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Nicotinamide Adenine DinucleotidPhosphate
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is a coenzyme form of vitamin niacin. The enzyme also known as NADP is needed for many biochemical reactions to take place. Protein catalysts including trypsin and lysozyme catalyze different reactions by themselves. However, many other catalysts require metal ions as well as ribonucleic acid to carry out a reaction.
Niacin is a component of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and NAD. These enzymes are very crucial in catabolism, and in the production of energy as well as biosynthesis of sugars and fats.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate is therefore very important and plays a crucial role in ensuring that biochemical reactions take place. Redox reactions for instance cannot take place without NADP. This is a reaction in which oxidoreductase enzymes transfer hydrogen.
Redox reaction is catalyzed by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate or the oxidoreducrase enzyme. During the process, two electrons and two hydrogens are removed from an ethanol molecule. A hydrogen atom and two electrons will then be transferred to generate an active NADP+.
Enzymes that require NADP to carry out different reactions
- Alcohol dehydrogenase requires NADP to metabolize alcohol
- Glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze an important step in glycolysis
- Lactate dehydrogenase also requires NADP to catalyze reactions in liver and muscle cells
- Pyruvate dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze any reaction connecting to glycolysis to the Krebs cycle
- a-keto-glutatarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase also require NADP to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation reactions
- Hydroxyl-acyl-sCoA dehydrogenase needs NADP to catalyze oxidative phosphorylation reactions
- Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is also needed to catalyze reactions in pentose phosphate pathway, in the Calvin cycle and in fatty acid synthesis.
Additionally, biosynthetic and energy producing functions of Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase also come in handy. The enzyme act as an electron acceptor in oxidoreductase catalyzed reactions. It acts as an electron donor to ensure successful reactions in different cycles and metabolic processes.
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase can also act as a side enzyme in different reactions. This depends on the side of NAD molecule that the enzyme acts on. For instance alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes an alcoholic reaction. NADP therefore acts as a side enzyme by ensuring sufficient transfer of hydrogen from ethanol and to the position that is required to produce quality alcohol.
Similarly, nicotinamide group can be used with dehydrogenase enzyme unexpectedly to complete a catalytic reaction. It is also important to note that NADP has a very distinctive signal in ultra-violet spectroscopy. The enzyme is used by scientists to monitor a wide range of enzyme catalyzed reactions.
Who established Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase?
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that has been proven to be very important in a wide range of metabolic reactions. This is an enzyme that was first established by Hans von Euler. He was the first to realize the structure of the enzyme. In 1929, Hans shared a Nobel Prize with Arthur Harden in medicine and in physiology for the discovery of the enzyme as well as NAD.
Later on, Euler proved that NAD contains two phosphate groups including one adenine, one nicotinamide unit and ribose sugar. These are important compounds that offer a positive charge on the enzyme and nitrogen atoms in different reactions.
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Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1refers to a protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene in humans. The protein that is encoded by ABCC1 gene is part of the genes that belong to a super-family of the ATP-binding cassette or ABC transporters. ABC proteins are responsible for the transportation of different molecules across the intra and extra-cellular membranes.
There are seven divisions or distinct subfamilies of the ABC genes. These are the ABC1, MRP, MDR/TAP, OABP, ALD, GCN20 and White. Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is a full transporter belonging to the MRP subfamily that is involved in the multi-drug resistance activities. The function of this protein is to act as multi-specific organic anion transporter with the oxidized glutathione, activated aflatoxin B, and cysteinly leukotrienes as the substrates.
The protein is also responsible for transporting sulfate conjugates and glucuronides of the steroid hormones as well as bile salts. Different splice variants result from alternative splicing of the exon deletion but original reading of the open frame in all the forms is maintained.
Multidrug resistance associated protein 1is among the major obstacles when it comes to treatment of cancer. This is because it not only hinders treatment, but also proper prognosis of cancer patients. It transport different therapeutic agents and a wide range of physiological substances and it can also play a significant role in development of resistance to drug in different forms of cancer including prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and childhood neuroblastoma.
Many patients of neuroblastoma in the current world disseminated this disease during diagnosis. Despite undergoing intensive treatment, prognosis of such patients remains dismal. Evidence that shows that multidrug resistance associated protein 1targets the genes that are involved in multidrug resistance in the neuroblastoma is increasing rapidly. Considering the significance of multidrug resistance associated protein 1overexpression in the neuroblastoma, its inhibition can be an important approach clinically in improving the patient outcome in the disease.
Developing a resistance to different cytotoxic drugs is the main cause of failure for treatment in different types of infections and malignant diseases. Thu, despite making significant advancement in the treatment of cancer, multidrug resistance associated protein 1is still a major problem in the medical or clinical field.
