavior change model in psychological health that was developed with an aim of explaining and predicting health-related behaviors especially in the uptake of medical or health services. The model was established by the social psychologists in the U.S. Public Health Service in the 1950s. It remains one of the widely used and popular theories in health behavior studies.
According to this model, beliefs that people have regarding health problems, self-efficacy, action barriers and perceived benefits of the action explain engagement or lack of it in behaviors that promote health. To trigger health promoting behaviors, a cue to an action or stimulus must be present.
This model was developed in a bid to understand why people were not adapting strategies for preventing diseases or screening tests to enhance disease detection at early stages. Later, the model was used in analyzing responses of patients to symptoms and medical treatments’ compliance.
The health belief model derives from behavioral and psychological theory with its foundation being two health-related behavior components. These are:
- Desire for avoiding illness or getting well if ill
- Belief that a certain health action prevents or cures an illness
Ultimately, the course of action taken by an individual is dependent on the perception of that individual of the barriers and benefits that are related to that health behavior. Health belief model has six constructs. Four of these constructs where established as the initial tenets of the model and the other two were added later after the evolution of the model.
The constructs are perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cue to action and self-efficacy. Health belief model has several limitations which affects its utility in the public health sector. For instance, this model fails to account for the attitude, beliefs and other determinants of the acceptance of a person for a health behavior.
It also does not account for habitual behaviors which may inform decision making process and acceptance of a recommended action. The model also does not account for behaviors that individuals perform for reasons that are not related to their health like social acceptability reasons. Other factors that health belief model does not account for are economic and environmental factors that can promote or prohibit a recommended health action.
In addition, the model assumes that individuals have equal access to information on the disease or illness. Additionally, the model assumes that cues to health action are prevalent and that they encourage individuals to act and that the main goal in decision making process is health actions.
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Freedom of the Press
Also referred to as Media Freedom, the Freedom of the Press is a law or rule that gives the media practitioners or journalists an opportunity or right to undertake publication of news stories in both print and electronic media without any interference from the government, organizations or even individuals. The reason for this is because; the media is viewed as the ‘mirror’ through which the society is able to get unbiased information about what is happening around them and even beyond the borders.
The Freedom of the Press is one of the fundamental constitutional provisions that are almost similar to all nations across the world. Besides, it is also one of those that have been faced with mixed reactions and challenges globally. Considering the advancement in media; introduction of the internet and more robust ways of sharing information, freedom of the media has been faced with numerous challenges regarding the way in which it should be applied. With these advancements, it has not been very easy to draw the lines on the extent to which the media can be allowed to conduct their activities.
While the freedom of the press has the implication that the media should not be interfered with at an overreaching state when discharging its roles, the question on whether to uphold that provision or not can be sought through the constitution or any other legal procedures. With regard to government information, any government may give directions on which materials should be protected and those that can be shared with the public. In that respect, the media can be held in contempt if the particular information that has been marked as secret or protected finds its way in the public domain.
As much as freedom of the press accords media practitioners the right to publish information on print or electronic media without interference, that right can at times be cut short. There are occasions when it is justified and other situations when it is not. For instance, if the media is broadcasting information that is deemed to cause hatred or ethnic clashes, the freedom of the press can be suppressed. On the other hand, the provision is justified when the media publishes information that is unbiased and
As much as the freedom of the press emphasizes on the independence of the media, a lot of responsibility and high level of professionalism is always required on the part of journalists. This is because, there are certain journalists who may take advantage of the provision and use the opportunity for personal gains and in the interest of only a few individuals who are able to buy air time and space on media platforms. While exercising this freedom, media practitioners are required to avoid biased kind of reporting. Publication of information should be in the sole interest of the public or society.
Freedom of the press is a fundamental provision for media practitioners and the society at large but can also be very poisonous if not exercised with caution.
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Torah is a concept in the Judaic tradition that can be very confusing based on the numerous definitions that many people have of it in various concepts. However, the simplest definition of Torah is that it refers to the five books of Moses. These books include Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. In English, Torah is known as Pentateuch. The word Torah can also be used to refer to the whole Jewish bible that non-Jews call the Old Testament. To the Jews, it is known as the Written Torah or Tanakh.
According to the Jews, the New Testament that is found in the bible is non-existent. In fact, they are not part of the Jewish scriptures. What the Christians today refer to as the Old Testament is called the Written Torah in Jewish culture. It contains a list of books with Jewish translations. The texts of these books in Jewish translations are more or less similar to what you see in the Christian bibles today. However, there are some occasional and slight differences that exist in the way the verses are numbered.
