Buyer Decision Process for New Products
Whether conscious or unconscious buying is a process, which consumers go through when acquiring products. The process has different stages that allow the buyer to make the final decision. It is important to note that the length of the process largely depends on the nature of the product in question. In other words, different goods may have unique stages for consumers. The process is much shorter for consumables like foodstuffs but it could be complex when making high involvement purchases. Moreover, the decision to buy a product depends on several factors. For example, the people around you may have impact on your busying behavior. When the cost of the item is high, you are likely to involve many people in making a buying decision as compared to when you want to acquire something cheap.
When buying a new a product you also go through the buying process. Potential buyers often see new products as unfamiliar. The process of buying new products is also called production adoption process. The process allows customers to accept the new product in the market after undergoing a series of steps. This process mainly focuses on how buyers get to know about a new product and make a decision to acquire it. Importantly, the decision by consumers to choose a new product is always psychological. It takes place in the following steps:
The first step of adoption is awareness. Here, the consumer is aware of the new product but does not have sufficient information about it. This is crucial because they cannot make a buying decision of the product if they do not know its existence. Consumers learn about new products through various channels of communication. They include but not limited to advertising, word of mouth and in-store visibility.
The second step is interest. A consumer has interest in a new product when they take a step of seeking more information about it. If this information exists, the consumer will start collecting it from various sources.
The third step is evaluation. This is where the consumer makes decision on whether trying the new product makes sense or not. However, this stage only takes place if the consumer has gathered information about the new product for analysis. They base their evaluation on the quality of the products, the advantages they have over existing ones in the market and the expiry date. From this, one goes ahead to make a buying decision.
Trial: Here, the consumer takes the risk to acquire the new product to prove its perceived value. After this, the consumer may choose to purchase the new product in small qualities for a start. The last stage of a consumer buying a new product is adoption. At this point, the consumer decides to buy the product regularly. However, this stage depends on trial results. If the consumer gets appealing and satisfactory outcomes, he or she may consider the product even for future purchases. If the results during trial are not encouraging, they may drop the idea of adopting the new product for future use. It is the role of the marketing team of the manufacturer to help consumers transit through the five stages before they make a final decision. Packaging of the information for customers equally matters.
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Reverse Repurchase Agreement
Reverse repurchase agreement refers to a type of agreement on purchase of securities upon the agreement to resell them at a high price at a future date. For the trader selling and agreeing they will purchase it in the near future, it is known as a repo while for the party buying the securities and making the agreement to sell in future, it is known as reverse repurchase agreement.
Repos are known as money-market instruments and they are used for purposes of raising short term capital. This is often a practice in which a financial institution or a bank purchases securities or other assets with the knowledge it will resell the asset or securities to that same seller. Financial institutions and investors agree to a reverse purchase agreement for purposes of raising short term capital. In actual sense, repos are the equivalent of short term loans with assets and securities serving as the collateral. Reverse repurchase agreement is not different from a repurchase agreement the only difference is that it is the buyer’s perspective rather than that of the seller. Consequently it is also known as a reverse or matched sale transaction.
For instance if A wants to sell securities to an investment firm B, then the firm should have cash it is ready to use in order to get into a reverse repurchase agreement with A. The management firm operates by the belief the price of the stock will rise before it is repurchased. If this happens, then the company selling the stock will return a higher price to company B than what was initially paid. As a result, the management firm makes a profit. However, it is ideal to note this only happens as long as the stock remains high and does not fall.
A reverse repurchase agreement can also face challenges. Key among them is that of properly matching 2 parties. This type of agreement is usually large requiring the potential investor to have immediate capital in huge amounts. As such, the investor requesting for reverse repurchase usually tends to be a group of investors like a private equity group or management firm rather than individuals.
Once the parties are matched, both get exposed to certain risks. For those repurchasing securities they are exposed to risks that are twofold. For starters, there is the possibility they will repurchase those shares at a high price compared to what they sold them at. Secondly, there is the possibility they might not be able to raise the cash needed to repurchase the securities. When this happens, it means that the investors have the right to retain the collateral which is in this case refers to the securities bought.
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Organizational Politics and Leadership
It is the desire of every organization to grow from one level to the other. This kind of movement is however possible when members of the organization embrace team work and are motivated to work towards a common goal, without necessarily compromising any stakeholder within which the company operates (Hubbard, 2006, p.1).