It causes poor outcome for patients and limitation of therapeutic options in different cancers. As such, having a better understanding of mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance associated protein 1is very important. It can help in improving the existing regime of chemotherapy in treatment of cancer and neuroblastoma.
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Instrumental variable is used in estimating casual relationships when a treatment is not delivered to all units successfully or a controlled experiment is not feasible in a randomized experiment in statistics, epidemiology, econometrics and other related disciplines.
Philip G. Wright derived the instrumental variable theory for the first time in a book entitled; The Tariff on Animal and Vegetable Oils. Instrumental variables are traditionally defined as variable Z with a correlation with an independent variable X without a correlation with the error term U in an equation.
The equation is as follows:
Y= βX +U
However, this definition has concept ambiguities that include independent variable and error term. This has caused confusion regarding the meaning that this equation has and it has been labeled as “regression” wrongly.
The method of instrumental variable allows for consistent estimation in the experiments with correlated explanatory variables with error terms of regression relationships. This correlation can occur when one of the explanatory variables is caused by a dependent variable, when the explanatory variables are subjected to measurement errors or when relevant covariates or explanatory variables are omitted in the model.
In any of these situations, inconsistent and biased estimates are generally produced by linear regression. Nevertheless, if there is an instrument variable, it is still possible to obtain consistent estimates. An instrument variable refers to a variable that is not part of the explanatory equation. It is correlated to endogenous covariates that are condition to the other explanatory variables.
In a linear model, using instrumental variable has two major requirements. First, the instrument has to be correlated to the endogenous covariates that are conditional to other explanatory variables. Second, the instrument should not be correlated to the error term in covariates equation. This implies that the instrument should not suffer from a similar problem with an original, predicting variable.
The method of instrumental variable has been used in estimating policy variable of the effects of a treatment in an experimental design that is not feasible and it has been successful. Estimating the casual impacts has several difficulties. Even randomized experiments are not perfect in some parts because researchers can seldom, if possible, perform true experiments.
Instrumental variable analysis is one of the most compelling quasi-experimental methods that are used in estimating impacts since the assumptions required to provide justification for the instrumental method are more plausible that the ones required in justifying other experimental methods.
Researchers have proposed the instrumental variable method as one of the potential approaches in solving common problems of the uncontrolled confounding in the comparative studies in medical interventions. Over the years, several reviews have been done on the instrumental variable methods in biomedical and statistical literature at different technical levels and substantive emphases have been made. However, many researchers are still unfamiliar with instrumental variable and its application.
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Instrumental variable method has been used in estimating casual relationships in epidemiology, econometrics and statistics among other disciplines. However, you must conduct an extensive study to write a quality essay about this method. Nevertheless, you can order this essay with veteran writers at Essays Experts.
US Electoral College
The US Electoral College is the highly presumed institution that legitimately elects the president and the vice president of the United States. It is a process that is established in the United States constitution. An Electoral College is made up of 538 electors who take part in the elections. Electors are the chosen and authorized constitutional participants who foresee the success of an election and are chosen by a popular vote on a state-to-state strategy. Hence, U.S president and the vice president are not directly elected by the voters, but Citizens vote for the electors who pick the best candidate.
There is a deep-rooted history on the U.S Electoral College. The year 1787 changed the face and history of America. It was an era when a group of national leaders drafted the U.S constitution whilst another group decided that the average citizen should not elect a president without a system to link the process – the Electoral College. At the time, many politicians believed that the most popular candidate was likely to win the election and this was a uncontrolled strategy that favors certain areas.
The Electoral College process worked effectively until 1800 when there was a tied election outcome between Arron Burr and Thomas Jefferson. But electors from both parties were selected to elect the best candidate. This outcome also resulted to 12th amendment of the Unites States constitution which clarified more on the electoral voting process. Today, each state has to present a number of electors’ equivalent to the number of senators and its representatives.
Despite being the most effective election process in United States, the Electoral College has been faced by a number of critics and proposals. Unfortunately, most of the debaters have been trying to abolish the Electoral College. Those against the U.S Electoral College and preferred a direct popular vote of the president cite issues such as;
- The possibility of having “faithless” electors.
- Risk of electing a minority president who has fewer numbers of votes.
- Failure to of the electors to reflect the national popular voter will and
- Possibility of the Electoral College in disappointing voter turnout.
Supporters of the U.S Electoral College have normally stood to defend it on its logical ground asserting that;
- It brings out the consistency of the nation by ensuring distribution of the popular support to rightfully elected president.
- It also boosts the status of minority interests
- The process also maintains a federal way of government and exceptional representation
- It also contributes to the political stability of the nation by boosting a two-party system.