The five books of Moses that refer to Torah are as follows in Jewish translations:
To the Jews, the concept of Torah is much wider than just the books themselves. Apart from the written Torah, there is also the oral Torah also known as the Talmud. This refers to a tradition that explains what is meant by the scriptures in the above books, how they should be interpreted and application of the laws. Orthodox Jews believe that the Oral Torah was passed on to Moses by God who further taught it to other people whom he mandated to pass it down to the coming generations. The tradition was only kept in oral form until around 2D century when its compilation was done in writing in a document called Mishnah.
Both the written and oral teachings and laws that are contained in the Torah were given to Moses by God. Moses received part of the Torah at Mount Sinai while others at the Tabernacle. He is the sole author of all the teachings that are contained therein. Going by the Hebrew translation of the word Torah, it means to teach or guide. Thus, it was established for the purpose of offering lessons to Christians in the Jewish culture.
The Torah gives a documentation of God’s creation of the world, how the family of Abraham and Sarah grew with regards to their relationship with God in the land of Canaan, exile and also how the redemption from Egypt occurred. It gives an account of how the family grew to become Israel. Torah also contains the rules that God gave to Moses for the governing of a just society and establishment of appropriate worship.
Torah still remains a significant part of the Jewish culture and a centerpiece of their Sabbath, thus, its laws, stories and poetry are still held in high regards.
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Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. It is also grouped together by the national statistics with childhood mortality which is the death of a child before the child can celebrate his or her fifth birthday. There are ten millions of infants and children who died on annual basis in the globe and this is usually before their fifth birthday. 99% of these deaths are known to occur in developing countries.
Infant mortality rate [IMR] is the number of deaths of children who are less than one year of age and as per 1000 live births. It is easy to calculate the IMR of an area or region. Here, experts have to take the number of children dying under the age of one year and divide by the number of live births during the year and multiply it by 1000. There are different forms of infant mortality that you need to be well-versed with. This includes neonatal mortality which is the newborn death occurring within 28 days of postpartum and it is attributed to lack of adequate health care during pregnancy or after delivery.
Postneonatal mortality is the death of children age 29 days to one year and it is attributed to malnutrition, environment problems and infectious diseases. Perinatal mortality is the other form of infant mortality. It is the late fetal death [within 22 weeks gestation to birth] or the death of a newborn within one week of postpartum. These deaths are usually used a way to measure the well-being and health of a nation. Factors that affect the health of a country can also impact the mortality rate of newborns. Factors such as age, race and ethnicity also create differences in infant mortality in globe.
There are factors that are cited as the core causes of infant mortality. In many occasion newborns grow and thrive, but for every 1000 babies born, six die within their first year. Many cases of infant deaths are because of the fact that some babies are born with serious birth defect, born too small or too early. There are other infants who are victims of sudden infant death syndrome, injuries or affected by maternal complications of pregnancy. Environmental or social barriers are the other common causes of increased infant mortality. 86% of the deaths that occur in developing countries are due to infections, premature births and perinatal asphyxia.
With the improving economy and advancing technology, it is easy to prevent and reduce the high cases of infant mortality. With improved health and well-being of the people in the globe, it is easy to enjoy every moment in life. Through the Millennium Development Goals [MDGs], it has been easy to reduce the number of mortalities within the infants and childhood population by two-thirds.
This means that the set goals are to decrease mortality from 95 to 31 deaths per 1000. With such goals in mind, it is a great strategy for the involved countries to abide and reduce the infant mortality rate within the set period. Granting women employment and education is another great way to reduce the mortality rates in our countries. Availability of modernized and affordable medical care and facilities will also help reduce death of infants and children.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Disaster Recovery
Cloud computing have for the past years offered numerous disaster recovery solutions. It is a recovery option that does not require a lot of monetary investment. Additionally, it provides offsite management of crucial data in any location and automatically.
With cloud computing, business can keep their IT systems up and running. Whenever there is a downtime or data loss due to unexpected problems, quick recovery is essential. Therefore, cloud helps businesses to restore lost data within the shortest time possible. With cloud, there is no use of traditional back up options.
Cloud computing in disaster recovery also offers the ability for reliable backups in single or multiple locations nationally and internationally.
Cloud computing is a highly affordable disaster recovery solution. It offers low cost options for small and large businesses. It also allows for economies of scale and in the long run, lowers operational or recovery expenses.
With cloud, businesses can also restore data more quickly. This is one of the features that set cloud from other recovery solutions in the market. Cloud offers multiple copies of data that is usually kept in sync and at multiple locations. Data in cloud is stored and protected as it is being created.
Cloud also allows businesses to demonstrate more compliance in disaster recovery. This is based on the fact that it provides a highly functional and secure infrastructure. Therefore, businesses enjoy more control of their operations compared to an onsite data recovery solution.
Cloud is an automatic data recovery solution. Therefore, cases of constant checkups and regular babysitting of IT systems are greatly reduced or completely eliminated.