Enhancement of performance is therefore a gateway through which a company can achieve greater heights in terms of success and performance. it involves (performance enhancement) ensuring that those within a company realize their full potential through transition from good to great and by doing, it enables the company to move upwards even in the event of troubling moments.
However, different issues in a company can prevent as well as enhance performance. They include leadership personality, organizational culture, organizational politics and trust. Depending on their state and handling, these issues can determine the success of the organization and whether it will realize its objectives or not.
Organizational politics often impact company performance a great deal especially in the pursuit of personal interest and company agenda. Through it, people can interact freely on different scales thus, affecting the performance of employees negatively or positively and in the end, the performance of the entire organization (Bedi & Schat, 2013).
In a company that encourages productivity via the leeway in which staff members can make personal decisions and enjoy rewards following exceptional performance for example appointment of exceptional performers as supervisors that greatly enhance company performance. In this case, staff members have confidence in their work and respect for the organization and its management. In essence, it helps to boost their attitude towards the company thus leading to excellent performance, promotion at work and pay rise.
Literatures on company politics recommend that it is an epidemic tendency in organizations with ability to interfere with normal processes in a company (Vigoda, 2000;Bedi & Schat 2013). Employees have as a result registered negative results in their attitude and performance in the company due to politics. According to Bedi & Schat ( 2013), perceived company politics amongst staff members generates negative results both to the staff and the organization including high level of stress related to work, low job commitment levels as well as lower job satisfaction rate.
Therefore, any form of company politics can greatly affect its performance amongst staff and in the end, the entire organization. The effects of organizational politics are even more severe in public settings compared to the private sector. Company politics according to Vigoda (2000), leads to negligence at place of work and in some cases, exit from work.
Employees in the public sector as a result neglect their duties as a response to organizational politics. This has generated negative results on their remunerations and their jobs. For instance, employees in the public sector are not compensated for their efforts and performance (Vigoda, 2000).
The effect of such politics in an organization is negligent staff behaviors and negative attitudes towards work which can “yield low-quality work outcomes and poor and ineffective public services, Low efficiency of public systems threatens large populations and thus carries high potential damage for the society” (Vigoda, 2000, p. 342).
While it can be quite hard for low income staff to exit the public industry because of limited job opportunities and options, many highly educated employees can easily exit their jobs positions in the private and public sector when overwhelmed by company politics (Vigoda, 2000). In the event of such exits in the public and private sector especially by competent staff, low level of performance is registered in the organization.
Besides organizational politics that affect a company profoundly, there are still other factors that affect company performance. Leadership is one of the issues which, according to some studies, have underplayed as insignificant in the performance of a company while others reveal that it plays a crucial role in performance with close to 50 percent performance disparity (Peterson et al, 2003).
Research on influence leadership to the performance of an organization however did not stop at leadership alone. It also focuses on other issues of a leader that impact his or her relationship with staff members and in the end, affecting the performance of the organization (Peterson et al, 2003).
Additionally, leadership styles studies reveal the benefits of a leader who is focused compared to a competitive leader. While competition is a very crucial factor as it drives a company towards realization of its goals, it can take place at the expense of other organizational factors in some cases for example staff members. (Chen-Mei et al (2011) offers an important insight into leadership effect on realization of company goals, indicating transformational style of leadership which has more potential in initiating changes amongst followers compared to transactional leadership.
Followers using charisma, intellectual stimulation, personal consideration, transactional leaders can influence their followers towards acting for the benefit of the organization and themselves thus realization enhanced performance in the organization (Chen-Mei et al, 2011).
The overall view of leadership personality focuses on personal traits of leaders as well as their influence on staff members and performance of the management. Therefore, a leader with predisposition is on cooperation is more likely to influence the creation of cooperative groups or teams. As a result, the teams would work efficiently towards creation of solutions by sharing information.
What’s more, the cohesive dynamics in such groups “should ultimately lead to the smooth implementation of intended goals because all team members are cooperatively focused on decisions” (Peterson et al, 2003, p. 797). However on the reciprocal, leaders who are extremely competitive push their teams as well as followers towards team and personal competition.
Each of the teams and individual will therefore work towards convincing the leader of their solutions viability (Peterson et al, 2003). Additionally, having such a competitive dynamic is an ideal program application issue as members of the teams and groups have little or no motivation of work across different functions.