The U.S Electoral College has played great roles over 50 presidential and vice president elections. It has also been in the forefront to pledging peaceful presidential elections that meet and gratify the needs of the people. The Electoral College has stood as an essential piece of American Federalist democracy for many years and millions Americans treasure it to date. Hence, due to its transparency and consistence in the election process, no one should have any qualms voting for his or her desired candidate.
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Retinol Binding Protein
Retinol binding protein can be simply defined as a type of protein that has a low molecular weight and transports retinol or Vitamin A from the liver to the peripheral tissues. However, it should be noted that this class of proteins can also conduct other various functions in the body. In conjunction with retinoic acid, retinol plays an important role in modulating the expression of genes as well as in the overall embryonic development. However, the supply of these substances should always be at a given level since any deficit or excess can have dire consequences that may include malformations in development or even mortality of an embryo.
The retinol binding protein helps in regulating the transportation and metabolism of retinol that is required for successful pregnancy. This class of proteins has been identified in various parts of the body including the embryo, uterus and other tissues like the porcine, ovine and bovine. This is a clear indication that retinol binding protein aids in the proper exposure of retinol to the embryo, and its transportation.
Retinol binding protein is mostly found bound to transthyretin. However, there is usually a small percentage that freely passes through the glomerular membranes. This fraction is re-absorbed by the cells of the renal proximal tubules. Under this circumstance, the small percentage of retinol binding proteins is catabolized. Due to the extensive re-absorption that takes places within the tubules, only small traces of the filtered retinol binding protein is passed out in urine. Thus, it can be said that increased excretion of retinol binding protein during the process of urination points out to an injury or impairment in the proximal tubule.
There are three types of retinol binding protein that you need to take note of when discussing this topic. One of them is called Plasma retinol binding protein that is mainly the vessel of transport in the serum. Cellular retinol binding protein is yet another type whose function is to transport retinol and factors of metabolism to retinyl esters so that they can be stored safely for future use. Besides, the factors of metabolism and retinol can also be transported to form part of retinoic acid.
Cellular retinoic acid binding proteins also fall under the three types of retinol binding proteins. Their work is to bind retinol and retinoic acid with high affinity. Besides, some studies have also indicated that this class of retinol binding proteins can also regulate and supply retinoic acid to nuclear receptors.
Retinol binding proteins are instrumental in the growth and differentiation of several body tissues. Among these, embryos are regarded as the most sensitive to changes in the concentration of retinol. The process through which retinol binding protein produces retinol is still not very clear. Retinol binding protein undergoes synthesis in the liver; however, its secretion depends on the concentrations of retinol. Secretion of RBP is usually blocked whenever there is a deficiency in retinol. This results into a rise in the Retinol binding protein levels in the liver and a fall of the same in the plasma.
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Insulin-like Growth factor 2
Insulin-like growth factor 2 is also called IGF2. It is one of the three protein hormones whose structure is similar to that of insulin. Scientists define this hormone as a neutral peptide that is well-characterized and the liver is believed to secrete it and circulate it into the blood. Among the functions of this hormone include mitogenic, insulin-like and growth-regulating activities.
This growth factor hormone depends on somatotropin although not absolutely. Many scientists believe that it is a crucial growth factor for fetus unlike the insulin-like growth factor I which is a crucial growth factor for adults. Insulin-like growth factor 2 plays an important role in influencing cell division in fetus, mammalian growth, differentiation and also metabolic regulation.
There studies that suggest that this protein promotes proliferation and growth of cells in different tissues. Studies have also proven that this protein is highly active among fetus and it facilitates their development but it is less active in adults.
Individuals inherit most genes from parents. One copy of the gene is inherited from the father and the other from the mother. The two copies are turned on or typically activated in the cells. For Insulin-like growth factor 2 gene, the copy that an individual inherits from their mother is not active in most body parts. Scientists see this as a parent-specific variation in the activation of gene and it is caused by genomic imprinting.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 forms part of a genes’ cluster found on the short arm of the chromosome 11. This part is the one that undergoes genomic imprinting. A part of DNA called the imprinting center 1 or H19 controls genomic imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2.
A change in the insulin-like growth factor 2 due to genomic imprinting causes changes in another process known as methylation. This affects the imprinting center 1. In genes where genomic imprinting occurs, a mark or stamp is put on them during the formation of sperm or egg cells. The stamping process is what is known as methylation. It is a chemical reaction during which small molecules known as methyl groups are attached to some DNA segments.
In some individuals, this results in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. This syndrome is caused by the presence of a lot of methyl groups in the DNA segments. An increase in the activities of insulin-like growth factor 2 is also associated with some strains of cancer. This occurs when both maternal and paternal copies of the gene with this protein are active.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 amount increases the rate at which cells produce. Eventually, Insulin-like growth factor 2 stimulates tumor cells’ growth while preventing the destruction of damaged cells. Other diseases that are associated with insulin-like growth factor 2 include Russell-Silver syndrome, polymorphisms and Doege-Potter syndrome.