With cloud computing disaster recovery solution, businesses cut down on their monthly costs. Resources for their businesses can be reserved for use only in the event of an emergency. As a result, it enables business to function effectively and generate the desired revenue.
Cloud also allows business persons to set their metrics. It is easy to determine your recovery objective when using cloud. What’s more, you can easily set the time used in the recovery process. These are essential metrics and you have clearly set them, it also becomes easy to set IT systems and infrastructure to be used in recovery.
Cloud also allows businesses to prioritize IT systems and data. This is essential especially in determining how often a business may need backup and what should be restored first in the event of a disaster.
As a tiered system, cloud computing in disaster recovery can also be used for more strategic business initiatives including e-commerce. It can also be used as a point of sale application.
Cloud computing is additionally used in disaster recovery for all business sizes. Today, many organizations are considering reliable, flexible and recovery solutions that can be controlled to suit the needs of a business. It is this reason that makes cloud an ideal solution.
Businesses using cloud disaster recovery are also in a better position to get back up whenever and wherever, run more efficiently than before and enjoy smooth operations. With the solution, a company also enjoys huge profits.
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Causes and Effects of Battles of Lexington and Concord
Rising tensions between Great Britain and colonists from North America in mid Atlantic region led to formulation of British regulations and restrictions. The colonists felt that the British Empire was treating them as citizens of a lower class. Distance, arrogance and time made it impossible for both sides to come up with any peaceful solution and as a result, the colonists felt there was no recourse but fighting at Lexington and Concord in 1775.
There were different factors that contributed to the battle of Lexington and concord and some of these are as highlighted below:
England and American colonies experienced communication lag which made it difficult to discuss issues that were of concern to the colonists. The British government especially treated American colonists like they did not deserve full British citizenship and this became quite obvious during the Indian and French war when soldiers of American descent discovered the advise they offered did not carry the same level of credibility as that one offered by British soldiers.
Also, the American soldiers were paid far less than what their counterparts were receiving. The contempt the British had for the colonialists fermented with time and eventually became a desire for full fledged citizenship or freedom from mother country.
Acts of the British
Among colonists, there was growth of unrest which was fanned by patriots like James Otis, Samuel Adams and John Hancock. In response to this, England put into place laws that were more restrictive like the 1975 Stamp Act. This law taxed all newspapers and any other paper that was bought within the colonies. The colonists however did not abide b y the rule and it had to be repealed by England.
However the damage was already done and the colonists no longer had trust in the British government. England passed Townshend Acts in 1768 so it could collect tax on glass, paper, tea, silk and paint. The determination England had to force colonists to make payments for the expenses incurred by the British and its wars angered the colonists.
The British march to destroy supplies at concord and arrest Hancock and Adams also helped trigger t he battle and so did the Boston tea party in 1773.
The battles of Lexington and Concord had the effect of causing the American Revolution. During the battle, blood was spilled and Minutemen defended their weapons successfully though there was no possibility of coming up with a peaceful solution. The battles aided in uniting the colonies and eventually led to the Revolutionary War.
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Culture of Spain
Uniquely diverse and rich fields are incorporated in the modern Spanish culture. As such, covering the culture of the whole country within a specific period is almost impossible. The existing Spanish culture originated from the domination of this country by some people for over a thousand years ago. The culture of these people is indicated by the ancient castles, ruins, language, festivals, art and music. Stanton notes that Spain is a country that follows its traditions steadfastly. People in Spain pledge loyalty to the region where they come from more than they do to their national government (1). There is cultural diversity in this country and this diversity is based on regions’ autonomous which is the basis of Spain. Every Spanish culture depicts a spectacular identity that is created from the characters of the people. However, this ends up with a celebration in the whole country or region. The aim of this study is to expound different customs that the culture of Spain depicts.
Religions and festivities
Spain has remained a strong Catholic state for some time. Christianity was introduced by the Romans in Spain. Christianization continued until the Romans were invaded by the Muslims from the Northern part of Africa. Nevertheless, Christian insurgency won and they expelled the Muslims out of Spain. Spain was ruled by King Ferdinand from 1400 to 1500. At this time, he ordered Spaniards to transform into Roman Catholics (Lior and Steele 6). Consequently, other religious groups were compelled to adapt Roman Catholicism but others opted to get out of this country. Over 97% of Spaniards are still Roman Catholics up to now although non-Catholics are allowed to practice any religion openly. Nevertheless, all Spaniards irrespective of the faith that they practice live in a catholic surrounding or environment. This comprises of shrines, churches as well as artistic heritage that is referred to by the religion. The basis of the national culture of the Spanish is Catholic environment. Therefore, visitors and citizens must understand this environment. Saints are honored by Christians who go for pilgrimages which entail seeing their statues. An example that can illustrate this is the belief that Mary’s statue brings good luck.