With such competitiveness and misunderstandings amongst members and personal employees, it becomes quite difficult for an organization to realize its goals. It is even worse as such companies tend to create staff members who are less motivated with their jobs especially those on specific competition. Organizational performance in the end will be affected under such kind of leadership.
Another factor that affects company performance is organizational culture. This is defined as the intricate link of standards and values that affect the attitude of a person (Al-bahussin & El-garaihy, 2013). The realm of culture in an organization includes values, experiences, expectations and thoughts gained via socialization, participation and education within the company.
Therefore, the culture of an organization settles for ideal features which are considered desirable for the realization of company goals and are accepted widely within the boundaries within which, the company operates (Al-bahussin & El-garaihy, 2013). The significance of culture can therefore not be underplayed and its effect on the performance of an organization.
A significant consideration is the fact that “A top level of organizational performance is generally linked to an organization, possessing an effective culture with appropriately merged and productive set of values, opinions and attitudes” (Al-bahussin & El-garaihy, 2013, p. 6).
While the culture of an organization reflects a uniformed way of doing things in an organization and ensuring equality amongst staff members, which may in some cases lead to good performance in general, it is also known to have its limitations. According to Al-bahussin & El-garaihy (2013), a solid organizational culture limits individual performance, creativity as well as innovation via provision of stringent guidelines within which staff members operate.
Staff members do not as a result, work to their full potential since such cultures demoralize them from exploring anything new that can enhance their performance and overall performance of the organization. However, company performance relies more on trust in the organization. The perception of fairness by staff members is a determinant of their trust in their leadership and in the company at large.
It therefore, affects their performance based on the fact that trust in the leadership has been found to enhance commitment of staff to the organization and to enhance their identity in the company (Paliszkiewicz, 2012). In the end, many staff members would double their performance, focus more on their tasks and spend more time at work, thus enhancing their overall performance in the company. Trust is also indicated to help enhance employee productivity and reduce absenteeism.
High levels of trust in groups and individuals are known to reduce organizational performance. According to Paliszkiewicz (2012), this is attributed to the fact that it reduces monitoring and in the end performance. Absence of trust between the leadership and staff members calls for collective measures amongst staff members thus, having a detrimental effect on the company Paliszkiewicz (2012).
It is therefore imperative that companies strike a balance between the mentioned factors above because they affect the performance of the company a great deal. While it may lead to competition amongst staff members, politics in an organization can be quite detrimental as opposed to being beneficial hence, the need to minimize it.
Leadership is also an important factor when it comes to performance and leaders should lead by example and inspire staff members and not act as deity.
On the other hand culture defines the company representing its values. However, in keeping up with organizational culture, companies should create a leeway for implementation of new connections in the dynamic world of company practices.
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Al-bahussin, S. A. & El-garaihy, W. H. (2013). The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices, Organizational Culture, Organizational Innovation and Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance in Large Saudi Organizations: Structural Equation Modeling With Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(22): 1-17
Bedi, A. & Schat, A. C. H. (2013). Perception of Organizational Politics: A Meta-Analysis of Its Attitudinal, Health and Behavior Consequences. Canadian Psychology, 54(4):246-259
Chen-Mei, H. et al. (2011). Perceptions of the Impact of Chief Executive Leadership Style on Organizational Performance through Successful Enterprise Resource Planning. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 39(7)
Hubbard, G. (2006). Sustainable organization performance: Towards a practical measurement system. Monash Business Review, 2(3): 1-17
Paliszkiewicz, J. (2012). Orientation on Trust and Organizational Performance. Management, Knowledge and Learning
Peterson, R. S. et al (2003). The Impact of Chief Executive Officer Personality on Top Management Team Dynamics: One Mechanism by Which Leadership Affects Organizational Performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5): 795– 808
Vigoda, E. (2000). Organizational Politics, Job Attitudes, and Work Outcomes: Exploration and Implications for the Public Sector. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57:326 –34
Manager’s Decision Making Model
There are many challenges that are faced by organizations that originate from both external and internal factors. The management or leadership of an organization is responsible for addressing such challenges in an appropriate way in order to enhance or to restore organizational performance in the current times and in the future. Solving the problems of any organization involves making properly informed decisions. The structure of the organization and the position that a person holds in the hierarchy of the organization influences such decisions. Managers can use models that demonstrate organizational authority, structure, responsibilities’ distribution in the organization and relations in solving daily problems as they manage their organization. Using conceptual framework, this paper discuses and identifies vital concepts that managers can use in making the decisions that will address different challenges that they face while managing the daily work of the organization.