Apart from causing these diseases, insulin-like growth factor 2 also interacts with Transferrin and IGFBP3.
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Insulin-like growth factor 2 acts as a hormone that promotes growth during gestation. However, it has other roles that you need to study before writing an essay on it. However, you can simply order your essay with us at Essays Experts to save time and resources.
Neoliberalism is a phrase that is used in reference to a set of economic policies that have been widely popularized in the past 25 years. Through these policies, a situation is created whereby the rich grow richer while the poor continue to languish in abject poverty. This mainly occurs because through neoliberalism, the control of economic factors is moved from the public to the private sector. Thus, only handful individuals who already have some sort of power are able to make their way up in terms of economic gains.
Neoliberalism offers a suggestion that governments should cut down deficit spending, exercise limitation on subsidies, limit protectionism, privatize businesses that are run by the state, back deregulation and give and give way for private property developments. When looking at the concept of liberalism, it is also of great importance to bear in mind that it can as well be used in reference to religious and political ideas. However, the phrase neo suggests a new form of liberalism that gives capitalists the opportunity to make as much profits as they can even if it is at the expense of the majority of the population.
There are main points that one should always base their arguments when defining neoliberalism. One of them is the rule of the market. Neoliberalism seeks to excuse private enterprises from any bonds that may have been imposed on them by the state irrespective of the social impacts that it is deemed to cause. Besides, it also aims at reducing wages through de-unionization of workers and elimination of their rights. Besides, it also looks towards removing price controls, and ensuring free movement of goods, services and capital.
Another basic aspect of neoliberalism is that it significantly reduces the public spending on vital services like education and healthcare. In fact, it ensures that the government’s role in providing almost all kinds of essential services like road maintenance, water supply is withdrawn. With this, the safety nets for the poor are completely removed so that they are open to oppression. Neoliberalism is aimed at reducing government regulation of anything that has the potential of diminishing profits so that capitalists can make as much as they wish.
Neoliberalism also proposes that the state should sell a greater part of its assets like industries, banks, toll highways, hospitals, schools among others to private investors. In order to avoid public suspicion, all these are conducted under the banner of enhancing greater efficiency. However, the result is that it concentrates more wealth in just a few hands such that the public is pushed to paying more in order to meet its needs.
When all the issues highlighted above are brought together and successfully executed, the concept of community or public good is completely eliminated. Neoliberalism imposes a concept of individual responsibility whereby each and every person is entitled to use their own means to survive. Apart from just being used by governments, neoliberalism has also been imposed by many powerful institutions around the globe like the IMF, Inter American Development Bank, World Bank among others.
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How to Choose the Best Essay Format
Knowing how to choose the best essay format is very important because essays form an important part of your overall academics. To write good essays, you need creativity, imagination and have a good structure of your thoughts. Format refers to the way something is set out or arranged-follow the link oxforddictionaries.com for details. An essay format therefore refers to how a composition or essay is set out or arranged.
The basic format for essays considers essays as five-paragraph compositions or projects. Although this format is not the only one that is used in writing essays, it is useful as a model that should be kept in mind especially while starting to write essays- ckick here for more information.
Knowing how to choose the best essay format enables you to organize information properly
When writing an essay, it is important to ensure that every aspect of the essay is of the highest quality. You should ensure that the structure or format and style of your essay are correct to guarantee excellence and quality for your essay. By following the right format while writing your essay, you will be able to organize the information that you want to pass to the readers according to its importance or relevance.
When you follow the right essay format, you start your essay with an introduction that grabs the attention of the reader, introduce your thesis or the main point and elaborate the supporting points before wrapping up the message in a well-written conclusion. The right format also enables you to reference your information sources in a professional manner.
How to choose the best essay format and stick to it
The best essay format is the one that your teacher or lecturer assigns in the essay writing assignment.
To choose the best format for writing your essay:
- Read over the instructions of your essay writing assignment to find out if there is any information that specifies the essay format to use.
- Go through your course syllabus searching for information that might be indicating the right format for the essays written for that particular course.
- Ask your lecturer or teacher which format you should use in writing your essay.
In addition to the basic essay format, there are other formats like the APA format, MLA format, Harvard format and Chicago format. You can easily find websites that provide guidelines for using each of these formats online. Therefore, if your teacher or lecturer has not taught you how to use the specified format, use the internet to learn more about it.