Festivals or fiestas are usually held by the Spaniards. These are either secular or religious. They are held throughout every year in urban settlements and rural areas. Businesses are usually closed during fiestas and people take part in dancing and eating the entire night. Additionally, attendants call one another Dona or Don and then the person’s first name. Semana Santa, Nochebuena and Navidad are some of the fiestas of the Spaniards. Most of them have a Catholicism attachment. There is a fiesta for every city and this is held in the honor of their special cultural identity. An example of this is a fiesta that is held in Pamplona city in honor of patron saints. Bulls that run in the streets are the most interesting part of the festival. People wearing white clothes wait for charging bulls which chase them via narrow streets (Lior and Steele 10). Residents come together in the Barcelona City during the Day of Saint George which is celebrated on 23rd April. They celebrate love this day. The entire nation is usually at a standstill during the public holidays for celebrations. Spaniards observe holidays strictly without extension in case the day comes on the weekend.
Urbanism and use of space
Spain as a nation started from the early small tribal groups at the time of the rule of the Romans. The other social and cultural progressions emerged from the presence of the Romans. Usually, the Spaniards were living in settlements that were tightly clustered. These structures’ concentration caused urban centers’ emergence. In Spain, majority of the rural areas comprised of stores, dwelling houses, churches, schools, pastures and gardens. The types of settlements are associated with the locality. Most houses in the rural areas are built traditionally and they host both humans and animals. This settlement is not preferred by most Spaniards.
In places with dispersed settlements, people mostly practices livestock keeping and mixed cultivation. However, most Spaniards hate living in isolation. In the rural areas, people have multi-family villages. Stones, bricks, and timber are the most preferred building materials. Most Spain cities including Valencia, Barcelona and Madrid attract the rural populace. Each villager would like to live in the cities because services and opportunities are available there. Monuments and palaces are located away from rural homes and these show the architecture of the Spaniards. This country prides itself for having a spectacular Islamic architecture that includes the Alhambra which is found in Granada and Great Mosque situated in Cordoba.
The traditional food of the Spaniards emerged at the period of the agrarian revolution. They remain common and their preparation entails the use of hands and fresh ingredients from the market are used. Different areas in Spain have their cuisines. Comida, which is a family meal, is preferred by the Spaniards. This can be taken with colleagues and friends. Food sharing boosts good relationships. As such, seeing a person eating alone at a place where people eat from or drinking alone in a Spanish bar is unusual. Members of a family take breakfast at varying times on the basis of their work schedules. People take mid-day meals at around 2.00 pm. This is the main meal of the day. Individuals travel home where they take comida before returning to work. Siesta is very important and it is part of the Spanish customs that is recognized by all Spaniards. People rest at this time and it lasts from 1.30 to 5 o’clock.
Drinking and eating is a common way through which the Spaniards spend time together. It usually happens during special events and every day. Christmas and Easter are among the common religious events which bring friends and families together. Weddings and birthdays are also great opportunities during which people eat together. People also gather in social groups during leisure time and they enjoy drinks and foods together. There are also table customs that are observed in the Spaniards culture. Hosts are allowed to be the first ones to eat. The guests are motioned by the host to their seats prior being served meals.
Individuals’ achievements determine the social classes that they belong to. There are three classes in the Spain society. These include the lower, the middle and the upper classes. Families with members who can afford money for hiring babysitters who looks after their kids as they go to work belong to the upper social class. These are represented by large home owners who have expensive furniture. Families that send children to public or private schools yet they do not have much possession similar to those of the families in the upper class represent the middle social class. Families whose members perform laborious jobs with children attending public schools belong to the lower social class. Majority of the lower social class families cannot afford hiring a babysitter. They also struggle to meet their necessary needs.
Professions and occupations also illustrate social stratification. Nevertheless, there is interaction among social classes. People interact in bars and hotels regardless of the social classes that they belong to. Apart from family inheritance, education provides a social advancement’s platform. Urban and rural settlements have differences which create distinction in the society. In Spain, farming is honored as a self-employed trade although it is not valued much. As such, traders and farmers residing in the Spain’s countryside belong to the lower status. Material worth exhibits social stratification. This includes jewelries, leisure, clothing and homes. There is a large gap between the poor and the rich at the economic level in Spain. There is a class for the Spain’s royal family. Although this country endeavors to achieve equality, there are groups that are discriminated along tribal and gender lines. Spanish women still face sexual harassment and low wages.
The national identity of Spain was acquired when Christians chose to unite in order to fight Islam. Parliamentary monarchy governs Spain and this includes the bicameral legislature. The state is headed by a monarch who performs the duties of selecting a government’s head (Hay 104). Absolute powers are vested on the King. From the time when General Franco died, the state has been headed by the King. He also promotes order within the government. The government is headed by a prime minister from a majority party. Many parties are allowed to take part in the elections.