All organizational and personal decisions ought to have an ethical ground. Managers’ decisions ought not to compromise the organization, individual or society’s ethical values. This means that all decisions that a manager makes in solving the encountered problems ought to have an ethical nature. The conceptual framework that will be indicated in this paper shows this. It shows that all decisions should lie within the ethical boundaries. Strategic change in the organization as well as strategic decisions should address the long term problems or challenges. The organizational executives formulate such strategies.
However, their implementation is largely dependent on managers’ competency in the formulation as well as implementation of tactical decisions for addressing the experienced short-term challenges while running the organization. The tactical decisions of the manager can have their efficacy enhanced via a participative process of management in which they learn the relationship of the mission of the organization and strategic decisions. The undertaking of daily operations of the organization is guided by its mission. Such operations may include formulating and implementing the policies of the human resource in order to enable the organization to retain highly performing and experienced workforce as well as to continue to attract more talented persons to join the organization.
Managers can also make tactical decisions that include partners and customers’ engagement in the initiatives of improving products, implementing programs for social responsibility activities as well as accelerating the ability of the organization to react to the market dynamics and conditions. Apart from being critical in improving the relations of an organization with its public, tactical decisions are also important in enhancing relations of the organization with vital stakeholders, shareholders and the employees. In addressing problems that relate to business cycle as well as the duration that is taken in accomplishing tasks, it is important that managers make informed tactical decisions such as redesigning tasks to improve efficiency in production processes while minimizing the required time for completing tasks (Hansen & Mowen, 2007, p. 517-518).
Problems that relate to the operations of an organization can also be solved by managers via the improvement of social aspects that relate to the tasks that employees perform. This may include establishment of mechanisms for resolving conflict in which the management and employees conflicts are solved in an amicable manner without the organizational performance being compromised. The processes of making operational decisions by managers ought to be aligned to the strategic planning as well as the tactical decisions in order to enable the organization to realize the set objectives. It is important that managers engage employees in operational decision making because they are involved in the operation tasks directly (Gilmore, 2003, p. 143). Allocating responsibilities and tasks to employees can be involved in the operational decisions.
Managers are given authority to ensure the enhancement and maintenance of the culture of the organization in order to enhance the attainment of the organizational goal. This is the management’s control function and it is achievable if the conduct code and rules of the organization are followed by the employees. Therefore, managers are required to make various decisions that relate to the discipline of the employees in order to ensure maintenance of the culture of the organization during the operations. Making decisions that address misconduct of the employees is one-way. However, decisions for enhancing relations between the employees and management are two-way. As such, the management should involve employees when making such decisions in order to make them effective. This is because even if the decisions will not affect the employees directly, they will influence their satisfaction and attitudes towards the job.
It ought to be noted that in the decision-making process, feedback plays a very important role. This is because the process entails participative management in order to address the challenges that managers as well as well as the other employees are facing while running the organization. In order for the rising challenges to be addressed, new managers should be familiar with the culture, relations and structure of the organization and the way the hierarchy of the organization influences them. There are problems that can be solved with one process of making decision. However, there are problems that require decisions to be combined in order to address them effectively. Evidently, this model is important in dealing with different problems that organizations face daily because it provides insights on how proper decisions should be made (Ragsdale, 2012, p. 4-5). Managers get an opportunity for exploring different essential options while addressing the challenges in different organizational levels. Nevertheless, new managers ought to choose the models that are most appropriate in addressing the problems encountered while performing daily tasks.
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Gilmore, A. (2003). Services, marketing and management. London: Sage.
Hansen, D. R., & Mowen, M. M.(2006). Managerial accounting. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.
Ragsdale, C. T. (2012). Spreadsheet modeling & decision analysis: A practical introduction to management science. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.