Get your essay format right before you start writing your essay
Before you start drafting your essay, start by understanding how to use the best essay format. This is because if your essay fails to depict all aspects of the assigned essay format, the examiner will consider your essay as poorly written and therefore he/she will not even bother to read it keenly. Failing to follow essay formatting guidelines or instructions tells the examiner that you are incapable of following simple instructions. Thus, your examiner will judge your essay formatting ability and the content instantly. Therefore, pay close attention to the simple guidelines for formatting your essay before you start writing the essay and while writing it. After writing the essay, go through it carefully to ensure that you have adhered to all instructions of the format that you choose for your essay.
How to choose the best essay format on the basis of your essay type
Teachers and lecturers usually specify the kind of the essay that they want students to write. If your teacher or lecturer does not specify the format that you should use, choose a format for your essay on the basis of the kind of the essay that the assignment requires you to write. Be careful to ensure that the format that you choose is the best for your essay type. To do this, consider the target audience and purpose of the essay. Also understand the subject of your essay.
For instance, you cannot write an argumentative essay for a topic that states universal facts. It is also impossible to write a persuasive essay that tries to convince readers on something that already exists as an accepted fact. On the same note, a compare and contrast essay should have two things that have differences and similarities. Therefore, choose the format of your essay on the basis of the type of an essay that you are required to write, its purpose and topic. Traditionally, essays follow narrative writing, argumentative essays, cause and effect essays as well as compare and contrast essay formats.
Commonly used essay formats
APA and MLA are the most common essay formats. With APA essay format, essays ought to be typed and double-spaced on a standard-size paper. All sides should have 1inch margins. The used font should be clear and highly readable. 12 points, Times New Roman is the recommended font. A page header or running head should be included at the top of the pages. Page numbers should be flushed to the right while creating the running head which is the shortened essay title’s version. It should not be more than 50 characters inclusive of punctuation and spacing- follow the link for more information.
With MLA format, essays should be typed using 12 points Times New Roman as the font. They should be double-spaced without extra spacing between paragraphs. The upper corner of the essay on the left side should have a heading which should be your name, name of the instructor, your class and date. An essay written in MLA format should have margins of one-inch at the bottom, top, right and left. In every page, there should be a page number and last name of the author at the upper corner on the right side. The essay should have a centered title under the information on the header. First line of every paragraph ought to be indented for half an inch or five spaces. The text of the essay should be aligned left- follow the link ivcc.edu for more information.
The basic essay format
Most guides on how to choose the best essay format emphasize the importance of having the basic essay format in mind while writing an essay. With the basic essay format, your essay should have the following sections:
- The introductory paragraph
This is the first paragraph in an essay and it should capture the attention of your readers and get them involved in the essay. It should introduce the essay topic and include a thesis statement which tells readers what your essay is all about. The introduction should have general ideas to enhance comprehension of the topic or main claim by the readers before becoming specific in the thesis statement- follow the link uvu.edu for more information.
- Thesis statement
Thesis statement should be included in the introduction and it should state the main argument or idea of your essay, set the limit of your topic and indicate essay organization. It should work as the road map for your entire essay.
The main points or point presented by the thesis statement should be supported in the body. Each major point is developed in the body using one or even more paragraphs which provide more details. The provided details can be experiences, research findings and examples depending on the requirements of your essay writing assignment. Each paragraph of the body should have a topic sentence at the beginning, supporting details and the concluding sentence.
These are words or sentences that connect paragraphs in an essay. They maintain the smooth flow of the information of an essay. They can be two or one word such as “next”, “first” and “in addition”.
The conclusion section of an essay brings the main points together. It should refer readers back to the stated thesis statement. After reading the conclusion, readers should be left with something to think of and a sense of logical closure of the essay. The conclusion should show readers that the ideas that the essay brought up have been resolved. It can also address the argument’s implications.
If the essay includes research, credit should be given to the used sources using a references, works cited or bibliography page and in-text citations. How the used sources are given credit depends on the chosen overall format. Therefore, refer to the guidelines of MLA format, Chicago format, Turban format or APA format to know how to cite the sources that you use in writing your essay depending on your chosen format.
When you know how to choose the best essay format, the essays that you write will have coherence and unity. Sticking to the best format enhances the understanding of the reader because it makes your essay easy to read and ideas easy to follow.
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Franchising Pros and Cons
To many entrepreneurs who have been successful in building business empires, franchising is an option that may be running through their minds. Franchising is one of the ways of expanding a business and you too may be moved to try it out. However, it is very important to note that just like any other models of business, franchising also has its benefits and demerits. Getting to know them will help you as an entrepreneur to make an informed choice on whether to franchise or not.
One of the pros of franchising is that it can be helpful in obtaining new talent for good business. Many people who are highly qualified and hard workers often tend to invest in running businesses instead of being employed by others in exchange for salaries. Thus, there is a higher chance that by franchising, you are able to get the best talent that can work towards building the business compared to hiring someone to work for you.