Political resignations in Spain are virtually unheard off. This is because people see resignation as a serious political weakness due to the fact that parliamentary democracy was embraced in this country following Franco’s death in 1975. Dictatorship was the ruling style in Spain before this time. Since 1923 all the way to 1931, a political model that General Primo de Rivera had designed was used to rule Spain. This leader was associated with Spain’s modernization (Magone 9). Actually, this political system was fighting for workers’ rights and this was something rare in a kingdom that was ruled through dictatorship. More optimism came with the Second Republic because it brought a separation of the state from the Church since it restricted Catholicism. Opposition kept growing and this caused a Civil War. The uprising was led by General Franco. On taking over, Franco established the totalitarian state that aimed at eliminating enemies.
Spain was influences by the experience of the Portuguese making it embrace democracy. This led to the smooth succession to Juan Carlos I from Franco (Magone 15). Free market replaced the protectionism system that was practiced under Franco. Modern Spain is politically organized into 17 “autonomous regions” as well as 50 provinces. In Spain, leadership is considered an accomplishment of a person. It is supported by family connections. Party membership relies on the ability of the government to provide jobs to the citizens. The responsibility of guarding villages is under the informal controls in the society. Military officers are from the higher classes in the society although people join the army voluntarily. Young men have the freedom to establish social groups within their villages on the basis of their age.
Gender roles and statuses
In Spain, family is a very important institution for both females and males. Family is even crucial than work since it promotes collectivity instead of individualism. Roles are shared among the Spaniards on the basis of social statuses and genders. The contracts of traditional gender asserts the main women’s role which at the center of a family. Men on the other hand are the breadwinners in the family (Calvo-Salguero, Martínez-de-Lecea, and Aguilar-Luzón 122). Agriculture is practiced as the major activity in the rural areas. Men play the heaviest tasks and women attend to house chores and gardens. Women and men can perform any task in professional farming and herding.
Managing domestic economies and raising children is the responsibility of married couples. Women and men across Spain are allowed to engage in leisure activities together even in the public places. Culture permits men to practice politics in their public life while religious activities are observed by women as well as looking after the children in their homes. Old women servants mainly provide household help. Culture depicted women as the homemakers. However, women are allowed to run businesses in the modern culture and they are also employed in different professions. Women also engage in politics. Property inheritance is allowed by the Castilian law and they can also dispose their property whenever they please (Coolidge 41). Equal sharing of inheritance is also allowed by the law among members of a family irrespective of the gender. Women retain surnames in most regions even after their marriage. Family titles’ succession is allowed for royal women if there are no brothers in their family.
Marriage and family
Spanish culture requires marriage to be a partnership in which each partner’s input is important. Owning property was traditionally vital than love at the time of courtship. People were encouraged to court for long and breaking marriage ties was not allowed. Remarriage of women who cannot bear children due to their old age and divorce are abhorred by the Spaniards’ culture. Nevertheless, weddings and these customs are considered as special events and they attract a large gathering of guests. Gender culture is a characteristic of Spain and family relationships are encouraged as well as individualism levels (alvo-Salguero, Martínez-de-Lecea, and Aguilar-Luzón 121). Families display a collectivist culture which gives life meaning while bringing prosperity and personal happiness. Work is not considered by culture and independent aspect in family and work time cannot compete with the family time. In Spain, the attitude that families have towards life is positive. Studying is encouraged for children so that they can be successful in life.
Language, arts and humanities
The establishment of Latin language followed the Roman conquest. This led to the emergence of Iberian languages. The language that is used the most in Spain is the Castilian Spanish. This is used mostly in courts, offices and schools. Art is highly valued by the Spaniards. They visit architectural monuments and art museums regularly just to admire artifacts. Most Spanish artists are treated like celebrities. Humanities and fine arts are highly valued in universities and professional academies. Decorative arts are an important aspect of the national legacy in Spain. They are displayed in the museums within Spain as well as other regions of the world. There are strong architectures that are developed by the Spaniards for painting and sculptures. Their mode and designs resemble national or regional identity.
Musical instruments, dances and songs are perceived in a unique way more so in the Andalucía region. The impression that is created by musical expressions is completely different from power resistance and hierarchy. Flamenco refers to a dancing type whose characteristic is hands clapping and stomping. This dance includes playing a guitar and dancers depict emotions. Movies are also loved by the Spaniards and a lot of time is allocated to it by cultural analysts who spend time studying the film industry in Spain. Soccer is loved by many Spaniards and they go to the fields to watch their teams playing. There are clubs where membership to Barcelona FC is passed down the generation tree.