RIM Blackberry: Porter’s Five Forces
The competitive force amongst the players in the mobile phone sector is strong. The market has in the meantime been divided, with smartphones being one area in the sector that has rejoiced in imperative development and productivity. A number of years ago, it was assumed that, as smartphones are a blend of diverse technologies, no single company had the capability in each of the technologies to just control the market. In this period, Research in Motion (RIM), the firm that makes the Blackberry variety of phones was turning out to be progressively key competitor in the sector. Actually, it was in numerous means the industry trailblazer. Nevertheless, things have changed with Apple’s iPhone and Samsung’s variety of smartphones (including, most recently, Samsung S4 and Galaxy Note 3) controlling the sector.
In this paper, we go on to explore Blackberry’s markets projections founded on Porter’s five forces. These alludes to competitive forces in the market, what makes an industry smart when it comes to productivity; supplier strength, buyer power, threat of substitutes, barriers to entry as well as competitive rivalry.
Porter’s Five Forces
The Bargaining Power of Suppliers
Blackberry’s market share weakened with time. Therefore, the bargaining power of suppliers in this incident has improved. In contrast, its rivals (for instance Samsung and Apple), having progressively controlled the market, have obtained greater bargaining power regarding their suppliers (than the opposite). Apple and Samsung have huge commodity orders comprising of more suppliers in the market.
In feedback, the corporation is eyeing to rationalize its procedures and supply chain by working with suppliers and distributors. The point here is to focus market attempts towards the zones with huge development projections.
The Bargaining Power of Buyers
The buyer’s bargaining power is discreetly high. This is because carriers (for example Verizon and Telus) “tend to buy in massive volume to provide for their subscriber base” (Kumar et al. 4). The moment commodity demand weakens, as it the circumstance of Blackberry, the sellers rejoice in marvelous purchasing power control over the firm (RIM, in this situation). In simple terms, the market has turns out to be extremely competitive, providing clients extra preferences and as a result, the capability to demand better prices reductions. In other nations, state rule brings about competition blockades for carriers. This is the situation in the Canadian market (Palmer & Sharp 3). On the other hand, clients still have the space as well as competence to pick their favorite commodities. This stability of forces is shown in the size as well as worth of orders that a specific telecom carrier books with the market providers (Blackberry, in this case).
Rationalization procedures cited above incorporate lessening the sum of administration layers as well as workers. This procedure of reorganizing administrative plan and also reducing in-house procedures will aid the firm turn into more regionally alert to the demands of clients. this may make Blackberry commodities as well as services more striking to a larger number of market clients and as a result get greater bargaining power over its rivals.
The Threat of New Entrants
A new entrant with the competence to make a “well-differentiated and innovative product can steal market share from existing competitors” (Kumar et al. 4). Gratefully, even though, in the mobile communication sector, threat of new entrants is restrained. Probable new entrants encounter the difficulties of having to hold vast capital. These “high capital necessities make it hard for new entrants to make profits up to when they build a loyal clientele base and create their brand” (Kumar et al. 4). New entrants encounter another risk, due to the short commodity life cycle in the mobile communication business. In simple terms, competitors have to grow incessantly. The corporations previously in the market have a merit in this situation. They have fairly adequate capital foundations to cater for reservations as well as new market developments. Actually, since they have by now created business as well as all they demand is to develop and enlarge market share, they can find money to invest in data mining tools to aid them comprehend clients’ buying conducts as well as get ahead with future reforms. These are essential components of competitive advantage. New entrants, yet in hunt for acknowledgement in the market, mainly find it challenging to cope with the persistent development that such a vibrant market needs. Similar to Apple’s iPhone and Samsung’s android phones, Blackberry has created a just share of brand loyalty, and also “associated switching costs for consumers” (Kumar et al. 3). All these bring about blockades to the goals of probable new entrants.
Blackberry, as a competitor at present in the market, has particular merits over probable new entrants. The firm is a well-known great worldwide corporation with a huge physical asset foundation at its disposal. This incorporates 16,500 workers; an assessment 80 million subscriber base; around 10 manufacturing bases; and also “a network of 565 wireless carriers across the world that offers Blackberry services” (Standard & Poor 3). The firm provides numerous commodities as well as services; a number of generations of Tablets and Smartphones; Blackberry Enterprise Services; a range of add-on applications (which clients can buy at ease on the firm’s website; numerous generations of software; as well as customer support and many others. therefore, the corporation has a varied produce blend, which lets them to size a wide variety of client markets. The firm as well has an excellent status. It has the “ability to provide security for client’s personal information” (Kumar et al. 6).