Franchising is also a way of obtaining expansion capital for the business without a lot of stress. Since franchisees pay to acquire outlets within the chain, you are able to significantly increase the number of locations without necessarily having to tap a great chunk of your own capital or even moving up and down in search of loans from banks.
When making comparison between starting your own business and franchising, you will realize that franchising is less risky and even costly. Since franchising involves the use of a brand that is already established in the market, there are several costs that are already avoided. Besides, it should also be noted that even though franchisors do not provide financing, many have better working relationships with lenders that can help with issues about financing.
Franchising limits creativity and flexibility on the part of the entrepreneur who is franchising. The reason for this is because the contracts always come with rules that set very explicit standards. In most occasions, the investor who has franchised is not allowed to make any change to the brand but stick to what its owner stipulates. Even if you have a new idea, the franchisor has to agree to it before it is rolled out. This can curtail the efforts of the franchisee to develop the business in the way that he or she likes.
Another con of franchising is that the success of the franchisee is based on the franchisor. The reputation that the franchisee will have in the market shall be a representation of the franchisor’s. This means that any problem that is encountered by the franchisor in the course of doing business will directly impact the franchisee. In fact, investors who fail to do their research well before franchising always find themselves stuck for years after signing the contract.
Just like any other ventures that people may think of investing in, there is no guarantee that franchising is risk-free and more profitable. Choosing to franchise or not is a decision that requires proper research and consultations.
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Pros and Cons of Peer to Peer File Sharing
There many pros and cons of peer to peer file sharing. Peer to peer file sharing refers to sharing of files in a network of connected personal computers. The connected computers share resources in a network that does not involve a separate computer acting as a server.
Peer to peer file sharing is a strategy that is gaining popularity among software corporations. Although this strategy has proved to be beneficial to companies, it has some faults or disadvantages as well. Among the pros of peer to peer file sharing include its easy installation.
Installing peer to peer file sharing network is easy. Computers that are involved in this network are also easy to configure. Thus, it is suitable for companies that do not have a lot of time to spend in installing a file sharing network. If a company does not have an in-house IT department it can also use this network.
In this network, all contents and resources are shared by all peers. This is not the case with server-client network where the server shares the content and resources. This implies that as long as a computer is in the network it can access all files, contents or resources of the architecture.
Peer to peer file sharing network eliminates central dependency. This makes it more reliable because if one peer fails the entire system is not affected. Other peers continue functioning properly when one peer fails. This is not the case with a client-server architecture where the entire system goes down when the server fails.
In addition, peer to peer network does not require a system administrator all the time. The system makes every peer an administrator of their computer. Users are able to control their resources or the shared files. Establishing and maintaining a peer to peer file sharing network is also relatively cheaper.
Among the cons of peer to peer file sharing network include the decentralization of the entire system. This makes administering the system difficult because a single administrator cannot determine the entire accessibility of the settings of the whole network.
The entire network is also not secure. This is because peers can transmit spywares, viruses, malwares and Trojans. These threats can spread from one peer to the other very easily since in most cases nobody monitors the system.
Backup or data recovery is also difficult in a peer to peer file sharing network. Each computer in the network should have a backup system of its own. Peer to peer file sharing network is also not necessarily legal. For this reason, copyrighted files such as music and movies are easily transferred via this network. A good example of this is torrents that use peer to peer file sharing technology.
Generally, peer to peer file sharing network is good when used in connecting a small number of computers and where high security level is not necessary. However, in business networks where there is availability of sensitive data, peer to peer file sharing network is not suitable.
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Spanish American War
Spanish American war was the conflict between Spain and US which led to the end of Spanish colonial rule and acquisition of new territories in Latin America and Western Pacific. The war was as a result of independence struggle by Cuban which commenced in 1895 February. Numerous sensational newspapers graphically portrayed repressive, brutal measures exercised by Spain increasing the level of sympathy Americans had for rebels.
The calls for demand that the US should intervene increased after USS Maine battleship was sunk in Havana harbor. The battleship was mandated with the task of protecting United States citizens as well as their property after the breakout of anti-Spanish riots. An inquiry that was carried out by the Navy declared inaccurately that the vessel was damaged by a mine. In the attack, two hundred and sixty six Navy men lost their lives while 2 high rankled soldiers lost their lives as well.
Within weeks after Maine sinking, intelligence operatives moved to intercept a letter between the ambassador to Spain that was directed to the US and friend in Havana. The letter was a disparagement of the United States president McKinley and intimidated on plans of sabotage against property held by Americans in Cuba. Several newspapers made publications of the letter and this served to further agitate public opinion. On 19th, April, 1898 Spanish rule was brought to an end by congress.