The culture of the Spaniards still values ancient Spain’s customs although they have been transformed with the modern technology and novelty. This culture was influenced by the Romans. Roman Catholicism is the basis of most customs of the Spanish. Historically, a lot of emphasis was put on relationships in the family in Spain because collectivity was valued than individualism. This is depicted by the way people leave workplaces to have midday meals with families. Sisters and brothers share inherited properties equally. There is a wide gap between the lower and upper social classes but there are free interactions among people in these classes during public events. Artworks and decorations are valued by the Spaniards because they are important aspects of their national heritage. People abandon their activities just to celebrate public holidays. There are different cultures because of autonomous regions in Spain and every culture exhibits its exceptional identity that is created from their attributes but these are distinguished in the country or the whole region.
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Calvo-Salguero, Antonia, José-María Salinas Martínez-de-Lecea, and María del Carmen Aguilar-Luzón. “Gender And Work–Family Conflict: Testing The Rational Model And The Gender Role Expectations Model In The Spanish Cultural Context.” International Journal Of Psychology 47.2 (2012): 118-132. Web. 23 Jan. 2014.
Coolidge, Grace E. Guardianship, Gender and the Nobility in Early Modern Spain. Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate, 2011. Print.
Hay, Colin. European Politics. Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 2007. Print.
Lior, Noa, and Tara Steele. Spain. New York: Crabtree Pub. Co, 2002. Print.
Magone, José M. Contemporary Spanish Politics. London: Routledge, 2004. Print.
Stanton, Edward F. Culture and Customs of Spain. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002. Print.
Factors Hindering Growth of Economy in Africa
There are several factors that affect economic growth in Africa such as investment, high education and development of infrastructure. These same factors have contributed towards holding the continent back from development.
There have been numerous economic reforms made in the continent and deals which have been given to China (on resource rights) that have made it possible for the continent to record gradual growth. Climate change, politics and unstable governments have also contributed towards hindering economic growth in Africa. The following are some of the factors that continue to hinder economic growth within the continent.
Majority of the African nations are not economically empowered because they don’t understand what sets the difference between the underdeveloped countries and developed ones such as Europe, Asia and America is technology. Simply put, this means how a country is able to create access and make use of ICT and Science to solve socio-economic issues. Technological innovation is what drives the world. Agriculture, transportation, clean water and medicine are all influenced by technology and the continent needs to embrace this in order to advance.
Poorly planned economic structures
Because majority of African nations haven’t adopted technology, they also haven’t made any changes to the economic structures they inherited after gaining independence. As a matter of fact, most African nations, if not all, rely on exportation of raw materials such as diamond, cocoa timber in raw forms yet there is no value in such exportation. Since they don’t have the capacity to manufacture, it also means they have to import things and this further hinders economic development.
This is major economic development deterrent and it is seen in African countries such as Sudan, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Congo. Whenever there is civil war in a country, investors do not dare to make any investment and this in turn inhibits growth and impedes employment opportunity creation. What is more, the infrastructure is also affected and this forces such countries to spend more on repairing infrastructure than coming up with development plans.
Foreign aid overdependence
While foreign aid is of great benefit to Africa’s economy, overreliance on the same has caused the economy to stagnate. For majority of African nations, foreign aid makes up a large percentage of the budget yet this shouldn’t be the case. Africa needs to get on its feet so it no longer relies on foreign aid to enhance education or infrastructure. African nations should therefore look for ways of creating their own revenue instead of budgeting on what will be issued by developed nations.
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Reasons for Gender Wage
Gender wage is an issue that has not been fully addressed in different parts of the globe. The US is one of the countries that have been trying to close gender wage gap over the past years to no success. This is largely attributed to the fact that there are complex and interrelated causes of gender pay gap including
Research shows that many women earn less compared to males even if they have the same credentials and doing the same job. This is a factor that explains why gender pay gap has been hard to close both in developed and developing countries. Direct discrimination is also common because of the effectiveness of national legislation and effectiveness of the European Union.
Undervaluing the work of women
Undervaluing the work of women is also a leading cause of gender wage. Women earn less because of the value of the work they do. This affects their competitiveness because they cannot put their skills into practice fully.
Additionally, jobs that require similar skills, experience and qualifications pay poorly. Such jobs are often designed for women. Such jobs include cashiers in supermarkets among other low paying jobs.
Similarly, evaluation of employee performance is often biased. It favors men when it comes to the level of pay as well as career progression. In cases where men and women are qualified, you will realize that more value is attached to men’s responsibilities.
Labor market segregation
Segregation in the labor market also causes gender wage. Women and men are offered different jobs even on the same sector. As a result, women are known to predominate low paying and less valuable jobs.
Additionally, women are offered jobs that pay low even in sectors that are known to be profitable. This includes health, public administration and education sector. For instance, in the health sector, there are many nurses and up to 80 percent are women.