RIM has a fairly steady capital foundation for development as well as new commodity growth. Over the past few years, Blackberry has gone through a reduction in profits. In addition, plans show this development is expected to stay the same. Gratefully, even though the company has become stable as well as sustained its market capitalization at $7.74 billion because of a flat-line share value. In 2012, the corporation accrued net revenue of about $1.16 billion. This implies that Blackberry still has adequate resources, and also enhanced backing from capital market groups (S&P 2).
The Threat of Substitutes
Different the question of new entrants, the threat of substitutes deals with the competitors existing in the market. In simple words, the question here is about the prospects of a competitor with a fairly competitive market share entering to control the market. In the mobile communications field, the threats of substitutes are extraordinary. In the current times, for instances, we have witnessed Samsung surpass Apple in the smart phone sector. Numerous fields can offer an escape route for an individual firm to substitute the other from its position. For instance, as stated by Kumar et al. (5), Motorola is at this time creating wristwatch with that same capabilities as smartphone. This has the ability to put out of place handheld smartphones in the market. Besides substitutes, there are probable unruly other technologies in the mobile market. Competitors in the market can face reduced working margins. In relation to Research (2012), the regular price of a tablet in 2011 was $423. Predictions indicate that prices will reduce to around $300 by end of 2013. When a market turns out to be flooded with substitutes (as is the case in the tablet market), it limits revenue margins and restricts the accessible capital necessary for development and improvement of new commodities.
The high threat of substitutes in the mobile communication business is made up of both probable dangers as well as merits to Blackberry. It all relies on how the corporation opts to react to the vibrant market. For instance, blackberry was one of the topmost smartphone in the market, with the brand’s control saturating the private client market. Nevertheless, Apple and Samsung joining the market in 2007 have in the meantime replaced it. These two turned into speedy traditional occurrences. Therefore, RIM’s market share as well as share cost weakened, with its stakeholders going through great losses (Levi 1-5).
On the other hand, there are numerous extents of competition. Blackberry still has certain authority in which it holds significant merit over its rivals. The Blackberry smartphones, for instance has a distinctive keypad. In addition, it has a BBM messaging system. The PIN encryption technology that the Blackberry smartphone messaging system utilizes makes it hard for an individual to capture the consumer’s messages. It has an unmatched security technology that has been challenging for the rivals to copy. As a result, Blackberry is the favorite Smartphone for corporate experts as well as government officials. Having impact over these two market sections offers Blackberry a great certification. This technological resource is chief to Blackberry’s smartphone competitive advantage. Nevertheless, the rivals might just come with improved security.
The Rivalry among Competitors
The competitiveness between market players in the mobile communication sector is as well intense. For instance, Apple and Samsung alone have over 50% of the smartphone market. In the same way, other competitors (incorporating Blackberry) are focusing on how to increase their market share. Owing to huge prices of production at the first phases of the life-cycle of a mobile produce, “competitors fiercely pursue speed-to-market production” (Kumar et al. 4) with the goal to make most of their products’ sales (before they become outdate, because of a dynamic mobile/smart phone market) and so, improve revenue margins. In addition, the more competitors pile up, the more market share thin, interpreting into lessened profits and few monetary assets for new product improvement.
In this paper, we have briefly explored the RIM/Blackberry’s market projections founded on Porter’s five forces of competition; buyer bargaining power, supplier bargaining power, threat of new entrants, the threat of substitutes as well as competitive rivalry. Similar to several other corporations, RIM/Blackberry fairs below par in some of these areas (suppliers and bargaining power) and impartially in others. For instance, it is factual that Apple and Samsung have from this time surpassed Blackberry in smartphone market. Consequently, Blackberry has lost certain power in case of buyers as well as suppliers bargaining power. Nevertheless, the firm still has the prospective to substitute the market players (Apple and Samsung), if not in the market hence in other means (such as technology). Blackberry’s status private data protection has aided the firm sustain significant consumer loyalty. At this moment, RIM/Blackberry ought not to be surpassed by new entrants like Apple and Samsung did. It ought to utilize its assets as well as capital base and also market exposure inventively to rise to top ranks in the market.
Kumar, Aswin, Woods, Candice, Budolig, Girgio, Segars, Lucas & Nathoo, Qasim.
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