The declaration of war on the US by Spain was made following the United States war declaration on 25th. This was retroactive to 21st April. The war that ensued afterwards was pitifully one sided because Spain had not prepared its army or the navy for war with a power that was quite formidable like the US. On 1st May, 1898, a squadron was led to Manila Bay in Philippines by George Dewey destroying a fleet that was anchored there in a leisurely engagement leaving 7 American seamen severely injured. By August, Manila was under the occupation of United States troops.
The Spanish Caribbean fleet, that was quite elusive and under the rule of Pascual Cervera was spotted in Cuba’s Santiago harbor, by the United States reconnaissance. Under General William Shafter a regular troop’s army and some volunteers landed on the Santiago East coast and advanced towards the city in a bid of forcing the fleet of Cervera from the harbor. The fleet was decimated though the US did not sustain any losses. The Spanish also surrendered to the Philippines but the fleet of the US remained and commenced on a campaign that would acquire the island as a territory of the United States. The conflict that ensued afterwards lasted till 1914.
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Winners and Losers of Globalization
Globalization has some clear winners and losers. It has greatly benefited the global middle group especially people in Brazil, Indonesia, and China as well as the top 1% in the world. While this is the case those at the bottom as well as the low middle class in rich countries have being left out. Globalization came with several complications for instance principles were lost as a result of fast economic growth such as human rights ecological sustainability, democracy and social justice.
Since the economic crisis that was witnessed recently, globalization effects have been felt on every scale and this includes international, local and national. Because of this fact, people, especially those in developed countries are forced to analyze their future because they are afraid of the new labor market state as well as the rapid economic growth of industrialized countries like South Korea and China. At the same time, developing countries are dealing with usual issues such as hunger and poverty.
Winners of globalization
Who are these so called “globalization winners”? They are the elite capitalist class most of who come from developed countries otherwise known as global players. This class has significant characteristics some of which include the following:
- Economic interests which are becoming global linked than exclusively national or local in origin.
- Their behavior is based on global competitiveness as well as consumerist practice and rhetoric
- They have similar lifestyles which mainly include high education patterns
Another group that is in the list of winners is consumers because prices tend to decrease because of the increasing competition. People who are skilled laborers are also winners as they adapt to new technology revolution and internationalization of distribution and production. What is more, they also specialize in competitive service and industries with high inputs of technology which makes it possible for them to boost productivity and relative wages.
Losers of globalization
Unqualified workers or those who are lowly qualified are the greatest losers and this is because they lack the skills, qualifications and knowledge that is required for them to keep up to date with technical developments. Also, in this group of losers are capitalists in developing nations because majority operates within markets where the competition is less and without any regulatory frameworks. This means they don’t have the ability to lobby governments in order to get high profit margins. Nonetheless, these profits will plummet or get reduced with introduction of foreign investment which can also produce locally through use of better technology guaranteeing high productivity.
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Expansionary Monetary Policy Vs Contractionary Monetary Policy
A monetary policy can either be contractionary or expansionary. The former accelerates economic growth while the latter restricts it. Conventionally, an expansionary policy is used to address issues of joblessness during depression by lowering the rate of interest with the hope easy credit will attract companies to expand. This is achieved by increasing money supply in an economy.
These policies are often used in accordance to the state of the economy at any given time and they both have some pros and cons. The contractionary policy is used to promote stable prices and reduce inflation. The process used to do this involves complex steps undertaken by the central bank which includes estimating the existing economic conditions and predicting what course the economy will take in the following years (preferably 2 years).
Once this is done, the central bank has to compare the results with its inflationary and economic growth goals. If the estimated inflation is more than the central banks goals, contractionary measures are employed. Some of the actions taken might include high short term interest rates and high reserve requirements which reduce the supply of money and slow down the pace at which an economy grows. The major disadvantage of this is the fact that companies and consumers find it difficult to get loans and what is more, it leads to increased cases of unemployment.
An expansionary monetary policy is the exact opposite and its effects are also different. The purpose of this policy is to expand the supply of money and at the same time, increase economic activity. This is achieved by keeping the interest rate low through addition of money into the system via open market. This is also carried out by the central bank and the goals of an expansionary monetary policy includes spurring economic growth, increasing employment opportunities and ensuring there is price stability.
A contractionary monetary policy has the exact opposite effects. Central banks have to be open and thorough when making a decision on which of these two policies to implement as they can have adverse effects on the economy. For instance, an expansionary policy has lagging effects which are noted between the time the policy is implemented and when the effects are felt. As such, it causes high cases of unemployment because businesses cannot expand.
Decisions on monetary policy take a long duration for them to be effect on the economy and especially in cases of a complex and large economy like that of the US. Therefore whether it is expansionary or contractionary policy, the effect exerted is not an immediate one.