Similarly, women are often under represented in senior and managerial positions. Women only represent 17 percent of board members in big public companies in the European Union.
Segregation linked to stereotypes and traditions are also one of the reasons behind gender wage. Women may take up certain educational paths because of stereotype. There are also careers that are believed to be best suited for women than men.
There are a minority of women in computing, engineering and mathematics among other related fields because of stereotype. As a result, women work in less valuable and less paying jobs because these traditions and stereotypes reduce their working hours. This often occurs so that women can provide elderly or childcare services.
The need to balance private and work life
The need to balance private and work life also causes gender wage. Women experience difficulties when balancing work and private life.
What’s more, family care, domestic responsibilities and the freedom to enjoy a more private life is not equal between men and women. Women are often expected to stay home and take care of kids among other household chores. Men on the other hand have all the time they need to hang out with friends.
Women also have more interruptions on their careers compared to men thus, negatively impacting their pay.
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Ecosystem of the Nile River
There is a rich history on the ecosystem of river Nile. Many times, people look at the river on its own, but there is a lot also know. Ecosystem of the Nile River is made up of many things. It is made up of many inter-related living and non-living parts. Nile River has been able to provide free ecosystem services for many years. Hydrology is the core driving force when it comes to river Nile. The many living organisms within the river help create stability and resiliency by easily moderating environment change.
The flow of the Nile River is one of the great areas to look at while gathering facts or information on Nile. The flow of the Nile or any other river is made up of a number of elements and this include magnitude, duration, timing rate of change and frequency. The Nile is known as the longest river in the world and has two chief tributaries the White Nile and the Blue Nile. There is a smooth water flow from White Nile in Khartoum and the Blue Nile joins it from Ethiopia. The basin is complex as water discharge at any position along the mainstream depends on factors such as groundwater flow, evaporation, diversions and weather.
The main source of the Nile is Lake Victoria, but there are also feeder rivers that offer enough amount of water. TheKagera River that flows into Lake Victoria near Tanzania is the longest feeder, however, many historians dispute on which is the possibly largest tributary. Atbara River is the major tributary with Blue Nile and it originates from Lake Tana. The Nile River water chemistry varies greatly. The water chemistry of the Nile River is determined by the inputs from the geology of its watershed or mainstay catchment area. However pollution in the Nile River has great impact on its water chemistry.
There are many living systems in river Nile. They are made up of individual organisms that work together and interact with non-living organism to form the large ecosystem. Within the Nile, floodplains, wetlands, the river itself and the riparian areas detail its great ecosystem. The living systems use complex systems to moderate the flow of the Nile River and provide stability in times of environmental changes such as floods and drought.
River Nile is a source of fish and many legal fishermen are making good income from the River. Food production is the in-thing for the many farmers embracing the Nile waters. Floods have also been controlled since the construction of the Aswan Dam. Hence, migration from the most areas that used to be hit by floods has decreased. Energy production has also become easy has the river offers enough water for hydroelectricity production. Unfortunately, the human impacts on the Nile have been unbearable. Water pollution has impacted living organisms in the river and many people who depend on the water for irrigation and daily consumption. Nevertheless, many policies that have been introduced by the nations that depend on river Nile have aided greatly.
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Challenges Posed by Al Shabaab
Since Somalia emerged from colonialism era under Britain and Italy, the country has gone through civil war, famine and military dictatorship to regional fragmentation. Recently, pirates operate from the coast of Somalia coast hijacked ships attracting global attention.
The biggest threat in the country though is as a result of lack of internal order which has exposed the country to rise of Islamist groups that use hard stances. The greatest threat is that posed by Al-Shabaab which has risen from obscurity to become the most prominent international threat.
The ideological commitment the Al-Shabaab has to global jihadism, military capabilities, Al-Qaeda connections and ability to control and capture territories clearly suggests it will continue posing strategic challenge to Somalia neighbors and the United States.
Since the emergence of the group:
- It has played a significant role in insurgency that helped drive Ethiopian forces out of the country
- It received endorsement from Osama bin Laden
- A large number of Somalis from the West have been flocking its camps
Al-Shabaab is committed towards implementing a strict Shari’a version into key regions of Somalia. It has spread throughout the country with camps from which western Muslims graduate. It is because of this reason that the Al-Shabaab has become a major security threat to several countries and that includes the US.
Terrorist training is one of the major challenges posed by the group as it includes interlocking leadership and affinity in its training. There are also worries about the connections Al-Shabaab have to transnational terrorism. The concerns of terrorism are further bolstered by the operation of training camps for terrorists and ICU successor camps.
Most of the terrorist training camps in the country have been reopened and there are reports of young men from different regions such as Minneapolis-St. Paul and other regions of the US joining the training. Additionally, young Somali men go missing from Saudi Arabia, Canada, Australia and Europe which only proves that training has commenced.
The major isn’t what the individuals do in Somalia but rather, what follows once they get back to their countries of origin. This is a major concern for Britain and the US as well. While it is not easy to determine the total number of militia men that make up the Al-Shabaab, it is estimated they are somewhere between six thousand and seven thousand. Overall, the group will continue been a major threat and challenge to the rest of the world.
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Accounting Coursework Questions
The cash flow statement indicates the actual amount of cash that is available in the company at the end of the financial year. This information cannot be shared in other financial statement, since they are prepared through the accrual accounting method.
Management would be more interested in the ‘cash flow from operating activities’ column of the cash flow statement. This column shows whether the daily trading activities of the business are generating positive cash flows, which is the main role of managers. The section can be used for instance, in the monitoring of trade debtors and creditors.
However, the investors would have an interest in the ‘Financing activities’ section that shows the amount of cash used in the payment of dividends or obtained from sale of stock.
The cash flows of Apple have significantly grown since 2011 when it had a negative cash flow of $1.446 billion to 2013 when it had a positive cash flow of $ 3.53 billion. Most of the company’s cash flow is acquired from its operational activities. Over the three past financial periods, investing and financial activities do not give any cash flows except in 2011 when it gave out stock. A greater percentage of the company’s money is used in paying for dividends and capital expenses.
Apple needs to find an avenue for generating cash from its investment activities since although it is using lots of money on investments, it does not generate any cash from them.
Callable preferred stocks are shared that are issued to their holders at preferential terms under circumstances that they shall be redeemed back by the company. They take the preference over common stock in the distribution of dividends and compensation at the time of the company’s liquidation (Miller & Jentz, 752). Corporations issue stock when they urgently need to raise capital but do not wish to increase the number of shareholders in the long term.
I would prefer cumulative preferred stock since dividend on their payment is guaranteed and the company is not able to redeem them.
Management accounting is focused on the generation of information for use within the company for instance, annual budgets. On the other hand, financial accounting is aimed at communication with external parties like potential investors about the financial position of the company for example, on the position of cash flow and operating profits.
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Miller, R., & Jentz, G. (2012). Business Law Today: Comprehensive: Text and Cases. Mason OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Web. 12 February 2014. Retrieved from
Amy Tan wrote the short story Two Kinds. This story tells the memories of Jing-mei, a child and Suyian Woo, her mother during their childhood. Amy Tan reveals Jing-mei struggles between the Chinese ancestry and success expectations. This story has an important setting since it depicts the Chinese immigrants’ high expectations when all people in America were hoping that they would be successful.
It is important to note that the setting of this story is the San Francisco of the 1950s. Like the other places in America, there were clear impacts of the World War II in San Francisco. Therefore, the setting of this story makes it easy for the reader to understand the Asian immigrants’ expectations. This was the first year for them to be in the U.S.
Jing-mei gets several advantages. A family piano is the major advantage. Jing-mei is given this piano as a gift by her mother in her 30th birthday. Her mother, Suyuan said silently that he saw the capacity of Jing-mei which would enable her to emerge as a skilled pianist. However, she had to try. Jing-mei decided to tune the piano after her mother’s death. She also gets the advantage of a caring mother. Suyuan wants her daughter to realize the best in her life.
This is demonstrated by the way she wants her daughter to take piano lessons. As such, Jing-mei will not endure hardships similar to those of her mother. However, she becomes disadvantaged when her mother dies. Her death is unexpected and it is only after she dies that the child realizes what she wanted for her. It is at this time that she discovers the perfectly contented song after the death of her mother. However, this was too late.
This story by Tan reveals a typical mother-daughter conflict. Children, more so girls have conflicts with mothers who guide them on the way to live in most cultures. Daughters have conflicts with mothers because they do not accept the dreams of their mothers or simple guidelines that they give them. Jing-mei is depicted as a girl that is cruel to her mother.
She strikes her with a strong weapon. This is a reminder of a central tragedy. Typically, this reveals conflict that exists between mothers and daughters. Whether parents are correct or misguided, daughters do not see the essence of cooperating with their mothers’ plans. This is not only the case in America but in others cultures across the world as well.
In the last paragraph, Jim-mei discovers what the songs that she had rejected are about. The left-hand side song is known as the “Pleading Child” and the right-hand side song is called “Perfectly Contented”. It is at this time that she discovers that both are halves that make one song when she plays them for some time. The meaning of this paragraph is that a “Pleading Child” could not or cannot be “Perfectly Contented”. This is due to the fact that she cannot explain the difficulties that her mother experienced with her.
While struggling with her mother, she also struggles with personal identity. For instance, it is impossible to understand Jing-mei’s identity whether American, Chinese or both. This story reveals the attempt by daughters to find a place within the world.
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