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Effects of Fixed Exchange Rates on Monetary Policy
Many researchers have been busy conducting studies on the impacts that fixed exchange rates can have on monetary policy. The studies are still on-going; however, there are a few revelations that have been made on how pegged exchange rates can impact monetary policy. One thing to be noted is that fixing the rate of exchange does not contribute to the total loss of flexibility with regards to monetary policy. Quite a number of countries would still have monetary freedom with fixed exchange rates but with certain limitations.
With a fixed exchange rate, a country’s monetary policy is limited to a certain parameter. A pegged exchange rate limits a government to making decisions based on the activities of the base country. This means that even if the fixed economy is faced with a problem like inflation, it cannot find solace by increasing supply of money into the market. The exchange rate will still remain the same as long as there is no agreement between the fixed economies to effect changes. Thus, even the current account balances of every pegged economy will remain the same until it opts out or comes into agreement with its partners to change the rates.
A country that operates on a fixed exchange rate is not autonomous; this means that it cannot be able to pursue its domestic objectives through monetary policy. It often occurs that most countries that are operating on fixed exchange rates push much of the autonomy of their monetary policies to the base countries or those nations to whom they have tied their currencies to. Fixed exchange rate economies substantially align their monetary policies to those of their base counterparts, thus limiting their flexibility.
Many business analysts have argued that monetary policy is ineffective under pegged exchange rates. The reason for this is because with a fixed exchange rate, it is not within the power of the government or even the central bank to determine the value of its currency. The fixed exchange rate reigns over monetary policy in that even if a country decides to either expand or contract its monetary policy, the fixed exchange rate will not change to the advantage of that country. A fixed exchange rate takes away the ability of a government or the central bank to influence the interest rates, exchange rates and even the Gross National Product.
In the implementation of a fixed exchange rate, there is always an initial target exchange rate that is set. This rate will be allowed to undergo fluctuation within a given range that is close to that target. Economies that are operating with the fixed exchange rate will have to keep their rates revolving around this target. However, modifications can be conducted on the exchange rate after some time depending on the performance of economies. Thus, the effects of a fixed exchange rate on monetary policy can only be achieved when these modifications are done.
Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis of Toyota
Toyota Motor Corporation is one of the highly reputed companies that have dominated the automobile industries greatly. It is a Japanese company that is greatly involved in design, manufacture, assembling and sales of cars, commercial vehicles, minivans and related products since its formation in 1937. It has been dominating the automobile industry for long and it is annual revenue as of 2013 was about $213 billion and it has employed approximately 330000 people.
The automobile industry has been competitive ever since and Toyota has worked hard to overcome most of its rivals. Despite increased competitive rivalry, the automobile industry has also faced skyrocketing fuel prices and day to day growing environmental concerns. These two factors have impacted consumer predilections away from pick-up trucks that consumer a lot of fuel to smaller and fuel-efficient cars.
A lot of changes have been experienced in the industry and Toyota has been adapted extremely well with car and vehicle sales increasing on daily basis. For any green investors trying to make a mark in the industry, conducting Porter’s 5 analysis of Toyota has been a great strategy to learn from the market. By conducting Porter’s five analyses, it is easy to access where power or great opportunities lie in an industry. There are five essential forces that have made Toyota a reckoning force in the automobile industry. This includes;
- Power of suppliers- The bargaining power of suppliers in the automobile industry is low. Majority of suppliers in the industry offer cooling system, braking system, fuel supply system and electrical systems globally. Unfortunately, these suppliers do not have the power to rule the market as Toyota and other vehicle manufacturers own many compatible suppliers and can also produce their own automobile products.
- Threat of new entrants- It is not easy to enter and dominate the automobile industry. Companies like Toyota and others have used a lot of money to maintain their status and reach those ranks. Toyota also has been able to cut costs than its competitors on used cars and core automobiles, and so, it is not easy for new companies to enjoy such privileges.
- Power of buyers- There many buyers in the automobile industry and their bargaining power has been great. Information on vehicles has been abundant thanks to internet and more buyers can learn more about their vehicles tastes as well as compare prices. Buyers can also find out more on fuel-efficient cars that Toyota has made available and compare them with what other manufacturers are offering.
- Threat of substitutes- With the ever-changing trends in the automobile industry, customers still rely on used cars that Toyota is widely known for. The demand for these cars has risen rapidly and Toyota has utilized these opportunities immensely.
- Competitive rivalry- There has been high or prevalent competition for market share in the automobile industry. This has fueled consumers’ demands and anticipation for lower prices on automobile products. Despite Toyota having a strong cut cost plan, it has experienced pressures on its products costs.
Like any company that wants to enjoy great profits margins, Toyota has continued with its efforts to strengthen its management platform and raise its corporate worth. It has also focused on developing and manufacturing environmental conscious products that also gratifies consumers’ needs easily. In essence, Toyota has outperformed the industry over years and gained matchless market share and there is more to come from the automaker.
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